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Eccentric strength

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095094/female-age-related-differences-in-biomechanics-and-muscle-activity-during-descents-on-the-outstretched-arms
#1
Lauren Jane Lattimer, Joel Lanovaz, Jon Farthing, Stéphanie Madill, Soo Kim, Stephen Robinovitch, Cathy Arnold
The purposes of this study were to examine female age differences in: 1) upper extremity (UE) and trunk muscle activity, elbow joint moment, loading force and UE energy absorption during a controlled forward body descent and 2) UE muscle strength. Twenty young (mean 24.8±3.4 yrs.) and 20 older (68.4±5.7 yrs.) women were assessed via dynamometry for isometric, concentric and eccentric UE strength and performed forward descents on force plates at three body lean angles (60, 45, and 30° from horizontal). Significant differences (p < ...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092056/a-randomised-placebo-controlled-crossover-study-investigating-the-effects-of-nicotine-gum-on-strength-power-and-anaerobic-performance-in-nicotine-na%C3%A3-ve-active-males
#2
Toby Mündel, Marine Machal, Darryl J Cochrane, Matthew J Barnes
BACKGROUND: Nicotine use amongst athletes is high and increasing, especially team sports, yet the limited previous studies investigating the performance consequences of this behaviour have not examined the effects of the principal active ingredient, nicotine, per se. Therefore, we determined whether nicotine gum affected muscular and anaerobic performance. METHODS: Nine active males (24 ± 3 years) completed three trials in a random order in which 20 min prior to testing they chewed 2 mg (NIC-2), 4 mg (NIC-4) nicotine or flavour-matched placebo (PLA) gum...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060273/induction-and-assessment-of-exertional-skeletal-muscle-damage-in-humans
#3
Michael R Deyhle, Jacob R Sorensen, Robert D Hyldahl
Contraction-induced muscle damage via voluntary eccentric (lengthening) contractions offers an excellent model for studying muscle adaptation and recovery in humans. Herein we discuss the design of an eccentric exercise protocol to induce damage in the quadriceps muscles, marked by changes in strength, soreness, and plasma creatine kinase levels. This method is simple, ethical, and widely applicable since it is performed in human participants and eliminates the interspecies translation of the results. Subjects perform 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensor muscles at a speed of 120°/sec on an isokinetic dynamometer...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057817/contractile-efficiency-of-dystrophic-mdx-mouse-muscle-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-assessment-of-adaptation-to-exercise-of-functional-end-points
#4
Roberta Francesca Capogrosso, Paola Mantuano, Anna Cozzoli, Francesca Sanarica, Ada Maria Massari, Elena Conte, Adriano Fonzino, Arcangela Giustino, Jean-Francois Rolland, Angelo Quaranta, Michela De Bellis, Giulia Maria Camerino, Robert W Grange, Annamaria De Luca
Progressive weakness is a typical feature of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and is exacerbated in the benign mdx mouse model by in vivo treadmill exercise. We hypothesized a different threshold for functional adaptation of mdx muscles in response to the duration of the exercise protocol. In vivo weakness was confirmed by grip strength after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of exercise in mdx mice. Torque measurements revealed that exercise-related weakness in mdx mice correlated with the duration of the protocol, while wild-type (wt) mice were stronger...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035017/muscle-damage-and-inflammation-during-recovery-from-exercise
#5
Jonathan M Peake, Oliver Neubauer, Paul A Della Gatta, Kazunori Nosaka
Unaccustomed exercise consisting of eccentric (i.e., lengthening) muscle contractions often results in muscle damage characterized by ultrastructural alterations in muscle tissue, clinical signs and symptoms (e.g., reduced muscle strength and range of motion, increased muscle soreness and swelling, efflux of myocellular proteins). The time course of recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage depends on the extent of initial muscle damage, which in turn is influenced by the intensity and duration of exercise, joint angle/muscle length and muscle groups used during exercise...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012598/mechanisms-underpinning-protection-against-eccentric-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-by-ischemic-preconditioning
#6
Alexander Franz, Michael Behringer, Kazunori Nosaka, Bettina Alexandra Buhren, Holger Schrumpf, Constantin Mayer, Christoph Zilkens, Moritz Schumann
Eccentric exercise training is effective for increasing muscle mass and strength, and improving insulin sensitivity and blood lipid profiles. However, potential muscle damage symptoms such as prolonged loss of muscle function and delayed onset of muscle soreness may restrict the use of eccentric exercise, especially in clinical populations. Therefore, strategies to reduce eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) are necessary, and an extensive number of scientific studies have tried to identify potential intervention modalities to perform eccentric exercises without adverse effects...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011412/electromyographic-analysis-of-muscle-activation-during-pull-up-variations
#7
