Read by QxMD icon Read

Gastric emptying

Xue-Fen Wu, Xiao-Li Chen, Xue-Na Zheng, Xin Guo, Zhi-Qiang Xie, Li Liu, Xin-Ran Wei, Zeng-Hui Yue
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of different strength of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation on gastrointestinal motility and Ras homolog gene family member (RhoA)/Rho associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase (ROCK) signaling in diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) rats, so as to reveal the underlying mechanisms of EA for improving DGP. METHODS: Sixty SD rats were randomly and equally divided into blank control, DGP model, weak EA, medium EA, and strong EA groups ( n =12 rats in each)...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Laura J Henze, Brendan T Griffin, Martin Christiansen, Christoffer Bundgaard, Peter Langguth, Rene Holm
The present study investigated the gastric emptying rate in Göttingen minipigs pre- and post-prandial and evaluated the effect of metoclopramide on the same parameter, using paracetamol as an absorption marker. The pharmacokinetic evaluation of the obtained plasma concentration data for paracetamol demonstrated that the fastest gastric emptying rate was observed in the animals that were allowed access to normal pig food. There was no significant difference in the stomach emptying rate observed between fasted and fed minipigs, when fed either with a FDA standard breakfast or a nutritional energy drink...
March 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jie Hua, Hongbo Meng, Zhigang He, Le Yao, Wei Sun, Zhenshun Song
The morbidity rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) remains high and a modified digestive reconstruction may affect the postoperative complications. We investigated a new modification of PD by adding mesh reinforcement for the pancreatic stump and Braun enteroenterostomy with the aim of reducing postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) and delayed gastric emptying (DGE), respectively. From November 2010 to April 2015, 81 consecutive patients who underwent modified PD were retrospectively reviewed. The clinically relevant POPF and DGE rates were 4...
March 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Giusy Diella, Agostino Di Ciaula, Michele Pio Lorusso, Carmine Summo, Giuseppina Caggiano, Francesco Caponio, Maria Teresa Montagna, Piero Portincasa
BACKGROUND: Almonds are healthy nutraceuticals, which vary across different cultivars. We compared the composition, agreeability and gastrointestinal effects of two almond cultivars from different areas. METHODS: Californian Carmel (CAcv) and local Apulian Filippo Cea (FCcv) cultivars were compared for the chemical composition and sensory evaluation according to visual analogue and semiquantitative scales in 60 volunteers. Gallbladder/gastric motility (ultrasonography) and orocecal transit time (H2-breath test) were studied in another 24 subjects by comparing the effects of a standard liquid test meal with isovolumetric almond test meals (24 g of CAcv or FCcv almonds)...
March 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
H Zatorski, P Mosinska, M Storr, J Fichna
There is an unmet need for effective pharmacological therapies for the treatment of gastroparesis and other upper gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders, which reduce patients' quality of life and are a burden to the healthcare system. Ghrelin is an endogenous growth hormone secretagogue receptor ligand and has been shown to exert prokinetic effects on GI motility. Nevertheless, considering the short half-life of ghrelin its use in clinical practice is limited. Thus, ghrelin receptor agonists with enhanced pharmacokinetics were developed; they accelerate gastric emptying and improve symptoms of gastroparesis in animal models and humans...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Shahram E Mehr, Adrian Barbul, Cyndya A Shibao
Gastrointestinal symptoms are among the most common complaints in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). In some cases, they dominate the clinical presentation and cause substantial disabilities, including significant weight loss and malnutrition, that require the use of invasive treatment to support caloric intake. Multiple cross-sectional studies have reported a high prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in POTS patients with connective tissue diseases, such as Ehlers-Danlos, hypermobile type, and in patients with evidence of autonomic neuropathy...
March 16, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Manon Auffret, Sophie Drapier, Marc Vérin
Apomorphine is now recognized as the oldest antiparkinsonian drug on the market. Though still underused, it is increasingly prescribed in Europe for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) with motor fluctuations. However, its history is far from being limited to movement disorders. This paper traces the history of apomorphine, from its earliest empirical use, to its synthesis, pharmacological development, and numerous indications in human and veterinary medicine, in light of its most recent uses and newest challenges...
