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Gastric emptying

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937221/in-vivo-dissolution-and-systemic-absorption-of-immediate-release-ibuprofen-in-human-gastrointestinal-tract-under-fed-and-fasted-conditions
#1
Duxin Sun, Jason R Baker, Bo Wen, Ann Frances, Huixia Zhang, Alex Yu, Ting Zhao, Yasuhiro Tsume, Manjunath Pai, Barry Bleske, Xinyuan Zhang, R Lionberger, Allen Lee, Gordon Amidon, William L Hasler, Mark Koenigsknecht
PURPOSE: In vivo drug dissolution in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is largely unmeasured. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the in vivo drug dissolution and systemic absorption of the BCS Class IIa drug ibuprofen under fed and fasted conditions by direct sampling of stomach and small intestinal luminal content. Expanding current knowledge of drug dissolution in vivo will help to establish physiologically relevant in vitro models predictive of drug dissolution. METHODS: A multi-lumen GI catheter was orally inserted into the GI tract of healthy human subjects...
September 22, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935201/gastric-pouch-emptying-of-solid-food-in-patients-with-successful-and-unsuccessful-weight-loss-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery
#2
Laura N Deden, Mellody I Cooiman, Edo O Aarts, Ignace M C Janssen, Martin Gotthardt, Baudewijn W Hendrickx, Frits J Berends
BACKGROUND: After Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), approximately 10% of patients have insufficient weight loss (excess body mass index loss<50%). Gastric pouch emptying may have a role in weight loss. OBJECTIVES: To compare pouch emptying of patients with poor weight loss and patients with successful weight loss after RYGB. SETTING: A research-intensive nonacademic hospital and center of expertise in bariatric surgery in the Netherlands METHODS: Female patients were included from among patients with the least (poor weight loss group [P-WL]) and the most weight loss (successful weight loss group [S-WL]) in our center 2 years after RYGB...
August 12, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933338/impact-of-lubiprostone-on-gastric-emptying-profile-and-the-possible-effect-of-concomitant-domperidone-in-healthy-adults%C3%A2
#3
Takayuki Okamura, Takatsugu Yamamoto, Satoshi Kimura, Atsushi Miki, Koichiro Abe, Hiroto Kita
BACKGROUND: Lubiprostone is effective for patients with chronic constipation. This agent sometimes causes upper gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, which is one of the chief reasons for discontinuation. However, the etiology of and strategy against bothersome gastrointestinal symptoms of lubiprostone remain unclear. AIMS: The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of lubiprostone on the gastric-emptying profile of healthy adults. The effect of domperidone on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal symptoms after lubiprostone administration were also assessed...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931726/impaired-insulin-igf-1-is-responsible-for-diabetic-gastroparesis-by-damaging-myenteric-cholinergic-neurons-and-interstitial-cells-of-cajal
#4
Shu Yang, Bo Wu, Haimei Sun, Tingyi Sun, Kai Han, Dandan Li, Fengqing Ji, Guoquan Zhang, Deshan Zhou
Diabetic gastroparesis is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) that is characterized by decreased serum insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Despite the fact that insulin treatment but not glycemic control potently accelerated gastric emptying in type 1 DM patients, the role of insulin/InsR and IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling in diabetic gastroparesis remains incompletely elucidated. In this study, type 1 DM mice were established and treated with insulin or Voglibose for 8 weeks. The gastric emptying was delayed from DM week 4 when the gastric InsR and IGF-1R were declined...
