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Gastric emptying

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780600/fluoroscopic-gastric-peroral-endoscopic-pyloromyotomy-g-poem-in-patients-with-a-failed-gastric-electrical-stimulator
#1
Abhinav Koul, Sunil Dacha, Parit Mekaroonkamol, Xiaoyu Li, Lianyong Li, Nikrad Shahnavaz, Steven Keilin, Field F Willingham, Jennifer Christie, Qiang Cai
Background: Gastric electrical stimulators (GESs) have been used to treat refractory gastroparesis in patients who fail initial therapies such as dietary modifications, control of psychological stressors and pharmacologic treatment. More recently, gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy (G-POEM) has emerged as a novel endoscopic technique to treat refractory gastroparesis. We present a case series of patients with refractory gastroparesis who failed treatment with an implanted GES that were safely treated with G-POEM performed under fluoroscopy as a salvage therapy...
May 2018: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778511/observed-appetite-and-nutrient-intake-three-months-after-icu-discharge
#2
Lee-Anne S Chapple, Luke M Weinel, Yasmine Ali Abdelhamid, Matthew J Summers, Thu Nguyen, Palash Kar, Kylie Lange, Marianne J Chapman, Adam M Deane
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oral intake is diminished immediately after ICU discharge, yet factors affecting nutritional intake after hospital discharge have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary intake and factors which may influence intake - appetite and gastric emptying - 3-months after ICU discharge. METHODS: Inception cohort study with ICU survivors compared to healthy subjects. Following an overnight fast, all participants consumed a standardized carbohydrate drink, containing 13 C-octanoic acid, to measure gastric emptying...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778241/dual-autonomic-inhibitory-action-of-central-apelin-on-gastric-motor-functions-in-rats
#3
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen
Centrally administered apelin has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying (GE) in rodents, however, the relevant mechanism has been investigated incompletely. Using male Wistar rats, we investigated the efferent pathways involved in gastroinhibitory action of central apelin. Stereotaxic intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulation, subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VGX) and/or celiac ganglionectomy (CGX) were performed 7 days prior to the experiments. Apelin-13 was administered (30 nmol, icv) 90 min prior to GE measurement...
July 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775189/investigating-mixing-and-emptying-for-aqueous-liquid-content-from-the-stomach-using-a-coupled-biomechanical-sph-model
#4
Simon M Harrison, Paul W Cleary, Matthew D Sinnott
The stomach is a critical organ for food digestion but it is not well understood how it operates, either when healthy or when dysfunction occurs. Stomach function depends on the timing and amplitude of wall contractions, the fill level and the type of gastric content. Using a coupled biomechanical-Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (B-SPH) model, we investigate how gastric discharge is affected by the contraction behaviour of the stomach wall and the viscosity of the content. The results of the model provide new insights into how the content viscosity and the number of compression waves down the length of the stomach affect the mixing within and the discharge rate of the content exiting from the stomach to the duodenum...
May 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768387/optimal-reconstruction-methods-after-distal-gastrectomy-for-gastric-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#5
Zhaolun Cai, Ye Zhou, Chenxiao Wang, Yiqiong Yin, Yuan Yin, Chaoyong Shen, Xiaonan Yin, Zhixin Chen, Bo Zhang
BACKGROUND: The choice of anastomosis methods including Billroth I, Billroth II, and Roux-en-Y after a distal gastrectomy is still controversial. The conventional meta-analyses assessing 2 alternative treatments were not powered to compare differences in clinical outcomes. To guide treatment decisions in patients with gastric cancer (GC) after distal gastrectomy, we did a systematic review and network meta-analysis to identify the best reconstruction method. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials comparing the outcomes of Billroth I, Billroth II, or Roux-en-Y reconstruction after distal subtotal gastrectomy for patients with GC, then we performed a direct meta-analysis and Bayesian network meta-analysis to pooled odds ratios (OR) or weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% credible intervals (CrI) with random effects model...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753372/the-relations-among-serum-ghrelin-motilin-and-gastric-emptying-and-autonomic-function-in-autoimmune-gastritis
#6
Çağdaş Kalkan, Irfan Soykan
BACKGROUND: Gastric emptying (GE) of solids is delayed and autonomic dysfunction is detected in autoimmune gastritis (AIG). The goals of this study were to: (1) compare serum levels of ghrelin and motilin in subjects with delayed and normal GE and (2) investigate whether circulating antimyenteric antibodies (CAA), serum ghrelin levels and motilin levels have any effect on autonomic function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests were used in order to evaluate the autonomic function...