March 15, 2018: Drugs in R&D
Brian E Lacy, Henry P Parkman, Michael Camilleri
Nausea is an uneasy feeling in the stomach while vomiting refers to the forceful expulsion of gastric contents. Chronic nausea and vomiting represent a diverse array of disorders defined by 4 weeks or more of symptoms. Chronic nausea and vomiting result from a variety of pathophysiological processes, involving gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal causes. The prevalence of chronic nausea and vomiting is unclear, although the epidemiology of specific conditions, such as gastroparesis and cyclic vomiting syndrome, is better understood...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Simon S Rabinowitz, Neha Ahuja, Jennifer Gottfried
An 11-year-old Caucasian boy, with a microdeletion in the 1q21.1-q21.2 region, had multiple medical conditions including gastroparesis documented initially at the age of 5. The patient had a history of poor feeding since infancy and had been treated for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), constipation and multiple food allergies. As a consequence of the GERD and his concurrent immunoglobulin (IgG) subclass deficiency, the patient had multiple otolaryngologic (ENT) infections and required two sinus surgeries...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Pernille Wismann, Søren L Pedersen, Gitte Hansen, Karin Mannerstedt, Philip J Pedersen, Palle B Jeppesen, Niels Vrang, Keld Fosgerau, Jacob Jelsing
AIM: Analogues of several gastrointestinal peptide hormones have been developed into effective medicines for treatment of diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and short bowel syndrome (SBS). In this study, we aimed to explore whether the combination of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) into a potent co-agonist could provide additional benefits compared to existing monotherapies. METHODS: A short-acting (GUB09-123) and a half-life extended (GUB09-145) GLP-1/GLP-2 co-agonist were generated using solid-phase peptide synthesis and tested for effects on food intake, body weight, glucose homeostasis, and gut proliferation in lean mice and in diabetic db/db mice...
March 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Chun-Chao Zhu, Tae-Han Kim, Felix Berlth, Shin-Hoo Park, Yun-Suhk Suh, Seong-Ho Kong, Hyuk-Joon Lee, Hui Cao, Han-Kwang Yang
BACKGROUND: Delayed gastric emptying is one of the most disturbing complications of pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) and it increases hospital stay. We investigated the clinical outcome of intraoperative manual dilatation of the pylorus as a preventive method of pyloric spasm after PPG. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed gastric cancer patients who underwent PPG between January 2014 and December 2016 at Seoul National University Hospital by a single surgeon...
March 13, 2018: Gastric Cancer
Stephan Schorn, Ulrich Nitsche, Ihsan Ekin Demir, Florian Scheufele, Elke Tieftrunk, Rebekka Schirren, Sarah Klauss, Mine Sargut, Güralp Onur Ceyhan, Helmut Friess
BACKGROUND: Although routinely used, the benefit of surgically placed intraperitoneal drains after pancreas resection is still under debate. To assess the true impact of intraperitoneal drains in pancreas resection, a systematic review with meta-analysis was performed. METHODS: For this, the Preferred-Reporting-Items-for-Systematic-review-and-Meta-Analysis/PRISMA-guidelines were conducted and Pubmed/Medline, Embase, Scopus and The Cochrane Library were screened for relevant studies...
February 23, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
X W Xu, R C Zhang, Y P Mou, Z Y Qian, C J Huang, Q C Zhu, W W Jin, Y C Zhou
Objective: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy(Lap-RAMPS) for left-sided pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods: Clinical data of total 12 patients underwent Lap-RAMPS for left-sided pancreatic adenocarcinoma at Department of Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Surgery, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital from March 2016 to August 2017 were reviewed retrospectively.There were 7 male patients and 5 female patients, with median age of 60.5 years old(47-68 years old)...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
S Geyl, J Jacques, S Parreau, A Cypierre, T Tabouret, G Gondran, K H Ly, E Liozon, F X Lapébie, H Bezanahary, S Palat, J Monteil, V Loustaud-Ratti, A L Fauchais
INTRODUCTION: Upper digestive symptoms may be present in up to 50% of patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS). We report a retrospective cohort of gastroparesis in a population of pSS presenting unexplained dyspepsia. Delayed gastric emptying was defined by a gastric emptying time above 113min or by a retention percentage at 4h more than 10% on scintigraphy. RESULTS: Eleven patients with primary Sjögren syndrome and gastroparesis were included in a retrospective study...
