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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940178/experiences-from-harvest-driven-conservation-management-of-amazonian-river-turtles-as-a-common-pool-resource
#1
Elina Harju, Anders H Sirén, Matti Salo
Understanding what causes variability in the outcomes of common-pool resources management and governance has important policy implications for biodiversity conservation, in particular for the conservation of wild plants and animals subject to harvest. We report an exploratory study focusing on Amazonian river turtles as a common-pool resource under harvest-driven conservation and management efforts in Peru. Based on document analysis, literature review and a series of interviews, we describe the management program as a social process and identify the most important governance and management outcomes achieved (increased turtle abundance and benefits for harvesters, harvester formalization), factors hindering and facilitating the program implementation (four natural and three societal factors), and key governance actions behind the program outcomes (awareness and capacity building, crafting and enforcing rules)...
September 22, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939564/the-effects-of-ph-and-pi-on-tension-and-ca-2-sensitivity-of-ventricular-myofilaments-from-the-anoxia-tolerant-painted-turtle
#2
Cornelia E Fanter, Kenneth S Campbell, Daniel E Warren
We aimed to determine how increases in intracellular H(+) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) to levels observed during anoxic submergence affect contractility in ventricular muscle of the anoxia-tolerant Western painted turtle, Chrysemys picta bellii Skinned multicellular preparations were exposed to six treatments with physiologically relevant levels of pH (7.4, 7.0, 6.6), and Pi (3 mM and 8 mM). Each preparation was tested in a range of calcium concentrations (pCa 9.0-pCa 4.5) to determine the pCa-tension relationship for each treatment...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939125/toxic-elements-and-associations-with-hematology-plasma-biochemistry-and-protein-electrophoresis-in-nesting-loggerhead-sea-turtles-caretta-caretta-from-casey-key-florida
#3
Justin R Perrault, Nicole I Stacy, Andreas F Lehner, Savannah K Poor, John P Buchweitz, Catherine J Walsh
Toxic elements (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium, thallium) are a group of contaminants that are known to elicit developmental, reproductive, general health, and immune system effects in reptiles, even at low concentrations. Reptiles, including marine turtles, are susceptible to accumulation of toxic elements due to their long life span, low metabolic rate, and highly efficient conversion of prey into biomass. The objectives of this study were to (1) document concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium, and thallium in whole blood and keratin from nesting loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from Casey Key, Florida and document correlations thereof and (2) correlate whole blood toxic element concentrations to various hematological and plasma biochemistry analytes...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935865/melanoblast-development-coincides-with-the-late-emerging-cells-from-the-dorsal-neural-tube-in-turtle-trachemys-scripta
#4
Ritva Rice, Judith Cebra-Thomas, Maarja Haugas, Juha Partanen, David P C Rice, Scott F Gilbert
Ectothermal reptiles have internal pigmentation, which is not seen in endothermal birds and mammals. Here we show that the development of the dorsal neural tube-derived melanoblasts in turtle Trachemys scripta is regulated by similar mechanisms as in other amniotes, but significantly later in development, during the second phase of turtle trunk neural crest emigration. The development of melanoblasts coincided with a morphological change in the dorsal neural tube between stages mature G15 and G16. The melanoblasts delaminated and gathered in the carapacial staging area above the neural tube at G16, and differentiated into pigment-forming melanocytes during in vitro culture...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931936/bite-force-in-the-horned-frog-ceratophrys-cranwelli-with-implications-for-extinct-giant-frogs
#5
A Kristopher Lappin, Sean C Wilcox, David J Moriarty, Stephanie A R Stoeppler, Susan E Evans, Marc E H Jones
