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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909820/genomic-analysis-reveals-the-presence-of-a-class-d-beta-lactamase-with-broad-substrate-specificity-in-animal-bite-associated-capnocytophaga-species
#1
S Zangenah, A F Andersson, V Özenci, P Bergman
Capnocytophga canimorsus and Capnocytophga cynodegmi can be transmitted from cats and dogs to humans, and can cause a wide range of infections including wound infections, sepsis, or endocarditis. We and others recently discovered two new Capnocytophaga species, C. canis and C. stomatis, mainly associated with wound infections. The first-line treatment of animal bite related infections is penicillin, and in case of allergy, doxycycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. However, there is a lack of antibiotic susceptibility patterns for animal bite associated Capnocytophaga species...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909733/nitrogen-gas-plasma-treatment-of-bacterial-spores-induces-oxidative-stress-that-damages-the-genomic-dna
#2
Akikazu Sakudo, Yoichi Toyokawa, Tetsuji Nakamura, Yoshihito Yagyu, Yuichiro Imanishi
Gas plasma, produced by a short high‑voltage pulse generated from a static induction thyristor power supply [1.5 kilo pulse/sec (kpps)], was demonstrated to inactivate Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores (decimal reduction time at 15 min, 2.48 min). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays further indicated that nitrogen gas plasma treatment for 15 min decreased the level of intact genomic DNA and increased the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, a major product of DNA oxidation...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908248/do-mitochondria-have-an-immune-system
#3
V A Popkov, L D Zorova, I O Korvigo, D N Silachev, S S Jankauskas, V A Babenko, I B Pevzner, T I Danilina, S D Zorov, E Y Plotnikov, D B Zorov
The question if mitochondria have some kind of immune system is not trivial. The basis for raising this question is the fact that bacteria, which are progenitors of mitochondria, do have an immune system. The CRISPR system in bacteria based on the principle of RNA interference serves as an organized mechanism for destroying alien nucleic acids, primarily those of viral origin. We have shown that mitochondria are also a target for viral attacks, probably due to a related organization of genomes in these organelles and bacteria...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906133/the-plastid-genome-of-some-eustigmatophyte-algae-harbours-a-bacteria-derived-six-gene-cluster-for-biosynthesis-of-a-novel-secondary-metabolite
#4
Tatiana Yurchenko, Tereza Ševčíková, Hynek Strnad, Anzhelika Butenko, Marek Eliáš
Acquisition of genes by plastid genomes (plastomes) via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) seems to be a rare phenomenon. Here, we report an interesting case of HGT revealed by sequencing the plastomes of the eustigmatophyte algae Monodopsis sp. MarTras21 and Vischeria sp. CAUP Q 202. These plastomes proved to harbour a unique cluster of six genes, most probably acquired from a bacterium of the phylum Bacteroidetes, with homologues in various bacteria, typically organized in a conserved uncharacterized putative operon...
November 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905924/current-knowledge-and-perspectives-of-paenibacillus-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Elliot Nicholas Grady, Jacqueline MacDonald, Linda Liu, Alex Richman, Ze-Chun Yuan
Isolated from a wide range of sources, the genus Paenibacillus comprises bacterial species relevant to humans, animals, plants, and the environment. Many Paenibacillus species can promote crop growth directly via biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and release of siderophores that enable iron acquisition. They can also offer protection against insect herbivores and phytopathogens, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and viruses...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905614/methanobactins-from-genome-to-function
#6
Laura M K Dassama, Grace E Kenney, Amy C Rosenzweig
Methanobactins (Mbns) are ribosomally produced, post-translationally modified peptide (RiPP) natural products that bind copper with high affinity using nitrogen-containing heterocycles and thioamide groups. In some methanotrophic bacteria, Mbns are secreted under conditions of copper starvation and then re-internalized as a copper source for the enzyme particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). Genome mining studies have led to the identification and classification of operons encoding the Mbn precursor peptide (MbnA) as well as a number of putative transport, regulatory, and biosynthetic proteins...
December 1, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903655/random-versus-cell-cycle-regulated-replication-initiation-in-bacteria-insights-from-studying-vibrio-cholerae-chromosome-2
#7
REVIEW
Revathy Ramachandran, Jyoti Jha, Johan Paulsson, Dhruba Chattoraj
Bacterial chromosomes initiate replication at a fixed time in the cell cycle, whereas there is generally no particular time for plasmid replication initiation or chromosomal replication initiation from integrated plasmids. In bacteria with divided genomes, the replication system of one of the chromosomes typically resembles that of bacteria with undivided genomes, whereas the remaining chromosomes have plasmid-like replication systems. For example, in Vibrio cholerae, a bacterium with two chromosomes (chromosome 1 [Chr1] and Chr2), the Chr1 system resembles that of the Escherichia coli chromosome, and the Chr2 system resembles that of iteron-based plasmids...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903612/the-role-of-4u-as-an-extended-translation-termination-signal-in-bacteria
#8
Yulong Wei, Xuhua Xia
Termination efficiency of stop codons depends on the first 3' flanking (+4) base in bacteria and eukaryotes. In both Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, termination read-through is reduced in the presence of +4U; however, the molecular mechanism underlying +4U function is poorly understood. Here, we perform comparative genomics analysis on 25 bacterial species (covering Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Cyanobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetae) with bioinformatics approaches to examine the influence of +4U in bacterial translation termination by contrasting between highly and lowly expressed genes (HEGs and LEGs)...