May 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753195/effect-of-l-tryptophan-and-its-metabolites-on-food-passage-from-the-crop-in-chicks
#7
T Tachibana, Y Kadomoto, M S I Khan, R Makino, M A Cline
l-tryptophan (l-Trp), an essential amino acid, is well known as a precursor of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and melatonin. In mammals, l-Trp itself has been reported to suppress gastric emptying in mammals. In addition, 5-HT and melatonin are found in the gastrointestinal tract and affect food passage from the digestive tract in mammals. While the function of these factors in mammals is documented, there is little knowledge on their function in the digestive tract of birds. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine if l-Trp and its metabolites affect the crop emptying rate in chicks (Gallus gallus)...
March 16, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748143/the-investigation-and-treatment-of-diabetic-gastroparesis
#8
REVIEW
Mohit Kumar, Adam Chapman, Saad Javed, Uazman Alam, Rayaz A Malik, Shazli Azmi
PURPOSE: This review provides an update on the investigations and treatment options for gastroparesis. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of Medline, PubMed, Embase and OVID was conducted which included all systematic reviews and research articles that focused on the diagnosis, investigations and management diabetic gastroparesis. FINDINGS: Dietary modifications and pharmacologic treatment with prokinetics to increase gastric motility form the mainstay of treatment...
May 7, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745439/cannabinoids-and-gastrointestinal-motility-pharmacology-clinical-effects-and-potential-therapeutics-in-humans
#9
REVIEW
M Camilleri
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid agents and cannabis are frequently used for relief of diverse gastrointestinal symptoms. PURPOSE: The objective of this article is to increase the awareness of gastroenterologists to the effects of cannabinoids on gastrointestinal motility, as gastroenterologists are likely to encounter patients who are taking cannabinoids, or those with dysmotility that may be associated with cannabinoid mechanisms. The non-selective cannabinoid agonist, dronabinol, retards gastric emptying and inhibits colonic tone and phasic pressure activity...
May 10, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741131/on-the-distribution-and-metabolism-of-fusarium-toxins-along-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-endotoxaemic-pigs
#10
Erik Bannert, Tanja Tesch, Jeannette Kluess, Janine Winkler, Jana Frahm, Susanne Kersten, Stefan Kahlert, Lydia Renner, Hermann-Josef Rothkötter, Sven Dänicke
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential modulatory effect of E. coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on residues of deoxynivalenol (DON), de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1), zearalenone (ZEN) and its metabolites α-zearalenol (α-ZEL), β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), zearalanone (ZAN), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL) and β-zearalanol (β-ZAL) after pre- or post-hepatic administration along the gastrointestinal axis. Fifteen barrows were exposed to a naturally mycotoxin contaminated diet (4.59 mg DON/kg feed and 0.22 mg ZEN/kg feed) and equipped with jugular (ju) and portal (po) catheters...
