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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351507/-i-smoke-like-this-to-suppress-these-issues-that-are-flaws-of-my-character-challenges-and-facilitators-of-cessation-among-smokers-with-bipolar-disorder
#1
Jaimee L Heffner, Noreen L Watson, Jennifer B McClure, Robert M Anthenelli, Sarah Hohl, Jonathan B Bricker
OBJECTIVE: Smokers with bipolar disorder (BD) have low rates of successful quitting, yet no prior studies have evaluated the process of quitting among these smokers in the context of a current quit attempt. To facilitate development of more effective interventions, we conducted a qualitative exploration of challenges and facilitators of quitting in an intervention study for smokers with BD. METHODS: Participants were adult daily smokers with BD (n = 10) who completed a 10-week smoking cessation intervention consisting of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and nicotine patch...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351137/early-response-to-warfarin-initiation-and-the-risk-of-venous-thromboembolism-after-total-joint-arthroplasty
#2
Adam I Edelstein, Clara Terzaghi, Brandon Nudelman, Charles Qin, Mary Kwasny, David W Manning
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism chemoprophylaxis with warfarin is common after total joint arthroplasty. Early response to warfarin initiation has been theorized to engender a transient increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism. We hypothesized that a rapid rise in the international normalized ratio is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism after total joint arthroplasty. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of Medicare patients undergoing elective total joint arthroplasty who were given nomogram-dosed warfarin for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis...
January 18, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350598/diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-ventricle-volume-quantification-in-patients-with-chronic-shunt-treated-hydrocephalus-a-matched-case-control-study
#3
Kristy Tan, Avital Meiri, Wenzhu B Mowrey, Rick Abbott, James T Goodrich, Adam L Sandler, Asif K Suri, Michael L Lipton, Mark E Wagshul
OBJECTIVE The object of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to characterize the long-term effects of hydrocephalus and shunting on white matter integrity and to investigate the relationship of ventricular size and alterations in white matter integrity with headache and quality-of-life outcome measures. METHODS Patients with shunt-treated hydrocephalus and age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited into the study and underwent anatomical and DTI imaging on a 3-T MRI scanner...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349649/structure-activity-relationships-of-flavanones-flavanone-glycosides-and-flavones-in-anti-degranulation-activity-in-rat-basophilic-leukemia-rbl-2h3-cells
#4
Toshiro Noshita, Kaori Miura, Kaoru Ikeda, Hidekazu Ouchi, Takuya Matsumoto, Akihiro Tai
The incidence of type I allergies, which are associated with mast cell degranulation and local inflammation, is increasing, and new treatments are needed. To date, structure-activity relationships of flavonoids in their degranulation-inhibiting activity have not been systematically characterized. In the current study, the degranulation-inhibiting activity of a series of flavonoids was evaluated. The following three observations were made: (1) the activity disappears when a sugar moiety is introduced into the A ring of the flavanone; (2) the activity depends on the number of hydroxyl groups on the B ring; (3) the activity is markedly enhanced when a double bond is introduced into the C ring...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348822/the-localization-of-pre-mrna-splicing-factor-prpf38b-is-a-novel-prognostic-biomarker-that-may-predict-survival-benefit-of-trastuzumab-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-overexpressing-her2
#5
Tarek M A Abdel-Fatah, Robert C Rees, A Graham Pockley, Paul Moseley, Graham R Ball, Stephen Y T Chan, Ian O Ellis, Amanda K Miles
Cancer biomarkers that can define disease status and provide a prognostic insight are essential for the effective management of patients with breast cancer (BC). The prevalence, clinicopathological and prognostic significance of PRPF38B expression in a consecutive series of 1650 patients with primary invasive breast carcinoma were examined using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the relationship(s) between clinical outcome and PRPF38B expression was explored in 627 patients with ER-negative (oestrogen receptor) disease, and 322 patients with HER2-overexpressing disease...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347827/psychological-well-being-and-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-zambia
#6
Sumiyo Okawa, Sylvia Mwanza Kabaghe, Mwiya Mwiya, Kimiyo Kikuchi, Masamine Jimba, Chipepo Kankasa, Naoko Ishikawa
Physical and psychosocial changes during adolescence could influence the psychological well-being and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of adolescents living with HIV. However, few studies have assessed these two important issues in Zambia. This study aimed at addressing this gap by examining adolescents' depressive symptoms and ART adherence. This was a mixed-methods study conducted from April to July 2014. We recruited 200 adolescents, ages 15 to 19, who were already aware of their HIV status. We measured depressive symptoms using the short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and self-reported three-day adherence to ART...
