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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652969/interindividual-differences-in-motor-network-connectivity-and-behavioral-response-to-itbs-in-stroke-patients
#1
Svenja Diekhoff-Krebs, Eva-Maria Pool, Anna-Sophia Sarfeld, Anne K Rehme, Simon B Eickhoff, Gereon R Fink, Christian Grefkes
Cerebral plasticity-inducing approaches like repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are of high interest in situations where reorganization of neural networks can be observed, e.g., after stroke. However, an increasing number of studies suggest that improvements in motor performance of the stroke-affected hand following modulation of primary motor cortex (M1) excitability by rTMS shows a high interindividual variability. We here tested the hypothesis that in stroke patients the interindividual variability of behavioral response to excitatory rTMS is related to interindividual differences in network connectivity of the stimulated region...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651175/challenges-in-gc-ms-analysis-case-studies-on-phenibut-and-ethylphenidate
#2
Hui Zhi Shirley Lee, Mei Ching Ong, Jong Lee Wendy Lim, Tiong Whei Angeline Yap
The challenges associated with drug analysis using GC-MS such as thermal degradation, cyclisation or unwanted side reactions causing potential erroneous identification have become evident in view of the high surge in new drugs available in the market. Two case studies illustrated how alternative methods or modifications to existing techniques can help to circumvent the limitations. In the first case study, phenibut which is a GABA analogue, cyclises to 4-phenyl-2-pyrrolidinone under thermal conditions. The identification of phenibut was achieved through derivatisation and identification of its TMS derivative...
June 9, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648572/cortical-excitability-and-neuropsychological-functioning-in-healthy-adults
#3
Lauren B Bolden, Joseph C Griffis, Sandipan Pati, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Evidence from clinical populations, such as epilepsy and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, suggests a relationship between hyperexcitability and cognitive impairment, but this relationship has not been demonstrated in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate the relationship between cortical excitability and cognitive functioning in healthy adults. Single- and paired-pulse TMS was applied to 20 healthy adults to measure cortical excitability and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI). A neuropsychological battery was administered to assess aspects of attention, executive function, and mood...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646672/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-visual-cortex-induces-suboptimal-introspection
#4
Megan A K Peters, Jeremy Fesi, Namema Amendi, Jeffrey D Knotts, Hakwan Lau, Tony Ro
Blindsight patients with damage to the visual cortex can discriminate objects but report no conscious visual experience. This provides an intriguing opportunity to allow the study of subjective awareness in isolation from objective performance capacity. However, blindsight is rare, so one promising way to induce the effect in neurologically intact observers is to apply transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the visual cortex. Here, we used a recently-developed criterion-free method to conclusively rule out an important alternative interpretation of TMS-induced performance without awareness: that TMS-induced blindsight may be just due to conservative reporting biases for conscious perception...
June 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644567/reliability-of-surface-emg-measurements-from-the-suprahyoid-muscle-complex
#5
Mohit Kothari, Peter William Stubbs, Asger Roer Pedersen, Jim Jensen, Jørgen Feldbaek Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Assessment of swallowing musculature using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) can be used to evaluate neural pathways. However, recording of the swallowing musculature is often invasive, uncomfortable and unrealistic in normal clinical practise. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possibility of using the suprahyoid muscle complex (SMC) using surface electromyography (sEMG) to assess changes to neural pathways by determining the reliability of measurements in healthy participants over days...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644204/hearing-safety-from-single-and-double-pulse-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-children-and-young-adults
#6
Sahana N Kukke, Carmen C Brewer, Christopher Zalewski, Kelly A King, Diane Damiano, Katharine E Alter, Mark Hallett
PURPOSE: Concerns regarding hearing safety have limited the number of studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in children and young adults. The objective of this study was to examine the safety of TMS with regards to hearing in a group of 16 children and young adults (17.3 ± 4.9 years) with and without brain injury. METHODS: Pure-tone hearing thresholds and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions were measured before and after exposure to single- and paired-pulse TMS (1-2 sessions of 149-446 TMS pulses at a median of 49%-100% maximum stimulator output over a 2...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642285/state-dependent-tms-reveals-representation-of-affective-body-movements-in-the-anterior-intraparietal-cortex
#7
Noemi Mazzoni, Christianne Jacobs, Paola Venuti, Juha Silvanto, Luigi Cattaneo
