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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923124/the-triassic
#1
Michael J Benton
The Triassic, lasting from 252 to 201 million years (Myr) ago, was crucial in the origin of modern ecosystems. It is the seventh of the 11 geological systems or periods into which the Phanerozoic, the fossiliferous last 540 million years, of Earth history is divided. It might seem strange to select just one of these divisions of time as somehow more significant than the others. However, this was the span of time during which all of the key modern vertebrate groups originated - the neoselachian sharks, neopterygian bony fishes, lissamphibians, turtles, lepidosaurs, crocodilomorphs, and mammals...
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914791/aberrant-developmental-titin-splicing-and-dysregulated-sarcomere-length-in-thymosin-%C3%AE-4-knockout-mice
#2
Nicola Smart, Johannes Riegler, Cameron W Turtle, Craig A Lygate, Debra J McAndrew, Katja Gehmlich, Karina N Dubé, Anthony N Price, Vivek Muthurangu, Andrew M Taylor, Mark F Lythgoe, Charles Redwood, Paul R Riley
Sarcomere assembly is a highly orchestrated and dynamic process which adapts, during perinatal development, to accommodate growth of the heart. Sarcomeric components, including titin, undergo an isoform transition to adjust ventricular filling. Many sarcomeric genes have been implicated in congenital cardiomyopathies, such that understanding developmental sarcomere transitions will inform the aetiology and treatment. We sought to determine whether Thymosin β4 (Tβ4), a peptide that regulates the availability of actin monomers for polymerization in non-muscle cells, plays a role in sarcomere assembly during cardiac morphogenesis and influences adult cardiac function...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912032/pain-input-impairs-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-treatment-with-lidocaine
#3
Joel D Turtle, Misty M Strain, Miriam Aceves, Yung-Jen Huang, Joshua A Reynolds, Michelle A Hook, James W Grau
More than 90% of spinal cord injuries are caused by traumatic accidents and are often associated with other tissue damage (polytrauma) that can provide a source of continued pain input during recovery. In a clinically relevant spinal cord contusion injury model, prior work has shown that noxious stimulation at an intensity that engages pain (C) fibers soon after injury augments secondary injury and impairs functional recovery. Noxious input increases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1β and 18), cellular signals associated with cell death (caspase 3 and 8), and physiological signs of hemorrhage...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912005/climate-change-increases-the-production-of-female-hatchlings-at-a-northern-sea-turtle-rookery
#4
J L Reneker, S J Kamel
The most recent climate change projections show a global increase in temperatures, along with major adjustments to precipitation, throughout the 21st century. Species exhibiting temperature-dependent sex determination are highly susceptible to such changes since the incubation environment influences critical offspring characteristics such as survival and sex ratio. Here we show that the mean incubation duration of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests from a high-density nesting beach on Bald Head Island, North Carolina, USA has decreased significantly over the past 25 yr...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907265/conservation-hotspots-for-marine-turtle-nesting-in-the-united-states-based-on-coastal-development
#5
Mariana M P B Fuentes, Christian Gredzens, Brooke L Bateman, Ruth Boettcher, Simona A Ceriani, Matthew H Godfrey, David Helmers, Dianne K Ingram, Ruth L Kamrowski, Michelle Pate, Robert L Pressey, Volker C Radeloff
Coastal areas provide nesting habitat for marine turtles that is critical for the persistence of their populations. However, many coastal areas are highly affected by coastal development, which affects the reproductive success of marine turtles. Knowing the extent to which nesting areas are exposed to these threats is essential to guide management initiatives. This information is particularly important for coastal areas with both high nesting density and dense human development, a combination that is common in the United States...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906515/development-evolving-the-origins-and-meanings-of-instinct
#6
REVIEW
Mark S Blumberg
How do migratory birds, herding dogs, and navigating sea turtles do the amazing things that they do? For hundreds of years, scientists and philosophers have struggled over possible explanations. In time, one word came to dominate the discussion: instinct. It became the catch-all explanation for those adaptive and complex abilities that do not obviously result from learning or experience. Today, various animals are said to possess a survival instinct, migratory instinct, herding instinct, maternal instinct, or language instinct...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903875/slow-and-steady-the-evolution-of-cranial-disparity-in-fossil-and-recent-turtles
#7
Christian Foth, Walter G Joyce
Turtles (Testudinata) are a diverse group of amniotes that have a rich fossil record that extends back to the Late Triassic, but little is known about global patterns of disparity through time. We here investigate the cranial disparity of 172 representatives of the turtle lineage and their ancestors grouped into 20 time bins ranging from the Late Triassic until the Recent using two-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Three evolutionary phases are apparent in all three anatomical views investigated. In the first phase, disparity increases gradually from the Late Triassic to the Palaeogene with only a minor perturbation at the K/T extinct event...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902763/temperature-shift-alters-dna-methylation-and-histone-modification-patterns-in-gonadal-aromatase-cyp19a1-gene-in-species-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#8
Yuiko Matsumoto, Brette Hannigan, David Crews
