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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316410/environmental-warming-and-feminization-of-one-of-the-largest-sea-turtle-populations-in-the-world
#1
Michael P Jensen, Camryn D Allen, Tomoharu Eguchi, Ian P Bell, Erin L LaCasella, William A Hilton, Christine A M Hof, Peter H Dutton
Climate change affects species and ecosystems around the globe [1]. The impacts of rising temperature are particularly pertinent in species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), where the sex of an individual is determined by incubation temperature during embryonic development [2]. In sea turtles, the proportion of female hatchlings increases with the incubation temperature. With average global temperature predicted to increase 2.6°C by 2100 [3], many sea turtle populations are in danger of high egg mortality and female-only offspring production...
January 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311550/short-heatwaves-during-fluctuating-incubation-regimes-produce-females-under-temperature-dependent-sex-determination-with-implications-for-sex-ratios-in-nature
#2
A W Carter, B M Sadd, T D Tuberville, R T Paitz, R M Bowden
Patterns of temperature fluctuations in nature affect numerous biological processes, yet, empirical studies often utilize constant temperature treatments. This can limit our understanding of how thermally sensitive species respond to ecologically relevant temperatures. Research on turtles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) provides good examples of this, since nest temperatures from many populations rarely exceed those necessary to produce females under constant laboratory conditions. We hypothesized that exposure to brief periods of warm temperatures (i...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307115/bioinformatic-analyses-of-zona-pellucida-genes-in-vertebrates-and-their-expression-in-nile-tilapia
#3
Tianli Wu, Yunying Cheng, Zhilong Liu, Wenjing Tao, Shuqing Zheng, Deshou Wang
Zona pellucida (ZP) genes encode ZP glycoproteins which constitute the coat surrounding oocytes and early embryos. Genome-wide identification of ZP genes is still lacking in vertebrates, especially in fish species. Herein, we conducted bioinformatic analyses of the ZP genes of the Nile tilapia and other vertebrates. Totally 16, 9, 17, 27, 21, 20, 26, 19, 14,11, 24, 17, 9, 18, 8, 11, 9, 8, 5, and 4 ZP genes belonging to 5 subfamilies (ZPA, ZPB, ZPC, ZPD, and ZPAX) were found in the sea lamprey, elephant shark, coelacanth, spotted gar, zebrafish, medaka, stickleback, Nile tilapia, Amazon molly, platyfish, seahorse, Northern snakehead, cavefish, tetraodon, clawed frog, turtle, chicken, platypus, kangaroo rat, and human genomes, respectively...
January 6, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307088/physiological-traits-of-endornavirus-infected-and-endornavirus-free-common-bean-phaseolus-vulgaris-cv-black-turtle-soup
#4
S Khankhum, R A Valverde
This study evaluated the physiological traits of eight lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv. Black Turtle Soup, four of which were double-infected with Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2, and four of which were endornavirus-free. Plants from all eight lines were morphologically similar and did not show statistically significant differences in plant height, wet weight, number of days to flowering and pod formation, pods per plant, pod thickness, seed size, number of seeds per pod, and anthocyanin content...
January 6, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305804/effects-of-cadmium-on-oxidative-stress-activities-in-plasma-of-freshwater-turtle-chinemys-reevesii
#5
Junfeng Huo, Aiguo Dong, Xiaojun Niu, Ailing Dong, Shaochin Lee, Cungen Ma, Lan Wang
Cadmium (Cd) has been recently found in high concentrations in the aquatic environment. This study was designed to examine the effects of Cd on the oxidative stress activities in plasma of freshwater turtle Chinemys reevesii. Experimental turtles were exposed to Cd at the concentration of 15 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection, and redox status was investigated. Compared to the controls, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in plasma of the treated animals significantly decreased in week 1, week 2, and week 4...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302018/injuries-and-envenomation-by-exotic-pets-in-hong-kong
#6
V Ch Ng, A Ch Lit, O F Wong, M L Tse, H T Fung
INTRODUCTION: Exotic pets are increasingly popular in Hong Kong and include fish, amphibians, reptiles, and arthropods. Some of these exotic animals are venomous and may cause injuries and envenomation to their owners. The clinical experience of emergency physicians in the management of injuries and envenomation by these exotic animals is limited. We reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of injuries and envenomation by exotic pets recorded by the Hong Kong Poison Information Centre...
