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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319283/critically-evaluating-best-management-practices-for-preventing-freshwater-turtle-extinctions
#1
R J Spencer, J U Van Dyke, Michael B Thompson
Ex situ conservation tools, such as captive breeding for reintroduction, are considered last resort to help recover threatened or endangered species. However, they may also provide alternative strategies where reducing threats directly is difficult or ineffective. Headstarting, or captive rearing of eggs or neonate animals and subsequent release into the wild, has been controversial for decades. A major criticism is that headstarting is a symptomatic treatment of conservation problems (halfway technology), however, it may provide a mechanism to address multiple threats, particularly in close proximity of population centres...
March 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319178/inter-nesting-movements-and-habitat-use-of-adult-female-kemp-s-ridley-turtles-in-the-gulf-of-mexico
#2
Donna J Shaver, Kristen M Hart, Ikuko Fujisaki, David Bucklin, Autumn R Iverson, Cynthia Rubio, Thomas F Backof, Patrick M Burchfield, Raul de Jesus Gonzales Diaz Miron, Peter H Dutton, Amy Frey, Jaime Peña, Daniel Gomez Gamez, Hector J Martinez, Jaime Ortiz
Species vulnerability is increased when individuals congregate in restricted areas for breeding; yet, breeding habitats are not well defined for many marine species. Identification and quantification of these breeding habitats are essential to effective conservation. Satellite telemetry and switching state-space modeling (SSM) were used to define inter-nesting habitat of endangered Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico. Turtles were outfitted with satellite transmitters after nesting at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USA, from 1998 through 2013 (n = 60); Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, during 2010 and 2011 (n = 11); and Tecolutla, Veracruz, Mexico, during 2012 and 2013 (n = 11)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314749/optical-influence-of-oil-droplets-on-cone-photoreceptor-sensitivity
#3
David Wilby, Nicholas W Roberts
Oil droplets are spherical organelles found in the cone photoreceptors of vertebrates. They are generally assumed to focus incident light into the outer segment, and thereby improve light catch because of the droplets' spherical lens-like shape. However, using full-wave optical simulations of physiologically realistic cone photoreceptors from birds, frogs and turtles we find that pigmented oil droplets actually drastically reduce the transmission of light into the outer segment integrated across the full visible wavelength range of each species...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306747/hypothermic-stunning-of-green-sea-turtles-in-a-western-gulf-of-mexico-foraging-habitat
#4
Donna J Shaver, Philippe E Tissot, Mary M Streich, Jennifer Shelby Walker, Cynthia Rubio, Anthony F Amos, Jeffrey A George, Michelle R Pasawicz
Texas waters provide one of the most important developmental and foraging habitats for juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the western Gulf of Mexico, but hypothermic stunning is a significant threat and was the largest cause of green turtle strandings in Texas from 1980 through 2015; of the 8,107 green turtles found stranded, 4,529 (55.9%) were victims of hypothermic stunning. Additionally, during this time, 203 hypothermic stunned green turtles were found incidentally captured due to power plant water intake entrapment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300612/characterization-of-melanin-concentrating-hormone-mch-and-its-receptor-in-chickens-tissue-expression-functional-analysis-and-fasting-induced-up-regulation-of-hypothalamic-mch-expression
#5
Lin Cui, Chan Lv, Jiannan Zhang, Chunheng Mo, Dongliang Lin, Juan Li, Yajun Wang
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide expressed in the brain and exerts its actions through interaction with the two known G protein-coupled receptors, namely melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 and 2 (MCHR1 and MCHR2) in mammals. However, the information regarding the expression and functionality of MCH and MCHR(s) remains largely unknown in birds. In this study, using RT-PCR and RACE PCR, we amplified and cloned a MCHR1-like receptor, which is named cMCHR4 according to its evolutionary origin, and a MCHR2 from chicken brain...
