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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453623/bayesian-inference-of-allele-specific-gene-expression-indicates-abundant-cis-regulatory-variation-in-natural-flycatcher-populations
#1
Mi Wang, Severin Uebbing, Hans Ellegren
Polymorphism in cis-regulatory sequences can lead to different levels of expression for the two alleles of a gene, providing a starting point for the evolution of gene expression. Little is known about the genome-wide abundance of genetic variation in gene regulation in natural populations but analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE) provides a means for investigating such variation. We performed RNA-seq of multiple tissues from population samples of two closely related flycatcher species and developed a Bayesian algorithm that maximises data usage by borrowing information from the whole dataset and combines several SNPs per transcript to detect ASE...
April 26, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448016/zebrafish-in-situ-spinal-cord-preparation-for-electrophysiological-recordings-from-spinal-sensory-and-motor-neurons
#2
Rosa L Moreno, Megan Josey, Angeles B Ribera
Zebrafish, first introduced as a developmental model, have gained popularity in many other fields. The ease of rearing large numbers of rapidly developing organisms, combined with the embryonic optical clarity, served as initial compelling attributes of this model. Over the past two decades, the success of this model has been further propelled by its amenability to large-scale mutagenesis screens and by the ease of transgenesis. More recently, gene-editing approaches have extended the power of the model. For neurodevelopmental studies, the zebrafish embryo and larva provide a model to which multiple methods can be applied...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447186/comparison-of-the-recovery-response-from-high-intensity-and-high-volume-resistance-exercise-in-trained-men
#3
Sandro Bartolomei, Eliahu Sadres, David D Church, Eliott Arroyo, Joseph A Gordon Iii, Alyssa N Varanoske, Ran Wang, Kyle S Beyer, Leonardo P Oliveira, Jeffrey R Stout, Jay R Hoffman
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological responses of a high-volume (HV; 8 sets of 10 repetitions) versus high-intensity (HI; 8 sets of 3 repetitions) exercise protocol in resistance-trained men. METHODS: Twelve men (24.5 ± 4.2 years; 82.3 ± 8.4 kg; 175.2 ± 5.5 cm) with 6.3 ± 3.4 years of resistance training experience performed each protocol in a counterbalanced, randomized order. Performance [counter movement jump peak power (CMJP), isokinetic (ISOK) and isometric leg extension (MVIC), isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), and isometric squat (ISQ)] and muscle morphological [cross-sectional area (CSA) of vastus lateralis] assessments were performed at baseline (BL), 30-min (P-30 min), 24-h (P-24 h), 48-h (P-48 h), and 72-h (P-72 h) post-exercise for each testing session...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445231/the-effects-of-multi-day-vs-single-pre-exercise-nitrate-supplement-dosing-on-simulated-cycling-time-trial-performance-and-skeletal-muscle-oxygenation
#4
Edward Jo, Michelle Fischer, Alexandra T Auslander, Alan Beigarten, Bruce Daggy, Ken Hansen, Lisa Kessler, Adam Osmond, Hong Wang, Rachel Wes
A transient augmentation in the metabolic efficiency of skeletal muscle is the purported basis for dietary nitrate supplementation amongst competitive and recreational athletes alike. Previous studies support the ergogenic effects of nitrate supplementation as findings indicated improved microvascular blood flow, exercise economy, and performance with relatively short-term supplementation. As with most ergogenic aids, the optimum duration of supplementation prior to performance or competition, i.e. loading phase, is a critical determinant for efficacy...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445229/a-cross-sectional-and-retrospective-cohort-analysis-of-the-effects-of-age-on-flexibility-strength-endurance-lower-body-power-and-aerobic-fitness-in-law-enforcement-officers
#5
Robert G Lockie, J Jay Dawes, Charles L Kornhauser, Ryan J Holmes
There can be a great age range in cohorts of law enforcement officers. As the tasks required of officers generally do not change with advancing age, it is important to understand how physical performance in tests that assess job-specific characteristics may be altered. Retrospective analysis of performance test data for 383 officers (362 males, 21 females) was conducted. The tests included: sit-and-reach to determine hamstring and lower back flexibility; maximal push-up and sit-up repetitions in 60 s to measure muscle endurance; vertical jump (VJ) to assess lower-body power; and 2...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445224/impact-of-6-consecutive-days-of-sprint-training-in-hypoxia-on-performance-in-competitive-sprint-runners
#6
Nobukazu Kasai, Sahiro Mizuno, Sayuri Ishimoto, Etsuko Sakamoto, Misato Maruta, Toshiyuki Kurihara, Yuko Kurosawa, Kazushige Goto
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of 6 successive days of repeated sprint training in moderate hypoxia on anaerobic capacity in 100-200-m sprint runners. Eighteen male sprint runners (age, 20.0 ± 0.3 years; height, 175.9 ± 1.1 cm; body mass, 65.0 ± 1.2 kg) performed repeated cycling sprints for 6 consecutive days in either normoxic (NOR; fraction of inspired oxygen [FiO2], 20.9%; n = 9) or hypoxic conditions (HYPO; FiO2, 14.5%; n = 9). The repeated sprint ability (10 × 6-s sprints), 30-s maximal sprint ability, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and 60-m running time on the track were measured before and after the training period...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445078/effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-on-canoeing-performance
