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Joery P Molenaar, Nicol C Voermans, Lysanne A de Jong, Dick F Stegeman, Jonne Doorduin, Baziel G van Engelen
Impaired muscle relaxation is a feature of many neuromuscular disorders. However, there are few tests available to quantify muscle relaxation. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex can induce muscle relaxation by abruptly inhibiting corticospinal drive. The aim of our study is to investigate if repeatability and reliability of TMS-induced relaxation is greater than voluntary relaxation. Furthermore, effects of sex, cooling and fatigue on muscle relaxation properties were studied. Muscle relaxation of deep finger flexors was assessed in twenty-five healthy subjects (14 M and 11 F, aged 39...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Belinda J Poole, Marius Mather, Evan J Livesey, Irina M Harris, Justin A Harris
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex produces motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in contralateral muscles. The amplitude of these MEPs can be used to measure the excitability of the corticospinal tract during motor planning. In two experiments, we investigated learning-related changes in corticospinal excitability as subjects prepared to respond in a choice reaction-time task. Subjects responded with their left or right hand to a left or right arrow, and on some trials the arrow was immediately preceded by a warning cue that signaled which response would be required...
February 21, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Logan T Dowdle, Truman R Brown, Mark S George, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: In the 20 years since our group established the feasibility of performing interleaved TMS/fMRI, no studies have reported direct comparisons of active prefrontal stimulation with a matched sham. Thus, for all studies there is concern about what is truly the TMS effect on cortical neurons. OBJECTIVE: After developing a sham control for use within the MRI scanner, we used fMRI to test the hypothesis of greater regional BOLD responses for active versus control stimulation...
February 24, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Katlyn E Brown, Jason L Neva, Samantha J Feldman, W Richard Staines, Lara A Boyd
BACKGROUND: The integration of somatosensory information from the environment into the motor cortex to inform movement is essential for motor function. As motor deficits commonly persist into the chronic phase of stroke recovery, it is important to understand potential contributing factors to these deficits, as well as their relationship with motor function. To date the impact of chronic stroke on sensorimotor integration has not been thoroughly investigated. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to comprehensively examine the influence of chronic stroke on sensorimotor integration, and determine whether sensorimotor integration can be modified with an intervention...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Jacqueline A Palmer, Steven L Wolf, Michael R Borich
BACKGROUND: Paired associative stimulation (PAS) combining repeated pairing of electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) can induce neuroplastic adaptations in the human brain and enhance motor learning in neurologically-intact individuals. However, the extent to which PAS is an effective technique for inducing associative plasticity and improving motor function in individuals post-stroke is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of a single session of PAS to modulate corticomotor excitability and motor skill performance in individuals post-stroke...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Javed Nawab, Junaid Ghani, Sardar Khan, Wang Xiaoping
Mining activity releases toxic metals (TMs) into the soil ecosystem and creates serious problems for the environment and human beings due to their adverse eco-toxilogical impacts. Currently, several remediation techniques can be used to immobilize TMs within contaminated soil. The present study focuses on the application of different organic amendments biochar (B), farmyard manure (FYM) and peat moss (PTM) - at different application rates (1%, 2% and 5%) in mining-impacted agricultural soil to immobilize TMs (Ni, Cr, As, Zn, Cd and Pb) and minimize their bioaccumulation in pea (Pisum sativum) and chili (Capsicum annuum) and the associated human health risk...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
VijayKrishna Raghunathan, Julia Benoit, Ramesh Kasetti, Gulab Zode, Michelle Salemi, Brett S Phinney, Kate E Keller, Julia A Staverosky, Christopher J Murphy, Ted Acott, Janice Vranka
Ocular hypertension is a causal risk-factor to developing glaucoma. This is associated with stiffening of the trabecular meshwork (TM), the primary site of resistance to aqueous-humor-outflow. The mechanisms underlying this stiffening or how pathologic extracellular matrix (ECM) affects cell function are poorly understood. It is recognized that mechanotransduction systems allow cells to sense and translate the intrinsic biophysical properties of ECM into intracellular signals to control gene transcription, protein expression, and cell behavior...
March 7, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Jocelyn Breton, Edwin M Robertson
Our brains are constantly processing past events [1]. These off-line processes consolidate memories, leading in the case of motor skill memories to an enhancement in performance between training sessions. A similar magnitude of enhancement develops over a night of sleep following an implicit task, when a sequence of movements is acquired unintentionally, or following an explicit task, when the same sequence is acquired intentionally [2]. What remains poorly understood, however, is whether these similar offline improvements are supported by similar circuits, or through distinct circuits...
June 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
Nadia Bolognini, Carlo Miniussi
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electric stimulation (tES) are noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) tools that are now widely used in neuroscientific research in humans. The fact that both TMS and tES are able to modulate brain plasticity and, in turn, affect behavior is opening up new horizons in the treatment of brain circuit and plasticity disorders. In the present chapter, we will first provide the reader with a brief background on the basic principles of NIBS, describing the electromagnetic and physical foundations of TMS and tES, as well as the current knowledge of the neurophysiologic basis of their effects on brain activity and plasticity...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Christopher Allen, Krish D Singh, Frederick Verbruggen, Christopher D Chambers
This pre-registered experiment sought to uncover the temporal relationship between the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) during stopping of an ongoing action. Both regions have previously been highlighted as being central to cognitive control of actions, particularly response inhibition. Here we tested which area is activated first during the stopping process using magnetoencephalography, before assessing the relative chronometry of each region using functionally localized transcranial magnetic stimulation...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Giuseppe Lanza, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Debora Aricò, Bartolo Lanuzza, Filomena Irene Ilaria Cosentino, Domenico Paci, Maurizio Papotto, Manuela Pennisi, Rita Bella, Giovanni Pennisi, Walter Paulus, Raffaele Ferri
Background: Based on the hyperexcitability and disinhibition observed in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we conducted a study with low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) over the primary motor (M1) and somatosensory cortical areas (S1) in patients with RLS. Methods: A total of 13 right-handed patients and 10 age-matched controls were studied using clinical scales and TMS. Measurements included resting motor threshold (rMT), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), cortical silent period (CSP), and central motor conduction time (CMCT)...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Joseph E Igetei, Marwa El-Faham, Susan Liddell, Gabriele Schramm, Michael J Doenhoff
Previous studies have shown that schistosome infection can protect against allergic symptoms, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Here we have shown that rabbit IgG antibodies raised against Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens (SmSEA) are cross-reactive with a wide array of molecules in Timothy grass pollen (TGP) and birch tree pollen (BTP). Five of the cross-reactive pollen molecules (two from TGP and three from BTP) were selected randomly and identified by tandem mass spectrometric (TMS) analysis to be, respectively, the TGP allergens Phl p 1 and Phl p 5b, and BTP glutathione S-transferase (GST), and the BTP allergens Bet v 1 and Bet v 6...