January 5, 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297832/detection-of-ranavirus-using-bone-marrow-harvested-from-mortality-events-in-eastern-box-turtles-terrapene-carolina-carolina
#7
Claire E Butkus, Matthew C Allender, Christopher A Phillips, Laura A Adamovicz
The causes of free-living chelonian mortality events are often unknown because of infrequent recovery of remains and rapid postmortem decomposition. This study describes a technique to harvest bone marrow and detect frog virus 3-like ranavirus (FV3) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in skeletonized eastern box turtles ( Terrapene carolina carolina) ( N = 87), and assesses agreement with concurrent perimortem samples ( N = 14). FV3 was detected in bone marrow samples from 12 turtle shells (14%). Three of 14 turtles had detectable FV3 loads in both bone marrow and perimortem samples, two turtles had detectable FV3 in bone marrow only, and nine turtles tested FV3 negative in both bone marrow and concurrent perimortem samples...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297823/disease-screening-in-southern-river-terrapins-batagur-affinis-edwardmolli-in-cambodia
#8
Tracie A Seimon, Brian D Horne, Ania Tomaszewicz, Mathieu Pruvot, Sitha Som, Samat In, Chea Sokha, Steve Platt, Patricia Toledo, Denise McAloose, Paul P Calle
Southern River terrapins ( Batagur affinis) are among the most critically endangered turtles in the world. To augment the Cambodia population, a head-start program was established for the endemic subspecies Batagur affinis edwardmolli in 2006, and in 2015, prerelease health assessments were performed on 70 subadults (hatch years, 2006-2011). Combined choanal/cloacal swab samples ( n = 70) were collected and screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycoplasma, herpesvirus, and ranavirus. Cloacal samples ( n = 50) were also collected and cultured for Salmonella sp...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297797/detection-of-copathogens-in-free-ranging-eastern-box-turtles-terrapene-carolina-carolina-in-illinois-and-tennessee
#9
Grace A Archer, Christopher A Phillips, Laura Adamovicz, Mark Band, John Byrd, Matthew C Allender
Conservation efforts are investigating the impact of diseases within a species of interest, including prevalence and transmission and morbidity and mortality rates. However, the majority of these studies focus solely on the characteristics of a single pathogen. Recently, the role of copathogens has been reported to impact disease susceptibility and mortality. To that effect, a survey was conducted including 318 eastern box turtles ( Terrapene carolina carolina) from populations in Illinois and Tennessee in 2014 and 2015...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291126/1h-nmr-metabolomic-study-of-whole-blood-from-hatchling-loggerhead-sea-turtles-caretta-caretta-exposed-to-crude-oil-and-or-corexit
#10
Stasia A Bembenek Bailey, Jennifer N Niemuth, Patricia D McClellan-Green, Matthew H Godfrey, Craig A Harms, Michael K Stoskopf
We used proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) to evaluate metabolic impacts of environmentally relevant crude oil and Corexit exposures on the physiology of hatchling loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Sample extraction and data acquisition methods for very small volume whole blood samples and sources of variation between individual hatchlings were assessed. Sixteen unclotted, whole blood samples were obtained from 7-day-old hatchlings after a 4-day cutaneous exposure to either control seawater, crude oil, Corexit 9500A or a combination of crude oil and Corexit 9500A...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291083/still-slow-but-even-steadier-an-update-on-the-evolution-of-turtle-cranial-disparity-interpolating-shapes-along-branches
#11
Christian Foth, Eduardo Ascarrunz, Walter G Joyce
In a previous study, we estimated the cranial disparity of turtles (Testudinata) through time using geometric morphometric data from both terminal taxa and hypothetical ancestors to compensate for temporal gaps in the fossil record. While this method yielded reasonable results for the Mesozoic and the early Cenozoic, we found a large drop in cranial disparity for the Miocene, for which we found no correlation with known environmental changes or extinction events. Instead, we speculated that the Miocene dip was a result of poor sampling of fossils or ancestors in this time bin...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287411/a-novel-aspartic-protease-from-rhizomucor-miehei-expressed-in-pichia-pastoris-and-its-application-on-meat-tenderization-and-preparation-of-turtle-peptides
#12
Qian Sun, Fusheng Chen, Fang Geng, Yongkang Luo, Siyi Gong, Zhengqiang Jiang
A novel aspartic protease gene (RmproA) was cloned from the thermophilic fungus Rhizomucor miehei CAU432 and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The RmproA was successfully expressed in P. pastoris as an active extracellular protease. High protease activity of 3480.4 U/mL was obtained by high cell-density fermentation. The protease was purified by the two step protocols to homogeneity. The molecular mass of the RmproA was estimated to be 52.4 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 50.6 kDa by gel filtration. The purified enzyme was optimally active at pH 5...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262492/-comparison-of-colonization-ability-of-o1-and-o139-vibrio-cholerae-strains-on-soft-shelled-turtle-s-surface
#13
J Z Wang, M Y Yan, X Lu, B Kan
Objective: To study the preferred colonization sites of O1 Vibrio cholerae (V.cholerae) and the colonization ability difference for O1 and O139 V. cholerae on soft-shelled turtle's surface. Methods: 8 O1 and O139 V. cholerae strains were obtained from branch of diarrheal diseases, Chinese center for disease control and prevention. 63 soft-shelled turtles weighing 150 g and 9 cm in length (diameter of calipash) were selected for use in the study. The preferred colonization sites and proliferation trend were studied by using bioluminescent imaging method...
