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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784960/some-like-it-hot-sex-determination-in-turtles
#1
Linda Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784931/reconstruction-of-the-diapsid-ancestral-genome-permits-chromosome-evolution-tracing-in-avian-and-non-avian-dinosaurs
#2
Rebecca E O'Connor, Michael N Romanov, Lucas G Kiazim, Paul M Barrett, Marta Farré, Joana Damas, Malcolm Ferguson-Smith, Nicole Valenzuela, Denis M Larkin, Darren K Griffin
Genomic organisation of extinct lineages can be inferred from extant chromosome-level genome assemblies. Here, we apply bioinformatic and molecular cytogenetic approaches to determine the genomic structure of the diapsid common ancestor. We then infer the events that likely occurred along this lineage from theropod dinosaurs through to modern birds. Our results suggest that most elements of a typical 'avian-like' karyotype (40 chromosome pairs, including 30 microchromosomes) were in place before the divergence of turtles from birds ~255 mya...
May 21, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783021/a-hyper-diverse-genus-of-acanthocephalans-revealed-by-tree-based-and-non-tree-based-species-delimitation-methods-ten-cryptic-species-of-neoechinorhynchus-in-middle-american-freshwater-fishes
#3
Carlos Daniel Pinacho-Pinacho, Martín García-Varela, Ana L Sereno-Uribe, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León
The genus Neoechinorhynchus represents a hyper-diverse group of acanthocephalans, parasites of fresh and brackish water fish and freshwater turtles, with approximately 116 species described worldwide. Forty-nine species have been recorded in the Americas, nine of them in Middle America. Even though species delimitation methods using DNA sequences have been rarely used for parasitic helminths, the genetic library for species of Neoechinorhynchus has grown in the past few years, enhancing the possibility of using these methods for inferring evolutionary relationships and for establishing more robust species boundaries...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782669/prevalence-of-active-charcot-disease-in-the-east-midlands-of-england
#4
L Metcalf, M Musgrove, J Bentley, R Berrington, D Bunting, M Mousley, J Thompson, M Sprengel, V Turtle-Savage, F Game, W Jeffcoate
AIMS: To undertake a prospective point prevalence study of the prevalence of active Charcot neuro-inflammatory osteoarthropathy (Charcot disease) in a circumscribed part of England and to audit the time elapsing between disease onset and first diagnosis. METHODS: The prevalence of active Charcot disease of the foot during a single month was assessed by specialist foot care teams at seven secondary care services in the East Midlands region of England. RESULTS: A total of 90 cases were identified, representing 4...
May 21, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781169/effects-of-urbanization-on-the-population-structure-of-freshwater-turtles-across-the-united-states
#5
David R Bowne, Bradley J Cosentino, Laurel J Anderson, Christopher P Bloch, Sandra Cooke, Patrick W Crumrine, Jason Dallas, Alexandra Doran, Jerald J Dosch, Daniel L Druckenbrod, Richard D Durtsche, Danielle Garneau, Kristen S Genet, Todd S Fredericksen, Peter A Kish, Mary Beth Kolozsvary, Frank T Kuserk, Erin S Lindquist, Carol Mankiewicz, James G March, Timothy J Muir, K Greg Murray, Madeline N Santulli, Frank J Sicignano, Peter D Smallwood, Rebecca A Urban, Kathy Winnett-Murray, Craig R Zimmermann
Landscape-scale alterations that accompany urbanization may negatively affect the population structure of wildlife species such as freshwater turtles. Changes to nesting sites and higher mortality rates due to vehicular collisions and increased predator populations may particularly affect immature turtles and mature female turtles. We hypothesized that the proportions of adult female and immature turtles in a population will negatively correlate with landscape urbanization. As a collaborative effort of the Ecological Research as Education Network (EREN), we sampled freshwater turtle populations in 11 states across the central and eastern United States...
