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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922502/the-three-component-system-esrisr-regulates-a-cell-envelope-stress-response-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#1
Britta Kleine, Ava Chattopadhyay, Tino Polen, Daniela Pinto, Thorsten Mascher, Michael Bott, Melanie Brocker, Roland Freudl
When the cell envelope integrity is compromised, bacteria trigger signaling cascades resulting in the production of proteins that counteract these extracytoplasmic stresses. Here, we show that the two-component system EsrSR regulates a cell envelope stress response in the Actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. The sensor kinase EsrS possesses an amino-terminal phage shock protein C (PspC) domain, a property that sets EsrSR apart from all other two-component systems characterized so far. An integral membrane protein, EsrI, whose gene is divergently transcribed to the esrSR gene locus and which interestingly also possesses a PspC domain, acts as an inhibitor of EsrSR under non-stress conditions...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920412/molecular-cloning-purification-expression-and-characterization-of-%C3%AE-1-4-endoglucanase-gene-cel5a-from-eubacterium-cellulosolvens-sp-isolated-from-holstein-steer-s-rumen
#2
Tansol Park, Seongwon Seo, Teaksoon Shin, Byung-Wook Cho, Seongkeun Cho, Byeongwoo Kim, Jong K Ha, Jakyeom Seo
Objective: This study was conducted to isolate the cellulolytic microorganism from a rumen of Holstein steer and characterize endoglucanase gene (Cel5A) from the isolated microorganism. Methods: To isolate anaerobic microbes having endoglucanase, the rumen fluid was obtained from Holstein steers fed roughage diet. The isolated anaerobic bacteria had 99% similarity with Eubacterium cellulosolvens Ce2 (Accession number: AY178842.1). The Cel5A from isolated E. cellulosolvens sp...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919884/secretome-of-intestinal-bacilli-a-natural-guard-against-pathologies
#3
REVIEW
Olga N Ilinskaya, Vera V Ulyanova, Dina R Yarullina, Ilgiz G Gataullin
Current studies of human gut microbiome usually do not consider the special functional role of transient microbiota, although some of its members remain in the host for a long time and produce broad spectrum of biologically active substances. Getting into the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with food, water and probiotic preparations, two representatives of Bacilli class, genera Bacillus and Lactobacillus, colonize epithelium blurring the boundaries between resident and transient microbiota. Despite their minor proportion in the microbiome composition, these bacteria can significantly affect both the intestinal microbiota and the entire body thanks to a wide range of secreted compounds...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918990/long-term-metabolic-persistence-of-gram-positive-bacteria-on-health-care-relevant-plastic
#4
Loree C Heller, Chelsea M Edelblute
BACKGROUND: Health care-associated opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium persist on dry environments and can contribute to organism transmission through contact. These organisms can be monitored on surfaces by culture, molecular methods, or metabolic assays. This study was designed to determine the kinetics of bacterial persistence on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, a plastic commonly used in the manufacture of bedrails. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction for genomic DNA was used to confirm the presence of bacteria cells on this plastic irrespective of viability...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914880/tremblaya-phenacola-pper-an-evolutionary-beta-gammaproteobacterium-collage
#5
Rosario Gil, Carlos Vargas-Chavez, Sergio López-Madrigal, Diego Santos-García, Amparo Latorre, Andrés Moya
Many insects rely on bacterial endosymbionts to obtain nutrients that are scarce in their highly specialized diets. The most surprising example corresponds to the endosymbiotic system found in mealybugs from subfamily Pseudococcinae in which two bacteria, the betaproteobacterium 'Candidatus Tremblaya princeps' and a gammaproteobacterium, maintain a nested endosymbiotic consortium. In the sister subfamily Phenacoccinae, however, a single beta-endosymbiont, 'Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola', has been described...
September 15, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914754/investigation-of-antimicrobial-peptide-genes-associated-with-fungus-and-insect-resistance-in-maize
#6
Joseph Noonan, William Paul Williams, Xueyan Shan
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small defense proteins present in various organisms. Major groups of AMPs include beta-barrelin, hevein, knottin, lipid transfer protein (LTP), thionin, defensin, snakin, and cyclotide. Most plant AMPs involve host plant resistance to pathogens such as fungi, viruses, and bacteria, whereas a few plant AMPs from the cyclotide family carry insecticidal functions. In this research, a genome-wide investigation on antimicrobial peptide genes in maize genome was conducted. AMPs previously identified from various plant species were used as query sequences for maize genome data mining...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912769/adaptation-of-surface-associated-bacteria-to-the-open-ocean-a-genomically-distinct-subpopulation-of-phaeobacter-gallaeciensis-colonizes-pacific-mesozooplankton
#7
Heike M Freese, Anika Methner, Jörg Overmann
The marine Roseobacter group encompasses numerous species which occupy a large variety of ecological niches. However, members of the genus Phaeobacter are specifically adapted to a surface-associated lifestyle and have so far been found nearly exclusively in disjunct, man-made environments including shellfish and fish aquacultures, as well as harbors. Therefore, the possible natural habitats, dispersal and evolution of Phaeobacter spp. have largely remained obscure. Applying a high-throughput cultivation strategy along a longitudinal Pacific transect, the present study revealed for the first time a widespread natural occurrence of Phaeobacter in the marine pelagial...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912313/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-shiga-toxin-producing-enterobacter-cloacae-clinical-isolate
#8
Michelle Qiu Carter, Antares Pham, Steven Huynh, Xiaohua He
Enterobacter cloacae strain M12X01451 was isolated from a patient with mild diarrhea. This strain produces a novel subtype of Shiga toxin 1, Stx1e. The Stx1e-converting prophage in strain M12X01451 is stable and can infect other bacteria following induction. Here we report the complete genome sequence and annotation of strain M12X01451.
