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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934300/synchronizing-the-transcranial-magnetic-pulse-with-electroencephalographic-recordings-effectively-reduces-inter-trial-variability-of-the-pulse-artefact
#1
Leo Tomasevic, Mitsuaki Takemi, Hartwig Roman Siebner
BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG) can capture the cortical response evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The TMS pulse provokes a large artefact, which obscures the cortical response in the first milliseconds after TMS. Removing this artefact remains a challenge. METHODS: We delivered monophasic and biphasic TMS to a melon as head phantom and to four healthy participants and recorded the pulse artefact at 5 kHz with a TMS-compatible EEG system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932245/electromagnetic-fields-for-the-regulation-of-neural-stem-cells
#2
REVIEW
Mengchu Cui, Hongfei Ge, Hengli Zhao, Yongjie Zou, Yujie Chen, Hua Feng
Localized magnetic fields (MFs) could easily penetrate the scalp, skull, and meninges, thus inducing an electrical current in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, which is primarily used in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for inducing specific effects on different regions or cells that play roles in various brain activities. Studies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have led to novel attractive therapeutic approaches. Neural stem cells (NSCs) in adult human brain are able to self-renew and possess multidifferential ability to maintain homeostasis and repair damage after acute central nervous system...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930973/intracortical-inhibition-within-the-primary-motor-cortex-can-be-modulated-by-changing-the-focus-of-attention
#3
Yves-Alain Kuhn, Martin Keller, Jan Ruffieux, Wolfgang Taube
It is well recognized that an external focus (EF) compared with an internal focus (IF) of attention improves motor learning and performance. Studies have indicated benefits in accuracy, balance, force production, jumping performance, movement speed, oxygen consumption, and fatiguing task. Although behavioral outcomes of using an EF strategy are well explored, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. A recent TMS study compared the activity of the primary motor cortex (M1) between an EF and an IF. More precisely, this study showed that, when adopting an EF, the activity of intracortical inhibitory circuits is enhanced...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930864/neural-correlates-to-the-increase-in-maximal-force-after-dexamethasone-administration
#4
Stéphane Baudry, Alberto Botter, Jacques Duchateau, Marco A Minetto
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of short-term glucocorticoid administration on voluntary activation and intracortical inhibitory and facilitatory circuits. METHODS: Seventeen healthy men participated in a pseudo randomized double-blind study to receive either dexamethasone (8 mg·d, n = 9 subjects) or placebo (n = 8 subjects) for 7 days. The ankle dorsiflexion torque, corresponding electromyography (EMG) of the tibialis anterior, and voluntary activation assessed by the interpolated twitch method using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were measured during a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)...
September 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930461/effect-of-a-swelling-agent-on-the-performance-of-ni-porous-silica-catalyst-for-ch4-co2-reforming
#5
Mohamad Hassan Amin, Putla Sudarsanam, Matthew R Field, Jim Patel, Suresh K Bhargava
Hierarchical porous materials are of great interest in various industrial applications because of their potential to overcome the mass transport limitations typically encountered for single-mode porous materials. This report describes the synthesis of a hierarchical tri-modal porous silica-based material using a 7.5 molar ratio of a relatively inexpensive non-ionic surfactant template, tri-block copolymer P123, EO20PO70EO20. The pore size distribution curve shows the presence of three types of pores with average diameters of ~8, 25 and 89 nm...
September 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928632/neurophysiology-of-the-celiac-brain-disentangling-gut-brain-connections
#6
REVIEW
Manuela Pennisi, Alessia Bramanti, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella, Giuseppe Lanza
Celiac disease (CD) can be considered a complex multi-organ disorder with highly variable extra-intestinal, including neurological, involvement. Cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, seizures, headache, cognitive impairment, and neuropsychiatric diseases are complications frequently reported. These manifestations may be present at the onset of the typical disease or become clinically evident during its course. However, CD subjects with subclinical neurological involvement have also been described, as well as patients with clear central and/or peripheral nervous system and intestinal histopathological disease features in the absence of typical CD manifestations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928066/rheological-properties-of-tamarind-tamarindus-indica-l-seed-mucilage-obtained-by-spray-drying-as-a-novel-source-of-hydrocolloid
#7
Erik Alpizar-Reyes, Angélica Román-Guerrero, Raquel Gallardo-Rivera, Victor Varela-Guerrero, Julian Cruz-Olivares, César Pérez-Alonso
Tamarind seed mucilage (TSM) was extracted and obtained by spray drying. The power law model well described the rheological behavior of the TSM dispersions with determination coefficients R(2) higher than 0.99. According to power law model, non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior was observed at all concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%) and temperatures (25, 30, 40, and 60°C) studied. Increasing temperature decreased the viscosity and increased the flow behavior index, opposite effect was observed when increasing the concentration...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927961/clinical-and-electrophysiological-outcomes-of-deep-tms-over-the-medial-prefrontal-and-anterior-cingulate-cortices-in-ocd-patients
#8
Lior Carmi, Uri Alyagon, Noam Barnea-Ygael, Joseph Zohar, Reuven Dar, Abraham Zangen
BACKGROUND: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling disorder with poor response to pharmacological treatments. Converging evidences suggest that OCD patients suffer from dysfunction of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit, including in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). OBJECTIVE: To examine whether modulation of mPFC-ACC activity by deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) affects OCD symptoms...