September 20, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930464/gastric-water-emptying-under-fed-state-clinical-trial-conditions-is-as-fast-as-under-fasted-conditions
#5
Michael Grimm, Elisabeth Scholz, Mirko Koziolek, Jens Peter Kuhn, Werner Weitschies
The Magenstrasse (stomach road) describes the fast emptying of ingested liquids from the postprandial stomach. The occurrence of the Magenstrasse has great importance for drugs administered together with food as it represents a shortcut through the fed stomach and allows rapid onset of plasma levels. In this study, we investigated the effect of different meals, their texture and fat content on the occurrence of the Magenstrasse. Since the administration of water is common 60 min after drug intake in clinical trials, we also investigated the effect of time point of water administration on the Magenstrasse by a second water administration...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929673/-advances-in-studies-on-chemical-compositions-of-atractylodes-lancea-and-their-biological-activities
#6
REVIEW
Ai-Ping Deng, Ying Li, Zhi-Tao Wu, Tan Liu, Li-Ping Kang, Tie-Gui Nan, Zhi-Lai Zhan, Lan-Ping Guo
This article mainly summarises the results of the chemical compositions and its pharmacological activities of Atractylodes Radix. The chemistry components isolated from Atractylodes Radix are mainly sesquiterpenoids, enediynes, triterpenoids, aromatic glycosides, and etc. Pharmacological results showed that Atractylodes Radix has inhibition of gastric acid secretion, promoting gastrointestinal movement and gastric emptying, hpyerglycemic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular protection and nervous system activity, etc...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929535/extracellular-acidosis-selectively-inhibits-pharmacomechanical-coupling-induced-by-carbachol-in-strips-of-rat-gastric-fundus
#7
Daniel Maia Nogueira de Oliveira, Francisco José Batista-Lima, Emanuella Carvalho Feitosa, Alexandre Havt, Moisés Tolentino Bento da Silva, Armênio Aguiar Dos Santos, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães
Acute acidosis that results from short-term exercise delays gastric emptying in rats and decreases the responsiveness to carbachol in gastric fundus strips. The regulation of cytosolic Ca(2+) levels appears to be a mechanism of action of acidosis. The present study investigated the way in which acidosis interferes with gastric smooth muscle contractions. Rat gastric fundus isolated strips at pH 6.0 presented a lower magnitude of carbachol-induced contractions compared with preparations at pH 7.4. This lower magnitude was absent in carbachol-stimulated duodenum and KCl-stimulated gastric fundus strips...
September 19, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929218/percutaneous-gastric-remnant-gastrostomy-following-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery-a-single-tertiary-center-s-13-year-experience
#8
Shehbaz Hasam Shaikh, Justin Jay Stenz, David W McVinnie, James J Morrison, Todd Getzen, Arthur M Carlin, Farhaan R Mir
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the indications, techniques, and outcomes for percutaneous gastrostomy placement in the gastric remnant following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in bariatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review and summary statistical analysis was performed on all RYGB patients that underwent attempted percutaneous remnant gastrostomy placement at our institution between April 2003 and November 2016. RESULTS: A total of 38 patients post-RYGB who underwent gastric remnant gastrostomy placement were identified, 32 women and 6 men, in which a total of 41 procedures were attempted...
September 19, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922580/accuracy-of-the-defining-characteristics-of-the-nursing-diagnosis-hypothermia-in-newborns
#9
Wislla Ketlly Menezes de Aquino, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira Lopes, Viviane Martins da Silva, Nathaly Bianka Moraes Fróes, Angélica Paixão de Menezes, Aline de Aquino Peres Almeida, Bianca Alves Sobreira
PURPOSE: To analyze the accuracy of the defining characteristics of hypothermia in newborns and to verify associations between defining characteristics and clinical variables. METHODS: A cross-sectional accuracy study with statistical analysis. FINDINGS: Slow capillary refill, decrease in ventilation, peripheral vasoconstriction, and insufficient weight gain were the defining characteristics with the highest specificity values, while slow gastric emptying, skin cool to touch, irritability, and bradycardia were the defining characteristics with the highest values for both sensitivity and specificity...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Knowledge
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918793/-workup-and-treatment-of-gastroparesis
#10
Mette Winther Klinge, Jan Bech Pedersen, Birgit Schelde, Sten Lund, Klaus Krogh
Gastroparesis is defined as impaired gastric emptying without mechanical obstruction and cardinal symptoms including vomiting, nausea, early satiety, and upper abdominal pain. Most cases of gastroparesis are diabetic, idiopathic or post-operative. The correlation between symptoms and objective measures of gastroparesis is poor. Basic treatment includes dietary advices and prokinetics. Selected patients not responding to basic treatment can be offered gastric electrical stimulation. In many cases, gastroparesis is present in combination with other motility disorders, especially constipation...
