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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814064/electrical-properties-assessed-by-bioelectrical-impedance-spectroscopy-as-biomarkers-of-age-related-loss-of-skeletal-muscle-quantity-and-quality
#1
Yosuke Yamada, Bjoern Buehring, Diane Krueger, Rozalyn M Anderson, Dale A Schoeller, Neil Binkley
Skeletal muscle, in addition to being comprised of a heterogeneous muscle fiber population, also includes extracellular components that do not contribute to positive tensional force production. Here we test segmental bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (S-BIS) to assess muscle intracellular mass and composition. S-BIS can evaluate electrical properties that may be related to muscle force production. Muscle fiber membranes separate the intracellular components from the extracellular environment and consist of lipid bilayers which act as an electrical capacitor...
September 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814060/a-soft-wearable-robot-for-the-shoulder-design-characterization-and-preliminary-testing
#2
Ciaran T O'Neill, Nathan S Phipps, Leonardo Cappello, Sabrina Paganoni, Conor J Walsh
In this paper, we present a soft wearable robot for the shoulder which has the potential to assist individuals suffering from a range of neuromuscular conditions affecting the shoulder to perform activities of daily living. This wearable robot combines two types of soft textile pneumatic actuators which were custom developed for this particular application to support the upper arm through shoulder abduction and horizontal flexion/extension. The advantage of a textile-based approach is that the robot can be lightweight, low-profile, comfortable and non-restrictive to the wearer, and easy to don like an item of clothing...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814050/segmental-contributions-to-sagittal-plane-whole-body-angular-momentum-when-using-powered-compared-to-passive-ankle-foot-prostheses-on-ramps
#3
Nathaniel T Pickle, Anne K Silverman, Jason M Wilken, Nicholas P Fey
Understanding the effects of an assistive device on dynamic balance is crucial, particularly for robotic leg prostheses. Analyses of dynamic balance commonly evaluate the range of whole-body angular momentum (H). However, the contributions of individual body segments to overall H throughout gait may yield futher insights, specifically for people with transtibial amputation using powered prostheses. We evaluated segment contributions to H using Statistical Parametric Mapping to assess the effects of prosthesis type (powered vs passive) and ramp angle on segmental coordination...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814019/stiffness-control-of-a-nylon-twisted-coiled-actuator-for-use-in-mechatronic-rehabilitation-devices
#4
Brandon P R Edmonds, Ana Luisa Trejos
Mechatronic rehabilitation devices, especially wearables, have been researched extensively and proven to be promising additions to physical therapy, but most designs utilize traditional actuators providing unnatural, robot-like movements. Therefore, many researchers have focused on the development of actuators that mimic biological properties to provide patients with improved results, safety, and comfort. Recently, a twisted-coiled actuator (TCA) made from nylon thread has been found to possess many of these important properties when heated, such as variable stiffness, flexibility, and high power density...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814013/a-third-arm-design-of-a-bypass-prosthesis-enabling-incorporation
#5
Adam W Wilson, Daniel H Blustein, Jon W Sensinger
A variety of factors affect the performance of a person using a myoelectric prosthesis, including increased control noise, reduced sensory feedback, and muscle fatigue. Many studies use able-bodied subjects to control a myoelectric prosthesis using a bypass socket in order to make comparisons to movements made with intact limbs. Depending on the goals of the study, this approach can also allow for greater subject numbers and more statistical power in the analysis of the results. As we develop assessment tools and techniques to evaluate how peripheral nerve interfaces impact prosthesis incorporation, involving normally limbed subjects in the studies becomes challenging...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813906/the-ewrist-a-wearable-wrist-exoskeleton-with-semg-based-force-control-for-stroke-rehabilitation
#6
Charles Lambelet, Mingxing Lyu, Daniel Woolley, Roger Gassert, Nicole Wenderoth
Chronic wrist impairment is frequent following stroke and negatively impacts everyday life. Rehabilitation of the dysfunctional limb is possible but requires extensive training and motivation. Wearable training devices might offer new opportunities for rehabilitation. However, few devices are available to train wrist extension even though this movement is highly relevant for many upper limb activities of daily living. As a proof of concept, we developed the eWrist, a wearable one degree-of-freedom powered exoskeleton which supports wrist extension training...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813865/template-model-inspired-leg-force-feedback-based-control-can-assist-human-walking
#7
Guoping Zhao, Maziar Sharbafi, Mark Vlutters, Edwin van Asseldonk, Andre Seyfarth
We present a novel control approach for assistive lower-extremity exoskeletons. In particular, we implement a virtual pivot point (VPP) template model inspired leg force feedback based controller on a lower-extremity powered exoskeleton (LOPES II) and demonstrate that it can effectively assist humans during walking. It has been shown that the VPP template model is capable of stabilizing the trunk and reproduce a human-like hip torque during the stance phase of walking. With leg force and joint angle feedback inspired by the VPP template model, our controller provides hip and knee torque assistance during the stance phase...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813834/comparing-neural-control-and-mechanically-intrinsic-control-of-powered-ankle-exoskeletons
