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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806674/cadmium-induces-histopathological-injuries-and-ultrastructural-changes-in-the-liver-of-freshwater-turtle-chinemys-reevesii
#1
Junfeng Huo, Aiguo Dong, Yonghui Wang, Shaochin Lee, Cungen Ma, Lan Wang
The study investigated the histopathological and ultrastructural lesions of liver of freshwater turtle Chinemys reevesii exposed to Cadmium (Cd). The animals were exposed to 0 mg kg(-1) (0.85% normal saline (NS)), 7.5 mg kg(-1), 15 mg kg(-1), 30 mg kg(-1) Cd chloride separately by intraperitoneal injection. Liver samples were collected for examination of lesions under light and electronic microscopes. Results showed that liver tissues from Cd -treated animals presented various degrees of histopathological lesions...
August 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806556/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-fat-of-three-species-of-pacific-pelagic-longline-caught-sea-turtles-accumulation-in-relation-to-ingested-plastic-marine-debris
#2
Katharine E Clukey, Christopher A Lepczyk, George H Balazs, Thierry M Work, Qing X Li, Melannie J Bachman, Jennifer M Lynch
In addition to eating contaminated prey, sea turtles may be exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from ingesting plastic debris that has absorbed these chemicals. Given the limited knowledge about POPs in pelagic sea turtles and how plastic ingestion influences POP exposure, our objectives were to: 1) provide baseline contaminant levels of three species of pelagic Pacific sea turtles; and 2) assess trends of contaminant levels in relation to species, sex, length, body condition and capture location...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805794/large-scale-mapping-of-cortical-synaptic-projections-with-extracellular-electrode-arrays
#3
Mark Shein-Idelson, Lorenz Pammer, Mike Hemberger, Gilles Laurent
Understanding circuit computation in the nervous system requires sampling activity over large neural populations and maximizing the number of features that can be extracted. By combining planar arrays of extracellular electrodes with the three-layered cortex of turtles, we show that synaptic signals induced along individual axons as well as action potentials can be easily captured. Two types of information can be extracted from these signals, the neuronal subtype (inhibitory or excitatory)-whose identification is more reliable than with traditional measures such as action potential width-and a (partial) spatial map of functional axonal projections from individual neurons...
August 14, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803870/industrial-melanism-in-the-seasnake-emydocephalus-annulatus
#4
Claire Goiran, Paco Bustamante, Richard Shine
Although classically associated with urban environments in invertebrates, melanism in terrestrial snakes is more often linked to occupancy of cool climates [1-3]. Thermal advantages to melanism do not apply in aquatic snakes [4], but although turtle-headed seasnakes (Emydocephalus annulatus) are banded or blotched across a wide geographic range [5], most individuals are melanic in polluted inshore bays of the Pacific island of New Caledonia [4]. Why has melanism evolved in these urban sites? Because trace elements bind to melanin, darker feathers enhance a bird's ability to shed pollutants [6]...
August 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802660/heavy-metal-distribution-in-blood-liver-and-kidneys-of-loggerhead-caretta-caretta-and-green-chelonia-mydas-sea-turtles-from-the-northeast-mediterranean-sea
#5
Mustafa Yipel, İbrahim Ozan Tekeli, Cafer Tayer İşler, Muhammed Enes Altuğ
The aim of the present study was to determine the concentrations of the most investigated environmentally relevant heavy metals in two highly endangered sea turtle species (Caretta caretta and Chelonia mydas) from the important nesting area on the Northeast Mediterranean Sea. The highest mean concentration was of Fe, while Hg and Pb were lowest. All tissue concentrations of Al, As, Fe and Mn were significantly different between the species. In particular, As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn concentrations were lower in Caretta caretta and Cd, Hg, Mn, Zn concentrations were lower in Chelonia mydas than those reported in other parts of the world...
August 9, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797687/the-role-of-nitric-oxide-in-spectral-information-processing-in-the-distal-turtle-retina
#6
Elena Segal, Ido Perlman
Chromaticity type horizontal cells (C-type HCs) are the first retinal neurons exhibiting spectral information processing in cold-blooded vertebrates. The simple input of hyperpolarizing responses of cone photoreceptors is transformed in the C-type HCs into spectral opponent output. Nitric oxide (NO), a known background neuromodulator in the distal retina, was tested here for its effects upon spectral information processing by C-type HCs in the retina of turtle. Photoresponses were intracellularly recorded from C-type HCs, using light stimuli of different wavelength, applied over backgrounds of different wavelengths, and changing retinal NO level...