The environment surrounding the embryos has a profound impact on the developmental process and phenotypic outcomes of the organism. In species with temperature-dependent sex determination, gonadal sex is determined by the incubation temperature of the eggs. A mechanistic link between temperature and transcriptional regulation of developmental genes, however, remains elusive. In this study, we examine the changes in DNA methylation and histone modification patterns of the aromatase (cyp19a1) gene in embryonic gonads of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) subjected to a temperature shift during development...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902262/saccharedens-versatilis-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-sugar-degrading-member-of-the-burkholderiales-isolated-from-cephalotes-rohweri-ant-guts
#9
Jonathan Y Lin, William J Hobson, John T Wertz
Cephalotes "turtle" ants host a core group of gut-associated symbionts, but their potential contributions to ant nutrition and disease resistance remain uncharacterized in vitro. To gain a better understanding of the metabolic capability of core symbionts belonging to the Burkholderiales, we cultivated and characterized strain CAG32T, isolated from the guts of Cephalotes rohweri ants. Strain CAG32T was rod-shaped, Gram-negative, motile, and formed pale-white colonies on trypticase soy agar. Optimum growth occurred under an atmosphere of 20% O2 supplemented with 1% CO2...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894885/metabolic-rates-are-elevated-and-influenced-by-maternal-identity-during-the-early-yolk-dependent-post-hatching-period-in-an-estuarine-turtle-the-diamondback-terrapin-malaclemys-terrapin
#10
Christopher L Rowe, Ryan J Woodland, Sarah A Funck
Non-genetic maternal effects, operating through a female's physiology or behavior, can influence offspring traits and performance. Here we examined potential maternal influences on metabolic rates (MR) of offspring in an estuarine turtle, the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin). Females and their eggs were collected from the field and the eggs incubated in the laboratory for subsequent measurement of MR of females, late-stage embryos, newly-hatched individuals that were nutritionally dependent on yolk, and older hatchlings that had depleted their yolk reserves and thus were independent of energetic contributions from the female...
November 25, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891218/projected-changes-in-climatic-suitability-for-kinosternon-turtles-by-2050-and-2070
#11
Christopher J Butler, Brian D Stanila, John B Iverson, Paul A Stone, Matthew Bryson
Chelonians are expected to be negatively impacted by climate change due to limited vagility and temperature-dependent sex determination. However, few studies have examined how freshwater turtle distributions may shift under different climate change scenarios. We used a maximum entropy approach to model the distribution of five widespread North American Kinosternon species (K. baurii, K. flavescens, K. hirtipes, K. sonoriense, and K. subrubrum) under four climate change scenarios. We found that areas with suitable climatic conditions for K...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890294/oncology-of-reptiles-diseases-diagnosis-and-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Jane Christman, Michael Devau, Heather Wilson-Robles, Sharman Hoppes, Raquel Rech, Karen E Russell, J Jill Heatley
Based on necropsy review, neoplasia in reptiles has a comparable frequency to that of mammals and birds. Reptile neoplasia is now more frequently diagnosed in clinical practice based on increased use of advanced diagnostic techniques and improvements in reptilian husbandry allowing greater longevity of these species. This article reviews the current literature on neoplasia in reptiles, and focuses on advanced diagnostics and therapeutic options for reptilian patientssuffering neoplastic disease. Although most applied clinical reptile oncology is translated from dog and cat oncology, considerations specific to reptilian patients commonly encountered in clinical practice (turtles, tortoises, snakes, and lizards) are presented...
January 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886262/coastal-leatherback-turtles-reveal-conservation-hotspot
#13
Nathan J Robinson, Stephen J Morreale, Ronel Nel, Frank V Paladino
Previous studies have shown that the world's largest reptile - the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea - conducts flexible foraging migrations that can cover thousands of kilometres between nesting sites and distant foraging areas. The vast distances that may be travelled by migrating leatherback turtles have greatly complicated conservation efforts for this species worldwide. However, we demonstrate, using a combination of satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis, that approximately half of the nesting leatherbacks from an important rookery in South Africa do not migrate to distant foraging areas, but rather, forage in the coastal waters of the nearby Mozambique Channel...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870008/phenotypic-plasticity-of-nest-timing-in-a-post-glacial-landscape-how-do-reptiles-adapt-to-seasonal-time-constraints
#14
Christopher Edge, Njal Rollinson, Ronald Brooks, Justin Congdon, John Iverson, Fred Janzen, Jacqueline Litzgus
Life-histories evolve in response to constraints on the time available for growth and development. Nesting date and its plasticity in response to spring temperature may therefore be important components of fitness in oviparous ectotherms near their northern range limit, as reproducing early provides more time for embryos to complete development before winter. We used data collected over several decades to compare air temperature - nest date plasticity in populations of painted turtles and snapping turtles from a relatively warm environment (southeastern Michigan) near the southern extent of the last glacial maximum, to a relatively cool environment (central Ontario) near the northern extent of post-glacial recolonization...
