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Gastric emptying

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811717/modified-b-ultrasound-method-for-measurement-of-antral-section-only-to-assess-gastric-function-and-guide-enteral-nutrition-in-critically-ill-patients
#1
Ying Liu, Ya-Kun Gao, Lei Yao, Li Li
AIM: To establish a modified B-ultrasound method of measuring the antral section only to assess gastric motility in healthy people, and evaluate its application in guiding enteral nutrition (EN) in critically ill patients. METHODS: First, 30 healthy volunteers were selected. The modified B-ultrasound method and the traditional B-ultrasound method were applied to assess gastric function. The correlation of indices of gastric function between the two groups was analyzed statistically...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809096/pancreatico-jejunostomy-decreases-post-operative-pancreatic-fistula-incidence-and-severity-after-central-pancreatectomy
#2
Frédéric Borel, Mehdi Ouaissi, Aude Merdrignac, Aurelien Venara, Valéria De Franco, Laurent Sulpice, Antoine Hamy, Nicolas Regenet
BACKGROUNDS: Central pancreatectomy (CP) is an alternative to pancreaticoduodenectomy and distal pancreatectomy in benign tumours of pancreatic isthmus management. It is known for a high post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF) rate. The purpose of this study was to compare POPF incidence between pancreatico-jejunostomy (PJ) and pancreatico-gastrostomy (PG). METHODS: Fifty-eight patients (mean age 53.9 ± 1.9 years) who underwent a CP in four French University Hospitals from 1988 to 2011 were analysed...
August 15, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805239/a-comparison-of-gastric-emptying-of-soluble-solid-meals-and-clear-fluids-matched-for-volume-and-energy-content-a-pilot-crossover-study
#3
T Okabe, H Terashima, A Sakamoto
We previously demonstrated that the gastric emptying time of different liquids with the same volume mainly depended on their energy content, regardless of differences in composition. In this crossover study, we investigated whether the same applies when soluble solid foods are ingested with water. Ten healthy volunteers ingested one of five test diets consisting of two test meals (Calorie Mate(®) 100 and 200 kcal) and three test solutions (water and glucose solutions of 100 and 200 kcal), each given in a volume of 400 ml, and then underwent ultrasonography to measure the gastric antral cross-sectional area every 10 min for 120 min...
August 14, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799046/minimally-invasive-pancreaticoduodenectomy-what-is-the-best-choice-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis-of-non-randomized-comparative-studies
#4
Claudio Ricci, Riccardo Casadei, Giovanni Taffurelli, Carlo Alberto Pacilio, Marco Ricciardiello, Francesco Minni
BACKGROUND: Many mini-invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (MIPD) techniques have been reported, but their advantages with respect to an open technique (OPD) and with respect to each other are unclear. METHOD: A systematic literature search of studies comparing different types of MIPD was carried out: laparoscopic-assisted (LAPD), totally robotic (TRPD), totally laparoscopic (TLPD) or totally laparoscopic-robotic assisted (TLPD-RA) to OPD. The primary endpoint was postoperative mortality...
August 10, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798875/pancreatogastrostomy-versus-pancreatojejunostomy-an-up-to-date-meta-analysis-of-rcts
#5
REVIEW
Konstantinos Perivoliotis, Eleni Sioka, Athina Tatsioni, Ioannis Stefanidis, Elias Zintzaras, Dimitrios Zacharoulis
BACKGROUND: A meta-analysis was conducted in order to provide an up-to-date comparison of pancreatogastrostomy (PG) and pancreatojejunostomy (PJ), after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD), in terms of clinically significant postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) and other postoperative complications. METHODS: This meta-analysis was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. A systematic literature search in MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials was performed...