June 2018: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737316/perioperative-complications-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-review-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
Antonio Iannelli, Patrick Treacy, Lionel Sebastianelli, Luigi Schiavo, Francesco Martini
Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has known a spectacular rise worldwide during the last decade. The absence of digestive anastomosis simplifies the surgical technique, reducing anastomosis-related complications such as fistula, stricture and marginal ulcer. Furthermore, the respect for digestive continuity preserves the functions of pylorus, that regulates gastric emptying, and duodenum, where calcium, B vitamins and iron are absorbed. Despite the multiple advantages, SG also has specific complications such as bleeding, stenosis, portal thrombosis and leak...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731416/interleukin-6-delays-gastric-emptying-in-humans-with-direct-effects-on-glycemic-control
#12
Louise Lang Lehrskov, Mark Preben Lyngbaek, Line Soederlund, Grit Elster Legaard, Jan Adam Ehses, Sarah Elizabeth Heywood, Nicolai Jacob Wewer Albrechtsen, Jens Juul Holst, Kristian Karstoft, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Helga Ellingsgaard
Gastric emptying is a critical regulator of postprandial glucose and delayed gastric emptying is an important mechanism of improved glycemic control achieved by short-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs in clinical practice. Here we report on a novel regulatory mechanism of gastric emptying in humans. We show that increasing interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations delays gastric emptying leading to reduced postprandial glycemia. IL-6 furthermore reduces insulin secretion in a GLP-1-dependent manner while effects on gastric emptying are GLP-1 independent...
April 28, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730186/just-add-water-effects-of-added-gastric-distention-by-water-on-gastric-emptying-and-satiety-related-brain-activity
#13
Guido Camps, Ralf Veit, Monica Mars, Cees de Graaf, Paul Am Smeets
BACKGROUND: Gastric distention contributes to meal termination. There is little research on the neural correlates of gastric distention by food. To date, neural measures have not been obtained concurrently with measurements of gastric distention. OBJECTIVES: 1) To study how offering a small versus a large water load following a standardized nutrient load affects gastric distention over time. 2) To assess associations between satiety experiences and brain activity and the degree of gastric distention...
May 3, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728598/glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-health-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Andreas Andersen, Asger Lund, Filip K Knop, Tina Vilsbøll
In healthy individuals, the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) potentiates insulin release and suppresses glucagon secretion in response to the ingestion of nutrients. GLP1 also delays gastric emptying and increases satiety. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), supraphysiological doses of GLP1 normalize the endogenous insulin response during a hyperglycaemic clamp. Owing to the short plasma half-life of native GLP1, several GLP1 receptor agonists (GLP1RAs) with longer half-lives have been developed for the treatment of T2DM...
May 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725459/mapk-c-jun-signaling-pathway-contributes-to-the-upregulation-of-the-anti-apoptotic-proteins-bcl-2-and-bcl-xl-induced-by-epstein-barr-virus-encoded-barf1-in-gastric-carcinoma-cells
#15
Yuqiong Zhang, Meiqin Xu, Xueyi Zhang, Fuying Chu, Tianji Zhou
BARF1 , encoded by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), has been hypothesized to function as an oncogene, which was expressed in gastric carcinoma cells. Additionally, it has been reported that the anti-apoptotic function is closely associated with the expression of the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein. In addition, the signaling pathway has been reported to be involved in numerous diseases, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. In order to study the specific mechanism of anti-apoptotic function, BARF1 -stably-expressing immortalized normal human embryo gastric epithelial cell line GES1 (GES- BARF1 ), and well-, moderately- and poorly-differentiated gastric carcinoma cell lines, MKN28 (which has been reported to be contaminated with the moderately-differentiated MKN74 gastric carcinoma cell line), SGC7901 and BGC823 (MKN- BARF1 , SGC- BARF1 and BGC- BARF1 , respectively) (GCC- BARF1 ) were constructed, with transfection of cells with the empty vector pSG5 acting as controls...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725396/pylorus-preserving-pancreaticoduodenectomy-versus-standard-pancreaticoduodenectomy-in-the-treatment-of-duodenal-papilla-carcinoma
#16
Rui Zhao, Yuan Chang, Xianqiang Wang, Peng Zhang, Cheng Zhang, Peilong Lian
It is not known whether pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) is as effective as the standard pancreaticoduodenectomy (SPD) in the treatment of duodenal papilla carcinoma (DPC). A retrospective cohort trial was undertaken to compare the results of these two procedures. Clinical data, histological findings, short-term results, survival and quality of life of all patients who had undergone surgery for primary DPC between January 2003 and February 2010 were analyzed. According to the inclusion criteria and the surgical methods, 116 patients were divided into the PPPD group (n=43) and the SPD group (n=73)...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722126/reproducibility-of-gastric-emptying-assessed-with-scintigraphy-in-patients-with-upper-gi-symptoms
#17
A Desai, M O'Connor, B Neja, K Delaney, M Camilleri, A R Zinsmeister, A E Bharucha
BACKGROUND: The reproducibility of gastric emptying (GE) measured with scintigraphy in patients is poorly understood. Our aims were to assess the intra and inter-individual reproducibility of these parameters in patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: Sixty patients (21 diabetics, 39 non-diabetics) with upper gastrointestinal symptoms underwent scintigraphic-assessment of GE of a solid meal (296 kcal, 30% fat) over 4 hours on two occasions at an average interval of 15 days...