January 18, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346008/follow-up-care-provider-preferences-of-adolescent-and-young-adult-cancer-survivors
#7
Joemy M Ramsay, Karely Mann, Sapna Kaul, Eduardo R Zamora, Rochelle R Smits-Seemann, Anne C Kirchhoff
PURPOSE: To explore the experiences and perspectives of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors regarding patient-provider relationships and their preferences surrounding type of healthcare provider for follow-up care. METHODS: We recruited AYA cancer survivors who were diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39 using the Utah Cancer Registry. Twenty-eight survivors participated in six focus groups held between March and May of 2015 in Salt Lake City and St...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345803/effects-of-mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-on-shame-self-compassion-and-psychological-distress-in-anxious-and-depressed-patients-a-pilot-study
#8
Michael Proeve, Rebekah Anton, Maura Kenny
OBJECTIVES: The tendency to experience shame or guilt is associated differentially with anxiety and depression, with shame being associated with greater psychopathology. Correlational studies have shown self-compassion to be related to lower shame and rumination, and mindfulness-based interventions increase self-compassion. Therefore, mindfulness-based interventions may decrease shame. This pilot study aimed to assess the association of shame, rumination, self-compassion, and psychological distress and the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on these measures in a clinical sample...
January 18, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345801/individual-psychological-therapy-in-an-acute-inpatient-setting-service-user-and-psychologist-perspectives
#9
Catherine Small, Nancy Pistrang, Vyv Huddy, Claire Williams
OBJECTIVES: The acute inpatient setting poses potential challenges to delivering one-to-one psychological therapy; however, there is little research on the experiences of both receiving and delivering therapies in this environment. This qualitative study aimed to explore service users' and psychologists' experiences of undertaking individual therapy in acute inpatient units. It focused on the relationship between service users and psychologists, what service users found helpful or unhelpful, and how psychologists attempted to overcome any challenges in delivering therapy...
January 18, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345594/should-stemi-patients-receive-opiate-analgesia-the-morphine-paradox
#10
Mohamed Farag, Nikolaos Spinthakis, Manivannan Srinivasan, Diana Adrienne Gorog
BACKGROUND: The very significant benefit of P2Y12 receptor inhibitor administration in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in reducing future ischaemic events and stent thrombosis, is undisputed. Morphine analgesia is very frequently co-administered to these patients for pain relief, along with antiplatelet therapy, at the time of presentation, and prior to reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: Research and online content related to opiates use in STEMI was reviewed...
January 17, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345581/premorbid-and-illness-related-social-difficulties-in-eating-disorders-an-overview-of-the-literature-and-treatment-developments
#11
Valentina Cardi, Kate Tchanturia, Janet Treasure
Social difficulties in eating disorders can manifest as predisposing traits and premorbid difficulties, and/or as consequences of the illness. Objective The aim of this paper is to briefly review the evidence for social problems in people with eating disorders and to consider the literature on treatments that target these features. Method A narrative review of the literature was conducted. Results People with eating disorders often manifest traits, such as shyness, increased tendency to submissiveness and social comparison, and problems with peer relationships before illness onset...
January 17, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345571/targeting-cytosolic-phospholipase-a2%C3%AE-for-novel-anti-inflammatory-agents
#12
Jalal Soubhye, Pierre van Antwerpen, Francois Dufrasne
Group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α) plays a critical role in inflammatory processes. It produces arachidonic acid which is the main source of the pro-inflammatory eicosanoids mediators that are important in innate immune system. In some cases, these pro-inflammatory mediators cause damages to the host tissues and therefore promote autoimmune diseases. Consequently, development of potent inhibitors against cPLA2α could improve the therapy of inflammatory diseases. In the last two decades, intense efforts have been done to find potent cPLA2α inhibitors...
January 16, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344896/a-robust-optimization-approach-to-cancer-treatment-under-toxicity-uncertainty
#13
Junfeng Zhu, Hamidreza Badri, Kevin Leder
The design of optimal protocols plays an important role in cancer treatment. However, in clinical applications, the outcomes under the optimal protocols are sensitive to variations of parameter settings such as drug effects and the attributes of age, weight, and health conditions in human subjects. One approach to overcoming this challenge is to formulate the problem of finding an optimal treatment protocol as a robust optimization problem (ROP) that takes parameter uncertainty into account. In this chapter, we describe a method to model toxicity uncertainty...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344894/systems-biology-approaches-in-cancer-pathology
#14
Aaron DeWard, Rebecca J Critchley-Thorne
The complex network of the tissue system, in both pre-neoplastic tissues and tumors, demonstrates the need for a systems biology approach to cancer pathology, in which quantification of key tissue system processes is combined with informatics tools to produce actionable scores to aid clinical decision-making. A systems biology approach to cancer pathology enables integration of key system features that are relevant to diagnoses, patient outcomes, and responses to therapies. Key tissue system features relevant to cancer pathology include molecular and morphologic abnormalities in epithelia, cellular changes in the stroma such as immune infiltrates, and relationships between components of the system, such as interactions and spatial relationships between epithelial and stromal components, and also between specific immune cell subsets...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344575/mammary-myofibroblastoma-in-a-transgender-patient-on-feminizing-hormones-literature-review-and-case-report
#15
Jane O'Bryan, Carolyn Wolf-Gould, Yoshiro Matsuo
Purpose: Defining the risk of neoplasia associated with gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) is a priority for transgender medical research. The purposes of this article are to present a unique case of breast neoplasia in a transgender individual and to review the existing evidence base on GAHT as a potential risk for breast pathology. Methods: We present the case of a 76-year-old transgender patient who developed an estrogen receptor-positive mammary myofibroblastoma (MFB) after 13 months of treatment on feminizing hormones...
