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Mahesh K B Parmar, John Strang, Louise Choo, Angela M Meade, Sheila M Bird
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Naloxone is an opioid antagonist used for emergency resuscitation following opioid overdose. Prisoners with a history of heroin injection have a high risk of drug-related death soon after release from prison. The N-ALIVE pilot trial (ISRCTN34044390) tested feasibility measures for randomized provision of naloxone-on-release (NOR) to eligible prisoners in England. DESIGN: Parallel group randomized controlled pilot trial. SETTING: English prisons...
October 24, 2016: Addiction
Mei Chung, Alice M Tang, Zhuxuan Fu, Ding Ding Wang, Sydne Jennifer Newberry
Background: Conflicting evidence exists regarding potential cardiovascular risks associated with high levels of calcium intake. Purpose: To update and reanalyze 2 systematic reviews to examine the effects of calcium intake on cardiovascular disease (CVD) among generally healthy adults. Data Sources: MEDLINE; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Scopus, including EMBASE; and previous evidence reports from English-language publications from 1966 to July 2016...
October 25, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Cole R Drifka, Agnes G Loeffler, Kara Mathewson, Adib Keikhosravi, Jens C Eickhoff, Yuming Liu, Sharon M Weber, W John Kao, Kevin W Eliceiri
Risk factors for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) progression after surgery are unclear, and additional prognostic factors are needed to inform treatment regimens and therapeutic targets. PDAC is characterized by advanced sclerosis of the extracellular matrix, and interactions between cancer cells, fibrillar collagen, and other stromal components play an integral role in progression. Changes in stromal collagen alignment have been shown to modulate cancer cell behavior and have important clinical value in other cancer types, but little is known about its role in PDAC and prognostic value...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Saraschandra Vallabhajosyula, Arun Kanmanthareddy, Patricia J Erwin, Dennis J Esterbrooks, Lee E Morrow
BACKGROUND: The data evaluating the role of statins in delirium prevention in the intensive care unit are conflicting and limited. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature from 1975 to 2015. All English-language adult studies evaluating delirium incidence in statin and statin nonusers were included and studies without a control group were excluded. Mantel-Haenszel model was used to calculate pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
A C Sampaio, R J Mendes, P G Castro, A M Silva
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are used as carriers for drug delivery, and are high biocompatible and designed to endure in the host organism. Despite its current industrial production is low, many of these substances are available on the market, and much more are in the production pipeline. As a result, many of them will end in aquatic systems raising the question whether they can pose a risk to aquatic biota and the associated ecological processes. Microbial decomposers of plant litter, play a key role in forested streams being responsible for the energy flow between terrestrial and aquatic environments...
October 21, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Carme Perez-Quilis, Giuseppe Lippi, Gianfranco Cervellin, Roman Leischik, Herbert Löllgen, Enrique Serrano-Ostáriz, Alejandro Lucia
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart arrhythmia, the risk of which typically increases with age. This condition is commonly associated with major cardiovascular diseases and structural heart damage, while it is rarely observed in healthy young people. However, increasing evidence indicates that paroxysmal AF can also onset in young or middle-aged and otherwise healthy endurance athletes (e.g., cyclists, runners and cross-country skiers). Here we review the topic of AF associated with strenuous endurance exercise (SEE), for example cycling, running and cross-country skiing, especially at a competitive level, and we propose the definition of a new syndrome based on the accumulating data in the literature: SEE-related AF under the acronym of 'PAFIYAMA' ('paroxysmal AF in young and middle-aged athletes')...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Money Gupta, Rashi Chauhan, Yamuna Prasad, Gulshan Wadhwa, Chakresh Kumar Jain
The lack of complete treatments and appearance of multiple drug-resistance strains of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are causing an increased risk of lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Bcc infection is a big risk to human health and demands an urgent need to identify new therapeutics against these bacteria. Network biology has emerged as one of the prospective hope in identifying novel drug targets and hits. We have applied protein-protein interaction methodology to identify new drug-target candidates (orthologs) in Burkhloderia cepacia GG4, which is an important strain for studying the quorum-sensing phenomena...