#7
Ming-Ta Yang, Mien-Mien Lee, Shu-Ching Hsu, Kuei-Hui Chan
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) utilizing a canoeing ergometer on endurance determinants, as well as aerobic and anaerobic performances among flat-water canoeists. Fourteen well-trained male flat-water canoeists were divided into an HIIT group or an MICT group. All subjects performed a continuous graded exercise test (GXT) and three fixed-distance (200, 500, and 1000 m) performance tests on a canoeing ergometer to determine canoeing economy, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and power at VO2peak, and to calculate the critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic work capacity before and after the training programmes...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443250/pectoralis-major-tear-an-unusual-and-rare-presentation
#8
Vikram V Kadu, K A Saindane, Ninad Godghate, Neha Godghate
INTRODUCTION: The pectoralis major is a very powerful muscle that forms the chest prominence and. It moves the shoulder forward and across your chest. It is best known as the muscle that you develop with the bench press exercise in gymnasium. The pectoralis major attaches to the humerus bone and is divided into two parts. The upper part is known as the "clavicular head" and the lower part the "sternal head," based on their origins from the clavicle and sternal bones, respectively. Ruptures of the pectoralis major muscle are becoming more common due to the increase in power sports weight training...
September 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443153/supplementary-data-chemoradiotherapy-in-octogenarians-as-primary-treatment-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#9
Victor A McPherson, George Rodrigues, Glenn Bauman, Eric Winquist, Joseph Chin, Jonathan Izawa, Kylea Potvin, Scott Ernst, Varagur Venkatesan, Tracy Sexton, Belal Ahmad, Nicholas Power
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443140/chemoradiotherapy-in-octogenarians-as-primary-treatment-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#10
Victor A McPherson, George Rodrigues, Glenn Bauman, Eric Winquist, Joseph Chin, Jonathan Izawa, Kylea Potvin, Scott Ernst, Varagur Venkatesan, Tracy Sexton, Belal Ahmad, Nicholas Power
INTRODUCTION: While radical cystectomy is the gold standard for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), in octogenarians cystectomy results in a higher perioperative mortality rate (6.8-11.1%) than in younger patients (2.2%). Trimodality therapy is a bladder-sparing regimen composed of transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) and chemoradiotherapy, with intent for salvage cystectomy, and has a 62.5-90% initial complete response rate. In this study, we evaluate TURBT and chemoradiotherapy without salvage cystectomy in medically inoperable octogenarian patients...
January 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442632/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-training-on-ventilatory-efficiency-and-respiratory-drive-in-obese-subjects
#11
Mehdi Chlif, Anis Chaouachi, Said Ahmaidi
BACKGROUND: Obese patients show a decline in exercise capacity and diverse degrees of dyspnea in association with mechanical abnormalities, increased ventilatory requirements secondary to the increased metabolic load, and a greater work of breathing. Consequently, obese patients may be particularly predisposed to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess inspiratory muscle performance during incremental exercise in 19 obese male subjects (body mass index 41 ± 6 kg/m(2)) after aerobic exercise training using the noninvasive, inspiratory muscle tension-time index (TT0...
April 25, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442359/emg-biofeedback-training-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-an-active-control-training
#12
Beatrix Barth, Kerstin Mayer, Ute Strehl, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at revealing neurophysiological effects induced by electromyography (EMG) based biofeedback, considered as a semi-active control condition in neurofeedback studies, in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. METHODS: 20 adult ADHD patients trained their muscle activity in the left and right supraspinatus muscle over the course of 30 EMG biofeedback sessions. Changes induced by the EMG feedback were evaluated at a clinical and neurophysiological level; additionally, the relation between changes in EEG activity recorded at the vertex over the training course and changes of symptom severity over the treatment course were assessed in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying clinical effects of EMG biofeedback...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441760/supplementation-with-a-polyphenol-rich-extract-perfload-%C3%A2-improves-physical-performance-during-high-intensity-exercise-a-randomized-double-blind-crossover-trial
#13
Julien Cases, Cindy Romain, Cristian Marín-Pagán, Linda H Chung, José Miguel Rubio-Pérez, Caroline Laurent, Sylvie Gaillet, Emmanuelle Prost-Camus, Michel Prost, Pedro E Alcaraz
Workout capacity is energy-production driven. To produce peak metabolic power outputs, the organism predominantly relies more on anaerobic metabolism, but this undoubtedly has a negative and limiting impact on muscle function and performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate if an innovative polyphenol-based food supplement, PerfLoad(®), was able to improve metabolic homeostasis and physical performance during high-intensity exercises under anaerobic conditions. The effect of a supplementation has been investigated on fifteen recreationally-active male athletes during a randomized, double-blind and crossover clinical investigation...
