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Hypoxia-ischemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141232/foxp1-promotes-embryonic-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-by-repressing-jagged1-expression
#1
Luca Braccioli, Stephin J Vervoort, Youri Adolfs, Cobi J Heijnen, Onur Basak, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Cora H Nijboer, Paul J Coffer
Mutations in FOXP1 have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders including intellectual disability and autism; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain ill-defined. Here, we demonstrate with RNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing that FOXP1 directly regulates genes controlling neurogenesis. We show that FOXP1 is expressed in embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs), and modulation of FOXP1 expression affects both neuron and astrocyte differentiation. Using a murine model of cortical development, FOXP1-knockdown in utero was found to reduce NSC differentiation and migration during corticogenesis...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138854/ng25-an-inhibitor-of-transforming-growth-factor%C3%A2-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-activated-kinase-1-ameliorates-neuronal-apoptosis-in-neonatal-hypoxic%C3%A2-ischemic-rats
#2
Hua Wang, Zhong Chen, Yu Li, Qiaoyun Ji
Transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β‑activated kinase 1 (TAK1) was found to be activated by TGF‑β and acts as a central regulator of cell death in various types of disease. However, the expression and function of TAK1 in the neonatal brain following hypoxia‑ischemia (HI) remains unclear. In the present study, western blotting and immunofluorescence were employed to determine the expression and distribution of TAK1 in the brain cortex of a perinatal HI rat model. In addition, the specific inhibitor of TAK1, NG25 was administered via intracerebroventricular injection, prior to insult of the neonatal rat brains, for neuroprotection...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137683/tanshinone-i-alleviates-motor-and-cognitive-impairments-via-suppressing-oxidative-stress-in-the-neonatal-rats-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage
#3
Chunfang Dai, Yannan Liu, Zhifang Dong
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia is one of the main reasons that cause neuronal damage and neonatal death. Several studies have shown that tanshinone I (TsI), one of the major ingredients of Danshen, exerts potential neuroprotective effect in adult mice exposed to permanent left cerebral ischemia. However, it is unclear whether administration of TsI has neuroprotective effect on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD), and if so, the potential mechanisms also remain unclear. Here, we reported that treatment with TsI (5 mg/kg, i...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127268/sickle-mice-are-sensitive-to-hypoxia-ischemia-induced-stroke-but-respond-to-tissue-type-plasminogen-activator-treatment
#4
Yu-Yo Sun, Jolly Lee, Henry Huang, Mary B Wagner, Clinton H Joiner, David R Archer, Chia-Yi Kuan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The effects of lytic stroke therapy in patients with sickle cell anemia are unknown, although a recent study suggested that coexistent sickle cell anemia does not increase the risk of cerebral hemorrhage. This finding calls for systemic analysis of the effects of thrombolytic stroke therapy, first in humanized sickle mice, and then in patients. There is also a need for additional predictive markers of sickle cell anemia-associated vasculopathy. METHODS: We used Doppler ultrasound to examine the carotid artery of Townes sickle mice tested their responses to repetitive mild hypoxia-ischemia- and transient hypoxia-ischemia-induced stroke at 3 or 6 months of age, respectively...
November 10, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118026/carbon-monoxide-in-lung-cell-physiology-and-disease
#5
Stefan W Ryter, Kevin C Ma, Augustine M K Choi
Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced gas that has gained recognition as a biological signal transduction effector with properties similar, but not identical, to that of nitric oxide (NO). CO, which binds primarily to heme iron, may activate the hemoprotein guanylate cyclase (sGC), although with lower potency than NO. Furthermore, CO can modulate the activities of several cellular signaling molecules such as p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, JNK, AKT, NF-κB, and others. Emerging studies suggest that mitochondria, the energy-generating organelle of cells, represent a key target of CO action in eukaryotes...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117499/preclinical-chorioamnionitis-dysregulates-cxcl1-cxcr2-signaling-throughout-the-placental-fetal-brain-axis
#6
REVIEW
Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Shahani Noor, Jessie R Maxwell, Christopher V Anstine, Akosua Y Oppong, Shenandoah Robinson, Erin D Milligan, Lauren L Jantzie
In the United States, perinatal brain injury (PBI) is a major cause of infant mortality and childhood disability. For a large proportion of infants with PBI, central nervous system (CNS) injury begins in utero with inflammation (chorioamnionitis/CHORIO) and/or hypoxia-ischemia. While studies show CHORIO contributes to preterm CNS injury and is also a common independent risk factor for brain injury in term infants, the molecular mechanisms mediating inflammation in the placental-fetal-brain axis that result in PBI remain a gap in knowledge...
