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Pharmacotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728114/variation-in-receipt-of-pharmacotherapy-for-alcohol-use-disorders-across-racial-ethnic-groups-a-national-study-in-the-u-s-veterans-health-administration
#1
Emily C Williams, Shalini Gupta, Anna D Rubinsky, Joseph E Glass, Rhonda Jones-Webb, Kara M Bensley, Alex H S Harris
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacologic treatment is recommended for alcohol use disorders (AUD), but most patients do not receive it. Although racial/ethnic minorities have greater AUD consequences than whites, whether AUD medication receipt varies across race/ethnicity is unknown. We evaluate this in a national sample. METHODS: Electronic health records data were extracted for all black, Hispanic, and/or white patients who received care at the U.S. Veterans Health Administration (VA) during Fiscal Year 2012 and had a documented AUD diagnosis...
July 11, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728038/predictors-of-smoking-cessation-group-treatment-engagement-among-veterans-with-serious-mental-illness
#2
Letitia E Travaglini, Lan Li, Clayton H Brown, Melanie E Bennett
High prevalence rates of tobacco use, particularly cigarettes, pose a serious health threat for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI), and research has demonstrated the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions to reduce tobacco use in this group. However, few studies have considered predictors of tobacco cessation treatment engagement among individuals with SMI. The current study examined predictors of engagement in smoking cessation groups among veterans with SMI engaged in mental health services at three VA medical centers...
July 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725956/non-suicidal-self-injury-in-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-clinical-correlates-and-impact-on-psychosocial-treatment-outcomes
#3
Heather A MacPherson, Sally M Weinstein, Amy E West
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in childhood is not well documented, especially among youth with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). The current study evaluated prevalence and correlates of NSSI, and its impact on intervention response, in a randomized trial of Child- and Family-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CFF-CBT) versus Treatment As Usual (TAU), adjunctive to pharmacotherapy. This study included 72 children ages 7-13 (58% male) with PBD. NSSI and correlates were assessed at baseline; mood and psychiatric severity were measured longitudinally...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725618/medical-management-of-chronic-orchialgia
#4
REVIEW
Nathan R Starke, Raymond A Costabile
Chronic idiopathic orchialgia is a urologic disease process that is as frustrating as it is common. While no consensus exists on management for otherwise-unexplained testicular pain, most providers would agree that once other treatable organic causes are ruled out, initial management should be symptom focused, and should be medical rather than surgical. This chapter presents a review of the evidence available for a variety of pharmacotherapies commonly employed in the treatment of idiopathic chronic orchialgia...
May 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725424/implementation-of-gold-consensus-report-in-real-life-results-from-the-velletri-lariano-vela-cohort
#5
G De Filippi, M Lallini, G De Riggi, G Marchetti, C M Dimartino, A M Russetti, E Ferrari, R Pistelli, M S Magnoni, M Riparbelli, A Rizzi, P Angeletti
BACKGROUND: COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Pharmacotherapy improves quality of life and reduces exacerbations although low adherence with prescribed treatments may represent a barrier to optimal disease management. The first objective of this paper is to report the distribution of COPD patients according to GOLD categories, in a sample of patients from a cohort study in an area of the Latium region in Italy. The second objective is to evaluate the agreement between the distributions of severity obtained from the HCPs and the experts included in the study board (Board)...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724511/apps-for-health-related-education-in-pharmacy-practice-needs-assessment-survey-among-patients-within-a-large-metropolitan-area
#6
Sean M Mirk, Nicole Marie Wegrzyn
BACKGROUND: Patient education resources are crucial to the effectiveness of prescribed pharmacotherapy. However, user interest and patient preference for these materials is lacking. Regardless of the field, nearly every article on designing mHealth apps references the lack of end-user involvement as a key flaw to sustainable design. The traditional paper-based methods of patient education are difficult to tailor to a patient's specific needs and learning styles, but a customizable app might be beneficial...
