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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530336/-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Doron Todder, Nimrod Grisaru, Zeev Kaplan
Noninvasive brain stimulation is a growing field of treatment for many neuropsychiatric problems. In this review, several of the more common brain stimulation devices are presented. Specifically, we will review Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), Alternating Current Stimulation (ACS), Infrared Stimulation, Electroencephalography Neurofeedback (EEG-NF) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imagining Neurofeedback (fMRI-NF). We will outline some of the properties of these devices including the mechanism, side effect profile, using sham for research and major future developments...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530154/determining-electrode-placement-for-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-a-comparison-of-eeg-versus-tms-guided-methods
#2
Tonya L Rich, Jeremiah S Menk, Kyle D Rudser, Mo Chen, Gregg D Meekins, Edgar Peña, Timothy Feyma, Kay Bawroski, Christina Bush, Bernadette T Gillick
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is increasingly researched as an adjuvant to motor rehabilitation for children with hemiparesis. The optimal method for the primary motor cortex (M1) somatotopic localization for tDCS electrode placement has not been established. The objective, therefore, was to determine the location of the M1 derived using the 10/20 electroencephalography (EEG) system and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in children with hemiparesis (CWH) and a comparison group of typically developing children (TDC)...
May 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528736/on-the-effectiveness-of-event-related-beta-tacs-on-episodic-memory-formation-and-motor-cortex-excitability
#3
Verena Braun, Rodika Sokoliuk, Simon Hanslmayr
BACKGROUND: Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is widely used to entrain or modulate brain oscillations in order to investigate causal relationships between oscillations and cognition. OBJECTIVE: In a series of experiments we here addressed the question of whether event-related, transient tACS in the beta frequency range can be used to entrain beta oscillations in two different domains: episodic memory formation and motor cortex excitability. METHODS: In experiments 1 and 2, 72 healthy human participants engaged in an incidental encoding task of verbal and non-verbal material while receiving tACS to the left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) at 6...
April 30, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525601/too-fast-or-too-slow-time-and-neuronal-variability-in-bipolar-disorder-a-combined-theoretical-and-empirical-investigation
#4
Georg Northoff, Paola Magioncalda, Matteo Martino, Hsin-Chien Lee, Ying-Chi Tseng, Timothy Lane
Time is an essential feature in bipolar disorder (BP). Manic and depressed BP patients perceive the speed of time as either too fast or too slow. The present article combines theoretical and empirical approaches to integrate phenomenological, psychological, and neuroscientific accounts of abnormal time perception in BP. Phenomenology distinguishes between perception of inner time, ie, self-time, and outer time, ie, world-time, that desynchronize or dissociate from each other in BP: inner time speed is abnormally slow (as in depression) or fast (as in mania) and, by taking on the role as default-mode function, impacts and modulates the perception of outer time speed in an opposite way, ie, as too fast in depression and too slow in mania...
May 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524664/nam-tms-mechanism-of-%C3%AE-amino-acid-n-carboxyanhydride-polymerization-a-dft-study
#5
Tianwen Bai, Jun Ling
The normal amine mechanism via proton transferring route (NAM-H) is widely accepted for synthesis of polypeptides with nonionic initiators. Besides proton, trimethylsilyl (TMS) group transferring process has been found in living/controlled polymerization initiated by N-TMS amine in experiments but the corresponding mechanism has never been proposed yet. In this work, we employed density functional theory (DFT) with solvation model to investigate the details of TMS-transfer mechanism, defined as NAM-TMS, for ring-opening polymerization of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydride...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522346/seeing-in-the-dark-phosphene-thresholds-with-eyes-open-versus-closed-in-the-absence-of-visual-inputs
#6
T A de Graaf, F Duecker, Y Stankevich, S Ten Oever, A T Sack
BACKGROUND: Voluntarily opening or closing our eyes results in fundamentally different input patterns and expectancies. Yet it remains unclear how our brains and visual systems adapt to these ocular states. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We here used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to probe the excitability of the human visual system with eyes open or closed, in the complete absence of visual inputs. METHODS: Combining Bayesian staircase procedures with computer control of TMS pulse intensity allowed interleaved determination of phosphene thresholds (PT) in both conditions...
May 3, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516040/a-newborn-case-with-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-ii-deficiency-initially-judged-as-unaffected-by-acylcarnitine-analysis-soon-after-birth
#7
Kenji Yamada, Ryosuke Bo, Hironori Kobayashi, Yuki Hasegawa, Mako Ago, Seiji Fukuda, Seiji Yamaguchi, Takeshi Taketani
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-2) deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation, can be detected by newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry (TMS). Our case was a boy born at 38 weeks and 6 days of gestation via normal vaginal delivery; his elder sister was affected with CPT-2 deficiency. Acylcarnitine (AC) was analyzed in both dried blood spots (DBS) and serum 2 h after birth to determine whether the boy was also affected. His C16 and C18:1 AC levels in DBS were in the normal range, while his serum long-chain AC levels were marginally increased but lower than those of his sister...