November 5, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112164/effect-of-intranasally-delivered-rh-vegf165-on-angiogenesis-following-cerebral-hypoxia-ischemia-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-newborn-piglets
#7
Amit Jain, Panagiotis Kratimenos, Ioannis Koutroulis, Amishi Jain, Amulya Buddhavarapu, Jahan Ara
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates vascular genesis and angiogenesis. Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia (HI) leads to the reduction of vasculature in the cerebral cortex of newborn piglets. OBJECTIVE: The present study tests the hypothesis that post-hypoxia intranasal administration of recombinant human VEGF165 (rh-VEGF165) for 3 days increases the vascular density in the cerebral cortex of newborn piglets without promoting neovascularization...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111451/brain-immune-interactions-in-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#8
REVIEW
Bo Li, Katherine Concepcion, Xianmei Meng, Lubo Zhang
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia remains the primary cause of acute neonatal brain injury, leading to a high mortality rate and long-term neurological deficits, such as behavioral, social, attentional, cognitive and functional motor deficits. An ever-increasing body of evidence shows that the immune response to acute cerebral hypoxia-ischemia is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of neonatal brain injury. Hypoxia-ischemia provokes an intravascular inflammatory cascade that is further augmented by the activation of resident immune cells and the cerebral infiltration of peripheral immune cells response to cellular damages in the brain parenchyma...
October 27, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095433/prospective-research-on-infants-with-mild-encephalopathy-the-prime-study
#9
C Prempunpong, L F Chalak, J Garfinkle, B Shah, V Kalra, N Rollins, R Boyle, K-A Nguyen, I Mir, A Pappas, P Montaldo, S Thayyil, P J Sánchez, S Shankaran, A R Laptook, G Sant'Anna
OBJECTIVE: To determine short-term outcomes of infants with evidence of hypoxia-ischemia at birth and classified as mild neonatal encephalopathy (NE) at <6 h of age. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective multicenter study. Mild NE was defined as ⩾1 abnormal category in modified Sarnat score. Primary outcome was any abnormality on early amplitude integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) or seizures, abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or neurological exam at discharge...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089437/transient-hypoxemia-chronically-disrupts-maturation-of-preterm-fetal-ovine-subplate-neuron-arborization-and-activity
#10
Evelyn McClendon, Daniel C Shaver, Kiera Degener-O'Brien, Xi Gong, Thuan Nguyen, Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Zoltán Molnár, Claudia Mohr, Ben D Richardson, David J Rossi, Stephen A Back
Preterm infants are at risk for a broad spectrum of neurobehavioral disabilities associated with diffuse disturbances in cortical growth and development. During brain development, subplate neurons (SPNs) are a largely transient population that serves a critical role to establish functional cortical circuits. By dynamically integrating into developing cortical circuits they assist in consolidation of intra and extracortical circuits. Although SPNs reside in close proximity to cerebral white matter, which is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress, the susceptibility of SPNs remains controversial...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077163/erythropoietin-reduces-hippocampus-injury-in-neonatal-rats-with-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage-via-targeting-matrix-metalloprotein-2
#11
L Zhang, L Wang, F-B Ning, T Wang, Y-C Liang, Y-L Liu
OBJECTIVE: Erythropoietin (EPO), as a type of the tissue-protective cytokines, is a 30.4 kDa hematopoietic glycoprotein. The purpose of this study was to explore the neuroprotective effects of EPO on the neonatal hypoxic-ischemic-induced hippocampus injury and the MMP-2 expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Neonatal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into an untreated group (control) and two hypoxia-ischemia (HI) groups treated with saline control or EPO...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073813/silencing-thioredoxin1-exacerbates-damage-of-astrocytes-exposed-to-ogd-r-by-aggravating-apoptosis-through-the-actin-ras2-camp-pka-pathway
#12
Kunting Zhu, Qi He, Lingyu Li, Yong Zhao, Jing Zhao
Induction of endogenous antioxidants is one of the key molecular mechanisms of cell resistance to hypoxia/ischemia. Thioredoxin1 (Trx1) is a small multifunctional ubiquitous antioxidant with redox-active dithiol and plays an important role in cell apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. The specific role of Trx1 in ischemia-reperfusion induced astrocyte apoptosis, however, remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of Trx1 on apoptosis of astrocyte using an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) model which mimics ischemic/reperfusion conditions in vivo...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054697/a-novel-method-for-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-model-in-organotypic-spinal-cord-slices
#13
Jing-Jie Liu, Xiao-Yan Ding, Li Xiang, Feng Zhao, Sheng-Li Huang
This study aimed to establish a model to closely mimic spinal cord hypoxic-ischemic injury with high production and high reproducibility. Fourteen-day cultured organotypic spinal cord slices were divided into 4 groups: control (Ctrl), oxygen glucose deprived for 30min (OGD 30min), OGD 60min, and OGD 120min. The Ctrl slices were incubated with 1ml propidium iodide (PI) solution (5μg/ml) for 30min. The OGD groups were incubated with 1ml glucose-free DMEM/F12 medium and 5μl PI solution (1mg/ml) for 30min, 60min and 120min, respectively...
