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Rachel M Speer, Catherine F Wise, Jamie L Young, AbouEl-Makarim Aboueissa, Mark Martin Bras, Mike Barandiaran, Erick Bermúdez, Lirio Márquez-D'Acunti, John Pierce Wise
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a marine pollution of concern as recent studies show it has a global distribution, with some regions showing high Cr concentrations in marine animal tissue, and it is extensively used. Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are an endangered marine species that may experience prolonged exposures to environmental contaminants including Cr(VI). Human activities have led to global Cr(VI) contamination of the marine environment. While Cr(VI) has been identified as a known human carcinogen, the health effects in marine species are poorly understood...
March 4, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Peter Sykora, Ylenia Chiari, Andrew Heaton, Nickolas Moreno, Scott Glaberman, Robert W Sobol
DNA damage has been linked to genomic instability and the progressive breakdown of cellular and organismal homeostasis, leading to the onset of disease and reduced longevity. Insults to DNA from endogenous sources include base deamination, base hydrolysis, base alkylation, and metabolism-induced oxidative damage that can lead to single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks. Alternatively, exposure to environmental pollutants, radiation or ultra-violet light, can also contribute to exogenously derived DNA damage...
March 14, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Nastassia V Patin, Zoe A Pratte, Matthew Regensburger, Eric Hall, Kailen Gilde, Alistair D M Dove, Frank J Stewart
Artificial habitats for animals have high commercial and societal value. Microbial communities (microbiomes) in such habitats may play ecological roles similar to those in nature. However, this hypothesis remains largely untested. Georgia Aquarium's Ocean Voyager (OV) exhibit is a closed-system aquatic habitat that mimics the oligotrophic open ocean and houses thousands of large marine animals, including fish, sea turtles, and whale sharks. We present a 14-month time series characterizing the OV water column microbiome...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jennifer E Flower, Terry M Norton, Kimberly M Andrews, Clare E Parker, L Michael Romero, Kelly E Rockwell, Mark A Mitchell
Characterizing the health status and reproductive success of wild populations of sea turtles can be difficult; however, obtaining data to do this can provide important insight into the stability and long-term success of a population. This study examined the use of baseline corticosterone to assess reproductive success of a population of nesting loggerhead sea turtles ( Caretta caretta) on Jekyll Island, Georgia and investigated hematological and biochemical trends in this population. A total of 37 nesting loggerhead sea turtles was sampled for this study...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
A J Cerreta, G A Lewbart, D R Dise, M G Papich
Ceftazidime, a third-generation cephalosporin, is important for treating opportunistic bacterial infections in turtles. Antibacterial dosage regimens are not well established for wild turtles and are often extrapolated from other reptiles or mammals. This investigation used a population pharmacokinetic approach to study ceftazidime in wild turtles presented for rehabilitation. Ceftazidime was administered to 24 wild turtles presented to the Turtle Rescue Team at North Carolina State University. A sparse blood sampling protocol was used to collect samples from 0 to 120 hr with three samples per individual after injection...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Lisa M Komoroske
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Conservation Physiology
Carlos Carreras, Marta Pascual, Jesús Tomás, Adolfo Marco, Sandra Hochscheid, Juan José Castillo, Patricia Gozalbes, Mariluz Parga, Susanna Piovano, Luis Cardona
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Natasha S Vitek
Characterization of morphological variation in the shells of extant Eastern Box Turtles, Terrapene carolina, provides a baseline for comparison to fossil populations. It also provides an example of the difficulties inherent to recognizing intraspecific diversity in the fossil record. The degree to which variation in fossils of T. carolina can be accommodated by extant variation in the species has been disagreed upon for over eighty years. Using morphometric analyses of the carapace, I address the relationship between modern and fossil T...