May 20, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780268/filling-the-bins-of-life-report-of-an-amphibian-and-reptile-survey-of-the-tanintharyi-tenasserim-region-of-myanmar-with-dna-barcode-data
#6
Daniel G Mulcahy, Justin L Lee, Aryeh H Miller, Mia Chand, Myint Kyaw Thura, George R Zug
Despite threats of species extinctions, taxonomic crises, and technological advances in genomics and natural history database informatics, we are still distant from cataloguing all of the species of life on earth. Amphibians and reptiles are no exceptions; in fact new species are described nearly every day and many species face possible extinction. The number of described species continues to climb as new areas of the world are explored and as species complexes are examined more thoroughly. The use of DNA barcoding provides a mechanism for rapidly estimating the number of species at a given site and has the potential to record all of the species of life on Earth...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778799/physiological-vagility-affects-population-genetic-structure-and-dispersal-and-enables-migratory-capacity-in-vertebrates
#7
Thomas V Hancock, Michael S Hedrick
Vagility is defined as the relative capacity for movement. We developed previously a quantitative metric in vertebrates for physiological vagility (PV), the speed at which an animal can move sustainably, incorporating aerobic capacity, body size, body temperature, and transport costs, allowing quantitative tests of whether PV can explain variation in interclass population genetic structure and behaviors involved in dispersal. We found that PV increased with body mass, correlated with maximal dispersal distances, and was inversely related to genetic structure in multiple vertebrate groups...
May 17, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770276/the-evaluation-of-anoxia-responsive-e2f-dna-binding-activity-in-the-red-eared-slider-turtle-trachemys-scripta-elegans
#8
Kyle K Biggar, Kenneth B Storey
In many cases, the DNA-binding activity of a transcription factor does not change, while its transcriptional activity is greatly influenced by the make-up of bound proteins. In this study, we assessed the protein composition and DNA-binding ability of the E2F transcription factor complex to provide insight into cell cycle control in an anoxia tolerant turtle through the use of a modified ELISA protocol. This modification also permits the use of custom DNA probes that are tailored to a specific DNA binding region, introducing the ability to design capture probes for non-model organisms...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770271/comparison-of-hoop-net-trapping-and-visual-surveys-to-monitor-abundance-of-the-rio-grande-cooter-pseudemys-gorzugi
#9
Ivana Mali, Adam Duarte, Michael R J Forstner
Abundance estimates play an important part in the regulatory and conservation decision-making process. It is important to correct monitoring data for imperfect detection when using these data to track spatial and temporal variation in abundance, especially in the case of rare and elusive species. This paper presents the first attempt to estimate abundance of the Rio Grande cooter ( Pseudemys gorzugi ) while explicitly considering the detection process. Specifically, in 2016 we monitored this rare species at two sites along the Black River, New Mexico via traditional baited hoop-net traps and less invasive visual surveys to evaluate the efficacy of these two sampling designs...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768254/neuroprotection-against-hypoxic-ischemic-injury-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors-and-bdnf-trkb-pathway
#10
Shiying Sheng, Jingzhong Huang, Yi Ren, Feng Zhi, Xuansong Tian, Guoqiang Wen, Guanghong Ding, Terry C Xia, Fei Hua, Ying Xia
The delta-opioid receptor (DOR) is one of three classic opioid receptors in the opioid system. It was traditionally thought to be primarily involved in modulating the transmission of messages along pain signaling pathway. Although there were scattered studies on its other neural functions, inconsistent results and contradicting conclusions were found in past literatures, especially in terms of DOR's role in a hypoxic/ischemic brain. Taking inspiration from the finding that the turtle brain exhibits a higher DOR density and greater tolerance to hypoxic/ischemic insult than the mammalian brain, we clarified DOR's specific role in the brain against hypoxic/ischemic injury and reconciled previous controversies in this aspect...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761657/nesting-environment-may-drive-variation-in-eggshell-structure-and-egg-characteristics-in-the-testudinata
#11
D Charles Deeming
Testudines exhibit considerable variation in the degree of eggshell calcification, which affects eggshell conductance, water physiology of the embryos, and calcium metabolism of embryos. However, the underlying reason for different shell types has not been explored. Phylogenetically controlled analyses examined relationships between egg size, shell mass, and clutch size in ∼200 turtle species from a range of body sizes and assigned by family as laying either rigid- or pliable-shelled eggs. Shell type affected egg breadth relative to pelvic dimensions, egg mass, and relative shell mass but did not affect size, mass, or total shell mass of the clutch...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759112/remodelling-of-mitochondria-during-spermiogenesis-of-chinese-soft-shelled-turtle-pelodiscus-sinensis
#12
Abdul Haseeb, Hong Chen, Yufei Huang, Ping Yang, Xuejing Sun, Adeela Iqbal, Nisar Ahmed, Taozhi Wang, Noor Samad Gandahi, Xuebing Bai, Qiusheng Chen
Mitochondria are vital cellular organelles that have the ability to change their shape under different conditions, such as in response to stress, disease, changes in metabolic rate, energy requirements and apoptosis. In the present study, we observed remodelling of mitochondria during spermiogenesis and its relationship with mitochondria-associated granules (MAG). At the beginning of spermiogenesis, mitochondria are characterised by their round shape. As spermiogenesis progresses, the round-shaped mitochondria change into elongated and then swollen mitochondria, subsequently forming a crescent-like shape and finally developing into onion-like shaped mitochondria...