October 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050067/-neuropathologic-findings-in-intractable-epilepsy-a-clinicopathologic-analysis-of-822-cases
#14
Z J Duan, K Yao, J Zhou, L Li, F Zhai, C Q Liu, Z Ma, Y Bian, G M Luan, X L Qi
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of intractable epilepsy. Methods: Based on the classification criteria proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), a retrospective analysis of the pathological characteristics was done in 822 patients who underwent epilepsy surgery in Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, from June 2008 to December 2012. Results: The mean age of epilepsy onset was 9.9 years, mean duration of epilepsy was 11.9 years. Complex partial seizures were the main presenting features...
October 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046881/nmnat3-is-protective-against-the-effects-of-neonatal-cerebral-hypoxia-ischemia
#15
Rafael Galindo, Marianne Banks Greenberg, Toshiyuki Araki, Yo Sasaki, Nehali Mehta, Jeffrey Milbrandt, David M Holtzman
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the NAD+ biosynthetic protein, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase-3 (NMNAT3), is a neuroprotective inducible enzyme capable of decreasing cerebral injury after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) and reducing glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxic neurodegeneration of immature neurons. METHODS: Using NMNAT3-overexpressing mice we investigated whether increases in brain NMNAT3 reduced cerebral tissue loss following H-I. We then employed biochemical methods from injured neonatal brains to examine the inducibility of NMNAT3 and the mechanism of NMNAT3-dependent neuroprotection...
October 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045486/thiamine-deficiency-activates-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-to-facilitate-pro-apoptotic-responses-in-mouse-primary-astrocytes
#16
Kristy Zera, Jason Zastre
Thiamine is an essential enzyme cofactor required for proper metabolic function and maintenance of metabolism and energy production in the brain. In developed countries, thiamine deficiency (TD) is most often manifested following chronic alcohol consumption leading to impaired mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, inflammation and excitotoxicity. These biochemical lesions result in apoptotic cell death in both neurons and astrocytes. Comparable histological injuries in patients with hypoxia/ischemia and TD have been described in the thalamus and mammillary bodies, suggesting a congruency between the cellular responses to these stresses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040203/the-temporal-response-and-mechanism-of-action-of-tranexamic-acid-in-endothelial-glycocalyx-degradation
#17
Mark E Diebel, Jonathan V Martin, David M Liberati, Lawrence N Diebel
BACKGROUND: The endothelial glycocalyx (GCX) plays an important role in vascular barrier function. Damage to the GCX occurs due to a variety of causes including hypoxia, ischemia-reperfusion, stress related sympathoadrenal activation, and inflammation. Tranexamic acid (TXA) may prevent GCX degradation. The therapeutic window for TXA administration and the mechanism of action has been under review. Membrane-anchored proteases (sheddases) are key components in endothelial cell biology including the regulation of vascular permeability...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028220/pediatric-brain-repair-from-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-of-the-subventricular-zone
#18
REVIEW
Yusuke Niimi, Steven W Levison
There is great interest in the regenerative potential of the neural stem cells and progenitors that populate the germinal zones of the immature brain. Studies using animal models of pediatric brain injuries have provided a clearer understanding of the responses of these progenitors to injury. In this review, we have compared and contrasted the responses of the endogenous neural stem cells and progenitors of the subventricular zone in animal models of neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, neonatal stroke, congenital cardiac disease, and pediatric traumatic brain injury...
November 8, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024930/effect-of-concurrent-src-kinase-inhibition-with-short-duration-hypothermia-on-ca2-calmodulin-kinase-iv-activity-and-neuropathology-after-hypoxia-ischemia-in-the-newborn-swine-brain
#19
Panagiotis Kratimenos, Ioannis Koutroulis, Amit Jain, Shadi Malaeb, Maria Delivoria-Papadopoulos
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) results in increased activation of Ca2+/calmodulin kinase IV (CaM kinase IV) mediated by Src kinase. Therapeutic hypothermia ameliorates neuronal injury in the newborn. HYPOTHESIS: Inhibition of Src kinase concurrently with hypothermia further attenuates the hypoxia-induced increased activation of CaM kinase IV compared with hypothermia alone. DESIGN/METHODS: Ventilated piglets were exposed to HI, received saline or a selective Src kinase inhibitor (PP2), and were cooled to 33°C...
October 13, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019815/an-international-multicenter-observational-study-of-cerebral-oxygenation-during-infant-and-neonatal-anesthesia
#20
Vanessa A Olbrecht, Justin Skowno, Vanessa Marchesini, Lili Ding, Yifei Jiang, Christopher G Ward, Gaofeng Yu, Huacheng Liu, Bernadette Schurink, Laszlo Vutskits, Jurgen C de Graaff, Francis X McGowan, Britta S von Ungern-Sternberg, Charles Dean Kurth, Andrew Davidson
BACKGROUND: General anesthesia during infancy is associated with neurocognitive abnormalities. Potential mechanisms include anesthetic neurotoxicity, surgical disease, and cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. This study aimed to determine the incidence of low cerebral oxygenation and associated factors during general anesthesia in infants. METHODS: This multicenter study enrolled 453 infants aged less than 6 months having general anesthesia for 30 min or more. Regional cerebral oxygenation was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy...
October 11, 2017: Anesthesiology
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