September 14, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911805/delivery-strategies-of-the-crispr-cas9-gene-editing-system-for-therapeutic-applications
#9
REVIEW
Chang Liu, Li Zhang, Hao Liu, Kun Cheng
The CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing system is a part of the adaptive immune system in archaea and bacteria to defend against invasive nucleic acids from phages and plasmids. The single guide RNA (sgRNA) of the system recognizes its target sequence in the genome, and the Cas9 nuclease of the system acts as a pair of scissors to cleave the double strands of DNA. Since its discovery, CRISPR-Cas9 has become the most robust platform for genome engineering in eukaryotic cells. Recently, the CRISPR-Cas9 system has triggered enormous interest in therapeutic applications...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911112/integrative-and-conjugative-elements-and-their-hosts-composition-distribution-and-organization
#10
Jean Cury, Marie Touchon, Eduardo P C Rocha
Conjugation of single-stranded DNA drives horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and was widely studied in conjugative plasmids. The organization and function of integrative and conjugative elements (ICE), even if they are more abundant, was only studied in a few model systems. Comparative genomics of ICE has been precluded by the difficulty in finding and delimiting these elements. Here, we present the results of a method that circumvents these problems by requiring only the identification of the conjugation genes and the species' pan-genome...
September 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911105/a-novel-nucleoid-associated-protein-coordinates-chromosome-replication-and-chromosome-partition
#11
James A Taylor, Gaël Panis, Patrick H Viollier, Gregory T Marczynski
We searched for regulators of chromosome replication in the cell cycle model Caulobacter crescentus and found a novel DNA-binding protein (GapR) that selectively aids the initiation of chromosome replication and the initial steps of chromosome partitioning. The protein binds the chromosome origin of replication (Cori) and has higher-affinity binding to mutated Cori-DNA that increases Cori-plasmid replication in vivo. gapR gene expression is essential for normal rapid growth and sufficient GapR levels are required for the correct timing of chromosome replication...
September 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910985/yeast-bacteria-competition-induced-new-metabolic-traits-through-large-scale-genomic-rearrangements-in-lachancea-kluyveri
#12
Nerve Zhou, Samuele Bottagisi, Michael Katz, Joseph Schacherer, Anne Friedrich, Zoran Gojkovic, Krishna B S Swamy, Wolfgang Knecht, Concetta Compagno, Jure Piškur
Large-scale chromosomal rearrangements are an important source of evolutionary novelty that may have reshaped the genomes of existing yeast species. They dramatically alter genome organization and gene expression fueling a phenotypic leap in response to environmental constraints. Although the emergence of such signatures of genetic diversity is thought to be associated with human exploitation of yeasts, less is known about the driving forces operating in natural habitats. Here we hypothesize that an ecological battlefield characteristic of every autumn when fruits ripen accounts for the genomic innovations in natural populations...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910984/genomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-isolates-with-focus-in-succinic-acid-production
#13
Ricardo Franco-Duarte, Daniela Bessa, Filipa Gonçalves, Rosa Martins, António César Silva-Ferreira, Dorit Schuller, Paula Sampaio, Célia Pais
Succinic acid is a platform chemical that plays an important role as precursor for the synthesis of many valuable bio-based chemicals. Its microbial production from renewable resources has seen great developments, specially exploring the use of yeasts to overcome the limitations of using bacteria. The objective of the present work was to screen for succinate-producing isolates, using a yeast collection with different origins and characteristics. Four strains were chosen, two as promising succinic acid producers, in comparison with two low producers...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905001/genome-enabled-insights-into-the-ecophysiology-of-the-comammox-bacterium-candidatus-nitrospira-nitrosa
#14
Pamela Y Camejo, Jorge Santo Domingo, Katherine D McMahon, Daniel R Noguera
The recently discovered comammox bacteria have the potential to completely oxidize ammonia to nitrate. These microorganisms are part of the Nitrospira genus and are present in a variety of environments, including biological nutrient removal (BNR) systems. However, the physiological traits within and between comammox and nitrite-oxidizing bacterium (NOB)-like Nitrospira species have not been analyzed in these ecosystems. In this study, we identified Nitrospira strains dominating the nitrifying community of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) performing BNR under microaerobic conditions...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905000/transcriptome-analysis-of-polyhydroxybutyrate-cycle-mutants-reveals-discrete-loci-connecting-nitrogen-utilization-and-carbon-storage-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti
#15
Maya D'Alessio, Ricardo Nordeste, Andrew C Doxey, Trevor C Charles
Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and glycogen polymers are produced by bacteria as carbon storage compounds under unbalanced growth conditions. To gain insights into the transcriptional mechanisms controlling carbon storage in Sinorhizobium meliloti, we investigated the global transcriptomic response to the genetic disruption of key genes in PHB synthesis and degradation and in glycogen synthesis. Under both nitrogen-limited and balanced growth conditions, transcriptomic analysis was performed with genetic mutants deficient in PHB synthesis (phbA, phbB, phbAB, and phbC), PHB degradation (bdhA, phaZ, and acsA2), and glycogen synthesis (glgA1)...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904996/environmental-and-genetic-determinants-of-biofilm-formation-in-paracoccus-denitrificans
#16
Santosh Kumar, Stephen Spiro
The genome of the denitrifying bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans predicts the expression of a small heme-containing nitric oxide (NO) binding protein, H-NOX. The genome organization and prior work in other bacteria suggest that H-NOX interacts with a diguanylate cyclase that cyclizes GTP to make cyclic di-GMP (cdGMP). Since cdGMP frequently regulates attached growth as a biofilm, we first established conditions for biofilm development by P. denitrificans. We found that adhesion to a polystyrene surface is strongly stimulated by the addition of 10 mM Ca(2+) to rich media...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904857/dermatophagoides-pteronyssinus-lytfm-encoding-an-nlpc-p60-endopeptidase-is-also-present-in-mite-associated-bacteria-that-express-lytfm-variants
#17
Vivian H Tang, Geoffrey A Stewart, Barbara J Chang
The bodies and faecal pellets of the house dust mite (HDM), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, are the source of many allergenic and nonallergenic proteins. One of these, the 14-kDa bacteriolytic enzyme LytFM, originally isolated from the spent HDM growth medium, may contribute to bacteriolytic activity previously detected by zymography at 14 kDa in the culture supernatants of some bacterial species isolated from surface-sterilised HDM. Based on previously reported findings of lateral gene transfer between microbes and their eukaryotic hosts, we investigated the presence of lytFM in the genomes of nine Gram-positive bacteria from surface-sterilised HDM, and the expression by these isolates of LytFM and its variants LytFM1/LytFM2...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904182/finegoldia-magna-isolated-from-orthopedic-joint-implant-associated-infections
#18
Bo Söderquist, Sanna Björklund, Bengt Hellmark, Anders Jensen, Holger Brüggemann
Background: The anaerobic Gram-positive coccus Finegoldia magna is a rare cause of infections of bone and joints. The aim of this study was to describe the microbiological and clinical characteristics of orthopedic implant-associated infections caused by F. magnaMethods: We retrospectively analyzed samples consisting of anaerobic Gram-positive cocci and samples already identified as F. magna from patients with orthopedic infections. The isolates found were determined to species level by MALDI-TOF MS. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by Etest...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903076/role-of-human-dna2-hdna2-as-a-potential-target-for-cancer-and-other-diseases-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Pan-Pan Jia, Muhammad Junaid, Yan-Bo Ma, Farooq Ahmad, Yong-Fang Jia, Wei-Guo Li, De-Sheng Pei
DNA nuclease/helicase 2 (DNA2), a multi-functional protein protecting the high fidelity of genomic transmission, plays critical roles in DNA replication and repair processes. In the maturation of Okazaki fragments, DNA2 acts synergistically with other enzymes to cleave the DNA-RNA primer flaps via different pathways. DNA2 is also involved in the stability of mitochondrial DNA and the maintenance of telomeres. Moreover, DNA2 potentially participates in controlling the cell cycle by repairing the DNA replication faults at main checkpoints...
September 6, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902868/discovery-of-numerous-novel-small-genes-in-the-intergenic-regions-of-the-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-sakai-genome
#20
Sarah M Hücker, Zachary Ardern, Tatyana Goldberg, Andrea Schafferhans, Michael Bernhofer, Gisle Vestergaard, Chase W Nelson, Michael Schloter, Burkhard Rost, Siegfried Scherer, Klaus Neuhaus
In the past, short protein-coding genes were often disregarded by genome annotation pipelines. Transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) signals outside of annotated genes have usually been interpreted to indicate either ncRNA or pervasive transcription. Therefore, in addition to the transcriptome, the translatome (RIBOseq) of the enteric pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain Sakai was determined at two optimal growth conditions and a severe stress condition combining low temperature and high osmotic pressure. All intergenic open reading frames potentially encoding a protein of ≥ 30 amino acids were investigated with regard to coverage by transcription and translation signals and their translatability expressed by the ribosomal coverage value...
2017: PloS One
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