October 8, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, C Nathan Marti
BACKGROUND: Given increasing numbers of older-adult marijuana users, this study examined the association of marijuana use and marijuana use disorder with life stressors and perceived social support in the 50+ age group. METHODS: Data came from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N=14,715 respondents aged 50+). Life stressors were measured with 12 items related to interpersonal, legal, and financial problems and being a crime victim...
October 18, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Lingling Li, Da Yang, Yufang Song, Yi Shi, Bin Huang, Jun Yan, Xinxin Dong
In this study, toxic effects of bifenthrin in soil on earthworms were evaluated by acute and chronic toxic endpoints combined with a set of biomarkers. Bifenthrin was moderately toxic in 72-h filter paper test and low toxic in 14-d soil test. The exposure of earthworms to bifenthrin-polluted soil for 8 weeks showed that cocoons were inhibited by high dose of bifenthrin, and larvae were stimulated by low dose but inhibited by high dose of bifenthrin. Furthermore, 28-d soil test on the responses of enzymes associated with antioxidation and detoxification in worms showed that peroxidase (POD) was stimulated by bifenthrin, superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited in the early period but stimulated in the later period, glutathione S- transferase (GST) inhibited in the later period, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) inhibited at day 3 but markedly stimulated at day 28 at high dose...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Yang Wu, Guanyong Su, Song Tang, Wei Liu, Zhiyuan Ma, Xinmei Zheng, Hongling Liu, Hongxia Yu
Tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), a substitute for brominated flame retardants (FRs) that have been phased out of use, is frequently detected in aqueous environments. However, previous studies on its endocrine disrupting effects have mainly focused on terrestrial mammals. Here, to comprehensively evaluate the potential adverse effects of TCEP on aquatic vertebrates, zebrafish was used as a model to examine developmental phenotypes. The underlying mechanisms of toxicity of TCEP were further explored using in silico and in vivo approaches...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Minghong Wu, Rui Sun, Mingnan Wang, Huanhuan Liang, Sihan Ma, Tao Han, Xiaoyu Xia, Jing Ma, Liang Tang, Yanfeng Sun, Gang Xu
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have potential health risk to human. In this paper, human serum samples collected from Jiading District, Shanghai aged from 23 to 87 years old (12 male and 33 female) were analyzed for 17 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). A novel method for the elimination of background contamination of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) generated from instrument by the modification of high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has also been developed and validated...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Thanh Tam Tran, Joel Adams-Bedford, Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan, Sam-Ang Seubsman, Adrian Sleigh
INTRODUCTION: Injury and psychological distress are public health priorities because of their high occurrence in the population. This study examines the longitudinal effects of injury characteristics on psychological distress. METHODS: Study participants were enrolled distance learning Thai adults (N = 42,785 at 2013 follow-up) residing nationwide. We analysed 2009 and 2013 data. Injury questions included injury prevalence, causes and levels of severity. Distress was measured using the standard Kessler-6...
2016: PloS One
Sushmita Das, Rakesh Mandal, Vidya Nand Rabidas, Neena Verma, Krishna Pandey, Ashok Kumar Ghosh, Sreekant Kesari, Ashish Kumar, Bidyut Purkait, Chandra Sekhar Lal, Pradeep Das
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), with the squeal of Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), is a global threat for health. Studies have shown sodium stibogluconate (SSG) resistance in VL patients with chronic arsenic exposure. Here, we assessed the association between arsenic exposure and risk of developing PKDL in treated VL patients. METHODS: In this retrospective study, PKDL patients (n = 139), earlier treated with SSG or any other drug during VL, were selected from the study cohort...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Isabel E Kenny, Sahrai Saeed, Eva Gerdts, Helga Midtbø, Hilde Halland, Mai T Lønnebakken
BACKGROUND: Masked hypertension (MHT), defined as normal office blood pressure (BP) but high ambulatory BP, has been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Although MHT has been associated with obesity, there is limited knowledge on the prevalence and covariates of MHT in obese cohorts. METHODS: Office and ambulatory BP recordings and other cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in 323 obese participants included in the fat-associated cardiovascular dysfunction study (mean age 48...