July 19, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724329/new-heart-failure-pharmacotherapy-in-clinical-trials-a-hope-in-progress
#7
Ahmed Selim, Ronald Zolty, Yiannis S Chatzizisis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724306/new-psychological-therapies-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-mindfulness-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-act
#8
Beatriz Sebastián Sánchez, Jesús Gil Roales-Nieto, Nuno Bravo Ferreira, Bárbara Gil Luciano, Juan José Sebastián Domingo
The current goal of treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) focuses primarily on symptom management and attempts to improve quality of life. Several treatments are at the disposal of physicians; lifestyle and dietary management, pharmacological treatments and psychological interventions are the most used and recommended. Psychological treatments have been proposed as viable alternatives or compliments to existing care models. Most forms of psychological therapies studied have been shown to be helpful in reducing symptoms and in improving the psychological component of anxiety/depression and health-related quality of life...
July 14, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722146/implementing-clinical-prediction-models-pushing-the-needle-towards-precision-pharmacotherapy
#9
S R Dorajoo, A Chan
Clinical prediction models promise a future of precision drug therapy. However, very few models are used in practice. Although models can eliminate unwanted clinical guesswork, several barriers hinder model implementation in practice. Here we discuss the less well-recognized barriers hindering model implementation for precision prescribing, highlighting areas that warrant attention, primarily relating to ethical and regulatory considerations that are requisite in paving the way towards a future of precision pharmacotherapy...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721135/a-comprehensive-guidelines-based-approach-reduces-cardiovascular-risk-in-everyday-practice-the-varo-study
#10
Tomáš Štulc, Věra Lánská, Michaela Šnejdrlová, Michal Vrablík, Martina Prusíková, Richard Češka
INTRODUCTION: The aim of study was to investigate the possibility of cardiovascular risk improvement through systematic identification of high-risk individuals and treatment in accordance with current guidelines using modern therapy in daily clinical practice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-three physicians participated in the study. The physicians were asked to screen for cardiovascular risk factors in patients presenting with unrelated problems and to re-evaluate the attainment of treatment goals in those with already known risk factors...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721134/osteoporosis-in-men
#11
REVIEW
Waldemar Misiorowski
Osteoporotic fractures are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among aging men. 30% of all hip fractures occur in men, and mortality resulting from not only the hip fracture, but also the spine and other major osteoporotic fractures, is significantly higher in men than in women. As in women, hypogonadism is the best documented risk factor for developing osteoporosis in men. In older men, testosterone levels are negatively correlated with the risk of fractures, and it seems that this age-related testosterone deficiency should not be considered as one of the many causes of secondary osteoporosis, rather one of the major and most important mechanisms of senile osteoporosis...
June 2017: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720639/angioedema-spotlight-a-closer-examination-of-sacubitril-valsartan-safety-results
#12
Ryan E Owens, Carrie S Oliphant
Incorporation of neprilysin inhibition into heart failure pharmacotherapy regimens has recently been recommended by U.S. guidelines, based on results from the PARADIGM-HF trial comparing sacubitril/valsartan to enalapril. While most of the discussion has focused on efficacy, a closer examination of the safety results, particularly the incidence of angioedema during the run-in and double-blind periods, is also warranted. Although no major safety concerns were identified, an angioedema risk comparable to enalapril was found, primarily in the black population...
July 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716656/atomoxetine-in-abstinent-cocaine-users-cognitive-subjective-and-cardiovascular-effects
#13
Elise E DeVito, Aryeh I Herman, Noah S Konkus, Huiping Zhang, Mehmet Sofuoglu
No pharmacotherapies are approved for the treatment of cocaine use disorders (CUD). Behavioral treatments for CUD are efficacious for some individuals, but recovery rates from CUD remain low. Cognitive impairments in CUD have been linked with poorer clinical outcomes. Cognitive enhancing pharmacotherapies have been proposed as promising treatments for CUD. Atomoxetine, a norepinephrine transporter inhibitor, shows potential as a treatment for CUD based on its efficacy as a cognitive enhancer in other clinical populations and impact on addictive processes in preclinical and human laboratory studies...
