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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160216/serological-survey-of-australian-native-reptiles-for-exposure-to-ranavirus
#1
E Ariel, E Elliott, J I Meddings, J Miller, M B Santos, L Owens
Ranaviruses have been isolated from many ectothermic vertebrates, and serological surveys of both amphibians and reptiles have shown the presence of ranaviral antibodies in a proportion of these populations. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure serum antibodies against ranavirus in Australian reptiles. The ELISA was validated with serum from challenge trials with Bohle iridovirus (BIV) in 6 reptilian species. A preliminary sero-survey of northern Queensland riparian reptile fauna (saw-shelled turtles Myuchelys latisternum, Krefft's river turtles Emydura macquarii krefftii, freshwater crocodiles Crocodylus johnstoni, as well as the snakes Boiga irregularis, Dendrelaphis punctulatus, Tropidonophis mairii, Morelia spilota, Liasis childreni and L...
November 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158032/resolving-taxonomic-turbulence-and-uncovering-cryptic-diversity-in-the-musk-turtles-sternotherus-using-robust-demographic-modeling
#2
Peter A Scott, Travis C Glenn, Leslie J Rissler
Accurate and consistent delimitation of species and their relationships provides a necessary framework for comparative studies, understanding evolutionary relationships, and informing conservation management. Despite the ever-increasing availability of genomic data, evolutionary dynamics can still render some relationships exceedingly difficult to resolve, including underlying speciation events that are rapid, recent, or confounded by post-speciation introgression. Here we present an empirical study of musk turtles (Sternotherus) which illustrates approaches to resolve difficult nodes in the Tree of Life that robust species-tree methods fail to resolve...
November 17, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156290/understanding-hydration-effects-on-mechanical-and-impacting-properties-of-turtle-shell
#3
Xu Zhang, Zhen-Bing Cai, Wei Li, Min-Hao Zhu
Study of the properties of natural biomaterials provides a reliable experimental basis for the design of biomimetic materials. The mechanical properties and impact wear behaviors of turtle shell with different soaking time were investigated on a micro-amplitude impact wear tester. The damage behavior of turtle shells with different soaking time and impact cycles were systematically analyzed, also the impact dynamics behavior was inspected during the impact wear progress. The results showed that the energy absorption and impact contact force were significantly different with varied soaking time...
November 10, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154856/comparative-study-of-two-immunity-related-gtpase-genes-in-chinese-soft-shell-turtle-reveals-their-molecular-characteristics-and-functional-activity-in-immune-defense
#4
Yan Shi, Sixian Shen, Sufei Hu, Tie Ding, Xiaoyou Hong, Chen Chen, Xinping Zhu, Zhe Zhao
The immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) are a family of proteins that play critical roles in innate resistance to intracellular pathogens. The number and diversity of IRG genes differ greatly in different species. Although IRG proteins have been well studies in mammals, they remain poorly characterized in lower vertebrates. In this study, we cloned two IRG genes, PsIRG5 and PsIRG8, from the Chinese soft-shelled turtle and compared their characterization and functional activity with mammalian IRGs. The PsIRG5 is a gene of 1896 bp that encodes a protein of 413 amino acid and PsIRG8 is 1543 bp in length encoding another 413 aa protein...
