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Eccentric strength

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648554/the-isokinetic-rotator-cuff-strength-ratios-in-overhead-athletes-assessment-and-exercise-effect
#1
REVIEW
Kelly Berckmans, Annelies G Maenhout, Lien Matthijs, Louise Pieters, Birgit Castelein, Ann M Cools
OBJECTIVE: Muscle strength imbalance in the shoulder region can be considered as a predisposing factor in the development of movement dysfunctions, possibly leading to overuse injuries. Repetitive overhead throwing, performed in sports, may result in muscle imbalance between the external (ER) and internal (IR) rotators. Muscle strength measured with an isokinetic device, is reported as a concentric (CON) or eccentric (ECC) force. The balance between an agonist and an antagonist is mentioned as a ratio (CON/CON or ECC/CON)...
March 11, 2017: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637599/isokinetic-clinical-assessment-of-rotator-cuff-strength-in-subacromial-shoulder-impingement
#2
Helen Land, Susan Gordon, Kerrianne Watt
BACKGROUND: Current conservative management of subacromial shoulder impingement (SSI) includes generic strengthening exercises, especially for internal (IR) and external (ER) shoulder rotators. However, there is no evidence that the strength or the ratio of strength between these muscle groups is different between those with SSI (cases) and an asymptomatic population (controls). OBJECTIVE: To identify if isokinetic rotator cuff strength or the ratio of strength is significantly different between cases and controls...
February 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632066/differences-in-trunk-and-thigh-muscle-strength-endurance-and-thickness-between-elite-sailors-and-non-sailors
#3
Bernd Friesenbichler, Julia F Item-Glatthorn, Fabian Neunstöcklin, Nicola C Casartelli, Gaël Guilhem, Nicola A Maffiuletti
Dinghy sailors lean their upper body over the windward side of the boat ('hiking') to keep the boat's balance and maximise its speed. Sustaining the hiking position is essential for competitive performance and this study examined sport-specific differences of muscles relevant for hiking in elite sailors. Knee extensor muscle strength as well as trunk muscle strength, muscle endurance and muscle thickness were assessed in elite dinghy sailors (n = 15) and compared to matched, non-sailing controls (n = 15)...
March 1, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630577/effects-of-high-velocity-elastic-band-versus-heavy-resistance-training-on-hamstring-strength-activation-and-sprint-running-performance
#4
Donatas Janusevicius, Audrius Snieckus, Albertas Skurvydas, Viktoras Silinskas, Eugenijus Trinkunas, Joan Aureli Cadefau, Sigitas Kamandulis
Hamstring muscle injuries occur during high-speed activities, which suggests that muscular strength at high velocities may be more important than maximal strength. This study examined hamstring adaptations to training for maximal strength and for strength at high velocities. Physically active men (n = 25; age, 23.0 ± 3.2 years) were randomly divided into: (1) a resistance training (RT, n = 8) group, which performed high-load, low-velocity concentric-eccentric hamstring contractions; (2) a resistance training concentric (RTC; n = 9) group, which performed high-load, low-velocity concentric-only hamstring contractions; and (3) a high-velocity elastic band training (HVT, n = 8) group, which performed low-load, high-velocity concentric-eccentric hamstring contractions...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630570/contralateral-effects-after-unilateral-strength-training-a-meta-analysis-comparing-training-loads
#5
REVIEW
Rafel Cirer-Sastre, Jose V Beltrán-Garrido, Francisco Corbi
There is solid evidence on the cross-training phenomenon, but the training load required to achieve it has yet to be established. The aim of this meta-analysis was to deduce which unilateral strength training load (duration, frequency, intensity, rest and type) would enable the biggest strength increases to be obtained in the inactive contralateral limb. The examined studies were limited to those written in the English language within the Web of Science, PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases. Ten of the 43 eligible studies were included, covering a total of 409 participants...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609641/flexibility-training-and-the-repeated-bout-effect-priming-interventions-prior-to-eccentric-training-of-the-knee-flexors
#6
Andrew W Leslie, Joel L Lanovaz, Justin W Andrushko, Jonathan P Farthing
Both the repeated bout effect and increased flexibility have been linked to reduced muscle damage, fatigue and strength loss after intense eccentric exercise. Our purpose was to compare the eccentric training (ECC) response after first priming the muscles with either static flexibility training or a single intense bout of eccentric exercise. Twenty-five participants were randomly assigned to flexibility training (F;n=8; 3x/week; 30 min/day), a single-bout of intense eccentric exercise (SB;n=9), or no intervention (control [C];n=8) during a 4-week priming phase, prior to completing a subsequent 4-week period of eccentric training of the knee flexors...