In humans, recognition of others' actions involves a cortical network that comprises, among other cortical regions, the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), where biological motion is coded and the anterior intraparietal suclus (aIPS), where movement information is elaborated in terms of meaningful goal-directed actions. This action observation system (AOS) is thought to encode neutral voluntary actions, and possibly some aspects of affective motor repertoire, but the role of the AOS' areas in processing affective kinematic information has never been examined...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640923/how-much-detail-is-needed-in-modeling-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-figure-8-coil-measurements-and-brain-simulations
#8
Petar I Petrov, Stefano Mandija, Iris E C Sommer, Cornelis A T van den Berg, Sebastiaan F W Neggers
BACKGROUND: Despite TMS wide adoption, its spatial and temporal patterns of neuronal effects are not well understood. Although progress has been made in predicting induced currents in the brain using realistic finite element models (FEM), there is little consensus on how a magnetic field of a typical TMS coil should be modeled. Empirical validation of such models is limited and subject to several limitations. METHODS: We evaluate and empirically validate models of a figure-of-eight TMS coil that are commonly used in published modeling studies, of increasing complexity: simple circular coil model; coil with in-plane spiral winding turns; and finally one with stacked spiral winding turns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640627/chemical-modification-of-n-type-material-naphthalene-diimide-on-ito-for-efficient-and-stable-inverted-polymer-solar-cells
#9
Zhendong Li, Yanfeng Liu, Kai-Cheng Zhang, Zhao-Wei Wang, Peng Huang, Dahua Li, Yi Zhou, Bo Song
In order to provide orthogonal solvent processible surface modification and improve device stability of bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs), n-type semiconducting material naphthalene diimide (NDI) was chemically introduced on ITO surface as cathode interlayer (CIL) using 3-bromopropyltrimethoxysilane (BrTMS) as coupling agent. After modification, the work function of ITO can be decreased from 4.70 eV to 4.23 eV. The modified ITO cathode was applied in inverted PSCs based on PTB7-Th:PC71BM. With the CIL modification, a champion power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5...
June 22, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638766/metalate-mediated-functionalization-of-p4-by-trapping-anionic-cp-fe-co-2-%C3%AE-1-p4-with-lewis-acids
#10
Jaap E Borger, Maarten K Jongkind, Andreas W Ehlers, Martin Lutz, J Chris Slootweg, Koop Lammertsma
The development of selective functionalization strategies of white phosphorus (P4) is important to avoid the current chlorinated intermediates. The use of transition metals (TMs) could lead to catalytic procedures, but these are severely hampered by the high reactivity and unpredictable nature of the tetrahedron. Herein, we report selective first steps by reacting P4 with a metal anion [Cp*Fe(CO)2](-) (Cp*=C5(CH3)5), which, in the presence of bulky Lewis acids (LA; B(C6F5)3 or BPh3), leads to unique TM-substituted LA-stabilized bicyclo[1...
June 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637867/full-length-cellular-beta-secretase-has-a-trimeric-subunit-stoichiometry-and-its-sulfur-rich-transmembrane-interaction-site-modulates-cytosolic-copper-compartmentalization
#11
Filip Liebsch, Mark R P Aurousseau, Tobias Bethge, Hugo McGuire, Silvia Scolari, Andreas Herrmann, Rikard Blunck, Derek Bowie, Gerd Multhaup
The beta-secretase (BACE1) initiates processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) into Aβ peptides, which have been implicated as central players in the pathology of Alzheimer disease. BACE1 has been described as a copper-binding protein and its oligomeric state as being monomeric, dimeric, and/or multimeric, but the native cellular stoichiometry has remained elusive. Here, by using single-molecule fluorescence and in vitro cross-linking experiments with photo-activatable unnatural amino acids, we show that full-length BACE1, independently of its subcellular localization, exists as trimers in human cells...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637819/long-interval-intracortical-inhibition-is-asymmetric-in-young-but-not-older-adults
#12
Ann-Maree Vallence, Elizabeth Smalley, Peter Drummond, Geoff Hammond
Aging is typically accompanied by a decline in manual dexterity and handedness; the dominant hand executes tasks of manual dexterity more quickly and accurately than the non-dominant hand in younger adults, but this advantage typically declines with age. Age-related changes in intracortical inhibitory processes might play a role in the age-related decline in manual dexterity. Long interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) is asymmetric in young adults, with more sensitive and more powerful LICI circuits in the dominant hemisphere than the non-dominant hemisphere...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636391/copper-catalyzed-direct-nitration-on-aryl-c-h-bonds-by-concomitant-azidation-oxidation-with-tms-azide-and-tbhp-under-aerobic-conditions
#13
Botla Vinayak, Malapaka Chandrasekharam
An unprecedented copper-catalyzed in situ azidation-oxidation for the nitration of anilides and sulfonamides has been developed by direct CAr-H functionalization. This novel and efficient nitration protocol is achieved employing TMSN3 and TBHP without the exclusion of air or moisture. The synthetic applications of the 2-nitroanilides have been explored.