May 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720225/the-role-of-exercise-combined-with-tocilizumab-in-visceral-and-epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-gastric-emptying-rate-in-abdominally-obese-participants-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Regitse Højgaard Christensen, Anne-Sophie Wedell-Neergaard, Louise Lang Lehrskov, Grit Elster Legård, Emma Berndt Dorph, Stine Nymand, Maria Korf Ball, Morten Zacho, Robin Christensen, Helga Ellingsgaard, Jaya Birgitte Rosenmeier, Rikke Krogh-Madsen, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Kristian Karstoft
BACKGROUND: Exercise reduces the amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these exercise-induced adaptations are unclear, but they may involve lipolytic actions of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Contracting skeletal muscles secrete IL-6, leading to increased circulating IL-6 levels in response to exercise. The aim of this study is to investigate whether IL-6 is involved in mediating the effects of exercise on visceral and epicardial adipose tissue volume and glycaemic control...
May 2, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719907/perioperative-and-long-term-oncological-results-of-minimally-invasive-pancreatoduodenectomy-as-hybrid-technique-a-matched-pair-analysis-of-120-cases
#19
Steffen Deichmann, Louisa Romina Bolm, Kim Christin Honselmann, Ulrich Friedrich Wellner, Hryhoriy Lapshyn, Tobias Keck, Dirk Bausch
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy is a highly challenging procedure. The aim of this study was to analyse post-operative morbidity and mortality as well as long term overall survival in patients undergoing hybrid LPD, as compared to open pancreaticoduodenecomy (OPD) in a single surgeon series. METHODS: Patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) in the period from 2000 to 2015 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. All LPD procedures were performed by one specialised pancreatic surgeon (TK)...
April 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717197/effects-of-ngm282-an-fgf19-variant-on-colonic-transit-and-bowel-function-in-functional-constipation-a-randomized-phase-2-trial
#20
Ibironke Oduyebo, Michael Camilleri, Alfred D Nelson, Disha Khemani, Sara Linker Nord, Irene Busciglio, Duane Burton, Deborah Rhoten, Michael Ryks, Paula Carlson, Leslie Donato, Alan Lueke, Kathline Kim, Stephen J Rossi, Alan R Zinsmeister
OBJECTIVE: NGM282 is an analog of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), a potent inhibitor of bile acid (BA) synthesis in animals and humans. In phase 2 trials in type 2 diabetes and primary biliary cholangitis, NGM282 was associated with dose-related abdominal cramping and diarrhea. We aimed to examine effects of NGM282 on colonic transit, stool frequency and consistency, hepatic BA synthesis (fasting serum C4), fecal fat, and BA in functional constipation (FC). METHODS: Two-dose NGM282 (1 and 6 mg, subcutaneously daily), parallel-group, randomized, placebo-controlled, 14-day study in patients with FC (Rome III criteria) and baseline colonic transit 24 h geometric center (GC) <3...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
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