2018: PloS One
Yi Hu, Jon G Sanders, Piotr Łukasik, Catherine L D'Amelio, John S Millar, David R Vann, Yemin Lan, Justin A Newton, Mark Schotanus, Daniel J C Kronauer, Naomi E Pierce, Corrie S Moreau, John T Wertz, Philipp Engel, Jacob A Russell
Nitrogen acquisition is a major challenge for herbivorous animals, and the repeated origins of herbivory across the ants have raised expectations that nutritional symbionts have shaped their diversification. Direct evidence for N provisioning by internally housed symbionts is rare in animals; among the ants, it has been documented for just one lineage. In this study we dissect functional contributions by bacteria from a conserved, multi-partite gut symbiosis in herbivorous Cephalotes ants through in vivo experiments, metagenomics, and in vitro assays...
March 6, 2018: Nature Communications
A R H LeBlanc, M J MacDougall, Y Haridy, D Scott, R R Reisz
Many lizards can drop a portion of their tail in response to an attack by a predator, a behaviour known as caudal autotomy. The capacity for intravertebral autotomy among modern reptiles suggests that it evolved in the lepidosaur branch of reptilian evolution, because no such vertebral features are known in turtles or crocodilians. Here we present the first detailed evidence of the oldest known case of caudal autotomy, found only among members of the Early Permian captorhinids, a group of ancient reptiles that diversified extensively and gained a near global distribution before the end-Permian  mass extinction event of the Palaeozoic...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael Tessler, David Marancik, Donald Champagne, Alistair Dove, Alvin Camus, Mark E Siddall, Sebastian Kvist
Leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) possess powerful salivary anticoagulants and, accordingly, are frequently employed in modern, authoritative medicine. Members of the almost exclusively marine family Piscicolidae account for 20% of leech species diversity, and feed on host groups (e.g., sharks) not encountered by their freshwater and terrestrial counterparts. Moreover, some species of Ozobranchidae feed on endangered marine turtles and have been implicated as potential vectors for the tumor-associated turtle herpesvirus...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Yong Chen, Yi-Fan Zhang, Hao-Cheng Qian, Jing-Liang Wang, Zhe Chen, Jose M Ordovas, Chao-Qiang Lai, Li-Rong Shen
Turmeric residue (TR), containing residual levels of curcumin, is a solid by-product waste generated after the extraction and separation of curcumin from turmeric root. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of TR on the survival of Chinese soft-shelled turtles (SSTs), Pelodiscus sinensis, under a high ambient temperature. A total of 320 female SSTs were assigned randomly to two diets: basal diet (the control group, n=160) and an interventional diet supplemented with 10% TR (the TR group, n=160)...
2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Lorenzo Alibardi
The presence and localization of cystatin, a cysteine protease inhibitor involved in barrier formation in human and mice epidermis, has been studied in the epidermis of piscine and terrestrial vertebrates using a mouse monoclonal antibody. Cystatin has been localized by Immunostaining in the pre-corneous and corneous layers of monotreme, marsupial and placental mammals, and sparsely in the thin corneous layer of birds. Cystatin-immunolabeling is present in the pre-corneous and corneous layer of crocodilian and turtle epidermis, in the alpha-corneous layer and likely also in the beta-corneous layer of the epidermis in lizards, snakes and the tuatara...
February 13, 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Amanda Bundgaard, Andrew M James, William Joyce, Michael P Murphy, Angela Fago
Freshwater turtles ( Trachemys scripta ) are among the very few vertebrates capable of tolerating severe hypoxia and reoxygenation without suffering from damage to the heart. As myocardial ischemia and reperfusion causes a burst of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammals, the question arises as to whether, and if so how, this ROS burst is prevented in the turtle heart. We find here that heart mitochondria isolated from turtles acclimated to anoxia produce less ROS than mitochondria from normoxic turtles when consuming succinate...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Esra Deniz Candan
The aim of this study is to investigate the fungal diversity of green turtle nests and to examine phylogenetic relationships among these isolates. During the nesting season, samples of intra-nest sand and failed eggs were collected from 25% of the surviving nests in Sugözü Beaches, which are amongst the most important nesting beaches for endangered green turtles in the Mediterranean. Twenty-three fungi were identified by molecular techniques. Fungal isolates belonged to genera Aspergillus, Emericella, Rhizopus, Actinomucor and Apophysomyces with two undescribed species...