August 7, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794194/induced-oscillations-in-turtle-cortex-are-coherent-at-the-mesoscale-of-population-activity-but-not-at-the-microscale-of-the-membrane-potential-of-neurons
#7
Mahmood Sayed Hoseini, Jeff Pobst, Nathaniel Caleb Wright, Wesley Clawson, Woodrow Shew, Ralf Wessel
Bursts of oscillatory neural activity have been hypothesized to be a core mechanism by which remote brain regions can communicate. Such hypothesis raises the question to what extent oscillations are coherent across spatially distant neural populations. To address this question, we obtained local field potential (LFP) and membrane potential recordings from the visual cortex of turtle in response to visual stimulation of the retina. The time-frequency analysis of these recordings revealed pronounced bursts of oscillatory neural activity and a large trial-to-trial variability in the spectral and temporal properties of the observed oscillations...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792964/turtle-soup-prohibition-and-the-population-genetic-structure-of-diamondback-terrapins-malaclemys-terrapin
#8
Paul E Converse, Shawn R Kuchta, J Susanne Hauswaldt, Willem M Roosenburg
Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) were a popular food item in early twentieth century America, and were consumed in soup with sherry. Intense market demand for terrapin meat resulted in population declines, notably along the Atlantic seaboard. Efforts to supply terrapins to markets resulted in translocation events, as individuals were moved about to stock terrapin farms. However, in 1920 the market for turtle soup buckled with the enactment of the eighteenth amendment to the United States' Constitution-which initiated the prohibition of alcoholic drinks-and many terrapin fisheries dumped their stocks into local waters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780652/effects-of-selenium-exposure-on-the-hematology-innate-immunity-and-metabolic-rate-of-yellow-bellied-sliders-trachemys-scripta-scripta
#9
David L Haskins, Matthew T Hamilton, Nicole I Stacy, John W Finger, Tracey D Tuberville
Selenium (Se) is a naturally occurring essential element that can be toxic to vertebrates at high concentrations. Despite studies that have documented that wild reptile species can accumulate copious amounts of Se, little is known regarding specific toxicologic effects of Se. In this study, 70 juvenile yellow-bellied sliders (Trachemys scripta scripta) were exposed to one of three seleno-L-methionine (SetMet) treatments (control, n = 24; 15 mg/kg, n = 23; and 30 mg/kg, n = 23) via weekly oral gavage for 5 weeks...
August 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772099/identifying-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-for-magnetosensation
#10
Benjamin L Clites, Jonathan T Pierce
Diverse animals ranging from worms and insects to birds and turtles perform impressive journeys using the magnetic field of the earth as a cue. Although major cellular and molecular mechanisms for sensing mechanical and chemical cues have been elucidated over the past three decades, the mechanisms that animals use to sense magnetic fields remain largely mysterious. Here we survey progress on the search for magnetosensory neurons and magnetosensitive molecules important for animal behaviors. Emphasis is placed on magnetosensation in insects and birds, as well as on the magnetosensitive neuron pair AFD in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771635/the-impact-of-environmental-factors-on-marine-turtle-stranding-rates
#11
Jaylene Flint, Mark Flint, Colin J Limpus, Paul C Mills
Globally, tropical and subtropical regions have experienced an increased frequency and intensity in extreme weather events, ranging from severe drought to protracted rain depressions and cyclones, these coincided with an increased number of marine turtles subsequently reported stranded. This study investigated the relationship between environmental variables and marine turtle stranding. The environmental variables examined in this study, in descending order of importance, were freshwater discharge, monthly mean maximum and minimum air temperatures, monthly average daily diurnal air temperature difference and rainfall for the latitudinal hotspots (-27°, -25°, -23°, -19°) along the Queensland coast as well as for major embayments within these blocks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770677/sex-differences-and-the-heritability-of-scute-pattern-abnormalities-in-the-green-sea-turtle-from-the-ogasawara-archipelago-japan
#12
Shohei Kobayashi, Yukari Morimoto, Satomi Kondo, Takayuki Sato, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Katsuhiko Arai, Gen Watanabe
Although scute pattern abnormalities in sea turtle species are considered to be strongly correlated with survival rate, there is little information available regarding these abnormalities and the primary cause for their development is unclear. For the conservation of sea turtle species, accumulating basic knowledge of scute pattern abnormalities is a fundamental step towards a better understanding of the causes of these abnormalities. In the present study, we counted vertebral and costal scutes from adults hunted for food (male and female) (n = 899), nesting females (n = 155), and hatchlings (n = 44,537) of the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) from the Ogasawara Archipelago, Japan...
August 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766846/managing-conflicts-between-economic-activities-and-threatened-migratory-marine-species-toward-creating-a-multiobjective-blue-economy
#13
Linda R Harris, Ronel Nel, Herman Oosthuizen, Mike Meyer, Deon Kotze, Darrell Anders, Steven McCue, Santosh Bachoo
Harnessing the economic potential of the oceans is key to combating poverty, enhancing food security, and strengthening economies. But the concomitant risk of intensified resource extraction to migratory species is worrying given that these species contribute to important ecological processes, often underpin alternatively livelihoods, and many are already threatened. We thus sought to quantify the potential conflict between key economic activities (five fisheries and hydrocarbon exploitation) and sea turtle migration corridors in a region with rapid economic development: Southern and East Africa...