Of the nearly 6,800 extant frog species, most have weak jaws that play only a minor role in prey capture. South American horned frogs (Ceratophrys) are a notable exception. Aggressive and able to consume vertebrates their own size, these "hopping heads" use a vice-like grip of their jaws to restrain and immobilize prey. Using a longitudinal experimental design, we quantified the ontogenetic profile of bite-force performance in post-metamorphic Ceratophrys cranwelli. Regression slopes indicate positive allometric scaling of bite force with reference to head and body size, results that concur with scaling patterns across a diversity of taxa, including fish and amniotes (lizards, tuatara, turtles, crocodylians, rodents)...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931610/the-coupling-of-synaptic-inputs-to-local-cortical-activity-differs-among-neurons-and-adapts-following-stimulus-onset
#6
Nathaniel Caleb Wright, Mahmood Sayed Hoseini, Tansel Baran Yasar, Ralf Wessel
Cortical activity contributes significantly to the high variability of sensory responses of interconnected pyramidal neurons, which has crucial implications for sensory coding. Yet, largely because of technical limitations of in vivo intracellular recordings, the coupling of a pyramidal neuron's synaptic inputs to the local cortical activity has evaded full understanding. Here, we obtained excitatory synaptic conductance (g) measurements from putative pyramidal neurons and local field potential (LFP) recordings from adjacent cortical circuits during visual processing in the turtle whole-brain ex vivo preparation...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924019/kinetics-and-biomarkers-of-severe-cytokine-release-syndrome-after-cd19-chimeric-antigen-receptor-modified-t-cell-therapy
#7
Kevin A Hay, Laïla-Aïcha Hanafi, Daniel Li, Juliane Gust, W Conrad Liles, Mark M Wurfel, José A López, Junmei Chen, Dominic Chung, Susanna Harju-Baker, Sindhu Cherian, Xueyan Chen, Stanley R Riddell, David G Maloney, Cameron J Turtle
Lymphodepletion chemotherapy followed by infusion of CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells (CAR-T) has produced impressive antitumor responses in patients with refractory CD19(+) B cell malignancies, but is often associated with cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Our understanding of CRS continues to evolve, and identification of the kinetics of CRS and predictive clinical and laboratory biomarkers of severity are needed to evaluate strategies to mitigate toxicity. We report the clinical presentation and identify biomarkers of severe CRS in 133 adult patients who received CD19 CAR-T cells...
September 18, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920820/morbidity-and-mortality-of-wild-turtles-at-a-north-carolina-wildlife-clinic-a-10-year-retrospective
#8
Alexandra Sack, Eric Butler, Peter Cowen, Gregory A Lewbart
The medical records from 1,847 wild turtle patients seen between 2005 and 2014 by the Turtle Rescue Team at the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine were analyzed. Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina; n = 947), yellow-bellied sliders (Trachemys scripta scripta; n = 301), cooters ( Pseudemys spp.; n = 235), common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina; n = 165), and eastern painted turtles (Chrysemys picta; n = 93) made up 94.3% of all patients. Patient admissions peaked in May when 25...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920808/characterizing-the-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-status-of-two-populations-of-free-ranging-eastern-box-turtles-terrapene-carolina-carolina
#9
Megan K Watson, John Byrd, Christopher A Phillips, Matthew C Allender
Ultraviolet B radiation is recommended for captive reptiles to stimulate production of adequate levels of vitamin D; however, little is known regarding the vitamin D status in many free-ranging populations. Current reference ranges for vitamin D in eastern box turtles have not yet been established. Sixty free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) from two well-studied populations in Illinois (n = 24) and Tennessee (n = 36) were assayed for plasma vitamin D concentration in 2014. There were no significant differences in concentrations between individuals in Illinois (mean: 117...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920793/multi-drug-resistance-patterns-of-enteric-bacteria-in-two-populations-of-free-ranging-eastern-box-turtles-terrapene-carolina-carolina
#10
Cari Rasmussen, Matthew C Allender, Christopher A Phillips, John Byrd, Terrell Lloyd, Carol Maddox