November 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149308/paternity-analysis-of-wood-turtles-glyptemys-insculpta-reveals-complex-mating-patterns
#5
Cindy Bouchard, Nathalie Tessier, François-Joseph Lapointe
Mating system characteristics are of great importance as they may influence male and female reproductive success and reproductive isolation. The wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) is a terrestrial freshwater species listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Considering its conservation status and the paucity of information currently available on parentage relationship for the species, we performed a microsatellite analysis to study the mating system of wood turtles in the Shawinigan River (Québec)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147114/antibiotic-resistant-bacterial-isolates-from-captive-green-turtles-and-in-vitro-sensitivity-to-bacteriophages
#6
Alessandro Delli Paoli Carini, Ellen Ariel, Jacqueline Picard, Lisa Elliott
This study aimed to test multidrug resistant isolates from hospitalised green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and their environment in North Queensland, Australia, for in vitro susceptibility to bacteriophages. Seventy-one Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from green turtle eye swabs and water samples. Broth microdilution tests were used to determine antibiotic susceptibility. All isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with 24% being resistant to seven of the eight antibiotics. Highest resistance rates were detected to enrofloxacin (77%) and ampicillin (69...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136534/investigating-the-potential-impact-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-on-gene-biomarker-expression-and-global-dna-methylation-in-loggerhead-sea-turtles-caretta-caretta-from-the-adriatic-sea
#7
Paolo Cocci, Gilberto Mosconi, Luca Bracchetti, John Mark Nalocca, Emanuela Frapiccini, Mauro Marini, Giovanni Caprioli, Gianni Sagratini, Francesco Alessandro Palermo
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are priority contaminants that bioaccumulate through the food webs and affect the biology of a variety of resident and migratory species, including sea turtles. Few studies have evaluated toxicological biomarkers of exposure to PAHs and PCBs in these animals. The present paper reports the results of an initial field study to quantify the association between plasma concentrations of PAHs/PCBs and whole blood cell expression of gene biomarkers in juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) rescued along the Italian coasts of the northern and central areas of the Adriatic Sea...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134057/a-20-year-investigation-of-declining-leatherback-hatching-success-implications-of-climate-variation
#8
Anthony R Rafferty, Christopher P Johnstone, Jeanne A Garner, Richard D Reina
Unprecedented increases in air temperature and erratic precipitation patterns are predicted throughout the twenty-first century as a result of climate change. A recent global analysis of leatherback turtle hatchling output predicts that the nesting site at Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge (SPNWR) will experience the most significant regional climate alterations. We aimed to identify how local air temperatures and precipitation patterns influenced within-nest mortality and overall hatchling output at this site between 1990 and 2010...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127669/conserving-connectivity-human-influence-on-subsidy-transfer-and-relevant-restoration-efforts
#9
REVIEW
Emily V Buckner, Daniel L Hernández, Jameal F Samhouri
Conservation efforts tend to focus on the direct impacts humans have on their surrounding environment; however there are also many ways in which people indirectly affect ecosystems. Recent research on ecological subsidies-the transfer of energy and nutrients from one ecosystem to another-has highlighted the importance of nutrient exchange for maintaining productivity and diversity at a landscape scale, while also pointing toward the fragility of ecotones and vulnerability of subsidies to human activities. We review the recent literature on landscape connectivity and ecosystem subsidies from aquatic systems to terrestrial systems...
November 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124637/large-scale-geographic-patterns-of-mercury-contamination-in-morocco-revealed-by-freshwater-turtles
#10
Tahar Slimani, Mohamed Said El Hassani, El Hassan El Mouden, Marine Bonnet, Paco Bustamante, François Brischoux, Maud Brault-Favrou, Xavier Bonnet
