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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813867/therapeutic-effects-of-anti-gravity-treadmill-alterg-training-on-reflex-hyper-excitability-corticospinal-tract-activities-and-muscle-stiffness-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#1
Sh Parvin, A Taghiloo, A Irani, M Mehdi Mirbagheri
We aimed to study therapeutic effects of antigravity treadmill (AlterG) training on reflex hyper-excitability, muscle stiffness, and corticospinal tract (CST) function in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Three children received AlterG training 3 days per week for 8 weeks as experimental group. Each session lasted 45 minutes. One child as control group received typical occupational therapy for the same amount of time. We evaluated hyper-excitability of lower limb muscles by H-reflex response...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813600/discovery-of-enhanced-magnetoelectric-coupling-through-electric-field-control-of-two-magnon-scattering-within-distorted-nanostructures
#2
Xu Xue, Ziyao Zhou, Guohua Dong, Mengmeng Feng, Yijun Zhang, Shishun Zhao, Zhongqiang Hu, Wei Ren, Zuo-Guang Ye, Yaohua Liu, Ming Liu
Electric field control of dynamic spin interactions is promising to break through the limitation of magnetostatic interaction based magnetoelectric (ME) effect. In this work, electric field control of two-magnon scattering (TMS) effect excited by in-plane lattice rotation has been demonstrated in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO)/Pb(Mn2/3Nb1/3)-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) (011) multiferroic heterostructure. Compared with the conventional strain-mediated ME effect, a giant enhancement of ME effect up to 950% at the TMS critical angle is precisely determined by angular resolution of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurement...
August 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812898/enantioselective-n-heterocyclic-carbene-catalyzed-synthesis-of-functionalized-indenes
#3
Changhe Zhang, David W Lupton
An enantioselective NHC (N-heterocyclic carbene) catalyzed synthesis of indenes from bifunctional α,β-unsaturated acyl fluorides and TMS enol ethers has been discovered. The reaction has broad generality (31 examples) and proceeds with high levels of enantioselectivity (most >92:8 er). Mechanistically the reaction likely occurs via a Michael/β-lactonization/decarboxylation sequence. Derivatization studies and limitations are discussed.
August 16, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811548/ligand-binding-modes-from-low-resolution-gpcr-models-and-mutagenesis-chicken-bitter-taste-receptor-as-a-test-case
#4
Antonella Di Pizio, Louisa-Marie Kruetzfeldt, Shira Cheled-Shoval, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Maik Behrens, Masha Y Niv
Bitter taste is one of the basic taste modalities, warning against consuming potential poisons. Bitter compounds activate members of the bitter taste receptor (Tas2r) subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The number of functional Tas2rs is species-dependent. Chickens represent an intriguing minimalistic model, because they detect the bitter taste of structurally different molecules with merely three bitter taste receptor subtypes. We investigated the binding modes of several known agonists of a representative chicken bitter taste receptor, ggTas2r1...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808387/new-apigenin-glycoside-polyphenolic-constituents-anti-inflammatory-and-hepatoprotective-activities-of-gaillardia-grandiflora-and-gaillardia-pulchella-aerial-parts
#5
Fatma A Moharram, Rabab Abd El Moneim El Dib, Mohamed S Marzouk, Siham M El-Shenawy, Haitham A Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Gaillardia grandiflora Hort. ex Van Houte and Gaillardia pulchella Foug are flowering plants widely cultivated in Egypt for their ornamental value. Previous reports demonstrated that sesquiterpene derivatives represent the major compounds in both species. Moreover, only few flavones were identified from genus Gaillardia and few studies on the cytotoxicity of G. pulchella were found. AIM OF THE STUDY: Investigation of the phenolic constituents of the aerial parts of both species and evaluation of their anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807648/not-all-visual-symmetry-is-equal-partially-distinct-neural-bases-for-vertical-and-horizontal-symmetry
#6
Zaira Cattaneo, Silvia Bona, Juha Silvanto
Visual mirror symmetry plays an important role in visual perception in both human and animal vision; its importance is reflected in the fact that it can be extracted automatically during early stages of visual processing. However, how this extraction is implemented at the cortical level remains an open question. Given the importance of symmetry in visual perception, one possibility is that there is a network which extracts all types of symmetry irrespective of axis of orientation; alternatively, symmetry along different axes might be encoded by different brain regions, implying that that there is no single neural mechanism for symmetry processing...