March 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296914/evolutionary-and-natural-history-of-the-turtle-frog-myobatrachus-gouldii-a-bizarre-myobatrachid-frog-in-the-southwestern-australian-biodiversity-hotspot
#6
Samantha Vertucci, Mitzy Pepper, Danielle L Edwards, J Dale Roberts, Nicola Mitchell, J Scott Keogh
Southwest Australia (SWA) is a global biodiversity hotspot and a centre of diversity and endemism for the Australo-Papuan myobatrachid frogs. Myobatrachus gouldii (the turtle frog) has a highly derived morphology associated with its forward burrowing behaviour, largely subterranean habit, and unusual mode of reproduction. Its sister genera Metacrinia and Arenophryne have restricted distributions in Western Australia with significant phylogeographic structure, leading to the recent description of a new species in the latter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296881/transcriptomic-responses-to-environmental-temperature-by-turtles-with-temperature-dependent-and-genotypic-sex-determination-assessed-by-rnaseq-inform-the-genetic-architecture-of-embryonic-gonadal-development
#7
Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert Literman, Jennifer Neuwald, Andrew Severin, Nicole Valenzuela
Vertebrate sexual fate is decided primarily by the individual's genotype (GSD), by the environmental temperature during development (TSD), or both. Turtles exhibit TSD and GSD, making them ideal to study the evolution of sex determination. Here we analyze temperature-specific gonadal transcriptomes (RNA-sequencing validated by qPCR) of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta TSD) before and during the thermosensitive period, and at equivalent stages in soft-shell turtles (Apalone spinifera-GSD), to test whether TSD's and GSD's transcriptional circuitry is identical but deployed differently between mechanisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296279/an-immunohistochemical-approach-to-identify-the-sex-of-young-marine-turtles
#8
Boris M Tezak, Kathleen Guthrie, Jeanette Wyneken
Marine turtles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). During critical periods of embryonic development, the nest's thermal environment directs whether an embryo will develop as a male or female. At warmer sand temperatures nests tend to produce female-biased sex ratios. The rapid increase of global temperature highlights the need for a clear assessment of its effects on sea turtle sex ratios. However, estimating hatchling sex ratios at rookeries remains imprecise due to the lack of sexual dimorphism in young marine turtles...
March 13, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295579/estimating-freshwater-turtle-mortality-rates-and-population-declines-following-hook-ingestion
#9
David A Steen, Orin J Robinson
Freshwater turtle populations are susceptible to declines following small increases in the mortality of adults, making it essential to identify and understand potential threats. Recent research has used x-ray technology to reveal that freshwater turtles ingest fish hooks associated with recreational angling; this is concerning because hook ingestion is a known source of additive mortality for sea turtles. We used a Bayesian-modeling framework, observed rates of freshwater turtle hook ingestion, and information from sea turtles to estimate there is a 1...
March 15, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294452/phylogenetic-relationships-and-divergence-dates-of-softshell-turtles-testudines-trionychidae-inferred-from-complete-mitochondrial-genomes
#10
Haifeng Li, Juanjuan Liu, Lei Xiong, Huanhuan Zhang, Huaxing Zhou, Huazong Yin, Wanxing Jing, Jun Li, Qiong Shi, Yuqin Wang, Jianjun Liu, Liuwang Nie
The softshell turtles (Trionychidae) are one of the most widely distributed reptile groups in the world, and fossils have been found on all continents except Antarctica. The phylogenetic relationships among members of this group have been previously studied; however, there are disagreements regarding its taxonomy, its phylogeography and divergence times are still poorly understood as well. Here we present a comprehensive mitogenomic study of softshell turtles. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 10 softshell turtles, in addition to the GenBank sequence of Dogania subplana, Lissemys punctata, Trionyx triunguis, which cover all extant genera within Trionychidae except for Cyclanorbis and Cycloderma...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289227/naturally-occurring-fluorescence-in-frogs
#11
Carlos Taboada, Andrés E Brunetti, Federico N Pedron, Fausto Carnevale Neto, Darío A Estrin, Sara E Bari, Lucía B Chemes, Norberto Peporine Lopes, María G Lagorio, Julián Faivovich
Fluorescence, the absorption of short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation reemitted at longer wavelengths, has been suggested to play several biological roles in metazoans. This phenomenon is uncommon in tetrapods, being restricted mostly to parrots and marine turtles. We report fluorescence in amphibians, in the tree frog Hypsiboas punctatus, showing that fluorescence in living frogs is produced by a combination of lymph and glandular emission, with pigmentary cell filtering in the skin. The chemical origin of fluorescence was traced to a class of fluorescent compounds derived from dihydroisoquinolinone, here named hyloins...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284546/accumulation-of-coal-combustion-residues-and-their-immunological-effects-in-the-yellow-bellied-slider-trachemys-scripta-scripta
#12
David L Haskins, Matthew T Hamilton, Amanda L Jones, John W Finger, Robert B Bringolf, Tracey D Tuberville
Anthropogenic activities such as industrial processes often produce copious amounts of contaminants that have the potential to negatively impact growth, survival, and reproduction of exposed wildlife. Coal combustion residues (CCRs) represent a major source of pollutants globally, resulting in the release of potentially harmful trace elements such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and selenium (Se) into the environment. In the United States, CCRs are typically stored in aquatic settling basins that may become attractive nuisances to wildlife...