June 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516033/the-impact-of-large-structural-brain-changes-in-chronic-stroke-patients-on-the-electric-field-caused-by-transcranial-brain-stimulation
#8
Sena Minjoli, Guilherme B Saturnino, Jakob Udby Blicher, Charlotte J Stagg, Hartwig R Siebner, André Antunes, Axel Thielscher
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) are two types of non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (TBS). They are useful tools for stroke research and may be potential adjunct therapies for functional recovery. However, stroke often causes large cerebral lesions, which are commonly accompanied by a secondary enlargement of the ventricles and atrophy. These structural alterations substantially change the conductivity distribution inside the head, which may have potentially important consequences for both brain stimulation methods...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515687/effects-of-passive-finger-movement-on-cortical-excitability
#9
Masaki Nakagawa, Ryoki Sasaki, Shota Tsuiki, Shota Miyaguchi, Sho Kojima, Kei Saito, Yasuto Inukai, Hideaki Onishi
This study examined the effects of joint angle and passive movement direction on corticospinal excitability. The subjects were 14 healthy adults from whom consent could be obtained. We performed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we measured motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, F-wave and M-wave at 0° and 20° adduction during adduction or abduction movement, in the range of movement from 10° abduction to 30° adduction. In Experiment 2, MEPs were measured at static 0° and 20° adduction during passive adduction from 10° adduction to 30° adduction and static 20° adduction...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515375/modified-gas-chromatographic-method-to-determine-monoacylglycerol-and-diacylglycerol-contents-in-edible-fats-and-oils
#10
Chiemi Satou, Hirofumi Goto, Yuya Yamazaki, Katsuyoshi Saitou, Shoji Matsumoto, Ou Takahashi, Yosuke Miyazaki, Keiichi Ikuta, Yosuke Yajima
Monoacylglycerol (MAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are minor components of edible fats and oils, and they relate to the quality of these foods. The AOCS official method Cd 11b-91 has been used to determine MAG and DAG contents in fats and oils. There are, however, difficulties in the determination of MAG and DAG using this analytical procedure. Therefore, we improved this method by modifying the trimethylsilyl derivatization procedure and replacing the internal standard (IS) material. In our modified method, TMS-HT (mixture of hexamethyldisilazane and trimethylchlorosilane) was used for derivatization of MAG and DAG, which was followed by liquid-liquid extraction with water and n-hexane solution containing the IS, tricaprin...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513163/br%C3%A3-nsted-base-mediated-stereoselective-diphosphination-of-terminal-alkynes-with-diphosphanes
#11
Yuto Okugawa, Koji Hirano, Masahiro Miura
A Brønsted base mediated stereoselective diphosphination of terminal alkynes with diphosphanes proceeds to deliver the corresponding (E)-1,2-diphosphinoethenes in good yields. The reaction of aromatic alkynes occurs efficiently in the presence of a catalytic amount of LiO-t-Bu while MN(TMS)2 (M = Li or Na) gave better results in the case of aliphatic substrates. The Brønsted base mediated protocol can offer a good alternative to precedented transition-metal-catalyzed or radical-promoted approaches to the 1,2-diphosphinoethene framework of potent interest in catalysis and coordination chemistry...
May 17, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512429/reduced-prefrontal-short-latency-afferent-inhibition-in-older-adults-and-its-relation-to-executive-function-a-tms-eeg-study
#12
Yoshihiro Noda, Reza Zomorrodi, Felicity Backhouse, Robin F H Cash, Mera S Barr, Tarek K Rajji, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
Combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (EEG) allows for the assessment of various neurophysiological processes in the human cortex. One of these paradigms, short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI), is thought to be a sensitive measure of cholinergic activity. In a previous study, we demonstrated the temporal pattern of this paradigm from both the motor (M1) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using simultaneous TMS-EEG recording. The SAI paradigm led to marked modulations at N100...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511127/neurophysiology-of-synaptic-functioning-in-multiple-sclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Francesco Mori, Fabio Buttari, Girolama A Marfia, Andrea Sancesario, Diego Centonze, Ennio Iezzi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory immune-mediate disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), primarily affecting the myelin sheath and followed by neurodegeneration. Synaptic alterations are emerging as critical determinants of early neurodegeneration in MS. Inflammation-induced alterations of synaptic transmission and plasticity have been investigated in vitro and also in human MS using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques. Specific inflammatory cytokines alter glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission, resulting in synaptic hyperexcitability...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511126/endophenotyping-in-idiopathic-adult-onset-cervical-dystonia
#14
Georg Kägi, Diane Ruge, Florian Brugger, Petra Katschnig, Rafael Sauter, Mirta Fiorio, Michele Tinazzi, John Rothwell, Kailash P Bhatia
OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic adult onset cervical dystonia (IAOCD) is considered to be a partially penetrant autosomal dominant genetic condition. Dystonia may result from genetic and environmental factors. In this view, part of the physiology should be an endophenotype stemming from the genetic background. We assessed the most discriminative test to separate patients with IAOCD and healthy controls for further endophenotyping in non-affected 1st degree relatives. METHODS: We included patients with IAOCD, their 1st degree relatives and healthy controls...