Gram-negative isolates (n = 84) from 71% of free-ranging Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) in Illinois and Tennessee, United States, demonstrated resistance to at least one antibiotic while 30% of isolates demonstrated resistance to two or more antibiotics. Resistance was observed against cefoxitin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefazolin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, cefovecin, and ceftiofur. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated from 49 turtles, and all were observed to be resistant to two or more antibiotics...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918536/a-comparative-study-of-inorganic-elements-in-the-blood-of-male-and-female-caspian-pond-turtles-mauremys-caspica-from-the-southern-basin-of-the-caspian-sea
#11
Milad Adel, Adriana A Cortés-Gómez, Maryam Dadar, Hossein Riyahi, Marc Girondot
Due to their bioaccumulation and biomagnification pathways, inorganic elements can accumulate in high-level aquatic organisms in the food web. Then, this species can be used to monitor the quality of the environment. Blood concentration of nine inorganic elements, including possible toxic metals (An, Cu, Mn, Se, As, Ni, Cd, Pb, and Hg), in 20 males and 20 females from eight different locations with high industry and agriculture activities in Iran were evaluated in this work. Additionally, size, sex, condition index, and locations were also included and analyzed...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913420/ghost-reefs-nautical-charts-document-large-spatial-scale-of-coral-reef-loss-over-240-years
#12
Loren McClenachan, Grace O'Connor, Benjamin P Neal, John M Pandolfi, Jeremy B C Jackson
Massive declines in population abundances of marine animals have been documented over century-long time scales. However, analogous loss of spatial extent of habitat-forming organisms is less well known because georeferenced data are rare over long time scales, particularly in subtidal, tropical marine regions. We use high-resolution historical nautical charts to quantify changes to benthic structure over 240 years in the Florida Keys, finding an overall loss of 52% (SE, 6.4%) of the area of the seafloor occupied by corals...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904783/making-the-most-of-survey-data-incorporating-age-uncertainty-when-fitting-growth-parameters
#13
Michael A Spence, Alan J Turtle
Individual growth is an important parameter and is linked to a number of other biological processes. It is commonly modeled using the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF), which is regularly fitted to age data where the ages of the animals are not known exactly but are binned into yearly age groups, such as fish survey data. Current methods of fitting the VBGF to these data treat all the binned ages as the actual ages. We present a new VBGF model that combines data from multiple surveys and allows the actual age of an animal to be inferred...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898602/parallel-patterns-of-host-specific-morphology-and-genetic-admixture-in-sister-lineages-of-a-commensal-barnacle
#14
Christine Ewers-Saucedo, Benny K K Chan, John D Zardus, John P Wares
Symbiotic relationships are often species specific, allowing symbionts to adapt to their host environments. Host generalists, on the other hand, have to cope with diverse environments. One coping strategy is phenotypic plasticity, defined by the presence of host-specific phenotypes in the absence of genetic differentiation. Recent work indicates that such host-specific phenotypic plasticity is present in the West Pacific lineage of the commensal barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). We investigated genetic and morphological host-specific structure in the genetically distinct Atlantic sister lineage of C...
June 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893635/emendation-and-new-species-of-hapalorhynchus-stunkard-1922-digenea-schistosomatoidea-from-musk-turtles-kinosternidae-sternotherus-in-alabama-and-florida-rivers
#15
Jackson R Roberts, Kenneth M Halanych, Cova R Arias, Brian Folt, Jeffrey M Goessling, Stephen A Bullard
Hapalorhynchus Stunkard, 1922 is emended based on morphological study of existing museum specimens (type and voucher specimens) and newly-collected specimens infecting musk turtles (Testudines: Kinosternidae: Sternotherus spp.) from rivers in Alabama and Florida (USA). Hapalorhynchus conecuhensis n. sp. is described from an innominate musk turtle, Sternotherus cf. minor, (type host) from Blue Spring (31°5'27.64″N, 86°30'53.21″W; Pensacola Bay Basin, Alabama) and the loggerhead musk turtle, Sternotherus minor (Agassiz, 1857) from the Wacissa River (30°20'24...