2017: International Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796602/contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-gastric-emptying-and-motility-in-rats
#6
Kun-Han Lu, Jiayue Cao, Steven Oleson, Terry L Powley, Zhongming Liu
The assessment of gastric emptying and motility in humans and animals typically requires radioactive imaging or invasive measurements. Here, we developed a robust strategy to image and characterize gastric emptying and motility in rats based on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computer-assisted image processing. The animals were trained to naturally consume a gadolinium-labeled dietgel while bypassing any need for oral gavage. Following this test meal, the animals were scanned under low-dose anesthesia for high-resolution T1-weighted MRI in 7-Tesla, visualizing the time-varying distribution of the meal with greatly enhanced contrast against non-GI tissues...
August 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795473/gastrointestinal-peptides-during-chronic-gastric-electrical-stimulation-in-patients-with-intractable-vomiting
#7
Mathieu Meleine, Chloé Melchior, Philip Prinz, Alfred Penfornis, Benoît Coffin, Andreas Stengel, Philippe Ducrotté, Guillaume Gourcerol
OBJECTIVES: Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) is an alternative therapy to treat patients with intractable vomiting. A preclinical study has demonstrated the modulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) peptide ghrelin by GES but such mechanism has never been investigated in patients. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of GES on GI peptide levels in patients with intractable vomiting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients were randomized to receive either ON or OFF GES, 14 completed the study (10 ON, 4 OFF stimulation)...
August 10, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794822/overview-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
Kelvin Lingjet Tran, Young In Park, Shalin Pandya, Navin John Muliyil, Brandon David Jensen, Kovin Huynh, Quang T Nguyen
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 29.1 million people or 9.3% of the US population have diabetes, which contributes to considerable medical and financial burden. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance and insulin secretion impairment leading to hyperglycemia. The presence of insulin resistance is strongly correlated with obesity. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the available glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and their role in the management of patients with diabetes, to help guide the selection of the most suitable agent for the individualized treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes...
June 2017: American Health & Drug Benefits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782145/manometric-evaluation-of-the-motilin-receptor-agonist-camicinal-gsk962040-in-humans
#9
E Deloose, I Depoortere, J de Hoon, A Van Hecken, O E Dewit, L S Vasist Johnson, M E Barton, G E Dukes, J Tack
BACKGROUND: The gut hormone motilin stimulates gastrointestinal motility by inducing gastric phase III of the migrating motor complex (MMC) and enhancing the rate of gastric emptying. Camicinal (GSK962040), a small molecule motilin receptor agonist, has been shown to increase gastrointestinal motility. METHODS: In this proof of concept study the effects of camicinal on MMC activity, esophageal and gastric pH was evaluated in eight healthy volunteers as a secondary endpoint...
August 6, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774870/relationship-of-gastric-emptying-or-accommodation-with-satiation-satiety-and-postprandial-symptoms-in-health
#10
Houssam Halawi, Michael Camilleri, Andres Acosta, Maria I Vazquez-Roque, Ibironke Oduyebo, Duane D Burton, Irene A Busciglio, Alan R Zinsmeister
The contributions of gastric emptying (GE) and gastric accommodation (GA) to satiation, satiety, and postprandial symptoms remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between GA or GE with satiation, satiety, and postprandial symptoms in healthy overweight or obese volunteers (total n=285, 73% females, mean BMI 33.5kg/m2): 26 prospectively studied obese, otherwise healthy participants and 259 healthy subjects with previous similar GI testing. We assessed GE of solids, gastric volumes, calorie intake at buffet meal, satiation by measuring volume to comfortable fullness (VTF) and maximum tolerated volume (MTV) using Ensure® nutrient drink test (30mL/min), and symptoms 30 minutes after MTV...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770335/erythritol-reduces-small-intestinal-glucose-absorption-increases-muscle-glucose-uptake-improves-glucose-metabolic-enzymes-activities-and-increases-expression-of-glut-4-and-irs-1-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#11
Chika Ifeanyi Chukwuma, Ramgopal Mopuri, Savania Nagiah, Anil Amichund Chuturgoon, Md Shahidul Islam
PURPOSE: Studies have reported that erythritol, a low or non-glycemic sugar alcohol possesses anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic potentials but the underlying mode of actions is not clear. This study investigated the underlying mode of actions behind the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic potentials of erythritol using different experimental models (experiment 1, 2 and 3). METHODS: Experiment 1 examined the effects of increasing concentrations (2.5-20%) of erythritol on glucose absorption and uptake in isolated rat jejunum and psoas muscle, respectively...