August 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766064/a-severe-ranavirus-outbreak-in-captive-wild-caught-box-turtles
#14
Steven J A Kimble, April J Johnson, Rod N Williams, Jason T Hoverman
A Ranavirus outbreak in a captive population of wild-caught individuals was monitored using clinical evaluations and real-time PCR in 317 wild box turtles held in captivity during translocation. During the 2-year study period, the population experienced 71.6% mortality, suggesting that ranaviruses can rapidly attenuate populations. Wide variation in infection rate (7-94% per sampling period) was observed, which may have been driven by clearing and reinfection, adaptive immunity, or imperfect detection using noninvasive samples...
August 1, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764866/experimental-assessment-of-the-effects-of-moisture-on-loggerhead-sea-turtle-hatchling-sex-ratios
#15
Alexandra Lolavar, Jeanette Wyneken
Many reptiles have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Sex determination in marine turtles is described by a cool-male, warm-female pattern. Nest sand temperature strongly influences sea turtle embryo development and sex differentiation. Yet, variation in hatchling sex ratios is explained only partially by nest temperature and can be predicted only at the warmest and coolest temperatures. Hence, other factors during development influence sex determination. Rainfall is a common environmental variable that may impact development and sex determination...
June 17, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757521/retrospective-investigation-of-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-outcome-in-146-exotic-animals
#16
Mamoru Onuma, Hirotaka Kondo, Sadaharu Ono, Akiyoshi Murakami, Tomoko Harada, Tadashi Sano
The outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) were retrospectively evaluated in 146 exotic animals including 20 pet birds, 47 rabbits, 34 hamsters, 18 ferrets, 7 turtles, and 20 other small mammals in cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) at presentation or during hospitalization at an animal clinic. The rates of return of spontaneous circulation, survival after CPR, and discharge were 9.3%, 2.3%, and 1.2%, respectively. The mean success rate of CPR in animals included in this study was lower than those previously reported in dogs and cats...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756875/glycopattern-analysis-of-acidic-secretion-in-the-intestine-of-the-red-eared-slender-turtle-trachemys-scripta-elegans-testudines-emydidae
#17
Giovanni Scillitani, Donatella Mentino, Maria Mastrodonato
The secretion of the goblet cells in the intestine of Trachemys scripta elegans was studied in situ by histochemical methods to analyze the diversity of sugar chains, with particular regard to the acidic glycans. Conventional histochemical stains (Periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian Blue pH 2.5, High Iron Diamine) and binding with ten FITC-labelled lectins combined with chemical and enzymatic pre-treatments were used to characterize the oligosaccharidic chains. The intestine can be divided into three regions, i.e...
July 23, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754715/changes-of-loggerhead-turtle-caretta-caretta-dive-behavior-associated-with-tropical-storm-passage-during-the-inter-nesting-period
#18
Maria Wilson, Anton D Tucker, Kristian Beedholm, David A Mann
To improve conservation strategies for threatened sea turtles more knowledge on their ecology, behavior, and how they cope with severe and changing weather conditions is needed. Satellite and animal motion datalogging tags were used to study the inter-nesting behavior of two female loggerhead turtles in the Gulf of Mexico, which regularly has hurricanes and tropical storms during nesting season. We contrast the behavioral patterns and swimming energetics of two turtles, the first tracked in calm weather and a second tracked before, during, and after a tropical storm...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754240/resolution-of-the-enigmatic-phylogenetic-relationship-of-the-critically-endangered-western-swamp-tortoise-pseudemydura-umbrina-pleurodira-chelidae-using-a-complete-mitochondrial-genome
#19
Xiuwen Zhang, Peter J Unmack, Gerald Kuchling, Yinan Wang, Arthur Georges
Pseudemydura umbrina is one of the most endangered turtle species in the world, and the imperative for its conservation is its distinctive morphology and relict status among the Chelidae. We use Illumina sequencing to obtain the complete mitogenome for resolving its uncertain phylogenetic position. A novel nuclear paralogue confounded the assembly, and resolution of the authentic mitogenome required further Sanger sequencing. The P. umbrina mitogenome is 16,414bp comprising 37 genes organized in a conserved pattern for other vertebrates...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751684/lower-cretaceous-fossils-from-china-shed-light-on-the-ancestral-body-plan-of-crown-softshell%C3%A2-turtles-trionychidae-cryptodira
#20
Donald Brinkman, Márton Rabi, Lijun Zhao
Pan-trionychids or softshell turtles are a highly specialized and widespread extant group of aquatic taxa with an evolutionary history that goes back to the Early Cretaceous. The earliest pan-trionychids had already fully developed the "classic" softshell turtle morphology and it has been impossible to resolve whether they are stem members of the family or are within the crown. This has hindered our understanding of the evolution of the two basic body plans of crown-trionychids. Thus it remains unclear whether the more heavily ossified shell of the cyclanorbines or the highly reduced trionychine morphotype is the ancestral condition for softshell turtles...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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