May 15, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753227/cadmium-in-tissues-of-green-turtles-chelonia-mydas-a-global-perspective-for-marine-biota
#13
REVIEW
Nairana Santos Fraga, Agnaldo Silva Martins, Derek R Faust, Haruya Sakai, Adalto Bianchini, Cinthia Carneiro da Silva, A Alonso Aguirre
Cadmium (Cd) is a metal of toxicological interest because of its potential high toxicity to organisms and ability to biomagnify. Evaluating concentrations of Cd in organisms on a large spatial scale can provide insights to its global distribution. This study examined Cd concentrations in kidney and liver tissues of 137 specimens of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) collected in Australia, Brazil, Hawaii, Japan, and the continental United States (Gulf of Mexico). We used comparative analyses of kidney and liver of 35 individuals, of which seven turtles from each locality belong to the same size class for comparison purposes between their ocean of origin...
May 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750291/collagen-peptides-from-soft%C3%A2-shelled-turtle-induce-calpain%C3%A2-1-expression-and-regulate-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-in-hacat-human-skin-keratinocytes
#14
Tetsushi Yamamoto, Saori Nakanishi, Kuniko Mitamura, Atsushi Taga
Collagen peptides (CPs), derived by hydrolyzing collagen with chemicals or enzymes, are often used as functional materials, due to their various bioactivities and high bioavailability. A previous study by our group reported that collagen from soft‑shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, induces keratinocytes to undergo epithelial‑mesenchymal transition and facilitates wound healing. Therefore, CPs derived from soft‑shelled turtle collagen may have useful effects on the skin. In the present study, the functional effects of CPs on human skin were examined by analyzing CP‑treated human keratinocytes with a shotgun liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry‑based global proteomic approach...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748283/the-histone-demethylase-kdm6b-regulates-temperature-dependent-sex-determination-in-a-turtle-species
#15
Chutian Ge, Jian Ye, Ceri Weber, Wei Sun, Haiyan Zhang, Yingjie Zhou, Cheng Cai, Guoying Qian, Blanche Capel
Temperature-dependent sex determination is a notable model of phenotypic plasticity. In many reptiles, including the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta elegans ( T. scripta ), the individual's sex is determined by the ambient temperature during egg incubation. In this study, we show that the histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase KDM6B exhibits temperature-dependent sexually dimorphic expression in early T. scripta embryos before the gonad is distinct. Knockdown of Kdm6b at 26°C (a temperature at which all offspring develop into males) triggers male-to-female sex reversal in >80% of surviving embryos...