December 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259848/the-shell-morphology-of-the-latest-cretaceous-maastrichtian-trionychid-turtle-helopanoplia-distincta
#14
Walter G Joyce, Tyler R Lyson
Background: Helopanoplia distincta is an extinct soft-shelled turtle (Pan-Trionychidae) for which the type specimen is a fragmentary costal and the inguinal notch portion of the left hypoplastron from the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Lance Formation of Wyoming, USA that bear a distinct surface sculpture pattern consisting of raised tubercles. Over the course of the past few decades, a number of additional, fragmentary specimens from the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Hell Creek Formation of Montana and North Dakota have been referred to this taxon based on the presence of these tubercles, but a more complete understanding of the anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of this distinctive soft-shelled turtle is still outstanding...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249282/spatial-information-in-a-non-retinotopic-visual-cortex
#15
Julien Fournier, Christian M Müller, Ingmar Schneider, Gilles Laurent
Turtle dorsal cortex (dCx), a three-layered cortical area of the reptilian telencephalon, receives inputs from the retina via the thalamic lateral geniculate nucleus and constitutes the first cortical stage of visual processing. The receptive fields of dCx neurons usually occupy the entire contralateral visual field. Electrophysiological recordings in awake and anesthetized animals reveal that dCx is sensitive to the spatial structure of natural images, that dCx receptive fields are not entirely uniform across space, and that adaptation to repeated stimulation is position specific...
December 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248639/the-limiting-layer-of-fish-scales-structure-and-properties
#16
D Arola, S Murcia, M Stossel, R Pahuja, T Linley, Arun Devaraj, M Ramulu, E A Ossa, J Wang
Fish scales serve as a flexible natural armor that have received increasing attention across the materials community. Most efforts in this area have focused on the composite structure of the predominately organic elasmodine, and limited work addresses the highly mineralized external portion known as the Limiting Layer (LL). This coating serves as the first barrier to external threats and plays an important role in resisting puncture. In this investigation the structure, composition and mechanical behavior of the LL were explored for three different fish, including the arapaima (Arapaima gigas), the tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) and the carp (Cyprinus carpio)...
December 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245529/-i-hexapleomera-urashima-i-sp-nov-crustacea-tanaidacea-a-tanaidid-epibiotic-on-loggerhead-sea-turtles-at-yakushima-island-japan
#17
Yuki Tanabe, Ryota Hayashi, Shinri Tomioka, Keiichi Kakui
We describe Hexapleomera urashima sp. nov. from the carapaces of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) on Yakushi-ma Island, southwestern Japan, the primary nesting site for the North Pacific population of this turtle. Hexapleomera urashima closely resembles H. edgari Bamber collected from Australian loggerheads (South Pacific population), sharing a uropod with four articles and maxillipedal endites with distal spiniform setae, but differs in having the maxillipedal coxa with two simple setae, the maxillipedal endite with two tiny dorsosubdistal and two distal spiniform setae, the labial palp fused to the outer lobe of the labium, and the basal article of pleopod 3 without inner setae...
November 22, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245147/levels-of-trace-elements-methylmercury-and-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-in-foraging-green-turtles-in-the-south-china-region-and-their-conservation-implications
#18
Connie Ka Yan Ng, James Chung Wah Lam, Xiao Hua Zhang, He Xiang Gu, Tsung Hsien Li, Min Bin Ye, Zhong Rong Xia, Fei Yan Zhang, Jin Xia Duan, Wen Xiong Wang, Isaac Kam Sum Lam, George H Balazs, Paul K S Lam, Margaret B Murphy
Sea turtles are globally endangered and face daily anthropogenic threats, including pollution. However, there is a lack of ecotoxicological information on sea turtles, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. This study aims to determine pollutant levels of foraging green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South China, including Hong Kong, Guangdong and Taiwan, as a basis for their conservation. Scute, liver and muscle tissues of stranded green turtles were analysed for levels of 17 trace elements and methylmercury (MeHg) (n = 86 for scute and n = 14 for liver) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (n = 11 for muscle and n = 13 for liver)...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244615/risk-assessment-for-japanese-encephalitis-vaccination
#19
Lance Turtle, Carolyn Driver
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most commonly diagnosed viral encephalitis in Asia. JE is caused by a virus called JE virus (JEV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, and is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. Neutralising antibody to JEV protects against JE, and can be induced by vaccination. JE is a potential threat to travellers to endemic areas, which are most of South and Southeast Asia and some Pacific Islands. The risk of JE can be expected to increase with increasing mosquito exposure and time spent in regions and seasons of active transmission...
December 15, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243208/plasma-cholinesterase-activity-in-female-green-turtles-chelonia-mydas-nesting-in-laguna-de-terminos-mexico-related-to-organochlorine-pesticides-in-their-eggs
#20
Gerardo Rivas-Hernández, Yaneli May-Uc, Elsa Noreña-Barroso, Víctor Cobos-Gasca, Gabriela Rodríguez-Fuentes
The inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity has been used as a biomarker of exposure to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. ChE of nesting female green turtles (Chelonia mydas) were biochemically characterized using two substrates, acetylthiocholine iodide and butyrylthiocholine iodide, and three ChE inhibitors (eserine sulfate, BW284C51 and iso-OMPA). The results indicated that BChE is the predominant plasma ChE in female C. mydas, but with atypical properties that differ from those found in human BChE...
December 14, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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