August 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805565/noninvasive-brain-stimulation-and-implications-for-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Irena Rektorová, Ľubomíra Anderková
Transcranial noninvasive brain stimulation includes both repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). TMS uses a rapidly changing magnetic field to induce currents and action potentials in underlying brain tissue, whereas tDCS involves the application of weak electrical currents to modulate neuronal membrane potential. In this chapter, we provide a literature review with a focus on the therapeutic potential of both techniques in the treatment of nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803382/cortical-afferent-inhibition-abnormalities-reveal-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-reappraisal
#8
REVIEW
Raffaele Nardone, Francesco Brigo, Viviana Versace, Yvonne Höller, Frediano Tezzon, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka, Luca Sebastianelli
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder affecting, besides the dopaminergic function, multiple neurotransmission systems, including the cholinergic system. Central cholinergic circuits of human brain can be tested non-invasively by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex; this test is named short latency afferent inhibition (SAI). SAI abnormalities have been reported in PD patients with gait disturbances and many non-motor symptoms, such as visual hallucinations (VHs), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), dysphagia, and olfactory impairment...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799583/evidence-and-isolation-of-tetrahedral-intermediates-formed-upon-the-addition-of-lithium-carbenoids-to-weinreb-amides-and-n-acylpyrroles
#9
Laura Castoldi, Wolfgang Holzer, Thierry Langer, Vittorio Pace
The tetrahedral intermediates generated upon the addition of halolithium carbenoids (LiCH2X and LiCHXY) to Weinreb amides have been intercepted and fully characterized as O-TMS heminals. The commercially available N-trimethylsilyl imidazole is the ideal trapping agent whose employment, combined with a straightforward neutral Alox chromatographic purification, enables the isolation of such labile species. The procedure could be advantageously extended also for obtaining O-TMS heminals from N-acylpyrroles. These intermediates manifest interesting reactivity including as precursors of more complex carbenoids...
August 11, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796636/effect-of-tms-coil-orientation-on-the-spatial-distribution-of-motor-evoked-potentials-in-an-intrinsic-hand-muscle
#10
Victor Hugo Souza, Taian Martins Vieira, André Salles Cunha Peres, Marco Antonio Cavalcanti Garcia, Claudia Domingues Vargas, Oswaldo Baffa
Previous reports on the relationship between coil orientation and amplitude of motor evoked potential (MEP) in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) did not consider the effect of electrode arrangement. Here we explore this open issue by investigating whether TMS coil orientation affects the amplitude distribution of MEPs recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle with a bi-dimensional grid of 61 electrodes. Moreover, we test whether conventional mono- and bipolar montages provide representative MEPs compared to those from the grid of electrodes...
August 10, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796505/toolbox-of-nonmetallocene-lanthanides-multifunctional-catalysts-in-group-transfer-polymerization
#11
Friederike Adams, Martin R Machat, Peter T Altenbuchner, Johannes Ehrmaier, Alexander Pöthig, Tolga N V Karsili, Bernhard Rieger
Herein, we present a fundamental study of isostructural 2-methoxyethylamino-bis(phenolate)-lanthanide complexes [(ONOO)(R)M(X)(THF)] (M = Lu, Y; R = (t)Bu, CMe2Ph, X = CH2TMS, collidine; THF = tetrahydrofuran; TMS = trimethylsilyl) for rare-earth metal-mediated group-transfer polymerization (GTP). This analysis includes the differentiation of electron-donating and nondonating vinyl monomers and two metal centers with regard to the ionic radius (yttrium and lutetium). In addition, highly nucleophilic alkyl initiators are compared with electron-donating heteroaromatic initiators...
August 10, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794977/time-dependent-functional-role-of-the-contralesional-motor-cortex-after-stroke
#12
L J Volz, M Vollmer, J Michely, G R Fink, J C Rothwell, C Grefkes
After stroke, movements of the paretic hand rely on altered motor network dynamics typically including additional activation of the contralesional primary motor cortex (M1). The functional implications of contralesional M1 recruitment to date remain a matter of debate. We here assessed the role of contralesional M1 in 12 patients recovering from a first-ever stroke using online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): Short bursts of TMS were administered over contralesional M1 or a control site (occipital vertex) while patients performed different motor tasks with their stroke-affected hand...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794795/ground-penetrating-radar-a-case-study-for-estimating-root-bulking-rate-in-cassava-manihot-esculenta-crantz
#13
Alfredo Delgado, Dirk B Hays, Richard K Bruton, Hernán Ceballos, Alexandre Novo, Enrico Boi, Michael Gomez Selvaraj
BACKGROUND: Understanding root traits is a necessary research front for selection of favorable genotypes or cultivation practices. Root and tuber crops having most of their economic potential stored below ground are favorable candidates for such studies. The ability to image and quantify subsurface root structure would allow breeders to classify root traits for rapid selection and allow agronomist the ability to derive effective cultivation practices. In spite of the huge role of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), for food security and industrial uses, little progress has been made in understanding the onset and rate of the root-bulking process and the factors that influence it...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791022/enhancing-stability-of-camelid-and-shark-single-domain-antibodies-an-overview
#14
REVIEW
Ellen R Goldman, Jinny L Liu, Dan Zabetakis, George P Anderson
Single domain antibodies (sdAbs) are gaining a reputation as superior recognition elements as they combine the advantages of the specificity and affinity found in conventional antibodies with high stability and solubility. Melting temperatures (Tms) of sdAbs cover a wide range from below 50 to over 80°C. Many sdAbs have been engineered to increase their Tm, making them stable until exposed to extreme temperatures. SdAbs derived from the variable heavy chains of camelid and shark heavy chain-only antibodies are termed VHH and VNAR, respectively, and generally exhibit some ability to refold and bind antigen after heat denaturation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781049/role-of-the-cerebellum-in-adaptation-to-delayed-action-effects
#15
Liyu Cao, Domenica Veniero, Gregor Thut, Joachim Gross
Actions are typically associated with sensory consequences. For example, knocking at a door results in predictable sounds. These self-initiated sensory stimuli are known to elicit smaller cortical responses compared to passively presented stimuli, e.g., early auditory evoked magnetic fields known as M100 and M200 components are attenuated. Current models implicate the cerebellum in the prediction of the sensory consequences of our actions. However, causal evidence is largely missing. In this study, we introduced a constant delay (of 100 ms) between actions and action-associated sounds, and we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) data as participants adapted to the delay...