September 18, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915252/expression-and-regulation-of-the-neutral-amino-acid-transporter-b0at1-in-rat-small-intestine
#11
Julia Jando, Simone M R Camargo, Brigitte Herzog, François Verrey
Absorption of neutral amino acids across the luminal membrane of intestinal enterocytes is mediated by the broad neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 (SLC6A19). Its intestinal expression depends on co-expression of the membrane-anchored peptidase angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and is additionally enhanced by aminopeptidase N (CD13). We investigated in this study the expression of B0AT1 and its auxiliary peptidases as well as its transport function along the rat small intestine. Additionally, we tested its possible short- and long-term regulation by dietary proteins and amino acids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913642/small-volume-fast-emptying-gastric-pouch-leads-to-better-long-term-weight-loss-and-food-tolerance-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#12
Daniel Riccioppo, Marco Aurelio Santo, Manoel Rocha, Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel, Marcio Augusto Diniz, Denis Pajecki, Roberto de Cleva, Flavio Kawamoto
INTRODUCTION: Anatomical and functional influences on gastric bypass (GBP) results are often poorly evaluated and not yet fully understood. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of the gastric pouch volume and its emptying rate on long-term weight loss and food tolerance after GBP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Weight loss, food tolerance, pouch volumetry (V) by three-dimensional reconstruction, and pouch emptying rate by 4 h scintigraphy were evaluated in 67 patients...
September 14, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913339/ulcerative-gastritis-and-esophagitis-in-two-children-with-sarcina-ventriculi-infection
#13
Tim G J de Meij, Michiel P van Wijk, Aart Mookhoek, Andries E Budding
Sarcina ventriculi is a Gram-positive, obligate anaerobic coccus, with a characteristic morphology. Only 22 cases of human infections by this microorganism, including 7 in children, have been reported in literature so far. Affected subjects usually present with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and delayed gastric emptying. However, life-threatening complications, like emphysematous gastritis and gastric perforation have also been described. Gastroparesis and gastric outlet obstruction have been considered as a potential etiologic factor...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912900/open-label-trial-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-profile-of-rikkunshito-used-for-the-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-pilot-study
#14
Koji Yakabi, Naomi Yamaguchi, Shino Ono, Norihito Yoshida, Eriko Hosomi, Kenjiro Hayashi, Mitsuko Ochiai, Kosuke Maezawa, Kyoichi Nomura
BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) usually experience distress related not only to motor dysfunction, but also to nonmotor symptoms, including gastrointestinal dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of a traditional Japanese medicine, rikkunshito (RKT), used for the treatment of gastrointestinal symptoms, associated with anorexia and dyspepsia, in patients with PD. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to either Group A (4-week treatment period with 7...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911609/antibacterial-and-laxative-activities-of-strictinin-isolated-from-pu-er-tea-camellia-sinensis
#15
Sheng-Kuo Hsieh, Jun-Rui Xu, Nan-Hei Lin, Yue-Chiun Li, Guan-Heng Chen, Ping-Chung Kuo, Wen-Ying Chen, Jason T C Tzen
Strictinin, the major phenolic compound in Pu'er teas produced from young leaves and buds of wild trees, was isolated to evaluate its antibacterial and laxative activities. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of strictinin against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis were determined as 250 μM and 2000 μM, respectively, apparently higher than those of several antibiotics commonly used for bacterial infections. The additive and synergistic effects on the inhibitory activities of strictinin combined with other commercial antibiotics were observed in two bacteria tested in this study via the analysis of fractional inhibitory concentrations...
