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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644115/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-lightweight-fibreglass-heel-casts-in-the-management-of-ulcers-of-the-heel-in-diabetes-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
William Jeffcoate, Frances Game, Vivienne Turtle-Savage, Alison Musgrove, Patricia Price, Wei Tan, Lucy Bradshaw, Alan Montgomery, Deborah Fitzsimmons, Angela Farr, Thomas Winfield, Ceri Phillips
BACKGROUND: Ulcers of the foot in people with diabetes mellitus are slow to heal and result in considerable cost and patient suffering. The prognosis is worst for ulcers of the heel. OBJECTIVE: To assess both the clinical effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of lightweight fibreglass casts in the management of heel ulcers. DESIGN: A pragmatic, multicentre, parallel, observer-blinded randomised controlled trial. A central randomisation centre used a computer-generated random number sequence to allocate participants to groups...
May 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642099/developmental-cardiovascular-physiology-of-the-olive-ridley-sea-turtle-lepidochelys-olivacea
#2
Dane Alan Crossley, Janna Lee Crossley, Camilla Smith, Martha Harfush, Hermilo Sánchez-Sánchez, Mónica Vanessa Garduño-Paz, José Fernando Méndez-Sánchez
Our understanding of reptilian cardiovascular development and regulation has increased substantially for two species the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) during the past two decades. However, what we know about cardiovascular maturation in many other species remains poorly understood or unknown. Embryonic sea turtles have been studied to understand the maturation of metabolic function, but these studies have not addressed the cardiovascular system...
June 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641604/prevalence-and-genetic-diversity-of-blood-parasite-mixed-infections-in-spanish-terrapins-mauremys-leprosa
#3
Alfonso Marzal, Alejandro Ibáñez, Manuel González-Blázquez, Pilar López, José Martín
Blood parasites such as haemogregarines and haemosporidians have been identified in almost all groups of vertebrates and may cause serious damages to their hosts. However, very little is known about biodiversity of these parasites and their effects on some groups of reptiles such as terrapins. Moreover, the information on virulence from blood parasites mixed infection is largely unknown in reptiles. With this aim, we investigated for the first time the prevalence and genetic diversity of blood parasites from one genus of haemoparasitic aplicomplexan (Hepatozoon) in two populations of Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa), a semi-aquatic turtle from southwestern Europe with a vulnerable conservation status...
June 23, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639473/revision-and-new-species-of-vasotrema-stunkard-1926-digenea-schistosomatoidea-turtle-blood-flukes-of-north-american-softshell-turtles-testudines-trionychidae-apalone-spp
#4
Jackson Roberts, Stephen Ashton Bullard
Gulf Coast spiny softshell turtles, Apalone spinifera aspera (Agassiz, 1857), (Testudines: Trionychidae) from Canoe Lake (33°47'56.16"N, 86°29'25.02"W; Springville, Alabama, USA) and Round Lake (32°41'50.91"N, 87°14'30.39"W; Perry Lakes State Park, Marion, Alabama, USA) were infected by Vasotrema robustum Stunkard, 1928, Vasotrema longitestis Byrd, 1939, and Vasotrema rileyae n. sp. The new species differs from its congeners by having papillate suckers, a short testis, an ovary dextral to the oviduct, and a pre-ovarian genital pore that is lateral to the ventral sucker...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636430/when-is-embryonic-arrest-broken-in-turtle-eggs
#5
Sean A Williamson, Roger G Evans, Richard D Reina
Turtle embryos enter a state of arrested development in the oviduct, allowing the mother greater flexibility in her reproductive schedule. Development recommences once eggs transition from the hypoxic oviduct to the normoxic nest. Significant mortality can occur if turtle eggs are moved between 12 h and 20 d after oviposition, and this is linked to the recommencement of embryonic development. To better understand the timing of developmental arrest and to determine how movement-induced mortality might be avoided, we determined the latency (i...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635148/how-common-are-cranial-sesamoids-among-squamates
#6
Ricardo Montero, Juan D Daza, Aaron M Bauer, Virginia Abdala