September 6, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924608/a-versatile-3d-tissue-matrix-scaffold-system-for-tumor-modeling-and-drug-screening
#9
Girdhari Rijal, Weimin Li
Most of the anticancer drug candidates entering preclinical trials fail to be approved for clinical applications. The following are among the main causes of these failures: studying molecular mechanisms of cancer development, identifying therapeutic targets, and testing drug candidates using inappropriate tissue culture models, which do not recapitulate the native microenvironment where the cancer cells originate. It has become clear that three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures are more biologically and clinically relevant than 2D models...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922993/an-exploratory-tms-study-on-prefrontal-lateralization-in-valence-categorization-of-facial-expressions
#10
Chiara Ferrari, Lucile Gamond, Marcello Gallucci, Tomaso Vecchi, Zaira Cattaneo
Converging neuroimaging and patient data suggest that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in emotional processing. However, it is still not clear whether the DLPFC in the left and right hemisphere is differentially involved in emotion recognition depending on the emotion considered. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to shed light on the possible causal role of the left and right DLPFC in encoding valence of positive and negative emotional facial expressions. Participants were required to indicate whether a series of faces displayed a positive or negative expression, while TMS was delivered over the right DLPFC, the left DLPFC, and a control site (vertex)...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921724/-discrete-peaks-of-excitability-and-map-overlap-reveal-task-specific-organization-of-primary-motor-cortex-for-control-of-human-forearm-muscles
#11
Hugo Massé-Alarie, Michael J G Bergin, Cyril Schneider, Siobhan Schabrun, Paul W Hodges
The primary motor cortex (M1) presents a somatotopic organization of body parts, but with overlap between muscle/movement representations. This distinct but overlapping M1 organization is believed to be important for individuated control and movement coordination, respectively. Discrete peaks of greater excitability observed within M1 might underpin organization of cortical motor control. This study aimed to examine interactions between M1 representations of synergist and antagonist forearm muscles, compare regions of greater excitability during different functional tasks, and compare characteristics of M1 representation recorded using surface and fine-wire (fw ) electrodes...
September 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920830/reclassification-of-thiomicrospira-hydrogeniphila-watsuji-et-al-2016-to-thiomicrorhabdus-hydrogenophila-comb-nov-with-emended-description-of-thiomicrorhabdus-boden-et-al-2017
#12
Rich Boden, Kathleen M Scott, Alexander W Rae, Lee P Hutt
The genus Thiomicrorhabdus (Tmr) in the Piskirickettsiaceae in the Thiotrichales of the Gammaproteobacteria contains four species of sulfur-oxidising obligate chemolithoautotroph with validly published names, all previously classified as Thiomicrospira (Tms) species. Here we demonstrate that Thiomicrospira hydrogeniphila, a recently published hydrogen-utilising chemolithoautotroph closely related to Thiomicrorhabdus frisia (type species of Thiomicrorhabdus) should be classified as a member of the genus Thiomicrorhabdus and not Thiomicrospira, as Thiomicrorhabdus hydrogeniphila comb...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917695/the-impact-of-gabaergic-drugs-on-tms-induced-brain-oscillations-in-human-motor-cortex
#13
Isabella Premoli, Til O Bergmann, Matteo Fecchio, Mario Rosanova, Andrea Biondi, Paolo Belardinelli, Ulf Ziemann
Brain responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as measured with electroencephalography (EEG) have so far been assessed either by TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs), mostly reflecting phase-locked neuronal activity, or time-frequency-representations (TFRs), reflecting oscillatory power arising from a mixture of both evoked (i.e., phase-locked) and induced (i.e., non-phase-locked) responses. Single-pulse TMS of the human primary motor cortex induces a specific pattern of oscillatory changes, characterized by an early (30-200 ms after TMS) synchronization in the α- and β-bands over the stimulated sensorimotor cortex and adjacent lateral frontal cortex, followed by a late (200-400 ms) α- and β-desynchronization over the stimulated and contralateral sensorimotor cortex...