October 2016: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898422/dynamic-gastric-digestion-of-a-commercial-whey-protein-concentrate
#16
Beatriz Miralles, Roberto Del Barrio, Carolina Cueva, Isidra Recio, Lourdes Amigo
BACKGROUND: A dynamic gastrointestinal simulator, simgi(®) , has been applied to assess the gastric digestion of a whey protein concentrate. Samples collected from the outlet of the stomach have been compared to those resulting from the static digestion protocol INFOGEST developed on the basis of physiologically inferred conditions. RESULTS: Progress of digestion was followed by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. By SDS-PAGE, serum albumin and α-lactalbumin were no longer detectable at 30 and 60 min, respectively...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895582/gastric-motor-dysfunction-in-patients-with-functional-gastroduodenal-symptoms
#17
Seon-Young Park, Andrés Acosta, Michael Camilleri, Duane Burton, W Scott Harmsen, Jean Fox, Lawrence A Szarka
OBJECTIVES: The pathophysiology of dyspeptic symptoms is complex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of gastric emptying (GE), gastric accommodation (GA), and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, to assess vagal dysfunction) in a large cohort with functional gastroduodenal symptoms. METHODS: We reviewed demographic, clinical features, and results of gastric motor and vagal function studies of 1,287 patients (74.0% females, mean age 43.1±15.4 years) who had undergone both single photon emission computed tomography GA and scintigraphic GE...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895142/randomized-clinical-trial-of-laparoscopic-versus-open-pancreatoduodenectomy-for-periampullary-tumours
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
C Palanivelu, P Senthilnathan, S C Sabnis, N S Babu, S Srivatsan Gurumurthy, N Anand Vijai, V P Nalankilli, P Praveen Raj, R Parthasarathy, S Rajapandian
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic resection as an alternative to open pancreatoduodenectomy may yield short-term benefits, but has not been investigated in a randomized trial. The aim of this study was to compare laparoscopic and open pancreatoduodenectomy for short-term outcomes in a randomized trial. METHODS: Patients with periampullary cancers were randomized to either laparoscopic or open pancreatoduodenectomy. The outcomes evaluated were hospital stay (primary outcome), and blood loss, radicality of surgery, duration of operation and complication rate (secondary outcomes)...
October 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888796/laparoscopic-treatment-of-gastroparesis-a-single-center-experience
#19
Kotaro Wakamatsu, Federico Perez Quirante, Lisandro Montorfano, Emanuele Lo Menzo, Yasuyuki Seto, Raul J Rosenthal
BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis (GP) is a chronic disorder of gastric motility with delayed gastric emptying. Gastric electrical stimulator (GES) implantation and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are surgical options for medically refractory GP. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate operational outcomes and symptom improvement of patients with diabetic (DM) and idiopathic (IP) GP. SETTING: University Hospital, United States. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of all patients who underwent surgical treatment of GP from February 2003 to December 2014...
July 29, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885510/pylorus-resection-does-not-reduce-delayed-gastric-emptying-after-partial-pancreatoduodenectomy-a-blinded-randomized-controlled-trial-propp-study-drks00004191
#20
Thilo Hackert, Pascal Probst, Phillip Knebel, Colette Doerr-Harim, Thomas Bruckner, Ulla Klaiber, Jens Werner, Lutz Schneider, Christoph W Michalski, Oliver Strobel, Alexis Ulrich, Markus K Diener, Markus W Büchler
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pylorus resection on postoperative delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after partial pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). BACKGROUND: PD is the standard treatment for tumors of the pancreatic head. Preservation of the pylorus has been widely accepted as standard procedure. DGE is a common complication causing impaired oral intake, prolonged hospital stay, and postponed further treatment. Recently, pylorus resection has been shown to reduce DGE...
September 6, 2017: Annals of Surgery
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