Sesamoids are elements that originate as intratendinous structures due to genetic and epigenetic factors. These elements have been reported frequently in vertebrates, although cranial sesamoids have been recorded almost exclusively in non-tetrapod Osteichthyes. The only tetrapod cranial sesamoids reported until now have been the transiliens cartilage (of crocodiles and turtles), and another one located in the quadrate-mandibular joint of birds. Here, we examined seven squamate species using histological sections, dissections of preserved specimens, dry skeletons, cleared and stained specimens, computed tomographies (CT), and report the presence of other cranial sesamoids...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631031/metals-in-blood-and-eggs-of-green-sea-turtles-chelonia-mydas-from-nesting-colonies-of-the-northern-coast-of-the-sea-of-oman
#7
Mahmood Sinaei, Mehdi Bolouki
The green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) has been a species of global concern for decades. In this study, heavy metals (mercury: Hg; Cadmium: Cd; Lead: Pb; Copper: Cu; and Zinc: Zn) were measured in blood and three egg fraction of green sea turtles nesting on the northern coast of Sea of Oman. Heavy metals concentrations in blood, yolk, albumen, and egg shell ranged between 0.16-36.78, 0.006-33.88, 0.003-4.02, and 0.002-6.85 μg/g (ww), respectively. According to the results, all heavy metals found in blood samples (n = 12) also were detected in the various parts of the eggs (n = 48)...
June 19, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630932/differential-intron-retention-in-jumonji-chromatin-modifier-genes-is-implicated-in-reptile-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#8
Ira W Deveson, Clare E Holleley, James Blackburn, Jennifer A Marshall Graves, John S Mattick, Paul D Waters, Arthur Georges
In many vertebrates, sex of offspring is determined by external environmental cues rather than by sex chromosomes. In reptiles, for instance, temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is common. Despite decades of work, the mechanism by which temperature is converted into a sex-determining signal remains mysterious. This is partly because it is difficult to distinguish the primary molecular events of TSD from the confounding downstream signatures of sexual differentiation. We use the Australian central bearded dragon, in which chromosomal sex determination is overridden at high temperatures to produce sex-reversed female offspring, as a unique model to identify TSD-specific features of the transcriptome...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627488/diversity-of-veronaea-botryosa-from-different-hosts-and-evaluation-of-laboratory-challenge-models-for-phaeohyphomycosis-in-acipenser-transmontanus
#9
Esteban Soto, Christine Richey, Stephen R Reichley, Brittany Stevens, Kirsten V Kenelty, Janiee Lewis, Barbara Byrne, Nathan P Wiederhold, Thomas B Waltzek, Matthew F Sheley, Alvin C Camus, Matt J Griffin
Veronaea botryosa has been identified as a pathogen of cultured white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. In 2015, samples from 19 white sturgeon were received for diagnosis, of which 14 cultured positive for V. botryosa. Intraspecific variability among V. botryosa isolates from different clinically affected hosts and geographic regions was investigated using repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting (rep-PCR). The rep-PCR profiles of 16 V. botryosa isolates from a human, sea turtles, and cultured fish were distinct from those of other phaeoid fungi belonging to the genera Cladophialophora and Exophiala...
June 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627010/a-turtle-cognition-research-demonstration-enhances-visitor-engagement-and-keeper-animal-relationships
#10
Andrew C Alba, Katherine A Leighty, Victoria L Pittman Courte, Alison P Grand, Tamara L Bettinger
Environmental enrichment techniques present animals with cognitive challenges while providing them opportunities to make choices and exert control over their environment. In this way, cognitive research and training is enriching to animals and can be used as a form of enrichment in zoos and aquariums. Cognitive research demonstrations also provide an opportunity to enhance visitor experience, as well as foster interactions between animals and keepers. We investigated how cognitive research sessions involving eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) at Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) impacted both the rate of visitors coming to the exhibit and the amount of time they spent engaged...