October 21, 2016: Blood Pressure Monitoring
Raffaele Pezzilli, Gianvico Melzi dʼEril, Alessandra Barassi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the presence of pancreatic hyperenzymemia in patients with pancreatic cystic lesions as compared to other chronic diseases of the pancreas. METHODS: Ninety-one patients were studied: 32 had mucinous cystic lesions, 35 had chronic pancreatitis (CP), and 24 had pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Surgery was carried out in 10 of the 32 patients with mucinous cystic lesion (7 of them had severe dysplasia), in 5 patients with CP, and in 9 patients with PDAC...
October 2016: Pancreas
Claudio Ricci, Riccardo Casadei, Giovanni Taffurelli, Elia Zani, Nico Pagano, Carlo Alberto Pacilio, Carlo Ingaldi, Selene Bogoni, Donatella Santini, Marina Migliori, Mariacristina Di Marco, Carla Serra, Lucia Calculli, Roberto De Giorgio, Francesco Minni
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the risk factors proposed by Fukuoka guidelines in detecting malignancy of branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. METHOD: Diagnostic meta-analysis of cohort studies. A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, and the ISI-Web of Science databases to identify all studies published up to 2014. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies (2025 patients) were suitable for the meta-analysis...
October 2016: Pancreas
Zhihong Hu, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Zi Chen, Weina Chen, Shaoying Li, Sergej N Konoplev, Xinyan Lu, Lan V Pham, Ken H Young, Wei Wang, Shimin Hu
MYC rearrangement in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is rare, and its clinicopathologic significance is not well defined. We report 17 cases of MCL with 8q24/MYC rearrangement, detected at the time of initial diagnosis of MCL in 10 patients and subsequently during the clinical course in 7 patients. There were 12 men and 5 women with a median age of 61 years (range, 49 to 81 y). Fourteen patients had lymphadenopathy (Ann Arbor stage III/IV), and 3 patients presented with a leukemic pattern without lymphadenopathy...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Chip P Rowan, Michael C Riddell, Norman Gledhill, Veronica K Jamnik
PURPOSE: Prediabetes is linked to several modifiable risk factors, in particular, physical activity participation. The optimal prescription for physical activity remains uncertain. This pilot study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of continuous moderate intensity (CON) versus high intensity interval (HIIT) aerobic training in persons with prediabetes. Outcome measures included hemoglobin A1c (A1C), body composition, musculoskeletal and aerobic fitness. METHODS: Participants (n= 35) were recruited and screened using a questionnaire plus capillary blood point-of-care A1C analysis...
October 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Colin F Royse, Leif Saager, Richard Whitlock, Jared Ou-Young, Alistair Royse, Jessica Vincent, P J Devereaux, Andrea Kurz, Ahmed Awais, Krit Panjasawatwong, Daniel I Sessler
BACKGROUND: Inflammation after cardiopulmonary bypass may contribute to postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction. The authors evaluated the effect of high-dose methylprednisolone to suppress inflammation on the incidence of delirium and postoperative quality of recovery after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Five hundred fifty-five adults from three hospitals enrolled in the randomized, double-blind Steroids in Cardiac Surgery trial were randomly allocated to placebo or 250 mg methylprednisolone at induction and 250 mg methylprednisolone before cardiopulmonary bypass...
October 24, 2016: Anesthesiology
Jeong Won Lee, Sang Hyun Hwang, Do Young Kim, Kwang-Hyub Han, Mijin Yun
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of F-FDG uptake of portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) for predicting progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: The study retrospectively included 166 HCC patients with PVTT and no extrahepatic metastases who underwent staging FDG PET/CT. Tumor-to-liver uptake ratio (TLR) and PVTT-to-liver uptake ratio (PLR) were measured for each patient, and the prognostic values of clinical factors, TLR, and PLR were assessed...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
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