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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147745/steroid-hormone-profiling-in-human-breast-adipose-tissue-using-semi-automated-purification-and-highly-sensitive-determination-of-estrogens-by-gc-apci-ms-ms
#1
Kristin Hennig, Jean Philippe Antignac, Emmanuelle Bichon, Marie-Line Morvan, Isabelle Miran, Suzette Delaloge, Jean Feunteun, Bruno Le Bizec
Body mass index is a known breast cancer risk factor due to, among other mechanisms, adipose-derived hormones. We developed a method for steroid hormone profiling in adipose tissue to evaluate healthy tissue around the tumor and define new biomarkers for cancer development. A semi-automated sample preparation method based on gel permeation chromatography and subsequent derivatization with trimethylsilyl (TMS) is presented. Progestagens and androgens were determined by GC-EI-MS/MS (LOQ 0.5 to 10 ng/g lipids)...
November 16, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147586/corticospinal-plasticity-in-bilateral-primary-motor-cortices-induced-by-paired-associative-stimulation-to-the-dominant-hemisphere-does-not-differ-between-young-and-older-adults
#2
Daina S E Dickins, Marc R Kamke, Martin V Sale
Older adults have been shown to exhibit a reduction in the lateralization of neural activity. Although neuroplasticity induced by noninvasive brain stimulation has been reported to be attenuated in the targeted motor cortex of older adults, it remains possible that the plasticity effects may instead manifest in a more distributed (bilateral) network. Furthermore, attention, which modulates neuroplasticity in young adults, may influence these effects. To address these questions, plasticity was induced in young (19-32 years) and older (65-78 years) adults using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paired with peripheral nerve stimulation...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146468/tdcs-changes-in-motor-excitability-are-specific-to-orientation-of-current-flow
#3
Vishal Rawiji, Matteo Ciocca, André Zacharia, David Soares, Dennis Truong, Marom Bikson, John Rothwell, Sven Bestmann
BACKGROUND: Measurements and models of current flow in the brain during transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) indicate stimulation of regions in-between electrodes. Moreover, the folded cortex results in local fluctuations in current flow intensity and direction, and animal studies suggest current flow direction relative to cortical columns determines response to tDCS. METHODS: Here we test this idea by using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Motor Evoked Potentials (TMS-MEP) to measure changes in corticospinal excitability following tDCS applied with electrodes aligned orthogonal (across) or parallel to M1 in the central sulcus...
November 7, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142099/assessing-tms-induced-d-and-i-waves-with-spinal-h-reflexes
#4
Niclas Niemann, Patrick Wiegel, Alexander Kurz, John C Rothwell, Christian Leukel
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex produces a series of descending volleys known as D- (direct) and I- (indirect) waves. In the present study, we questioned whether spinal H-reflexes can be used to dissect D-waves, early and late I-waves from TMS. We therefore probed H-reflex facilitation at arrival times of D- and I-waves at the spinal level and thereby changed TMS parameters that have previously been shown to have selective effects on evoked D- and different I-waves. We changed TMS intensity and current direction, and applied a double-pulse paradigm known as short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142098/the-acquisition-of-skilled-finger-movements-is-accompanied-by-the-reorganization-of-the-corticospinal-system
#5
Masato Hirano, Shinji Kubota, Shinichi Furuya, Yoshiki Koizume, Shinya Tanaka, Kozo Funase
Dexterous finger movements are often characterized by highly coordinated movements. Such coordination might be derived from reorganization of the corticospinal system. In this study, we investigated 1) the manner in which finger movement covariation patterns are acquired by examining the effects of the implicit and explicit learning of a serial reaction time task (SRTT), and 2) how such changes in finger coordination are represented in the corticospinal system. The subjects learned a button press sequence in both implicit and explicit learning conditions...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141551/noninvasive-cerebellar-stimulation-as-a-complement-tool-to-pharmacotherapy
#6
Roberta Ferrucci, Tommaso Bocci, Francesca Cortese, Fabiana Ruggiero, Alberto Priori
Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by balance and coordination disturbance, dysarthria, dyssynergia and adyadococinesia, caused by a dysfunction in the cerebellum. In recent years there has been growing interest in discovering therapeutical strategy for specific forms of cerebellar ataxia. Together with pharmacological studies, there has been growing interest in non-invasive cerebellar stimulation techniques to improve ataxia and limb coordination. Both transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are non-invasive techniques to modulate cerebro and cerebellar cortex excitability using magnetic or electric fields...
November 14, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140532/right-posterior-parietal-cortex-is-involved-in-disengaging-from-threat-a-1-hz-rtms-study
#7
Manon Mulckhuyse, Jan B Engelmann, Dennis J L G Schutter, Karin Roelofs
The right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is implicated in spatial attention, but its specific role in emotional spatial attention remains unclear. In this study, we combined inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a fear-conditioning paradigm to test the role of the right PPC in attentional control of task-irrelevant threatening distractors. In a sham-controlled within-subject design, 1-Hz repetitive TMS was applied to the left and right PPC after which participants performed a visual search task with a distractor that was either associated with a loud noise burst (threat) or not (non-threat)...