June 18, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621028/climate-change-and-temperature-linked-hatchling-mortality-at-a-globally-important-sea-turtle-nesting-site
#11
Jacques-Olivier Laloë, Jacquie Cozens, Berta Renom, Albert Taxonera, Graeme C Hays
The study of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) in vertebrates has attracted major scientific interest. Recently, concerns for species with TSD in a warming world have increased because imbalanced sex ratios could potentially threaten population viability. In contrast, relatively little attention has been given to the direct effects of increased temperatures on successful embryonic development. Using 6603 days of sand temperature data recorded across 6 years at a globally important loggerhead sea turtle rookery-the Cape Verde Islands-we show the effects of warming incubation temperatures on the survival of hatchlings in nests...
June 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620151/reproductive-innovation-and-the-recognition-of-a-new-genus-within-the-polystomatidae-monogenea-infecting-chelonian-vertebrates
#12
Richard C Tinsley
Polystomatid monogeneans have a wide diversity of life cycles correlated with the varied ecology and behaviour of their aquatic vertebrate hosts. Typically, transmission involves a swimming infective larva but most hosts are amphibious and invasion is interrupted when hosts leave water. A key life cycle adaptation involves a uterus that, in the most specialised cases, may contain several hundred fully-developed larvae prepared for instant host-to-host transmission. By contrast, one subfamily of the Polystomatidae - the Polystomoidinae, specific to chelonians (freshwater turtles) - has a simplified reproductive system without a uterus...
June 7, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619267/multiple-paternity-in-the-cultured-yellow-pond-turtles-mauremys-mutica
#13
Xin-Cheng Zhang, Jian Zhao, Wei Li, Cheng-Qing Wei, Xin-Ping Zhu
As a result of hunting and habitat loss, wild populations of the yellow pond turtle, Mauremys mutica, are decreasing. The International Union for Conservation of Nature considers M. mutica to be an endangered species. All studied freshwater turtles have polyandrous mating with multiple paternity. To survey the mating strategies of M. mutica, 1year's genetic data of parents and all offspring in an artificially captive population were analyzed. Two groups of multiplex PCR containing 16 microsatellite loci were used to analyze the paternity of 302 hatchlings from 132 parents and from 159 clutches...
June 9, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615885/nyctotherus-sp-infection-in-pet-turtle-a-case-report
#14
Ajay S Satbige, Vivek R Kasaralikar, S C Halmandge, C Rajendran
The present clinical case represents the successful therapeutic management of Nyctotherus sp. protozoan infection in turtles. Two pet turtles were presented with history of diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss and passage of undigested food in the faeces. Direct faecal examination and Giemsa staining revealed the presence of cysts of Nyctotherus sp. Treatment was initiated with antiprotozoal drug, Metronidazole at the rate of 25 mg/kg body weight per-oral consecutively for 5 days, and Vimeral suspension at rate of 10-20 mg/kg per-oral for 8 days...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615209/in-vitro-replication-of-chelonid-herpesvirus-5-in-organotypic-skin-cultures-from-hawaiian-green-turtles-chelonia-mydas
#15
Thierry M Work, Julie Dagenais, Tina M Weatherby, George H Balazs, Mathias Ackermann
Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a tumor disease of marine turtles associated with Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) that has historically been refractory to growth in tissue culture. Here, we show for the first time de novo formation of ChHV5-positive intranuclear inclusions in cultured green turtle cells, which is indicative for active lytic replication of the virus. The minimal requirements to achieve lytic replication in cultured cells included 1) either in-vitro culturing of ChHV5-positive tumor biopsies (plugs) or organotypic cultures (rafts) consisting of ChHV5-positive turtle fibroblasts in collagen rafts seeded with turtle keratinocytes and 2) keratinocyte maturation induced by raising raft or biopsy cultures to the air-liquid interface...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612926/the-use-of-silver-amalgam-for-treatment-of-shell-ulcerations-in-turtles-60-cases