September 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912081/towards-understanding-rtms-mechanism-of-action-stimulation-of-the-dlpfc-causes-network-specific-increase-in-functional-connectivity
#14
Martin Tik, André Hoffmann, Ronald Sladky, Livia Tomova, Allan Hummer, Lucia Navarro de Lara, Henryk Bukowski, Jürgen Pripfl, Bharat Biswal, Claus Lamm, Christian Windischberger
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a powerful non-invasive technique for the modulation of brain activity. While the precise mechanism of action is still unknown, TMS is applied in cognitive neuroscience to establish causal relationships between stimulation and subsequent changes in cerebral function and behavioral outcome. In addition, TMS is an FDA-approved therapeutic agent in psychiatric disorders, especially major depression. Successful repetitive TMS in such disorders is usually applied over the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and treatment response mechanism was therefore supposed to be based on modulations in functional networks, particularly the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuit...
September 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910407/the-spectral-features-of-eeg-responses-to-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-depend-on-the-amplitude-of-the-motor-evoked-potentials
#15
Matteo Fecchio, Andrea Pigorini, Angela Comanducci, Simone Sarasso, Silvia Casarotto, Isabella Premoli, Chiara-Camilla Derchi, Alice Mazza, Simone Russo, Federico Resta, Fabio Ferrarelli, Maurizio Mariotti, Ulf Ziemann, Marcello Massimini, Mario Rosanova
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) can excite both cortico-cortical and cortico-spinal axons resulting in TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), respectively. Despite this remarkable difference with other cortical areas, the influence of motor output and its amplitude on TEPs is largely unknown. Here we studied TEPs resulting from M1 stimulation and assessed whether their waveform and spectral features depend on the MEP amplitude. To this aim, we performed two separate experiments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910370/intra-and-inter-session-reliability-of-rapid-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-stimulus-response-curves-of-tibialis-anterior-muscle-in-healthy-older-adults
#16
Elisabetta Peri, Emilia Ambrosini, Vera Maria Colombo, Mark van de Ruit, Michael J Grey, Marco Monticone, Giorgio Ferriero, Alessandra Pedrocchi, Giancarlo Ferrigno, Simona Ferrante
OBJECTIVE: The clinical use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) as a technique to assess corticospinal excitability is limited by the time for data acquisition and the measurement variability. This study aimed at evaluating the reliability of Stimulus-Response (SR) curves acquired with a recently proposed rapid protocol on tibialis anterior muscle of healthy older adults. METHODS: Twenty-four neurologically-intact adults (age:55-75 years) were recruited for this test-retest study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906341/the-neurophysiology-of-paediatric-movement-disorders
#17
Verity M McClelland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To demonstrate how neurophysiological tools have advanced our understanding of the pathophysiology of paediatric movement disorders, and of neuroplasticity in the developing brain. RECENT FINDINGS: Delineation of corticospinal tract connectivity using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is being investigated as a potential biomarker for response to therapy. TMS measures of cortical excitability and neuroplasticity are also being used to investigate the effects of therapy, demonstrating neuroplastic changes that relate to functional improvements...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905714/cross-foster-rederivation-compared-with-antibiotic-administration-in-the-drinking-water-to-eradicate-bordetella-pseudohinzii
#18
Sarah E Clark, Jeanette E Purcell, Xuan Bi, Jeffrey D Fortman
Bordetella pseudohinzii is a microbial agent of potential importance in mice and has confounded pulmonary research at our institution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cross-foster rederivation and antibiotic administration in the drinking water as methods to eradicate B. pseudohinzii. To evaluate the efficacy of cross-foster rederivation, 29 litters representing 16 strains of mice were cross-fostered from cages positive for B. pseudohinzii to B. pseudohinzii-negative Crl:CD1-Elite surrogate dams. To evaluate antibiotic administration, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim (TMS; 0...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905628/impact-of-interfaces-and-laser-repetition-rate-on-photocarrier-dynamics-in-lead-halide-perovskites
#19
Liudmila G Kudriashova, David Kiermasch, Philipp Rieder, Marshall Campbell, Kristofer Tvingstedt, Andreas Baumann, Georgy V Astakhov, Vladimir Dyakonov
We studied charge carrier recombination in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite and the impact of interfaces on the charge carrier lifetime using time-resolved photoluminescence. Pristine films and those covered with organic electron and hole transport materials (TMs) were investigated at various laser repetition rates ranging from 10 kHz to 10 MHz in order to separate the bulk and interface-affected recombination. We revealed two different components in the PL decay. The fast component (shorter than 300 ns) is assigned to interfacial processes, and the slow one to bulk recombination...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904571/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-as-an-additional-diagnostic-tool-in-children-with-acute-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#20
Voitenkov Vladislav Voitenkov, Klimkin Andrey, Skripchenko Natalia, Aksenova Anastasia
CONTEXT: The diagnosis of polyneuropathy may be challenging at the early stages of the disease. Despite electromyography (EMG) efficacy in the establishment of polyneuropathy diagnosis, in some cases, results are dubious and neurophysiologists may implement additional techniques to ensure that conduction is affected. AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate motor-evoked potential (MEP) characteristics in children with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP)...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
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