November 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139545/the-effect-of-ice-crystals-formations-on-the-flesh-quality-of-frozen-horse-mackerel-trachurus-japonicus
#8
Yao Wang, Riho Miyazaki, Shinobu Saitou, Katsuya Hirasaka, Satoshi Takeshita, Katsuyasu Tachibana, Shigeto Taniyama
It is known that the formation of ice crystals has a negative impact on the flesh quality of frozen meat. This study focuses on how the formation of ice crystals in the dorsal ordinary muscle affects the flesh quality of frozen horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus). Freeze-thawed muscle specimens (F-TMS) of horse mackerel were first stored at -24°C and then thawed. The K-value, expressible water, breaking strength of unfrozen muscle specimens (UMS) and F-TMS, and histological structure (light microscope: LM, scanning electron microscope: SEM) of UMS, frozen muscle specimens (FMS) and F-TMS were investigated...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138354/efficient-er-fusion-requires-a-dimerization-and-c-terminal-tail-mediated-membrane-anchoring-of-rhd3
#9
Jiaqi Sun, Huanquan Zheng
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of tubules and sheets stretching throughout the eukaryotic cells. The formation of the ER requires homotypic membrane fusion, which is mediated by a family of Dynamin-like GTPase proteins. The Arabidopsis member ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE3 (RHD3) has been demonstrated to mediate ER membrane fusion, but how exactly RHD3 is involved in the process is still unknown. Here we conducted systemic structure-function analyses of roles of different RHD3 domains in mediating ER fusion...
November 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138092/abnormal-cortical-neuroplasticity-induced-by-paired-associative-stimulation-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-a-preliminary-study
#10
Viviana Versace, Patrick B Langthaler, Yvonne Höller, Vanessa N Frey, Francesco Brigo, Luca Sebastianelli, Leopold Saltuari, Raffaele Nardone
We aimed at assessing in this pilot study whether patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) show alterations of sensorimotor plasticity within the primary motor cortex (M1). Since learning in human M1 occurs through LTP-like mechanisms, we employed the paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which is able to induce LTP-like effects in M1, in subjects with chronic SCI. We found that PAS protocol significantly increased corticospinal excitability as long as 30minutes in healthy subjects and in SCI patients with good motor recovery, while it was followed by a non-significant increase of MEP amplitude in the SCI patients with poor functional recovery...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137989/does-tms-on-v3-block-conscious-visual-perception
#11
Niina Salminen-Vaparanta, Mika Koivisto, Victor Vorobyev, Kati Alakurtti, Antti Revonsuo
Primary visual cortex (V1) and extrastriate V2 are necessary for the emergence of visual consciousness, but the effects of involvement of extrastriate V3 on visual consciousness is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the causal role of V3 in visual consciousness in humans. We combined neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a computational model of the TMS-induced electric field to test whether or not the intact processing of visual input in V3, like in V1 and V2, is necessary for conscious visual perception...
November 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137988/tms-eeg-reveals-hemispheric-asymmetries-in-top-down-influences-of-posterior-intraparietal-cortex-on-behavior-and-visual-event-related-potentials
#12
Mika Koivisto, Simone Grassini, Mikko Hurme, Niina Salminen-Vaparanta, Henry Railo, Victor Vorobyev, Jussi Tallus, Teemu Paavilainen, Antti Revonsuo
Clinical data and behavioral studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggest right-hemisphere dominance for top-down modulation of visual processing in humans. We used concurrent TMS-EEG to directly test for hemispheric differences in causal influences of the right and left intraparietal cortex on visual event-related potentials (ERPs). We stimulated the left and right posterior part of intraparietal sulcus (IPS1) while the participants were viewing and rating the visibility of bilaterally presented Gabor patches...
November 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135963/comprehensive-survey-on-improved-focality-and-penetration-depth-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-employing-multi-coil-arrays
#13
Xile Wei, Yao Li, Meili Lu, Jiang Wang, Guosheng Yi
Multi-coil arrays applied in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are proposed to accurately stimulate brain tissues and modulate neural activities by an induced electric field (EF). Composed of numerous independently driven coils, a multi-coil array has alternative energizing strategies to evoke EFs targeting at different cerebral regions. To improve the locating resolution and the stimulating focality, we need to fully understand the variation properties of induced EFs and the quantitative control method of the spatial arrangement of activating coils, both of which unfortunately are still unclear...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134789/either-at-left-or-right-both-high-and-low-frequency-rtms-of-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-decreases-cue-induced-craving-for-methamphetamine
#14
Qingming Liu, Ying Shen, Xinyu Cao, Yongqiang Li, Yijiang Chen, Wei Yang, Ti-Fei Yuan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The study is to investigate if left or right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is important in modulating the craving to drug related cues. METHODS: The present investigation examined different combinations between left/right and high/low frequency rTMS on cue induced craving to methamphetamine, with active sham rTMS on P3 region on a total of 50 subjects. RESULTS: The results showed that either at left or right side, both high and low frequency rTMS are effective in decreasing the cue induced craving to methamphetamine...