July 14, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716515/calming-the-storm-dysautonomia-for-the-pediatrician
#14
Justin M Burton, Olga M Morozova
Dysautonomia is a potentially life-threatening syndrome seen in many different types of brain injuries. It involves paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity and typically includes a constellation of symptoms, including: tachycardia, tachypnea, hyperthermia, hypertension, diaphoresis, hypertonia, and/or decerebrate or decorticate posturing. It is a clinical diagnosis of exclusion. A multimodal treatment approach is necessary including environmental modifications along with pharmacotherapy. Early management can help prevent comorbidities including secondary brain injury while also improving patient outcomes...
July 14, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716503/effectiveness-of-otolith-repositioning-maneuvers-and-vestibular-rehabilitation-exercises-in-elderly-people-with-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo-a-systematic-review
#15
Karyna Figueiredo Ribeiro, Bruna S Oliveira, Raysa V Freitas, Lidiane M Ferreira, Nandini Deshpande, Ricardo O Guerra
INTRODUCTION: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is highly prevalent in elderly people. This condition is related to vertigo, hearing loss, tinnitus, poor balance, gait disturbance, and an increase in risk of falls, leading to postural changes and quality of life decreasing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes obtained by clinical trials on the effectiveness of Otolith Repositioning Maneuver (ORM) and Vestibular Rehabilitation (VR) exercises in the treatment of BPPV in elderly...
June 29, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716467/clinically-relevant-potential-drug-drug-interactions-among-outpatients-a-nationwide-database-study
#16
Janja Jazbar, Igor Locatelli, Nejc Horvat, Mitja Kos
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug events due to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) represent a considerable public health burden, also in Slovenia. A better understanding of the most frequently occurring potential DDIs may enable safer pharmacotherapy and minimize drug-related problems. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of potential DDIs among outpatients in Slovenia. METHODS: An analysis of potential DDIs was performed using health claims data on prescription drugs from a nationwide database...
July 11, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715990/single-subject-studies-in-translational-nutrition-research
#17
Nicholas J Schork, Laura H Goetz
There is a great deal of interest in personalized, individualized, or precision interventions for disease and health-risk mitigation. This is as true of nutrition-based intervention and prevention strategies as it is for pharmacotherapies and pharmaceutical-oriented prevention strategies. Essentially, technological breakthroughs have enabled researchers to probe an individual's unique genetic, biochemical, physiological, behavioral, and exposure profile, allowing them to identify very specific and often nuanced factors that an individual might possess, which may make it more or less likely that he or she responds favorably to a particular intervention (e...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715776/gender-differences-in-the-real-world-effectiveness-of-smoking-cessation-medications-findings-from-the-2010-2011-tobacco-use-supplement-to-the-current-population-survey
#18
Philip H Smith, Ju Zhang, Andrea H Weinberger, Carolyn M Mazure, Sherry A McKee
BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of clinical trial data have identified clinically relevant gender differences in the efficacy of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. It is unclear whether these findings are generalizable to smokers quitting in real-world contexts. METHODS: Using Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) 2010-2011 cross-sectional data, we generated propensity score matched samples of smokers who quit either unassisted by medication, using only varenicline, or using only transdermal nicotine patch (TNP)...
July 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715621/electroconvulsive-therapy-during-pregnancy
#19
Aubrey Thyen, Puneet Narang, Simrat Sarai, Gulay Tegin, Steven Lippmann
Women often experience worsening mood disorder symptoms during pregnancy. Women with mood disorders have an increased risk for suboptimal prenatal care, inadequate weight gain, and more substance abuse during pregnancy. It is often difficult to balance pharmacotherapy risks to a developing fetus versus not medicinally treating maternal mental health conditions. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a rapid and effective treatment option that can be an appropriate intervention in some women during pregnancy. This report presents an overview of ECT in pregnancy and the case of a 28-year-old pregnant woman with bipolar mania who responded well to ECT...
July 13, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714603/variations-in-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-children-with-prenatal-ssri-antidepressant-exposure
#20
REVIEW
Naama Rotem-Kohavi, Tim F Oberlander
Mood disorders and treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants during pregnancy are common and both pose neurodevelopmental risks. This often makes the decision to treat prenatal depression with pharmacotherapy (i.e., antidepressants) challenging for clinicians and mothers. SSRIs block the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5HT) and given its developmental role, it is not inconceivable that early changes in 5HT signaling could have an impact on early brain development...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
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