February 26, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Cheryl L Morrison, Luke Iwanowicz, Thierry M Work, Elizabeth Fahsbender, Mya Breitbart, Cynthia Adams, Deb Iwanowicz, Lakyn Sanders, Mathias Ackermann, Robert S Cornman
Chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) is a herpesvirus associated with fibropapillomatosis (FP) in sea turtles worldwide. Single-locus typing has previously shown differentiation between Atlantic and Pacific strains of this virus, with low variation within each geographic clade. However, a lack of multi-locus genomic sequence data hinders understanding of the rate and mechanisms of ChHV5 evolutionary divergence, as well as how these genomic changes may contribute to differences in disease manifestation. To assess genomic variation in ChHV5 among five Hawaii and three Florida green sea turtles, we used high-throughput short-read sequencing of long-range PCR products amplified from tumor tissue using primers designed from the single available ChHV5 reference genome from a Hawaii green sea turtle...
2018: PeerJ
Nicole I Stacy, Karen A Bjorndal, Justin R Perrault, Helen R Martins, Alan B Bolten
Blood analyte reference intervals are scarce for immature life stages of the loggerhead sea turtle ( Caretta caretta ). The objectives of this study were to (1) document reference intervals of packed cell volume (PCV) and 20 plasma chemistry analytes from wild oceanic-juvenile stage loggerhead turtles from Azorean waters, (2) investigate correlations with body size (minimum straight carapace length: SCLmin ) and (3) compare plasma chemistry data to those from older, larger neritic juveniles (<80 cm SCLmin ) and adult loggerheads (≥80 cm SCLmin ) that have recruited to the West Atlantic in waters around Cape Canaveral, Florida...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Alexandra G M Caron, Colette R Thomas, Kathryn L E Berry, Cherie A Motti, Ellen Ariel, Jon E Brodie
Ocean contamination by plastics is a global issue. Although ingestion of plastic debris by sea turtles has been widely documented, contamination by microplastics (<5mm) is poorly known and likely to be under-reported. We developed a microplastic extraction protocol for examining green turtle (Chelonia mydas) chyme, which is multifarious in nature, by modifying and combining pre-established methods used to separate microplastics from organic matter and sediments. This protocol consists of visual inspection, nitric acid digestion, emulsification of residual fat, density separation, and chemical identification by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Melissa R Jung, F David Horgen, Sara V Orski, Viviana Rodriguez C, Kathryn L Beers, George H Balazs, T Todd Jones, Thierry M Work, Kayla C Brignac, Sarah-Jeanne Royer, K David Hyrenbach, Brenda A Jensen, Jennifer M Lynch
Polymer identification of plastic marine debris can help identify its sources, degradation, and fate. We optimized and validated a fast, simple, and accessible technique, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), to identify polymers contained in plastic ingested by sea turtles. Spectra of consumer good items with known resin identification codes #1-6 and several #7 plastics were compared to standard and raw manufactured polymers. High temperature size exclusion chromatography measurements confirmed ATR FT-IR could differentiate these polymers...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
G M Vélez-Rubio, N Teryda, P E Asaroff, A Estrades, D Rodriguez, J Tomás
Anthropogenic debris ingestion has been reported for green turtles in all their life stages worldwide. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the marine debris ingestion by green turtles stranded in Uruguayan coast between 2005 and 2013. Debris items were categorized and quantified by frequency of occurrence, relative weight, volume and number of items. A total of 96 dead stranded turtles were analyzed and 70% presented debris in their guts. The majority of debris found were plastic, being hard plastics the most abundant in weight...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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