James A Dickie, James A Faulkner, Matthew J Barnes, Sally D Lark
This study sought to identify any differences in peak muscle activation (EMGPEAK) or average rectified variable muscle activation (EMGARV) during supinated grip, pronated grip, neutral grip and rope pull-up exercises. Nineteen strength trained males (24.9±5y; 1.78±0.74m; 81.3±11.3kg; 22.7±2.5kgm(-2)) volunteered to participate in the study. Surface electromyography (EMG) was collected from eight shoulder-arm-forearm complex muscles. All muscle activation was expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992245/isokinetic-evaluation-of-the-hip-flexor-and-extensor-muscles-a-systematic-review
#8
Fabricio Yuri Zapparoli, Marcelo Riberto
INTRODUCTION: Isokinetic dynamometry testing is a safe and reliable method accepted as the "gold standard" in the evaluation of muscle strength in the open kinetic chain. Isokinetic hip examinations face problems in the standardization of the position of the equipment axis; in the individual being examined; in the adjustment of the lever arm and in stabilization strategies for the patients during the tests. Identification of the methodologic procedures with best reproducibility is also needed...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990226/the-effects-of-eccentric-velocity-based-training-on-strength-and-power-in-collegiate-athletes
#9
Samantha M Dolezal, Derek L Frese, Tamra L Llewellyn
The purpose of this study was to determine if combining velocity-based training with eccentric focus (VEB) and velocity-based training (VBT) results in power and strength gains. Nineteen men and women collegiate track and field athletes participated in this study. The subjects completed a 12-week intervention with either a VEB program or a VBT program. To determine the effectiveness of each program, the subjects completed four exercise tests before and after the training period: vertical jump, medicine ball put test, 1RM projected bench press and 1RM projected squat...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976985/analysis-of-elbow-muscle-strength-parameters-in-brazilian-jiu-jitsu-practitioners
#10
Bruno Follmer, Rodolfo André Dellagrana, Luis Antonio Pereira de Lima, Walter Herzog, Fernando Diefenthaeler
Upper-body dynamic and isometric maximum strength are essential components for success in Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ). This study was aimed at analysing strength parameters in the elbow flexor and extensor muscles of BJJ practitioners. Participants (n = 28) performed maximum isometric contractions of elbow flexors and extensors to determine peak torque (PT), rate of force development (RFD), and the torque-angle (T-A) relationship at elbow angles of 45°, 60°, 75°, 90°, 105°, and 120°. Additionally, concentric and eccentric PTs were measured at 1...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974950/evidence-of-a-redox-dependent-regulation-of-immune-responses-to-exercise-induced-inflammation
#11
Alexandra Sakelliou, Ioannis G Fatouros, Ioannis Athanailidis, Dimitrios Tsoukas, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Dimitris Draganidis, Athanasios Z Jamurtas, Christina Liacos, Ioannis Papassotiriou, Dimitrios Mandalidis, Kimon Stamatelopoulos, Meletios A Dimopoulos, Asimina Mitrakou
We used thiol-based antioxidant supplementation (n-acetylcysteine, NAC) to determine whether immune mobilisation following skeletal muscle microtrauma induced by exercise is redox-sensitive in healthy humans. According to a two-trial, double-blind, crossover, repeated measures design, 10 young men received either placebo or NAC (20 mg/kg/day) immediately after a muscle-damaging exercise protocol (300 eccentric contractions) and for eight consecutive days. Blood sampling and performance assessments were performed before exercise, after exercise, and daily throughout recovery...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941488/no-differences-between-alter-g-trainer-and-active-and-passive-recovery-strategies-on-isokinetic-strength-systemic-oxidative-stress-and-perceived-muscle-soreness-after-exercise-induced-muscle-damage
#12
Matthew B Cooke, Carrie Nix, Lori Greenwood, Mike Greenwood
The incidence of muscle injuries is prevalent in elite sport athletes as well as weekend warriors and strategies that safely and effectively hasten recovery are highly desirable. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between three recovery methods after eliciting muscle damage in recreationally active men relative to maximal isokinetic contractions, perceived muscle soreness and psychological mood states. Twenty-five recreationally active men (22.15±3.53yrs, 75.75±11.91kg, 180.52±7.3cm) were randomly matched by VO2 peak (53...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940174/assessment-of-evertor-weakness-in-patients-with-chronic-ankle-instability-functional-versus-isokinetic-testing
#13
Romain Terrier, Francis Degache, François Fourchet, Boris Gojanovic, Nicolas Forestier
BACKGROUND: Ankle sprain is the most common sport-related injury and eccentric weakness of ankle evertors is regarded as a significant muscular deficit related to chronic ankle instability. However, the eccentric performance of the evertors is rarely assessed by clinicians because procedures used for research purposes (i.e. isokinetic tests) are not easily applicable in daily practice. METHODS: The present study assessed the ability of two different testing procedures to distinguish between groups of 12 healthy subjects or 12 patients suffering from chronic ankle instability...