March 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280912/identifying-critical-habitat-for-australian-freshwater-turtles-in-a-large-regulated-floodplain-implications-for-environmental-water-management
#13
J F Ocock, G Bino, S Wassens, J Spencer, R F Thomas, R T Kingsford
Freshwater turtles face many threats, including habitat loss and river regulation reducing occupancy and contributing to population decline. Limited knowledge of hydrological conditions required to maintain viable turtle populations in large floodplain wetlands hinders effective adaptive management of environmental water in regulated rivers. We surveyed three turtle species over 4 years across the Lower Murrumbidgee River floodplain, a large wetland complex with a long history of water resource development...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271603/the-division-of-chinese-soft-shelled-turtle-intestine-with-molecular-markers-is-slightly-different-from-the-morphological-and-histological-observation
#14
Zuobing Zhang, Ruxin Song, Xiao Xing, Lan Wang, Cuijuan Niu
Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) is a commercially important species in Asian countries. Knowledge of its nutritional requirements and physiology is essential to its feed production. However, the lack of functional characterization of the intestine prevents well understanding of its absorption and utilization of nutritional materials. To solve this problem, this work utilized anatomical and histological method to characterize 9 segments sampled along the anterior-posterior axis of the intestine...
March 8, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267966/the-turtle-s-shell
#15
Gerardo A Cordero
Gerardo Cordero introduces the turtle shell, an evolutionary novelty.
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267875/loggerhead-sea-turtle-embryos-caretta-caretta-regulate-expression-of-stress-response-and-developmental-genes-when-exposed-to-a-biologically-realistic-heat-stress
#16
Blair P Bentley, Brian J Haas, Jamie N Tedeschi, Oliver Berry
Oviparous reptile embryos are expected to breach their critical thermal maxima if temperatures reach those predicted under current climate change models due to the lack the maternal buffering processes and parental care. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are integral in the molecular response to thermal stress, and their expression is heritable, but the roles of other candidate families such as the heat shock factors (HSFs) have not been determined in reptiles. Here we subject embryonic sea turtles (Caretta caretta) to a biologically realistic thermal stress and employ de novo transcriptomic profiling of brain tissue to investigate the underlying molecular response...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267787/wfs1-is-expressed-in-dopaminoceptive-regions-of-the-amniote-brain-and-modulates-levels-of-d1-like-receptors
#17
Triin Tekko, Triin Lakspere, Anni Allikalt, Jaanus End, Karl Rene Kõlvart, Toomas Jagomäe, Anton Terasmaa, Mari-Anne Philips, Tanel Visnapuu, Fred Väärtnõu, Scott F Gilbert, Ago Rinken, Eero Vasar, Kersti Lilleväli
During amniote evolution, the construction of the forebrain has diverged across different lineages, and accompanying the structural changes, functional diversification of the homologous brain regions has occurred. This can be assessed by studying the expression patterns of marker genes that are relevant in particular functional circuits. In all vertebrates, the dopaminergic system is responsible for the behavioral responses to environmental stimuli. Here we show that the brain regions that receive dopaminergic input through dopamine receptor D1 are relatively conserved, but with some important variations between three evolutionarily distant vertebrate lines-house mouse (Mus musculus), domestic chick (Gallus gallus domesticus) / common quail (Coturnix coturnix) and red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267613/effect-of-ultrasound-assisted-extraction-on-the-physicochemical-and-functional-properties-of-collagen-from-soft-shelled-turtle-calipash
#18
Ye Zou, Li Wang, Panpan Cai, Pengpeng Li, Muhan Zhang, Zhilan Sun, Chong Sun, Weimin Xu, Daoying Wang
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and functional properties of acid-soluble collagen by ultrasound assisted extraction (UASC) from calipash of soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis). The results showed the collagen content was increased by 16.3% in UASC over the collagen from the conventional extraction (ASC). Both ASC and UASC contained a moderate amount of imino acid (197 and 216 residues/1000 residues, respectively) and hydrophobic amino acid (353 and 391 residues/1000 residues, respectively) in amino acid composition...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259785/protection-mechanisms-of-the-carapace-of-a-box-turtle
#19
Bingbing An, H Daniel Wagner
In this study we explore the materials design principles of the carapace of a Terrapene Carolina box turtle, which possesses a sandwich-like structure consisting of a foam-like interior layer (FIL) enclosed by two dense exterior layers (DEL). A constitutive scheme accounting for the large deformation, plastic yielding and post-yield strain hardening caused by densification of the cells in the foam is developed to model the mechanical properties of the FIL, and a large deformation elastic-plastic model for the DEL is proposed...
February 24, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249020/the-use-of-mesoscale-eddies-by-juvenile-loggerhead-sea-turtles-caretta-caretta-in-the-southwestern-atlantic
#20
Peter Gaube, Caren Barceló, Dennis J McGillicuddy, Andrés Domingo, Philip Miller, Bruno Giffoni, Neca Marcovaldi, Yonat Swimmer
Marine animals, such as turtles, seabirds and pelagic fishes, are observed to travel and congregate around eddies in the open ocean. Mesoscale eddies, large swirling ocean vortices with radius scales of approximately 50-100 km, provide environmental variability that can structure these populations. In this study, we investigate the use of mesoscale eddies by 24 individual juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence region. The influence of eddies on turtles is assessed by collocating the turtle trajectories to the tracks of mesoscale eddies identified in maps of sea level anomaly...
2017: PloS One
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