June 21, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635523/long-term-paired-associative-stimulation-enhances-motor-output-of-the-tetraplegic-hand
#14
Aleksandra Tolmacheva, Sarianna Savolainen, Erika Kirveskari, Pantelis Lioumis, Linda Kuusela, Nina Maria Brandstack, Aarne Ylinen, Jyrki Mäkelä, Anastasia Shulga
A large proportion of spinal cord injuries are incomplete. Even in clinically complete injuries, silent nonfunctional connections can be present. Therapeutic approaches that can strengthen transmission in weak neural connections to improve motor performance are needed. Our aim was to determine whether long-term delivery of paired associative stimulation (PAS, a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS)) can enhance motor output in the hands of patients with chronic traumatic tetraplegia, and to compare this technique with long-term PNS...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631070/lipids-of-the-tail-gland-body-and-muzzle-fur-of-the-red-fox-vulpes-vulpes
#15
Stuart McLean, Noel W Davies, David S Nichols
The tail gland of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) secretes lipids containing volatile terpenes used in social communication. We have analysed lipids extracted from fur of the tail gland, body (flanks) and muzzle of foxes. GC-MS showed a novel group of iso-valerate and tiglate monoesters of alkane-1,2-diols (C18:0-22:0). There was also a larger group of Type II diesters in which a second, longer chain, fatty acid (FA) was attached to the free alcohol group. LC-MS showed the full range of diol diesters, mostly C36:0-50:0, with smaller amounts of the corresponding mono-unsaturated tiglate esters...
June 19, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629874/neural-activity-during-attentional-conflict-predicts-reduction-in-tinnitus-perception-following-rtms
#16
G A James, J D Thostenson, G Brown, G Carter, H Hayes, S P Tripathi, D J Dobry, R B Govindan, J L Dornhoffer, D K Williams, C D Kilts, M S Mennemeier
BACKGROUND: Subjective idiopathic tinnitus is an intrusive, distracting, and potentially disabling disorder characterized by phantom perception of sounds. Although tinnitus has no approved pharmacologic treatment, recent evidence supports the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to alleviate tinnitus symptoms. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Repetitive TMS delivered over the middle superior temporal gyrus (STG) may alter ratings of tinnitus awareness and annoyance more than loudness due to change in attentional processing...
June 2, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628182/prodigiosenes-conjugated-to-tamoxifen-and-estradiol
#17
Estelle Marchal, Carlotta Figliola, Alison Thompson
We report the synthesis of the first click-appended prodigiosene conjugates. Four prodigiosene conjugates of estradiol functionalised at the 7α-position were prepared, as were three prodigiosene conjugates of tamoxifen. The coupling between a prodigiosene and an 11-hydroxy estradiol derivative via an ether linkage was investigated, as was the 11- and 7-functionalisation of the estradiol core. The robustness of estradiol protecting groups was severely challenged by reactions typically used to equip such frameworks for 11- and 7-functionalisation...
June 27, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627417/regulation-of-primary-motor-cortex-excitability-by-repetitive-passive-finger-movement-frequency
#18
Ryoki Sasaki, Masaki Nakagawa, Shota Tsuiki, Shota Miyaguchi, Sho Kojima, Kei Saito, Yasuto Inukai, Mitsuhiro Masaki, Naofumi Otsuru, Hideaki Onishi
Somatosensory input induced by passive movement activates primary motor cortex (M1). We applied repetitive passive movement (RPM) of different frequencies to test if modulation of M1 excitability depends on RPM frequency. Twenty-seven healthy subjects participated in this study. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to left M1 were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) to assess corticospinal excitability (experiment 1: n=15), and F-waves were measured from the right FDI as an index of spinal motoneuron excitability (experiment 2: n=15)...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625209/involvement-of-the-left-supramarginal-gyrus-in-manipulation-judgment-tasks-contributions-to-theories-of-tool-use
#19
Mathieu Lesourd, François Osiurak, Jordan Navarro, Emanuelle Reynaud
OBJECTIVES: Two theories of tool use, namely the gesture engram and the technical reasoning theories, make distinct predictions about the involvement of the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in manipulation judgement tasks. The objective here is to test these alternative predictions based on previous studies on manipulation judgment tasks using transcranial magnetic stimulations (TMS) targeting the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). METHODS: We review recent TMS studies on manipulation judgement tasks and confront these data with predictions made by both tool use theories...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624571/age-related-changes-of-cortical-excitability-and-connectivity-in-healthy-humans-non-invasive-evaluation-of-sensorimotor-network-by-means-of-tms-eeg
#20
Florinda Ferreri, Andrea Guerra, Luca Vollero, David Ponzo, Sara Maatta, Esa Mervaala, Giulio Iannello, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
The sensorimotor cortical system undergoes structural and functional changes across its lifespan. Some of these changes are physiological and parallel the normal aging process, while others might represent pathophysiological mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders. In the last years, the study of possible age-related modifications in brain sensorimotor functional characteristics has been the focus of several research projects. Here we have used the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-electroencephalography (EEG) navigated co-registration to investigate the influence of physiological aging on the excitability and connectivity of the human sensorimotor cortical system...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience
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