March 8, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Sydney Moser, Ingrid Aragon, Amber Furrer, Jan-Willem Van Klinken, Melissa Kaczmarczyk, Byung-Hoo Lee, Judy George, Bruce R Hamaker, Richard Mattes, Mario G Ferruzzi
Beneficial effects of some phenolic compounds in modulation of carbohydrate digestion and glycemic response have been reported, however effects of phenolics from processed potato products on these endpoints are not well known. The aims of this study were to characterize phenolic profiles of fresh potatoes (purple, red, or white fleshed; 2 varieties each) and chips, and to examine the potential for potato phenolic extracts (PPE) to modulate starch digestion and intestinal glucose transport in model systems. Following in vitro assessment, a pilot clinical study (n=11) assessed differences in glycemic response and gastric emptying between chips from pigmented and white potatoes...
February 12, 2018: Nutrition Research
Michael Grimm, Mirko Koziolek, Jens-Peter Kühn, Werner Weitschies
The amount and composition of gastrointestinal media are crucial parameters in oral drug delivery. In fasted state, variable residual gastric volumes and gastric emptying behavior often cause variable drug release and absorption from oral drug products. Unfortunately, interindividual and intraindividual variability of the gastric conditions in fasted state are currently insufficiently mapped. In this work, datasets from 5 MRI studies with 16 treatments in total were pooled. The interindividual and intraindividual variability of residual gastric volumes after 10 h overnight fasting and the subsequent emptying of 240mL of water were compared in healthy human subjects under conditions mimicking clinical studies...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
S Hakak, C L McCaul, L Crowley
BACKGROUND: Current fasting guidelines suggest six hours are adequate to minimise the aspiration risk after a light meal consumed by pregnant women undergoing elective caesarean section. We assessed gastric contents in non-labouring pregnant women, using ultrasonographic analysis. METHODS: In a prospective study, pregnant women ≥36 weeks' gestation, without conditions likely to influence gastric emptying, underwent ultrasonographic analysis of their gastric antrum, after six hours of fasting following a standardised light meal...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Stylianos Kykalos, Evangelia Ntikoudi
Dear Editor, delayed gastric emptying due to bilateral vagotomy after esophagectomy, has been associated with increased aspiration rates, prolonged hospital stay and impaired quality of life. A pyloric drainage procedure in an effort to reduce its incidence, most commonly a pyloroplasty, represented for years a standard part of distal esophagectomy. This trend has been reevaluated nowadays and the question that still remains open is whether we should further keep on draining pylorus during esophagectomy or not...
January 2018: Chirurgia
T Mencke, A Zitzmann, D A Reuter
Rapid sequence induction (RSI) is a specific technique for anesthesia induction, which is performed in patients with an increased risk for pulmonary aspiration (e.g. intestinal obstruction, severe injuries and cesarean section). The incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is very low but 10-30% of anesthesia-related deaths are caused by the consequences of ARDS. The classical RSI with its main components (i.e. head-up position, avoidance of positive pressure ventilation and administration of succinylcholine) was published nearly 50 years ago and has remained almost unchanged...
March 5, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Arjang Talattof, Gordon L Amidon
Fasted-state gastrointestinal (GI) fluid transit is typically represented as a first-order, deterministic process (averaged and viewed as a continuous approximation). It is, however, most likely a discrete process involving fluid packets interrupted by variable time periods of little to no fluid emptying. In this report we present a physiologically based pulsed-packet gastric fluid emptying model and evaluate it with respect to recent gastrointestinal fluid volume emptying results, published gastric emptying of various dosage forms, and gastric fluid emptying as a function of GI motility...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"