March 3, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Jean-François Rontani, Claude Aubert, Simon T Belt
RATIONALE: 3,9,13-trimethyl-6-(1,5-dimethylhexyl)-tetradecan-1,2-diol and 2,8,12-trimethyl-5-(1,5-dimethylhexyl)-tridecanoic acid appear to be produced during the bacterial metabolism of IP25 , a highly branched isoprenoid lipid often employed for past Arctic sea ice reconstruction. Characterization and quantification of these metabolites in sediments are essential to determine if bacterial degradation may exert a significant influence on IP25 -based palaeo sea ice reconstructions. METHODS: EIMS fragmentation pathways of 3,9,13-trimethyl-6-(1,5-dimethylhexyl)-tetradecan-1,2-diol and 2,8,12-trimethyl-5-(1,5-dimethylhexyl)-tridecanoic acid TMS derivatives were investigated...
March 6, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Cheng-Chang Yang, Najat Khalifa, Birgit Völlm
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a multi-faceted concept. It is a crucial feature of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Three subtypes of impulsivity have been identified: motor, temporal, and cognitive impulsivity. Existing evidence suggests that the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) plays a crucial role in impulsivity, and such a role has been elucidated using inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). There is a dearth of studies using excitatory rTMS at the rIFG, an important gap in the literature this study aimed to address...
March 2, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Mark Gaertner, Jiang-Ti Kong, Kristen H Scherrer, Alyssa Foote, Sean Mackey, Kevin A Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), a rare and severe chronic pain condition, often responds poorly to existing treatments. Previous studies demonstrated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) provided short-term pain relief for upper extremity CRPS. METHODS: Building on previous methodologies, we employed a TMS protocol that may lead to significant pain relief for upper and lower extremity CRPS in a nonrandomized open label pilot trial involving 21 participants...
March 4, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
José Manuel Matamala, James Howells, Thanuja Dharmadasa, Terry Trinh, Yan Ma, Lydia Lera, Steve Vucic, David Burke, Matthew C Kiernan
Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) using fixed test stimuli suffers from marked variability of the motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude. Threshold tracking TMS (TT-TMS) was introduced to overcome this problem. The aim of this work was to describe the absolute and relative reliability of short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) using threshold tracking TMS (TT-TMS). Cortical excitability studies were performed on twenty-six healthy subjects over three sessions (two recordings on the same day and one seven days apart), with MEPs recorded over abductor pollicis brevis...
March 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Michele Dileone, Laura Mordillo-Mateos, Antonio Oliviero, Guglielmo Foffani
BACKGROUND: Transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) was recently added to the family of inhibitory non-invasive brain stimulation techniques. However, the application of tSMS for 10-20 min over the motor cortex (M1) induces only short-lasting effects that revert within few minutes. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether increasing the duration of tSMS to 30 min leads to long-lasting changes in cortical excitability, which is critical for translating tSMS toward clinical applications...
February 7, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Jana Klaus, Dennis J L G Schutter
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has become a common method to study the interrelations between the brain and language functioning. This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the study of language production in healthy volunteers. Forty-five effect sizes from 30 studies which investigated the effects of NIBS on picture naming or verbal fluency in healthy participants were meta-analysed. Further sub-analyses investigated potential influences of stimulation type, control, target site, task, online vs...
February 27, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Guohua Dong, Ziyao Zhou, Mengmeng Guan, Xu Xue, Mingfeng Chen, Jing Ma, Zhongqiang Hu, Wei Ren, Zuo-Guang Ye, Ce-Wen Nan, Ming Liu
Traditional magnetostrictive/piezoelectric laminated composites rely on the two-dimensional interface that transfers stress/strain to achieve the large magnetoelectric (ME) coupling, nevertheless, they suffer from the theoretical limitation of the strain effect and of the substrate clamping effect in real ME applications. In this work, 3D NZFO/BTO-pillar nanocomposite films were grown on SrTiO3 by template-assisted pulsed laser deposition, where BaTiO3 (BTO) nanopillars appeared in an array with distinct phase transitions as the cores were covered by NiZn ferrite (NZFO) layer...
March 7, 2018: ACS Nano
Michael Jigo, Mengyuan Gong, Taosheng Liu
Studies of feature-based attention have associated activity in a dorsal frontoparietal network with putative attentional priority signals. Yet, how this neural activity mediates attentional selection and whether it guides behavior are fundamental questions that require investigation. We reasoned that endogenous fluctuations in the quality of attentional priority should influence task performance. Human subjects detected a speed increment while viewing clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW) motion (baseline task) or while attending to either direction amid distracters (attention task)...
January 2018: ENeuro
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