Mercury (Hg) is a toxic contaminant present in most aquatic ecosystems. High concentrations pose serious threats to organisms and to human health. Because previous studies focused on few countries, environmental hazard due to Hg contamination remains obscure in many geographic areas, and for example limited information is available in North Africa. We examined total Hg contamination in 13 sites in Morocco (12 rivers and one lake) spread over a large area, 400 km north-south and 350 km west-east, that encompasses different biogeographic zones separated by the Atlas Mountains...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122949/the-effects-of-extended-crawling-on-the-physiology-and-swim-performance-of-loggerhead-and-green-sea-turtle-hatchlings
#11
Karen Pankaew, Sarah L Milton
Following emergence from the nest, sea turtle hatchling dispersal can be disrupted by artificial lights or skyglow from urban areas. Mis- or disorientation may increase exposure to predation, thermal stress, and dehydration, and consume valuable energy, thus decreasing the likelihood of survival. In this study hatchlings were run on a treadmill for 200m or 500m to investigate the physiological impacts of disorientation crawling on loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and green (Chelonia mydas) sea turtle hatchlings...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116881/latitudinal-and-temperature-dependent-variation-in-embryonic-development-rate-and-offspring-performance-in-a-freshwater-turtle
#12
Teng Li, Peng Cao, Yong-Jian Bei, Wei-Guo Du
The thermal environment of embryos differs significantly along a latitudinal cline, and the mechanism by which embryos respond to this geographic temperature variation has attracted increasing attention recently. Here, we carried out a common-garden experiment of egg incubation at two fluctuating temperature regimes to elucidate the latitudinal pattern and thermal dependence of the embryonic development rate and offspring performance in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis). Our results demonstrated significant temperature-by-population interactions on variations in the incubation period and hatchling righting response...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107730/determination-of-the-authenticity-of-plastron-derived-functional-foods-based-on-amino-acid-profiles-analysed-by-mekc
#13
Lin-Qiu Li, Joewel T Baibado, Qing Shen, Hon-Yeung Cheung
Plastron is a nutritive and superior functional food. Due to its limited supply yet enormous demands, some functional foods supposed to contain plastron may be forged with other substitutes. This paper reports a novel and simple method for determination of the authenticity of plastron-derived functional foods based on comparison of the amino acid (AA) profiles of plastron and its possible substitutes. By applying micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), 18 common AAs along with another 2 special AAs - hydroxyproline (Hyp) and hydroxylysine (Hyl) were detected in all plastron samples...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095293/-message-from-a-turtle-otitis-with-salmonella-arizonae-in-children-case-report
#14
Cristina Gavrilovici, Carmen-Valentina Pânzaru, Sebastian Cozma, Cristian Mârţu, Vasile Valeriu Lupu, Ancuta Ignat, Ingrith Miron, Magdalena Stârcea
RATIONALE: Salmonella enterica subsp arizonae is a common gut inhabitant of reptiles (snakes are the most common reservoir, but it also occurs in turtles). Alhough human cases owing to this organism are exceedingly rare, it may occasionally infect young infants and immunocompromised individuals with a history of intimate associations with reptiles. Our case is the 20th one among the infections with S arizonae in children, but the 2nd one of otitis and the first of mastoiditis. The other cases had different anatomical locations, such as gastroenteritis, osteomyelitis, meningitis, ankle infection, wound infection, and sinusitis...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094198/the-turtle-visual-system-mediates-a-complex-spatiotemporal-transformation-of-visual-stimuli-into-cortical-activity
#15
Mahmood S Hoseini, Jeff Pobst, Nathaniel C Wright, Wesley Clawson, Woodrow Shew, Ralf Wessel
The three-layered visual cortex of turtle is characterized by extensive intracortical axonal projections and receives non-retinotopic axonal projections from lateral geniculate nucleus. What spatiotemporal transformation of visual stimuli into cortical activity arises from such tangle of malleable cortical inputs and intracortical connections? To address this question, we obtained band-pass filtered extracellular recordings of neural activity in turtle dorsal cortex during visual stimulation of the retina. We discovered important spatial and temporal features of stimulus-modulated cortical local field potential (LFP) recordings...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081779/global-assessment-of-dengue-virus-specific-cd4-t-cell-responses-in-dengue-endemic-areas