July 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779945/cumulative-effects-of-single-tms-pulses-during-beta-tacs-are-stimulation-intensity-dependent
#16
Valerio Raco, Robert Bauer, Sandro Norim, Alireza Gharabaghi
BACKGROUND: Single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses activate different components of the motor cortex neural circuitry in a stimulation intensity-dependent way and may lead to a cumulative increase of corticospinal excitability (CSE) during the same stimulation session. Furthermore, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been shown to increase in a frequency-specific way the level of CSE probed by single-pulse TMS. The interaction of these two phenomena, i...
July 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777059/modality-specific-changes-in-motor-cortex-excitability-after-visuo-proprioceptive-realignment
#17
Felipe Munoz-Rubke, Jasmine L Mirdamadi, Anna K Lynch, Hannah J Block
Spatial realignment of visual and proprioceptive estimates of hand position is necessary both to keep the estimates in register over time and to compensate for sensory perturbations. Such realignment affects perceived hand position, which the brain must use to plan hand movements. We would therefore expect visuo-proprioceptive realignment to affect the motor system at some level, but the physiological basis of this interaction is unknown. Here, we asked whether activity in primary motor cortex (M1), a well-known substrate of motor control, shows evidence of change after visuo-proprioceptive realignment...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776437/warfarin-monitoring-in-nursing-homes-assessed-by-case-histories-do-recommendations-and-electronic-alerts-affect-judgements
#18
Reyes Serrano Teruel, Geir Thue, Svein Ivar Fylkesnes, Sverre Sandberg, Ann Helen Kristoffersen
PURPOSE: Older adults treated with warfarin are prone to complications, and high-quality monitoring is essential. The aim of this case history based study was to assess the quality of warfarin monitoring in a routine situation, and in a situation with an antibiotic-warfarin interaction, before and after receiving an electronic alert. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In April 2014, a national web-based survey with two case histories was distributed among Norwegian nursing home physicians and general practitioners working part-time in nursing homes...
August 4, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774684/reevaluating-the-sensory-account-of-visual-working-memory-storage
#19
REVIEW
Yaoda Xu
Recent human fMRI pattern-decoding studies have highlighted the involvement of sensory areas in visual working memory (VWM) tasks and argue for a sensory account of VWM storage. In this review, evidence is examined from human behavior, fMRI decoding, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies, as well as from monkey neurophysiology studies. Contrary to the prevalent view, the available evidence provides little support for the sensory account of VWM storage. Instead, when the ability to resist distraction and the existence of top-down feedback are taken into account, VWM-related activities in sensory areas seem to reflect feedback signals indicative of VWM storage elsewhere in the brain...
July 31, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774486/histopathology-of-tympanic-membranes-from-patients-with-ventilation-tubes
#20
Mehmet Faruk Oktay, Hasan Deniz Tansuker, Hisaki Fukushima, Michael M Paparella, Patricia A Schachern, Sebahattin Cureoglu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the histopathologic changes in tympanic membranes (TMs) with ventilation tubes (VTs). METHODS: In this retrospective human temporal bone study our overall study group included 4 subgroups of TMs from deceased donors as follows: 24 with a history of VT insertion for chronic otitis media with effusion (COME-VT); 5 with a history of VT insertion for Meniere's disease (MD-VT); 33 without a history of VT insertion for chronic otitis media with effusion (COME); and 14 without a history of VT insertion for Meniere's disease (MD)...
July 31, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
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