August 2, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763952/in-vitro-gastric-digestion-of-cooked-white-and-brown-rice-using-a-dynamic-rat-stomach-model
#12
Peng Wu, Renpan Deng, Xuee Wu, Yong Wang, Zhizhong Dong, Sushil Dhital, Xiao Dong Chen
The changes in physical, rheological and enzyme-digestive behaviours of cooked white and brown rice, with similar amylose content, were investigated using a dynamic in vitro rat stomach (DIVRS) model and a static soaking method. The brown rice had a higher resistance on disintegration and lower gastric emptying rate with 53% of the brown rice particles retained in the stomach at the end compared to 32% for the white rice. Furthermore, the release rate of maltose from the starch hydrolysis was higher in the white rice throughout the digestion suggesting the lower glycemic potency of the brown rice...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760384/efficacy-and-safety-of-relamorelin-in-diabetics-with-symptoms-of-gastroparesis-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#13
Michael Camilleri, Richard W McCallum, Jan Tack, Sharon C Spence, Keith Gottesdiener, Fred T Fiedorek
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastroparesis is a complication of diabetes with few treatment options. Relamorelin (also called RM-131) is a selective, prokinetic agonist of ghrelin. We aimed to evaluate efficacy of relamorelin on symptoms and gastric emptying (GE) in a 12-week, phase 2B study of diabetic patients with moderate to severe gastroparesis symptoms (DG). METHODS: We performed a study of 393 patients with DG (37.7% male; 9.9% with type 1 diabetes; median age, 58...
July 28, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759975/gastrointestinal-transit-time-in-parkinson-s-disease-using-a-magnetic-tracking-system
#14
Karoline Knudsen, Anne-Mette Haase, Tatyana D Fedorova, Anne Charlotte Bekker, Karen Østergaard, Klaus Krogh, Per Borghammer
BACKGROUND: Symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract are highly prevalent in Parkinson's disease (PD), but knowledge of the underlying pathology is incomplete and valid objective markers on regional gastrointestinal function are limited. OBJECTIVE: The aims were to evaluate gastrointestinal transit time and motility in PD patients and controls. METHODS: Twenty-two PD patients and 15 controls were included. Gastric-, small intestinal-, and caecum-ascending colonic transit times as well as colonic motility, defined as mass- and fast movements, were performed using the ambulatory 3D-Transit system...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758244/lung-transplantation-delays-gastric-motility-in-patients-without-prior-gastro-intestinal-surgery-a-single-center-experience-of-412-consecutive-patients
#15
Sameer A Hirji, Brian C Gulack, Brian R Englum, Paul J Speicher, Asvin M Ganapathi, Asishana A Osho, Rahul A Shimpi, Alexander Perez, Matthew G Hartwig
PURPOSE: To examine the impact of lung transplantation on gastric motility. METHODS: Adult recipients at a large, single center, who were retrospectively evaluated with solid gastric emptying (SGE) study post lung transplantation, but had no history of gastrointestinal intervention (i.e. pyloroplasty or fundoplication), were selected between June 2005 and August 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine risk factors associated with delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after transplantation...
July 31, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752361/the-role-of-preoperative-c-reactive-protein-and-procalcitonin-as-predictors-of-post-pancreaticoduodenectomy-infective-complications-a-prospective-observational-study
#16
Verushka Mansukhani, Gunjan Desai, Rajiv Shah, Palepu Jagannath
INTRODUCTION: The common causes of morbidity after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) are infective complications. Till date, no specific preoperative markers have been identified to determine the probability of developing infective complications. We have studied the factors predicting the occurrence of the infective complication/s in the present study. METHODS: The present prospective observational study included 133 consecutive patients who underwent PD from January 2011 to June 2016 at a specialized hepatopancreaticobiliary surgical oncology unit...