2018: Transgender Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344507/definition-management-and-outcomes-of-acute-kidney-injury-an-international-survey-of-nephrologists
#16
Umar Farooq, Aaron Tober, Vernon Chinchilli, W Brian Reeves, Nasrollah Ghahramani
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex disease burdened by uncertainties of definition, management strategies, and prognosis. This study explores the relationship between demographic characteristics of nephrologists and their perceptions about the definition, management, and follow-up of AKI. Methods: We developed a Web-based survey, the International Survey on Acute Kidney Injury (ISAKI), consisting of 29 items in 4 categories: (1) demographic and practice characteristics, (2) definition of AKI, (3) management of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in AKI, and (4) sequelae of AKI...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344340/assessment-and-management-of-sexual-dysfunction-in-the-context-of-depression
#17
REVIEW
Pratap R Chokka, Jeffrey R Hankey
Sexual dysfunction (SD) is pervasive and underreported, and its effects on quality of life are underestimated. Due in part to its bidirectional relationship with depression, SD can be difficult to diagnose; it is also a common side effect of many antidepressants, leading to treatment noncompliance. While physicians often count on patients to spontaneously report SD, treatment is optimized when the clinician instead performs a thorough assessment of sexual functioning before and during drug therapy using a standardized questionnaire such as the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX)...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344291/in-vivo-double-targeting-of-c26-colon-carcinoma-cells-and-microenvironmental-protumor-processes-using-liposomal-simvastatin
#18
Lavinia Luput, Emilia Licarete, Denise Minerva Drotar, Andras-Laszlo Nagy, Alina Sesarman, Laura Patras, Valentin Florian Rauca, Alina Porfire, Dana Muntean, Marcela Achim, Ioan Tomuta, Laurian Vlase, Cornel Catoi, Nicolae Dragos, Manuela Banciu
Purpose: Besides cholesterol lowering effects, simvastatin (SIM) at very high doses possesses antitumor actions. Moreover our previous studies demonstrated that tumor-targeted delivery of SIM by using long-circulating liposomes (LCL) improved the therapeutic index of this drug in murine melanoma-bearing mice. To evaluate whether this finding can be exploited for future therapy of colorectal cancer the antitumor activity and the underlying mechanisms of long-circulating liposomal simvastatin (LCL-SIM) efficacy for inhibition of C26 murine colon carcinoma growth in vivo were investigated...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344282/clinical-significance-of-glycoprotein-non-metastatic-b-and-its-association-with-egfr-her2-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#19
Jesse Yu Tajima, Manabu Futamura, Siqin Gaowa, Ryutaro Mori, Toshiyuki Tanahashi, Yoshihiro Tanaka, Nobuhisa Matsuhashi, Takao Takahashi, Kazuya Yamaguchi, Tatsuhiko Miyazaki, Kazuhiro Yoshida
Glycoprotein non-metastatic B (GPNMB), a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is overexpressed in melanoma and breast cancer and promotes cancer-cell invasion and motility. We previously reported cross-talk between GPNMB and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in breast cancer, suggesting that GPNMB might play an important role in resistance to anti-HER2 therapy in breast cancer. Here, we clarified the association between GPNMB and HER-family proteins in gastrointestinal cancer by examining their relationships using gastric and colorectal cancer cell lines...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343970/a-retrospective-examination-of-the-us-food-and-drug-administration-s-clinical-pharmacology-reviews-of-oncology-biologics-for-potential-use-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring
#20
Brett Fleisher, Sihem Ait-Oudhia
Background: Biologics have gained traction for use in oncology, but have demonstrate clinical variability for efficacy and safety. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can benefit patients' outcomes from a biologic therapy when the latter has a defined therapeutic window. A clinically relevant therapeutic window may exist for biologics with established exposure-response (E-R) relationships for efficacy and/or safety and a documented maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Additionally, the inter-individual variability (IIV) on the clearance (CL) parameter could determine risks for patients falling outside the proposed therapeutic window...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
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