November 14, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130497/ubc-nepal-expedition-acclimatization-to-high-altitude-increases-spinal-motoneurone-excitability-during-fatigue-in-humans
#15
Luca Ruggiero, Alexandra F Yacyshyn, Jane Nettleton, Chris J McNeil
The fatigue-induced failure of the motor cortex to drive muscles maximally increases in acute hypoxia (AH) compared to normoxia (N) but improves with acclimatization (chronic hypoxia; CH). Despite their importance to muscle output, it is unknown how locomotor motoneurones in humans are affected by hypoxia and acclimatization. Eleven participants performed 16 min of submaximal (25% maximal torque, MVC) intermittent isometric elbow flexions in N, AH (environmental chamber), and CH (7-14 days at 5050 m) (PI O2 =  140, 74, and 76 mmHg, respectively)...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127826/behavioral-and-neurophysiological-mechanisms-underlying-motor-skill-learning-in-patients-with-post-stroke-hemiparesis
#16
Shailesh Kantak, Robert McGrath, Nazaneen Zahedi, Dustin Luchmee
OBJECTIVE: Given the presence of execution deficits after stroke, it is difficult to determine if patients with stroke have deficits in motor skill learning with the paretic arm. Here, we controlled for execution deficits while testing practice effects of the paretic arm on motor skill learning, long-term retention, and corticospinal excitability. METHODS: Ten patients with unilateral stroke and ten age-matched controls practiced a kinematic arm skill for two days and returned for retention testing one-day and one-month post-practice...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125012/optical-assessment-of-the-in-vivo-tympanic-membrane-status-using-a-handheld-optical-coherence-tomography-based-otoscope
#17
Kibeom Park, Nam Hyun Cho, Mansik Jeon, Sang Heun Lee, Jeong Hun Jang, Stephen A Boppart, Woonggyu Jung, Jeehyun Kim
OBJECTIVE: Conventional otoscopes and oto-endoscopes, which are used to examine the tympanic membrane (TM), do not provide tomographic information. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) non-invasively reveals the depth-resolved internal microstructure of the TM with very high spatial resolution. We designed this study to examine the TMs with middle ear diseases using a handheld otoscope employing 860 nm spectral domain (SD)-OCT, combined with video camera and to demonstrate the clinical applicability of this system...
November 10, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124791/impact-of-different-intensities-of-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-on-the-cortical-properties-during-tms-eeg-and-working-memory-performance
#18
Sung Wook Chung, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Caley M Sullivan, Robin F H Cash, Paul B Fitzgerald
Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of increasing cortical excitability beyond the stimulation period. Due to the rapid induction of modulatory effects, prefrontal application of iTBS is gaining popularity as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders such as depression. In an attempt to increase efficacy, higher than conventional intensities are currently being applied. The assumption that this increases neuromodulatory may be mechanistically false for iTBS...
November 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121485/distinct-modulation-of-interhemispheric-inhibitory-mechanisms-during-movement-preparation-reveals-the-influence-of-cognition-on-action-control
#19
Mark R Hinder, Rohan Puri, Sarah Kemp, Sara Waitzer, Paola Reissig, Tino Stöckel, Hakuei Fujiyama
When selecting actions based on visual warning stimuli (WS), corticospinal excitability (CSE) is initially suppressed, consistent with a neural mechanism to prevent premature release of the competing responses. Despite being implicated in between-hand movement selection and preparation, the role that interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) may play in this 'impulse control' mechanism is not known. Participants performed a warned, between-hand, choice reaction time (RT) task in which the informativeness of the WS (with regards to which hand would be required to respond) was manipulated...
October 27, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118716/etiology-and-recovery-of-neuromuscular-fatigue-following-competitive-soccer-match-play
#20
Callum G Brownstein, Jack P Dent, Paul Parker, Kirsty M Hicks, Glyn Howatson, Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas
Aim: Previous research into the etiology of neuromuscular fatigue following competitive soccer match-play has primarily focused on peripheral perturbations, with limited research assessing central nervous system function in the days post-match. The aim of the present study was to examine the contribution and time-course of recovery of central and peripheral factors toward neuromuscular fatigue following competitive soccer match-play. Methods: Sixteen male semi-professional soccer players completed a 90-min soccer match...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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