November 30, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902921/complete-genome-sequence-of-fictibacillus-arsenicus-g25-54-a-strain-with-toxicity-to-nematodes
#9
Ziqiang Zheng, Jinshui Zheng, Donghai Peng, Ming Sun
Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) can infect almost all crops and cause huge economic losses in agriculture worldwide. An in-depth understanding of bacteria with nematicidal activity is essential for an effective and environmentally friendly control of RKNs. Fictibacillus arsenicus G25-54, a gram-positive and spore-forming bacterium isolated from a submerged sand bank, shows nematicidal activity against free-living Caenorhabditis elegans and RKNs. Here, we report the complete genome of F. arsenicus G25-54, which contains a circular chromosome and encodes ten potential nematicidal factors with twelve secondary metabolite gene clusters...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902881/the-chimeric-nature-of-the-genomes-of-marine-magnetotactic-coccoid-ovoid-bacteria-defines-a-novel-group-of-proteobacteria
#10
Boyang Ji, Sheng-Da Zhang, Wei-Jia Zhang, Zoe Rouy, François Alberto, Claire-Lise Santini, Sophie Mangenot, Séverine Gagnot, Nadège Philippe, Nathalie Pradel, Lichen Zhang, Sébastien Tempel, Ying Li, Claudine Médigue, Bernard Henrissat, Pedro M Coutinho, Valérie Barbe, Emmanuel Talla, Long-Fei Wu
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a group of phylogenetically and physiologically diverse Gram-negative bacteria that synthesize intracellular magnetic crystals named magnetosomes. MTB are affiliated with three classes of Proteobacteria phylum, Nitrospirae phylum, Omnitrophica phylum and probably with the candidate phylum Latescibacteria. The evolutionary origin and physiological diversity of MTB compared to other bacterial taxonomic groups remain to be illustrated. Here, we analyzed the genome of the marine magneto-ovoid strain MO-1 and found that it is closely related to Magnetococcus marinus MC-1...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902872/happens-in-the-best-of-subfamilies-establishment-and-repeated-replacements-of-co-obligate-secondary-endosymbionts-within-lachninae-aphids
#11
Alejandro Manzano-Marín, Gitta Szabo, Jean-Christophe Simon, Matthias Horn, Amparo Latorre
Virtually all aphids maintain an obligate mutualistic symbiosis with bacteria from the Buchnera genus, which produce essential nutrients for their aphid hosts. Most aphids from the Lachninae subfamily have been consistently found to house additional endosymbionts, mainly Serratia symbiotica. This apparent dependence on secondary endosymbionts was proposed to have been triggered by the loss of the riboflavin biosynthetic capability by Buchnera in the Lachninae last common ancestor. However, an integral large-scale analysis of secondary endosymbionts in the Lachninae is still missing, hampering the interpretation of the evolutionary and genomic analyses of these endosymbionts...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902780/co-regulation-of-iron-metabolism-and-virulence-associated-functions-by-iron-and-xibr-a-novel-iron-binding-transcription-factor-in-the-plant-pathogen-xanthomonas
#12
Sheo Shankar Pandey, Pradeep Kumar Patnana, Santosh Kumar Lomada, Archana Tomar, Subhadeep Chatterjee
Abilities of bacterial pathogens to adapt to the iron limitation present in hosts is critical to their virulence. Bacterial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to coordinately regulate iron metabolism and virulence associated functions to maintain iron homeostasis in response to changing iron availability in the environment. In many bacteria the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) functions as transcription factor that utilize ferrous form of iron as cofactor to regulate transcription of iron metabolism and many cellular functions...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902417/lantibiotics-produced-by-actinobacteria-and-their-potential-applications-a-review
#13
Karen Gomes, Rafael Silva Duarte, Maria do Carmo de Freire Bastos
The phylum Actinobacteria, which comprises a great variety of Gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C content in their genomes, is known for its large production of bioactive compounds, including those with antimicrobial activity. Among the antimicrobials, bacteriocins, ribosomally-synthesized peptides, represent an important arsenal of potential new drugs to face the increasing prevalence of resistance to antibiotics among microbial pathogens. The actinobacterial bacteriocins form a heterogeneous group of substances that is difficult to adapt to most proposed classification schemes...