April 23, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511124/demonstration-of-short-term-plasticity-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-with-theta-burst-stimulation-a-tms-eeg-study
#15
Sung Wook Chung, Benjamin P Lewis, Nigel C Rogasch, Takashi Saeki, Richard H Thomson, Kate E Hoy, Neil W Bailey, Paul B Fitzgerald
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of intermittent TBS (iTBS) and continuous TBS (cTBS) on cortical reactivity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. METHODS: 10 healthy participants were stimulated with either iTBS, cTBS or sham at F3 electrode. Single- and paired-pulse TMS and concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) were used to assess change in cortical reactivity and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) via TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) and TMS-evoked oscillations...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507794/a-novel-nanobody-based-target-module-for-retargeting-of-t-lymphocytes-to-egfr-expressing-cancer-cells-via-the-modular-unicar-platform
#16
Susann Albert, Claudia Arndt, Anja Feldmann, Ralf Bergmann, Dominik Bachmann, Stefanie Koristka, Florian Ludwig, Pauline Ziller-Walter, Alexandra Kegler, Sebastian Gärtner, Marc Schmitz, Armin Ehninger, Marc Cartellieri, Gerhard Ehninger, Hans-Jürgen Pietzsch, Jens Pietzsch, Jörg Steinbach, Michael Bachmann
Recent treatments of leukemias with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) expressing T cells underline their impressive therapeutic potential. However, once adoptively transferred into patients, there is little scope left to shut them down after elimination of tumor cells or in case adverse side effects occur. This becomes of special relevance if they are directed against commonly expressed tumor associated antigens (TAAs) such as receptors of the ErbB family. To overcome this limitation, we recently established a modular CAR platform technology termed UniCAR...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507531/noradrenergic-activation-of-hypoglossal-nucleus-modulates-the-central-regulation-of-genioglossus-in-chronic-intermittent-hypoxic-rats
#17
Xinshi Nie, Ling Zhou, Aidi Wang, Hongyu Jin, Zheng Qin, Jian Pang, Wei Wang, Jian Kang
Neuromuscular compensation of the genioglossus muscle can be induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in obstructive sleep apnea to maintain upper airway stability. Noradrenergic activation of hypoglossal nucleus plays a critical role in the central control of the genioglossus. However, it remains unknown whether norepinephrine takes part in the central regulation of the genioglossus during CIH. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 32) were studied to explore the influence of noradrenergic activation of hypoglossal nucleus on the central control of the genioglossus at different stages of CIH...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506878/pain-motor-integration-in-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
A Suppa, C Leone, F Di Stasio, L Marsili, A Di Santo, A Biasiotta, S La Cesa, A Truini, G Cruccu, A Berardelli
BACKGROUND: In Parkinson's disease (PD), the influence of chronic pain on motor features has never been investigated. We have recently designed a technique that combines nociceptive system activation by laser stimuli and primary motor cortex (M1) activation through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), in a laser-paired associative stimulation design (Laser-PAS). In controls, Laser-PAS induces long-term changes in motor evoked potentials reflecting M1 long-term potentiation-like plasticity, arising from pain-motor integration...
April 30, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506486/preoperative-and-intraoperative-neurophysiological-investigations-for-surgical-resections-in-functional-areas
#19
G Huberfeld, A Trébuchon, L Capelle, J-M Badier, S Chen, J-P Lefaucheur, M Gavaret
Brain regions are removed to treat lesions, but great care must be taken not to disturb or remove functional areas in the lesion and in surrounding tissue where healthy and diseased cells may be intermingled, especially for infiltrating tumors. Cortical functional areas and fiber tracts can be localized preoperatively by probabilistic anatomical tools, but mapping of functional integrity by neurophysiology is essential. Identification of the primary motor cortex seems to be more effectively performed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) than functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504121/corticospinal-excitability-during-the-processing-of-handwritten-and-typed-words-and-non-words
#20
Chelsea L Gordon, Michael J Spivey, Ramesh Balasubramaniam
A number of studies have suggested that perception of actions is accompanied by motor simulation of those actions. To further explore this proposal, we applied Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the left primary motor cortex during the observation of handwritten and typed language stimuli, including words and non-word consonant clusters. We recorded motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle to measure cortico-spinal excitability during written text perception...
May 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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