September 8, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893547/17%C3%AE-estradiol-modulates-cell-proliferation-of-medullary-cords-during-ovarian-differentiation-of-the-lepidochelys-olivacea-sea-turtle
#16
Verónica Díaz-Hernández, Alma Vázquez-Gómez, Alejandro Marmolejo-Valencia, Luis Manuel Montaño, Horacio Merchant-Larios
In turtles undergoing temperature sex determination (TSD), bipotential gonads express Sox9 in medullary cords at both female- (FPT) and male-producing temperatures (MPT). Subsequently, when the sex fate of medullary cords becomes dimorphic, at FPT, Sox9 is downregulated, whereas at MPT, its expression is maintained. Medullary cords in the ovary turn into ovarian lacuna, whereas in the testis they differentiate as seminiferous cords. When embryos of Lepidochelys olivacea sea turtle are incubated at MPT and treated with estradiol, Sox9 expression persists in the medullary cords in the form of tiny ovotestis-like formations...
September 8, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885060/tracking-the-southern-river-terrapin-batagur-affinis-through-environmental-dna-prospects-and-challenges
#17
John-James Wilson, Kong-Wah Sing, Pelf-Nyok Chen, Alexandra Zieritz
Environmental DNA detection has emerged as a powerful tool to monitor aquatic species without the need for capture or visual identification and is particularly useful for rare or elusive species. Our objective was to develop an eDNA approach for detecting the southern river terrapin (Batagur affinis) in Malaysia. We designed species-specific primers for a fragment of B. affinis mtDNA and evaluated their effectiveness in silico, in vitro and in situ. The primers amplified 110 bp of the cytochrome b mtDNA sequence of B...
September 8, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883447/software-for-improved-field-surveys-of-nesting-marine-turtles
#18
R Anastácio, J M Gonzalez, K Slater, M J Pereira
Field data are still recorded on paper in many worldwide beach surveys of nesting marine turtles. The data must be subsequently transferred into an electronic database, and this can introduce errors in the dataset. To minimize such errors, the "Turtles" software was developed and piloted to record field data by one software user accompanying one Tortuguero in Akumal beaches, Quintana Roo, Mexico, from June 1(st) to July 31(st) during the night patrols. Comparisons were made between exported data from the software with the paper forms entered into a database (henceforth traditional)...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883088/humeral-loads-during-swimming-and-walking-in-turtles-implications-for-morphological-change-during-aquatic-reinvasions
#19
Vanessa K Hilliard Young, Charlotte E Wienands, Brittany P Wilburn, Richard W Blob
During evolutionary reinvasions of water by terrestrial vertebrates, ancestrally tubular limb bones often flatten to form flippers. Differences in skeletal loading between land and water might have facilitated such changes. In turtles, femoral shear strains are significantly lower during swimming than during walking, potentially allowing a release from loads favoring tubular shafts. However, flipper-like morphology in specialized tetrapod swimmers is most accentuated in the forelimbs. To test if the forelimbs of turtles also experience reduced torsional loading in water, we compared strains on the humerus of river cooters (Pseudemys concinna) between swimming and terrestrial walking...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880871/are-vent-crab-behavioral-preferences-adaptations-for-habitat-choice
#20
Hans-Uwe Dahms, Li-Chun Tseng, Jiang-Shiou Hwang
Hydrothermal vent organisms are adapted to their extreme and patchily distributed habitats. They are expected to have evolved mechanisms that keep them in their specific habitation. Since little is known about the recruitment or habitat selection of HV organisms such as brachyurans, we examined the properties of several hydrothermal vent-associated cues on the behavior of the hydrothermal vent (HV) crab Xenograpsus testudinatus in the laboratory that were contrasted by the offering of non-vent cues. This crab species is endemic and dominates the vent fauna of Turtle Island off the NE coast of Taiwan...
2017: PloS One
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