June 13, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605214/influence-of-reactive-strength-index-modified-on-force-and-power-time-curves
#7
John J McMahon, Paul A Jones, Timothy J Suchomel, Jason Lake, Paul Comfort
PURPOSE: The reactive strength index modified (RSImod) has been recently identified and validated as a method of monitoring countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. The kinetic and kinematic mechanisms that optimize a higher RSImod score are, however, currently unknown. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to compare entire CMJ force-, power-, velocity- and displacement-time curves (termed temporal phase analysis) of athletes who achieve high versus low RSImod scores. METHODS: Fifty-three professional male rugby league players performed three maximal effort CMJs on a force platform and variables of interest were calculated via forward dynamics...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601489/is-the-subscapularis-normal-after-the-open-latarjet-procedure-an-isokinetic-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-evaluation
#8
Alexandre Caubère, Damien Lami, Pascal Boileau, Sébastien Parratte, Matthieu Ollivier, Jean-Noël Argenson
BACKGROUND: The Latarjet procedure is considered to be a violation of the subscapularis muscle. This study evaluated the postoperative status of the subscapularis through isokinetic and magnetic resonance imaging analysis after splitting. We hypothesized that compared with a healthy contralateral shoulder, there would be satisfactory recovery of subscapularis strength at the cost of some fatigability and some mild fatty infiltration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a case-control retrospective study of patients who underwent a Latarjet procedure between January 2013 and January 2015...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596973/quadriceps-strength-in-patients-with-isolated-cartilage-defects-of-the-knee-results-of-isokinetic-strength-measurements-and-their-correlation-with-clinical-and-functional-results
#9
Anja Hirschmüller, Tasja Andres, Wolfgang Schoch, Heiner Baur, Lukas Konstantinidis, Norbert P Südkamp, Philipp Niemeyer
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have found a significant deficit of maximum quadriceps strength after autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) of the knee. However, it is unclear whether muscular strength deficits in patients with cartilage damage exist prior to operative treatment. PURPOSE: To isokinetically test maximum quadriceps muscle strength and quantify the impact of possible strength deficits on functional and clinical test results. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3...
May 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579164/impact-of-strut-thickness-on-acute-mechanical-performance-a-comparison-study-using-optical-coherence-tomography-between-desolve-150-and-desolve-100
#10
Niklas F Boeder, Oliver Dörr, Timm Bauer, Alessio Mattesini, Albrecht Elsässer, Christoph Liebetrau, Stephan Achenbach, Christian W Hamm, Holger M Nef
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the acute performance of a novolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) with different strut thickness (DESolve system 150 and 100) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in terms of appropriate scaffold deployment. BACKGROUND: Outcome after BRS implantation seen in registries and meta-analyses continue to show a higher rate of scaffold thrombosis than those reported with DES. Thus, second scaffold generations with lower strut thickness might have potential advantages in terms of flow disturbance...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578569/thermally-stable-metallic-nanoparticles-prepared-via-core-cross-linked-block-copolymer-micellar-nanoreactors
#11
Guoqiang Zhang, Saide Tang, Aixiang Li, Lei Zhu
Thermally stable metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) are highly desirable for the melt processing of polymer nanocomposites. However, due to the high surface energy penalty and decreased melting temperature, MNPs are easy to agglomerate and lose their unique properties if there is no protection or confinement layer. In this work, we report a facile and efficient way to synthesize thermally stable MNPs using core-cross-linked polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) reverse micelles as nanoreactors. From infrared results, gold, silver, and palladium ions exhibited distinctive coordination to the 4VP groups with varying chelation strengths...
June 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544170/hamstring-injury-prevention-in-soccer-before-or-after-training
#12
Ric Lovell, Michael Knox, Matthew Weston, Jason C Siegler, Scott Brennan, Paul W M Marshall
We examined the effects of a 12-week program of Nordic hamstring exercises (NHE), administered before or after football training, upon eccentric hamstring strength, muscle activity, and architectural adaptations. Amateur soccer players were randomized into 3 groups. The control group (CON; n=11) undertook core stability exercises, whereas a periodized NHE program was delivered either before (NHEBEF ; n=10) or after (NHEAFT ; n=14) bi-weekly training sessions. Outcome measures included peak torque and concomitant normalized peak surface electromyography signals (sEMG) of the biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstring (MH) muscles during knee flexor maximal eccentric contractions, performed at 30°·s(-1) ...
May 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543791/the-association-between-eccentric-hip-abduction-strength-and-hip-and-knee-angular-movements-in-recreational-male-runners-an-explorative-study
#13
René B K Brund, Sten Rasmussen, Rasmus O Nielsen, Uwe G Kersting, Uffe Laessoe, Michael Voigt
Weak hip abductors may be related with increased hip adduction and knee abduction angular movement, which may be risk factors of lower extremity injuries. Since the role of eccentric hip abduction strength (EHAS) on hip adduction angular movement and the knee abduction angular movement (KABD) remains unclear and the purpose of the present study was to explore the association between EHAS and hip- and knee angular movement. In 100 healthy male recreational runners, EHAS was quantified using an isokinetic dynamometer, while hip- and knee angular movement were collected using pressure sensitive treadmill and Codamotion active marker system...