May 11, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748215/high-resting-metabolic-rates-with-low-thermal-dependence-induce-active-dives-in-overwintering-pacific-juvenile-loggerhead-turtles
#16
Chihiro Kinoshita, Takuya Fukuoka, Yasuaki Niizuma, Tomoko Narazaki, Katsufumi Sato
The metabolic rate and activity of sea turtles generally decreases with decreasing seasonal ambient temperature. Juvenile loggerhead turtles in the Mediterranean Sea made prolonged inactive dives (>400 min), indicating a state of dormancy during the cold winter period. However, seasonal differences in dive duration were not detected in juvenile loggerheads in the western North Pacific, even though the ambient water temperature changed by more than 10°C. Thus, metabolic states might differ among populations, explaining differences in the diving behaviour of juveniles during winter...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731682/amphibians-and-reptiles-of-the-state-of-san-luis-potos%C3%A3-mexico-with-comparisons-with-adjoining-states
#17
Julio A Lemos-Espinal, Geoffrey R Smith, Guillermo A Woolrich-Piña
A summary of the species of amphibians and reptiles of the state has been compiled, including their geographic distributions, habitats, and conservation statuses. The herpetofauna of San Luis Potosí consists of 41 species of amphibians and 141 species of reptiles. San Luis Potosí shares the highest number of species with Hidalgo and Tamaulipas, and the least number of species with Nuevo León. In San Luis Potosí, there are several taxa of particular conservation concern including salamanders, emydid and trionychid turtles, anguid and xenosaurid lizards, and natricid and colubrid snakes...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728774/millennium-old-farm-breeding-of-chinese-softshell-turtles-pelodiscus-spp-results-in-massive-erosion-of-biodiversity
#18
Shiping Gong, Melita Vamberger, Markus Auer, Peter Praschag, Uwe Fritz
Chinese softshell turtles (Pelodiscus spp.) are widely distributed, ranging from the Amur and Ussuri Rivers in the Russian Far East through the Korean Peninsula, Japan, and eastern, central, and southern China to southern Vietnam. In East and Southeast Asia, Chinese softshell turtles are traditionally exploited for food and have been farm-bred in China since the Spring and Autumn Period, more than 2400 years ago. Currently, the annual production of Pelodiscus amounts to 340,000 t in China alone. Using mitochondrial DNA (2428 bp) and five nuclear loci (3704 bp), we examined broad sampling of wild and farm-bred Pelodiscus to infer genetic and taxonomic differentiation...
May 4, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727947/first-ecotoxicological-assessment-of-caretta-caretta-linnaeus-1758-in-the-mediterranean-sea-using-an-integrated-nondestructive-protocol
#19
Silvia Casini, Ilaria Caliani, Matteo Giannetti, Letizia Marsili, Silvia Maltese, Daniele Coppola, Nicola Bianchi, Tommaso Campani, Stefania Ancora, Chiara Caruso, Giovanni Furii, Mariluz Parga, Antonella D'Agostino, Maria Cristina Fossi
The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) is a long-lived carnivorous reptile included in the IUCN Red List. The IUCN assessment for this species underlines the lack of information regarding pollution and pathogens and indicates as a priority effort to investigate and reduce the impacts of these threats. In this contest, the aim of our study was to conduct the first ecotoxicological assessment of this species in the Mediterranean Sea using a nondestructive integrated methodology. We set up and applied a monitoring protocol which includes endpoints, such as CYP1A, LPO, ENA assay, B esterases, never investigated before in this species...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720661/earliest-known-hominin-activity-in-the-philippines-by-709-thousand-years-ago
#20
T Ingicco, G D van den Bergh, C Jago-On, J-J Bahain, M G Chacón, N Amano, H Forestier, C King, K Manalo, S Nomade, A Pereira, M C Reyes, A-M Sémah, Q Shao, P Voinchet, C Falguères, P C H Albers, M Lising, G Lyras, D Yurnaldi, P Rochette, A Bautista, J de Vos
Over 60 years ago, stone tools and remains of megafauna were discovered on the Southeast Asian islands of Flores, Sulawesi and Luzon, and a Middle Pleistocene colonization by Homo erectus was initially proposed to have occurred on these islands1-4 . However, until the discovery of Homo floresiensis in 2003, claims of the presence of archaic hominins on Wallacean islands were hypothetical owing to the absence of in situ fossils and/or stone artefacts that were excavated from well-documented stratigraphic contexts, or because secure numerical dating methods of these sites were lacking...
May 2, 2018: Nature
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