November 21, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859267/human-motoneurone-excitability-is-depressed-by-activation-of-5ht1a-receptors-with-buspirone
#15
Jessica M D'Amico, Annie A Butler, Martin E Héroux, Florence Cotel, Jean-François M Perrier, Jane E Butler, Simon C Gandevia, Janet L Taylor
Intense serotonergic drive in the turtle spinal cord results in serotonin spillover to the axon initial segment of the motoneurones where it activates 5HT1A receptors and inhibits generation of action potentials. We examined whether activation of 5HT1A receptors decreases motoneurone excitability in humans by determining the effects of a 5HT1A receptor partial agonist, buspirone, on F waves and cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (CMEPs). In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, 10 participants were tested on two occasions where either placebo or 20 mg buspirone was administered orally...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827338/blood-flukes-of-asiatic-softshell-turtles-revision-of-coeuritrema-mehra-1933-digenea-schistosomatoidea-and-a-new-species-infecting-chinese-softshell-turtles-pelodiscus-sinensis-trionychidae-from-vietnam
#16
Jackson R Roberts, Raphael Orelis-Ribeiro, Binh T Dang, Kenneth M Halanych, Stephen A Bullard
Coeuritrema Mehra, 1933, previously regarded as a junior subjective synonym of Hapalorhynchus Stunkard, 1922, herein is revised to include Coeuritrema lyssimus Mehra, 1933 (type species), Coeuritrema rugatus (Brooks et Sullivan, 1981) comb. n., and Coeuritrema platti Roberts et Bullard sp. n. These genera are morphologically similar by having a ventral sucker, non-fused caeca, two testes, a pre-testicular cirrus sac, an intertesticular ovary, and a common genital pore that opens dorsally and in the sinistral half of the body...
September 6, 2016: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827334/cryptosporidium-testudinis-sp-n-cryptosporidium-ducismarci-traversa-2010-and-cryptosporidium-tortoise-genotype-iii-apicomplexa-cryptosporidiidae-in-tortoises
#17
Jana Jezkova, Michaela Horcickova, Lenka Hlaskova, Bohumil Sak, Dana Kvetonova, Jan Novak, Lada Hofmannova, John McEvoy, Martin Kvac
Understanding of the diversity of species of Cryptosporidium Tyzzer, 1910 in tortoises remains incomplete due to the limited number of studies on these hosts. The aim of the present study was to characterise the genetic diversity and biology of cryptosporidia in tortoises of the family Testudinidae Batsch. Faecal samples were individually collected immediately after defecation and were screened for presence of cryptosporidia by microscopy using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining, and by PCR amplification and sequence analysis targeting the small subunit rRNA (SSU), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and actin genes...
October 14, 2016: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825845/trace-element-reference-intervals-in-the-blood-of-healthy-green-sea-turtles-to-evaluate-exposure-of-coastal-populations
#18
C A Villa, M Flint, I Bell, C Hof, C J Limpus, C Gaus
Exposure to essential and non-essential elements may be elevated for green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) that forage close to shore. Biomonitoring of trace elements in turtle blood can identify temporal trends over repeated sampling events, but any interpretation of potential health risks due to an elevated exposure first requires a comparison against a baseline. This study aims to use clinical reference interval (RI) methods to produce exposure baseline limits for essential and non-essential elements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, and Pb) using blood from healthy subadult turtles foraging in a remote and offshore part of the Great Barrier Reef...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821052/genomic-evidence-of-demographic-fluctuations-and-lack-of-genetic-structure-across-flyways-in-a-long-distance-migrant-the-european-turtle-dove
#19
Luciano Calderón, Leonardo Campagna, Thomas Wilke, Hervé Lormee, Cyril Eraud, Jenny C Dunn, Gregorio Rocha, Pavel Zehtindjiev, Dimitrios E Bakaloudis, Benjamin Metzger, Jacopo G Cecere, Melanie Marx, Petra Quillfeldt
BACKGROUND: Understanding how past climatic oscillations have affected organismic evolution will help predict the impact that current climate change has on living organisms. The European turtle dove, Streptopelia turtur, is a warm-temperature adapted species and a long distance migrant that uses multiple flyways to move between Europe and Africa. Despite being abundant, it is categorized as vulnerable because of a long-term demographic decline. We studied the demographic history and population genetic structure of the European turtle dove using genomic data and mitochondrial DNA sequences from individuals sampled across Europe, and performing paleoclimatic niche modelling simulations...
November 7, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816625/the-effect-of-environmental-temperature-on-reptilian-peripheral-blood-b-cell-functions
#20
Sarah Palackdharry, Ben M Sadd, Laura A Vogel, Rachel M Bowden
Recent studies have identified phagocytic B cells in a variety of species, yet little is understood about their function and how it is influenced by natural environmental variation, such as temperature. Phagocytic B-cells are present in red-eared slider turtles, Trachemys scripta, and the wide range of temperatures experienced by these ectotherms may have an effect on immunity, including B cell antibody secretion and phagocytosis. We examined the impact of environmental temperature on B cell function in vitro using phagocytic and ELISpot assays conducted at biologically relevant temperatures...
November 2, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
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