April 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435336/anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-reinjury-in-alpine-ski-racing-a-narrative-review
#14
REVIEW
Matthew J Jordan, Per Aagaard, Walter Herzog
The purpose of the present review was to: 1) provide an overview of the current understanding on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and prevention methods for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in alpine ski racing; and 2) provide an overview of what is known pertaining to ACL reinjury and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski racing. Given that most of the scientific studies on ACL injuries in alpine ski racing have been descriptive, and that very few studies contributed higher level scientific evidence, a nonsystematic narrative review was employed...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434044/faulty-rna-splicing-consequences-and-therapeutic-opportunities-in-brain-and-muscle-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Vittoria Pagliarini, Piergiorgio La Rosa, Claudio Sette
Alternative splicing is a powerful mechanism that largely expands the coding potential of eukaryotic genomes. Indeed, its complex and flexible regulation is exploited by cells to adapt to various environmental conditions, through production of protein variants displaying different functions. Such flexibility, however, is accompanied by high risk of errors, and dysregulation of splicing is now recognized as an important factor in human diseases. Notably, the RNA-based nature of splicing, which involves high specificity through base pair recognition, offers a remarkable therapeutic opportunity by allowing design of tools with elevated target selectivity...
April 22, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433642/predicting-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-recurrence-and-progression-in-a-us-population
#16
Kourosh Ravvaz, Marcus E Walz, John A Weissert, Tracy M Downs
PURPOSE: To assess performance of The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and Club Urologico Español de Tratamiento Oncologico (CUETO) non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) predictive models compared to current US National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) treatment guidelines in a US population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis using electronic medical records of patients with NMIBC within a multicenter US patient population...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433416/static-postural-control-in-youth-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta-type-i
#17
Annie Pouliot-Laforte, Martin Lemay, Frank Rauch, Louis-Nicolas Veilleux
OBJECTIVE: To assess static postural control in eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions in individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I as compared to typically developing (TD) individuals. The second aim was to explore the relation between postural control and lower-limbs muscle function. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: The study was carried out in the outpatient department of a pediatric orthopedic hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 22 individuals with OI type I (mean age [range]: 13...
April 19, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432883/sagittal-plane-joint-kinetics-during-stair-ascent-in-patients-with-peripheral-arterial-disease-and-intermittent-claudication
#18
Stephanie L King, Natalie Vanicek, Thomas D O'Brien
Stair negotiation poses a substantial physical demand on the musculoskeletal system and this challenging task can place individuals at risk of falls. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) can cause intermittent claudication (IC) pain in the calf and results in altered gait mechanics during level walking. However, whether those with PAD-IC adopt alternate strategies to climb stairs is unknown. Twelve participants with PAD-IC (six bilateral and six unilateral) and 10 healthy controls were recruited and instructed to ascend a five-step staircase whilst 3D kinematic data of the lower-limbs were recorded synchronously with kinetic data from force plates embedded into the staircase on steps two and three...
March 28, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432420/sex-differences-in-neuromuscular-function-after-repeated-eccentric-contractions-of-the-knee-extensor-muscles
#19
Andrea Lee, Jake Baxter, Claire Eischer, Matt Gage, Sandra Hunter, Tejin Yoon
PURPOSE: This study examined the mechanisms for force and power reduction during and up to 48 h after maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensor muscles in young men and women. METHODS: 13 men (22.8 ± 2.6 years) and 13 women (21.6 ± 2.2 years) performed 150 maximal effort eccentric contractions (5 sets of 30) with the knee extensor muscles at 60° s(-1). Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) and maximal voluntary concentric contractions (MVCC) were performed before and after the 150 eccentric contractions...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431748/a-benchtop-biorobotic-platform-for-in-vitro-observation-of-muscle-tendon-dynamics-with-parallel-mechanical-assistance-from-an-elastic-exoskeleton
#20
Benjamin D Robertson, Siddarth Vadakkeveedu, Gregory S Sawicki
We present a novel biorobotic framework comprised of a biological muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanically coupled to a feedback controlled robotic environment simulation that mimics in vivo inertial/gravitational loading and mechanical assistance from a parallel elastic exoskeleton. Using this system, we applied select combinations of biological muscle activation (modulated with rate-coded direct neural stimulation) and parallel elastic assistance (applied via closed-loop mechanical environment simulation) hypothesized to mimic human behavior based on previously published modeling studies...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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