#16
F Spadola, M Morici
Shell ulcers were diagnosed based on clinical appearance in 60 turtles. Under general anaesthesia, surgical curettage was performed using a burr mounted on a micro-grinder. A calcium hydroxide paste was applied to the debrided lesions before the application of restorative material. Lesions were completely filled with rapidly hardening silver amalgam. Treated terrapins were hospitalised in dry containers and later were housed in tanks with controlled temperature 24 hours. Fillings were found spontaneously expulsed at various periods after placement...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611685/entosis-acts-as-a-novel-way-within-sertoli-cells-to-eliminate-spermatozoa-in-seminiferous-tubule
#17
Nisar Ahmed, Ping Yang, Yufei Huang, Hong Chen, Tengfei Liu, Lingling Wang, Fazul Nabi, Yi Liu, Qiusheng Chen
The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that in vivo entosis is a novel pathway for eliminating spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules (ST) during hibernation of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of LAMP1 in the testis was significantly higher during hibernation than that during non-hibernation. Immunohistochemistry reaction showed that LAMP1-positive substance was distributed within the Sertoli cells of the testis. Further examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), many degraded spermatozoa being enwrapped within large entotic vacuoles in Sertoli cells...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606614/plastic-ingestion-in-oceanic-stage-loggerhead-sea-turtles-caretta-caretta-off-the-north-atlantic-subtropical-gyre
#18
Christopher K Pham, Yasmina Rodríguez, Axelle Dauphin, Rita Carriço, João P G L Frias, Frederic Vandeperre, Vanessa Otero, Marco R Santos, Helen R Martins, Alan B Bolten, Karen A Bjorndal
Juvenile oceanic-stage sea turtles are particularly vulnerable to the increasing quantity of plastic coming into the oceans. In this study, we analysed the gastrointestinal tracts of 24 juvenile oceanic-stage loggerheads (Caretta caretta) collected off the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, in the Azores region, a key feeding ground for juvenile loggerheads. Twenty individuals were found to have ingested marine debris (83%), composed exclusively of plastic items (primarily polyethylene and polypropylene) identified by μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy...
June 9, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603688/novel-piroplasmid-and-hepatozoon-organisms-infecting-the-wildlife-of-two-regions-of-the-brazilian-amazon
#19
Herbert S Soares, Arlei Marcili, Amália R M Barbieri, Antonio H H Minervino, Thiago Rocha Moreira, Solange M Gennari, Marcelo B Labruna
During 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in two areas within the Amazon biome of Brazil, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Animal tissues and blood were molecularly tested for the presence of Piroplasmida (genera Babesia, Theileria, Cytauxzoon) or Hepatozoon DNA. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. The following Piroplasmida agents were detected: Cytauxzoon felis in one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), Theileria cervi in two red brocket deer (Mazama americana), Theileria spp...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601036/light-pollution-affects-nesting-behavior-of-loggerhead-turtles-and-predation-risk-of-nests-and-hatchlings
#20
Elton Silva, Adolfo Marco, Jesemine da Graça, Héctor Pérez, Elena Abella, Juan Patino-Martinez, Samir Martins, Corrine Almeida
The introduction of artificial light into wildlife habitats is a rapidly expanding aspect of global change, which has many negative impacts on a wide range of taxa. In this experimental study, which took place on a beach located on the island of Boa Vista (Cabo Verde), three types of artificial light were tested on nesting loggerhead sea turtles as well as on ghost crabs, which intensively predate on nests and hatchlings, to determine the effects they would produce on the behavior of both species. Over the course of 36days, female loggerheads and ghost crabs were studied under yellow, orange and red lights, with observations also being made on dark nights that served as a control treatment...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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