#16
Alba Grifoni, Michael A Angelo, Benjamin Lopez, Patrick H O'Rourke, John Sidney, Cristhiam Cerpas, Angel Balmaseda, Cassia G T Silveira, Alvino Maestri, Priscilla R Costa, Anna P Durbin, Sean A Diehl, Elizabeth Phillips, Simon Mallal, Aruna D De Silva, Godwin Nchinda, Celine Nkenfou, Matthew H Collins, Aravinda M de Silva, Mei Qiu Lim, Paul A Macary, Filippo Tatullo, Tom Solomon, Vijaya Satchidanandam, Anita Desai, Vasanthapram Ravi, Josefina Coloma, Lance Turtle, Laura Rivino, Esper G Kallas, Bjoern Peters, Eva Harris, Alessandro Sette, Daniela Weiskopf
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a major public health problem worldwide. Assessment of adaptive immunity is important to understanding immunopathology and to define correlates of protection against dengue virus (DENV). To enable global assessment of CD4(+) T cell responses, we mapped HLA-DRB1-restricted DENV-specific CD4(+) T cell epitopes in individuals previously exposed to DENV in the general population of the dengue-endemic region of Managua, Nicaragua. METHODS: HLA class II epitopes in the population of Managua were identified by an in vitro IFNγ ELISPOT assay...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080030/progenitors-in-the-ependyma-of-the-spinal-cord-a-potential-resource-for-self-repair-after-injury
#17
Nicolás Marichal, Cecilia Reali, María Inés Rehermann, Omar Trujillo-Cenóz, Raúl E Russo
Traumatic injury of the spinal cord leads to devastating conditions that affect ~2.5 million people worldwide. This is because the mammalian spinal cord reacts to injury with only limited endogenous repair. Functional restoration requires the replacement of lost cells, the growth and navigation of regenerating axons on a permissive scaffold and axon re-myelination. The manipulation of endogenous spinal stem cells is regarded as a potential strategy to restore function. For this type of therapy it is necessary to determine the molecular and functional mechanisms regulating the proliferation, migration and differentiation of adult spinal progenitors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075445/how-far-do-adult-turtles-move-home-range-and-dispersal-of-kinosternon-integrum
#18
Ailed Pérez-Pérez, Ana Esthela López-Moreno, Orlando Suárez-Rodríguez, Justin Lloyd Rheubert, Oswaldo Hernández-Gallegos
We describe the home range and movements of a population of Kinosternon integrum in Tonatico, Estado de México, México, over 3.5 years (during rainy and dry season months) using radiotelemetry in 37 adult turtles. The results showed that the home range of K. integrum was 0.151 ± 0.051 ha using 50% kernel density estimator (KDE), and 0.657 ± 0.214 ha using 95% KDE; the home range did not vary between sexes. Kinosternon integrum showed low distances traveled 51.44 ± 4.50 m, where 87.3% (n = 373) of movements were <100 m...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074704/characterizing-the-distribution-of-steroid-sulfatase-during-embryonic-development-when-and-where-might-metabolites-of-maternal-steroids-be-reactivated
#19
Ryan T Paitz, Kristin R Duffield, Rachel M Bowden
All vertebrate embryos are exposed to maternally derived steroids during development. In placental vertebrates, metabolism of maternal steroids by the placenta modulates embryonic exposure, but how exposure is regulated in oviparous vertebrates is less clear. Recent work in oviparous vertebrates has demonstrated that steroids are not static molecules, as they can be converted to more polar steroid sulfates by sulfotransferase enzymes. Importantly, these steroid sulfates can be converted back to the parent compound by the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS)...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073523/molecular-oxidative-stress-markers-in-olive-ridley-turtles-lepidochelys-olivacea-and-their-relation-to-metal-concentrations-in-wild-populations
#20
Adriana A Cortés-Gómez, Patricia Morcillo, Francisco A Guardiola, Cristobal Espinosa, María A Esteban, Alberto Cuesta, Marc Girondot, Diego Romero
Due to their longevity and extensive migration areas, marine turtles are able to accumulate diverse contaminants over many years and as a consequence they represent an interesting bioindicator species for marine ecosystem pollution. Metals provoke toxicological effects in many aquatic animal species, but marine turtles have been under-investigated in this area. Thus, we have determined the presence of certain inorganic elements (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) in olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) and related them to metallothionein (MT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) transcription and/or enzymatic activities...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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