July 28, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750491/severe-delayed-gastric-emptying-induces-non-acid-reflux-up-to-proximal-esophagus-in-neurologically-impaired-patients
#17
Shinji Ishii, Suguru Fukahori, Kimio Asagiri, Yoshiaki Tanaka, Nobuyuki Saikusa, Naoki Hashizume, Motomu Yoshida, Daisuke Masui, Naoko Komatsuzaki, Naruki Higashidate, Saki Sakamoto, Tomohiro Kurahachi, Shiori Tsuruhisa, Hirotomo Nakahara, Minoru Yagi
Background/Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the degree of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) and evaluate how the severity of DGE affects gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in neurologically impaired (NI) patients utilizing 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance pH measurements (pH/MII) and (13)C-acetate breath test ((13)C-ABT) analyses. Methods: (13)C-ABT and pH/MII were conducted in 26 NI patients who were referred to our institution due to suspected GERD...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750487/the-effect-of-intragastric-administration-of-botulinum-toxin-type-a-on-reducing-adiposity-in-a-rat-model-of-obesity-using-micro-ct-and-histological-examinations
#18
Jin-Seok Park, Hong-Mei Zheng, Jae-Min Kim, Chung Sei Kim, Seok Jeong, Don Haeng Lee
Background/Aims: Botulinum toxin type A (BTX), a long-acting inhibitor of muscular contraction in both striated and smooth muscles, is responsible for gastric motility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an endoscopic intragastric BTX injection on weight loss, body fat accumulation, and gastric emptying time. Methods: The BTX group consisted of 15 obese rats in which 20 U of BTX were injected into the gastric antrum. The saline group consisted of 15 obese rats injected with 20 U of saline, and the control group included 10 obese rats that did not receive a surgical intervention...
July 28, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749593/developing-better-practices-at-the-institutional-level-leads-to-better-outcomes-after-pancreaticoduodenectomy-in-3-378-patients-domestic-audit-of-the-japanese-society-of-pancreatic-surgery
#19
Sohei Satoi, Tomohisa Yamamoto, Hideyuki Yoshitomi, Fuyuhiko Motoi, Manabu Kawai, Tsutomu Fujii, Keita Wada, Hidehito Arimitsu, Masayuki Sho, Ippei Matsumoto, Satoshi Hirano, Hiroaki Yanagimoto, Masayuki Ohtsuka, Michiaki Unno, Hiroki Yamaue, Masanori Kon
PURPOSE: To assess recent trends in pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and the role of institutional standardization on the development of post-operative complications in 3,378 patients who underwent PD in Japan. METHODS: Data were collected from 3,378 patients who underwent PD in 2006, 2010, and 2014 at 53 institutions. A standardized institution (SI) was defined as one that implements ≥7 of 13 quality initiatives according to departmental policy. There were 1,223 patients in the SI group and 2,155 in the non-SI group...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748626/combining-bottom-up-and-top-down-approaches-to-assess-the-impact-of-food-and-gastric-ph-on-pictilisib-gdc-0941-pharmacokinetics
#20
Tong Lu, Grazyna Fraczkiewicz, Laurent Salphati, Nageshwar Budha, Gena Dalziel, Gillian S Smelick, Kari M Morrissey, John D Davis, Jin Y Jin, Joseph A Ware
Pictilisib, a weakly basic compound, is an orally administered, potent, and selective pan-inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases for oncology indications. To investigate the significance of high-fat food and gastric pH on pictilisib pharmacokinetics (PK) and enable label recommendations, a dedicated clinical study was conducted in healthy volunteers, whereby both top-down [Population PK, (PopPK)] and bottom-up [physiologically-based PK, (PBPK)] approaches were applied to enhance confidence of recommendation and facilitate the clinical development through scenario simulations...
July 27, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
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