May 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543411/crowdsourcing-the-moral-limits-of-human-gene-editing
#14
Eric T Juengst
In 2015, a flourish of "alarums and excursions" by the scientific community propelled CRISPR/Cas9 and other new gene-editing techniques into public attention. At issue were two kinds of potential gene-editing experiments in humans: those making inheritable germ-line modifications and those designed to enhance human traits beyond what is necessary for health and healing. The scientific consensus seemed to be that while research to develop safe and effective human gene editing should continue, society's moral uncertainties about these two kinds of experiments needed to be better resolved before clinical trials of either type should be attempted...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538317/effects-of-inertial-setting-on-power-force-work-and-eccentric-overload-during-flywheel-resistance-exercise-in-women-and-men
#15
Luis M Martinez-Aranda, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo
Exercise load is a key component in determining end-point adaptations to resistance exercise. Yet, there is no information regarding the use of different inertia (i.e., loads) during isoinertial flywheel resistance exercise, a very popular high-intensity training model. Thus, this study examined power, work, force, and eccentric overload produced during flywheel resistance exercise with different inertial settings in men and women. Twenty-two women (n = 11) and men (n = 11) performed unilateral (in both legs) isolated concentric (CON) and coupled CON and eccentric (ECC) exercise in a flywheel knee extension device employing 6 inertias (0...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538313/the-effects-of-accentuated-eccentric-loading-on-the-drop-jump-exercise-and-the-subsequent-postactivation-potentiation-response
#16
Lee A Bridgeman, Michael R McGuigan, Nicholas D Gill, Deborah K Dulson
The aims of this study were (a) to investigate the acute effects of different drop jump (DJ) accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) protocols and (b) to investigate the effect of these AEL DJ protocols on subsequent countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. The subjects were 12 strength-trained athletes; initially, baseline CMJ performance was assessed and individual optimal DJ drop height identified. In subsequent weeks, subjects completed 1 set of 5 DJs with no additional load or an AEL of 10, 20, or 30% of their individual body mass (BM) using dumbbells to provide the extra load...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521644/slope-stability-and-bearing-capacity-of-landfills-and-simple-on-site-test-methods
#17
Atsushi Yamawaki, Yoichi Doi, Kiyoshi Omine
This study discusses strength characteristics (slope stability, bearing capacity, etc.) of waste landfills through on-site tests that were carried out at 29 locations in 19 sites in Japan and three other countries, and proposes simple methods to test and assess the mechanical strength of landfills on site. Also, the possibility of using a landfill site was investigated by a full-scale eccentric loading test. As a result of this, landfills containing more than about 10 cm long plastics or other fibrous materials were found to be resilient and hard to yield...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516252/chronic-eccentric-arm-cycling-improves-maximum-upper-body-strength-and-power
#18
Steven J Elmer, Dakota J Anderson, Travis R Wakeham, Matthew A Kilgas, John J Durocher, Stan L Lindstedt, Paul C LaStayo
INTRODUCTION: Eccentric leg cycling (cycle ergometry adapted to impose muscle lengthening contractions) offers an effective exercise for restoring lower-body muscular function, maintaining health, and improving performance in clinical and athletic populations. PURPOSE: We extended this model to the upper body and evaluated the effectiveness of a 7-week eccentric arm cycling (ECCarm) intervention to improve upper-body muscular function. We also explored whether ECCarm would alter arterial function...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513280/application-of-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-arfi-elastography-in-imaging-of-delayed-onset-muscle-soreness-doms-a-comparative-analysis-with-3t-mri
#19
Thilo Hotfiel, Marion Kellermann, Bernd Swoboda, Dane Wildner, Tobias Golditz, Casper Grim, Martin Raithel, Michael Uder, Rafael Heiss
CONTEXT: DOMS is one of the most common reasons for impaired muscle performance in sports and is associated with reduced muscle strength and frequently observed both in professional and recreational athletes. OBJECTIVE: To emphasize the diagnostic value of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) in imaging of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness by comparing findings to high-resolution 3T MRI T2 weighted sequences. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Laboratory environment...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500910/ankle-strength-impairments-associated-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#20
Glaucia Helena Gonçalves, Francisco Alburquerque Sendín, Paula Regina Mendes da Silva Serrão, Luiz Fernando Approbato Selistre, Marina Petrella, Cristiano Carvalho, Stela Márcia Mattiello
BACKGROUND: Knee Osteoarthritis seems to negatively impact ankle biomechanics. However, the effect of knee osteoarthritis on ankle muscle strength has not been clearly established. This study aimed to evaluate the ankle strength of the plantar flexors and dorsiflexors of patients with knee osteoarthritis in different degrees of severity. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with knee osteoarthritis and 15 controls, subjected to clinical and radiographic analysis, were divided into three groups: control, mild, and moderate knee osteoarthritis...
May 4, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
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