#8
Jeffrey R Koller, C David Remy, Daniel P Ferris
There are an infinite number of ways to control an assistive robotic device; however, there is little consensus on which ways are better than others and why. We designed this study to compare the control of powered ankle exoskeletons using neural measurements to drive control versus that using mechanically intrinsic measurements. The controller driven by neural measurements was a dynamic gain proportional myoelectric controller using user's soleus muscle activity for an actuation signal. The controller driven by mechanically intrinsic measurements was a timing-based controller using detected heel-strikes of the user to appropriately time actuation...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810991/posterior-cruciate-ligament-injuries-associated-with-military-survival-swim-training
#9
Michael S Crowell, John S Mason, Matthew A Posner, Chad A Haley
OBJECTIVES: Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are relatively common injuries associated with athletic activities and high-energy trauma. Posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries frequently accompany injury to the PCL. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires a comprehensive history and physical examination. Patients frequently report vague, nonspecific symptoms and the mechanism of injury is often useful in localizing injured structures. Two of the more common mechanisms for PCL injury include a direct blow to the proximal anterior tibia with the knee flexed, as well as a significant knee hyperextension injury...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807991/torque-depression-following-active-shortening-is-associated-with-a-modulation-of-cortical-and-spinal-excitation-a-history-dependent-study
#10
Jordan Grant, Chris J McNeil, Leah R Bent, Geoffrey A Power
The reduction in steady-state isometric torque following a shortening muscle action when compared to a purely isometric contraction at the same muscle length and level of activation is termed torque depression (TD). The purpose of this study was to investigate spinal and supraspinal neural responses during the TD state of a maximal voluntary activation of the ankle dorsiflexors. Thirteen subjects (10 male) were recruited for the study. To explore alterations in corticospinal excitability during voluntary muscle activation in the TD state, motor evoked potentials (MEPs), cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (CMEPs), and maximal compound muscle action potentials (Mmax) were elicited during the isometric steady-state following active shortening (i...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807935/function-of-the-hypobranchial-muscles-and-hyoidiomandibular-ligament-during-suction-capture-and-bite-processing-in-white-spotted-bamboo-sharks-chiloscyllium-plagiosum
#11
Jason B Ramsay, Cheryl D Wilga
Suction feeding in teleost fish is a power dependant behavior, requiring rapid and forceful expansion of the orobranchial cavity by the hypobranchial and trunk muscles. To increase power production for expansion, many species employ in-series tendons and catch mechanisms to store and release elastic strain energy. Suction feeding sharks such as Chiloscyllium plagiosum lack large in-series tendons on the hypobranchials, yet two of the hypobranchials, the coracohyoideus and coracoarcualis (CH, CA; hyoid depressors), are arranged in-series, and run deep and parallel to a third muscle, the coracomandibularis (CM, jaw depressor)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806708/predictive-simulation-of-diabetic-gait-individual-contribution-of-ankle-stiffness-and-muscle-weakening
#12
Gilmar F Santos, Aline A Gomes, Isabel C N Sacco, Marko Ackermann
Diabetic neuropathic individuals present massive muscle strength reduction at the ankle plantar- and dorsiflexors and increased joint stiffness. Our aim is to investigate the adaptation strategies to these musculoskeletal alterations during walking by means of predictive simulations. We used a seven segment planar musculoskeletal model actuated by eight Hill-type muscles in each leg. The effect of all passive tissue in muscles and other joint structures was modeled by net passive joint moment curves. The predictive simulations were generated by solving an optimal control problem that minimized a cost function, including effort and tracking terms, using direct collocation and a commercial optimal control package...
August 1, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806275/effects-of-creatine-and-carbohydrate-loading-on-cycling-time-trial-performance
#13
Kristyen A Tomcik, Donny M Camera, Julia L Bone, Megan L Ross, Nikki A Jeacocke, Bill Tachtsis, Joan Senden, Luc J C van Loon, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke
INTRODUCTION: Creatine- and carbohydrate-loading are dietary strategies used to enhance exercise capacity. This study examined the metabolic and performance effects of a combined creatine and CHO-loading regiment on time-trial (TT) cycling bouts. METHODS: Eighteen well-trained (~65mL[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min VO2peak) males completed three performance trials (PT) comprised of a 120-km cycling TT interspersed with alternating 1- and 4-km sprints (6 sprints each) performed every 10-km followed by an inclined ride to fatigue (~90% VO2peak)...