December 5, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925702/quantitative-elastosonography-of-the-myotendinous-junction-normal-behavior-and-correlation-with-a-standard-measurement-system-during-functional-tests
#14
Paolo Minafra, Chandra Bortolotto, Ermanno Rampinini, Fabrizio Calliada, Giuseppe Monetti
OBJECTIVES: In recent years, an increasing need to use imaging to assess normal and adaptive muscle function, in addition to its anatomy and structure, has emerged. We evaluated the myotendinous junction's elastosonographic behavior in light of the most recent literature on its physiologic behavior. The elastosonographic studies were compared with the results obtained from a standard measurement system to ensure a correlation with maximal muscle contraction. METHODS: Nineteen male professional soccer players were assessed during functional tests...
January 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912940/panax-ginseng-and-salvia-miltiorrhiza-supplementation-during-eccentric-resistance-training-in-middle-aged-and-older-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-control-trial
#15
Hsin-Fu Lin, Chun-Chung Chou, Hsiao-Han Chao, Hirofumi Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Muscle damage induced by an acute bout of eccentric exercise results in transient arterial stiffening. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of progressive eccentric resistance exercise training on vascular functions, and whether herb supplementation would enhance training adaptation by ameliorating the arterial stiffening effects. METHODS: By using a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled design, older adults were randomly assigned to either the Panax ginseng and Salvia miltiorrhiza supplementation group (N=12) or the placebo group (N=11)...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899894/moderate-load-eccentric-exercise-a-distinct-novel-training-modality
#16
REVIEW
Hans Hoppeler
Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400-500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20-30 min...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895590/brain-functional-connectivity-is-different-during-voluntary-concentric-and-eccentric-muscle-contraction
#17
Wan X Yao, Zhiguo Jiang, Jinqi Li, Changhao Jiang, Crystal G Franlin, Jack L Lancaster, Yufei Huang, Guang H Yue
Previous studies report greater activation in the cortical motor network in controlling eccentric contraction (EC) than concentric contraction (CC) of human skeletal muscles despite lower activation level of the muscle associated with EC. It is unknown, however, whether the strength of functional coupling between the primary motor cortex (M1) and other involved areas in the brain differs as voluntary movements are controlled by a network of regions in the primary, secondary and association cortices. Examining fMRI-based functional connectivity (FC) offers an opportunity to measure strength of such coupling...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893481/the-effect-of-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-after-a-bout-of-accentuated-eccentric-load-drop-jumps-and-the-repeated-bout-effect
#18
Lee A Bridgeman, Nicholas D Gill, Deborah K Dulson, Michael R McGuigan
Although previous studies have investigated exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) after a bout of unloaded drop jumps (DJ) none have investigated the effects of accentuated eccentric load (AEL) DJs on EIMD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 30 and 50 AEL DJs on strength, jump performance, muscle soreness and blood markers. Eight resistance trained athletes participated in this study. In week 1 baseline countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), concentric and eccentric peak force (PF), creatine kinase (CK) and muscle soreness (SOR) were assessed...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893478/loads-and-movement-speeds-dictate-differences-in-power-output-during-circuit-training
#19
Kirk B Roberson, Sean Chowdhari, Morgan White, Joseph F Signorile
Power training has become a common exercise intervention for improving muscle strength, power, and physical function, while reducing injury risk. Few studies, however, have evaluated acute load changes on power output during traditional resistance-training protocols. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the effects of different loading patterns on power output during a single session of circuit resistance training (CRT). Nine males (age=19.4±0.9 y) and eleven females (age=20.6±1.6 y) completed three CRT protocols during separate testing sessions using seven pneumatic exercises...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893476/comparison-of-muscle-involvement-and-posture-between-the-conventional-deadlift-and-a-walk-in-style-deadlift-machine
#20
Benjamin J Snyder, Courtney P Cauthen, Scott R Senger
The deadlift exercise is one of the most effective exercises for developing lower-body strength; however, technique errors can lead to low back injuries. The use of a 'walk-in' deadlift machine removes the weight bar by using a lever system with independent handles on either side of the body. Theoretically, this would allow alignment of the load with the center of gravity, encouraging a more upright torso and decreasing the involvement of the low back extensors. This study compared trunk angle, knee angle and electrical activity of key muscles between the conventional deadlift (CDL) and two foot positions (ball of foot or toe alignment) with pronated grip, (called BallPro and ToePro) of a walk-in deadlift machine among high-skilled and low-skilled lifters...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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