November 22, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902408/sequencing-rare-marine-actinomycete-genomes-reveals-high-density-of-unique-natural-product-biosynthetic-gene-clusters
#14
Michelle Antoinette Schorn, Mohammad M Alanjary, Kristen Aguinaldo, Anton Korobeynikov, Sheila Podell, Nastassia V Patin, Tommie Lincecum, Paul R Jensen, Nadine Ziemert, Bradley S Moore
Traditional natural product discovery methods have nearly exhausted the accessible diversity of microbial chemicals, making new sources and techniques paramount in the search for new molecules. Marine actinomycete bacteria have recently come into the spotlight as fruitful producers of structurally diverse secondary metabolites, and remain relatively untapped. In this study we sequenced twenty-one marine-derived actinomycete strains, rarely studied for their secondary metabolite potential and underrepresented in current genomic databases...
October 27, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902317/psychromicrobium-silvestre-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-novel-actinobacterium-isolated-from-alpine-forest-soils
#15
Peter Schumann, De-Chao Zhang, Luís Franca, Luciana Albuquerque, Milton S da Costa, Rosa Margesin
Two Gram-stain-variable, non-motile, catalase-positive and cytochrome c oxidase-negative bacteria, designated AK20-18T and AM20-54, were isolated from forest soil samples collected in the Italian Alps. Growth occurred at a temperature range of 5-30 °C, at pH 6-9 and in the presence of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains AK20-18T and AM20-54 was 100 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that AK20-18T had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strain of Arthrobacter psychrochitiniphilus (96...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902299/chryseobacterium-nepalense-sp-nov-isolated-from-oil-contaminated-soil
#16
Dhiraj Kumar Chaudhary, Jaisoo Kim
During the study of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the oil-contaminated soil of Biratnagar, Morang, Nepal, a yellow-coloured, Gram-staining negative, aerobic, non-motile, and rod shaped bacterium, designated strain C-5-3T, was isolated. This strain was taxonomically characterized by a polyphasic approach. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain C-5-3T belongs to the genus Chryseobacterium and is closely related to 'Chryseobacterium profundimaris' DY46 (98.19% sequence similarity), Chryseobacterium takakiae AG1-2T (98...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902222/marinobacter-salinus-sp-nov-a-moderately-halophilic-bacterium-isolated-from-a-tidal-flat-environment
#17
Sundas Rani, Hyeon-Woo Koh, Hongik Kim, Sung-Keun Rhee, Soo-Je Park
Two Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile, halophilic, rod-shaped bacteria designated Hb8T and Hb20 were isolated from a tidal flat environment located on the South-West Korean peninsula. The isolates grew at 10-37 °C, pH 5.0-9.0, and in NaCl concentrations of 0.5-15% (w/v; optimum, 3.0-6.0%). Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA indicated that isolates belonged to the genus Marinobacter and are most closely related to Marinobacter sediminum (98.3%), followed by M. lipolyticus SM19T, M. salsuginis SD-14BT and M. similis A3d10T...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902214/brevibacillus-halotolerans-sp-nov-isolated-from-saline-soil-sample-collected-from-paddy-field
#18
Jinlong Song, Yanwei Wang, Yi Song, Bingqiang Zhao, Huimin Wang, Shan Zhou, Delong Kong, Xiang Guo, Yanting Li, Mingxiong He, Kedong Ma, Zhiyong Ruan, Yanchun Yan
Two novel aerobic bacteria, designated strains LAM0312T and LAM0313, were isolated from saline soil sample collected from paddy field in Dezhou city, Shandong Province in China. The Cells of these strains were Gram-stain positive, sporogenous, rod-shaped and motile with peritrichous flagella. The optimal growth temperature and pH were 30 ºC and pH 7.0-8.0, repesctively. Strain LAM0312T was found to be able to grow in the presence of 12 % (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acids of strains were identified as anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:0...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901648/a-new-drug-design-strategy-killing-drug-resistant-bacteria-by-deactivating-their-hypothetical-genes
#19
Tit-Yee Wong, Jimmy Kuo
Despite a bacterial genome is complicated by large numbers of horizontally transferred (HT) genes and function unknown hypothetical (FUN) genes, the Genic-Transcriptional-Stop-Signals-Ratio (TSSR) of a genome shows that HT and FUN genes are complementary to all other genes in the genome. When HT or certain FUN genes are omitted from the Escherichia coli K-12 genome, its Genomic-TSSR value becomes totally incomparable to other E. coli strains. The Genic-TSSR correlation tree of a pathogen shows that some FUN genes would form a unique cluster...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901503/in-situ-hybridization-and-histopathological-observations-during-ostreid-herpesvirus-1-associated-mortalities-in-pacific-oysters-crassostrea-gigas
#20
Rudolfo Bueno, Matthew Perrott, Magda Dunowska, Cara Brosnahan, Colin Johnston
In a previous longitudinal study conducted during a mortality investigation associated with ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) microvariant in New Zealand Pacific oysters in 2010-2011, temporality of OsHV-1 nucleic acid detection by real-time PCR assay and onset of Pacific oyster mortality was observed. The present study further elucidated the role of OsHV-1 using an in situ hybridization (ISH) assay on sections of Pacific oysters collected from the same longitudinal study. Hybridization of the labelled probe with the target region of the OsHV-1 genome in infected cells was detected colorimetrically using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT)...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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