August 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804728/relationships-of-muscle-function-and-subjective-knee-function-in-patients-after-acl-reconstruction
#14
Stephan Bodkin, John Goetschius, Jay Hertel, Joe Hart
BACKGROUND: After anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), relationships between objective measures of muscle function and patient-reported outcomes may change over time. Examining these measures at different time frames after surgery may help develop individualized approaches to improve post-ALCR analysis. PURPOSE: To examine the associations between subjective knee function and lower-extremity muscle function in individual patients at various time points after ACLR...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801776/effects-of-training-status-on-pdh-regulation-in-human-skeletal-muscle-during-exercise
#15
Anders Gudiksen, Lærke Bertholdt, Tomasz Stankiewicz, Jonas Tybirk, Peter Plomgaard, Jens Bangsbo, Henriette Pilegaard
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is the gateway enzyme for carbohydrate-derived pyruvate feeding into the TCA cycle. PDH may play a central role in regulating substrate shifts during exercise, but the influence of training state on PDH regulation during exercise is not fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of training state on post-translational regulation of PDHa activity during submaximal and exhaustive exercise. Eight untrained and nine endurance exercise-trained healthy male subjects performed incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer: 40 min at 50% incremental peak power output (IPPO), 10 min at 65% (IPPO), followed by 80% (IPPO) until exhaustion...
August 11, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800744/physiological-artifacts-in-scalp-eeg-and-ear-eeg
#16
Simon L Kappel, David Looney, Danilo P Mandic, Preben Kidmose
BACKGROUND: A problem inherent to recording EEG is the interference arising from noise and artifacts. While in a laboratory environment, artifacts and interference can, to a large extent, be avoided or controlled, in real-life scenarios this is a challenge. Ear-EEG is a concept where EEG is acquired from electrodes in the ear. METHODS: We present a characterization of physiological artifacts generated in a controlled environment for nine subjects. The influence of the artifacts was quantified in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) deterioration of the auditory steady-state response...
August 11, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797826/knee-extensor-power-asymmetry-is-unrelated-to-functional-mobility-of-older-adults
#17
Dain P LaRoche, Michelle R Villa, Colin W Bond, Summer B Cook
PURPOSE: To determine whether knee extensor power asymmetry limits functional mobility of older adults who possess muscle weakness. METHODS: Knee extensor power was measured in 36 older men and women (76.0±7.6yr), for each leg, on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60, 180, and 300degs(-1) and power asymmetry was calculated as the percent difference in power between strong and weak legs, at each isokinetic velocity. 400-m walk, stair ascent, and five-repetition chair rise tests were performed to assess functional mobility...
August 7, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796647/cauda-equina-syndrome-due-to-vigorous-back-massage-with-spinal-manipulation-in-a-patient-with-pre-existing-lumbar-disc-herniation-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Si-Dong Yang, Qian Chen, Wen-Yuan Ding
Cauda equina syndrome (CES) resulting from acute lumbar disc herniation due to spinal massage is extremely rare. We present a case of CES caused by the acute worsening of a lumbar disc herniation after a vigorous back massage that included spinal manipulation. After vigorous back massage with spinal manipulation performed by a massage therapist, a 38-yr-old male patient experienced CES with severe numbness in both lower limbs, inability to walk due to weakness of bilateral lower limbs, and incontinence of urine and feces...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796125/electromyographic-and-kinematic-analysis-of-the-flexion-rotation-trunk-test
#19
María P García-Vaquero, Ignacio Ruiz-Pérez, David Barbado, Francisco J Vera-Garcia
While most trunk endurance field protocols are performed in the sagittal or frontal planes, the flexion-rotation trunk (FRT) test combines trunk flexion with rotation, which may be relevant to rotation-related sports. The aim of this study was to describe the trunk and hip muscle activation and fatigue and the range of hip flexion of this test. Twenty-seven physically active males and females performed the FRT test after a period of practice. Electromyographic (EMG) signals were bilaterally collected from the rectus abdominis (RA), internal oblique (IO), and rectus femoris (RF), and hip flexion amplitude was measured using a biaxial electrogoniometer...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795275/effects-of-photobiomodulation-therapy-and-topical-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-on-skeletal-muscle-injury-induced-by-contusion-in-rats-part-2-biochemical-aspects
#20
Shaiane Silva Tomazoni, Lúcio Frigo, Tereza Cristina Dos Reis Ferreira, Heliodora Leão Casalechi, Simone Teixeira, Patrícia de Almeida, Marcelo Nicolas Muscara, Rodrigo Labat Marcos, Andrey Jorge Serra, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior
Muscle injuries trigger an inflammatory process, releasing important biochemical markers for tissue regeneration. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is the treatment of choice to promote pain relief due to muscle injury. NSAIDs exhibit several adverse effects and their efficacy is questionable. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) has been demonstrated to effectively modulate inflammation induced from musculoskeletal disorders and may be used as an alternative to NSAIDs. Here, we assessed and compared the effects of different doses of PBMT and topical NSAIDs on biochemical parameters during an acute inflammatory process triggered by a controlled model of contusion-induced musculoskeletal injury in rats...
August 9, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
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