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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099952/zebrin-ii-is-expressed-in-sagittal-stripes-in-the-cerebellum-of-dragon-lizards-ctenophorus-sp
#1
Douglas R Wylie, Daniel Hoops, Joel W Aspden, Andrew N Iwaniuk
Aldolase C, also known as zebrin II (ZII), is a glycolytic enzyme that is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the vertebrate cerebellum. In both mammals and birds, ZII is expressed heterogeneously, such that there are sagittal stripes of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+) alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with little or no expression (ZII-). In contrast, in snakes and turtles, ZII is not expressed heterogeneously; rather all Purkinje cells are ZII+. Here, we examined the expression of ZII in the cerebellum of lizards to elucidate the evolutionary origins of ZII stripes in Sauropsida...
January 19, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099078/prevalence-of-terrapene-herpesvirus-1-in-free-ranging-eastern-box-turtles-terrapene-carolina-carolina-in-tennessee-and-illinois
#2
Lauren P Kane, Matthew C Allender, Grace Archer, Elena Dzhaman, John Pauley, A Russell Moore, Marilyn O Ruiz, Rebecca L Smith, John Byrd, Christopher A Phillips
Diseases affecting the upper respiratory tract, such as herpesviruses, are well described in captive chelonians worldwide, but their importance in free-ranging populations is less well known. To characterize the disease epidemiology of terrapene herpesvirus 1 (TerHV1), 409 free-ranging eastern box turtles ( Terrapene carolina carolina) in Tennessee and Illinois were tested for TerHV1 in 2013 and 2014 using TaqMan quantitative PCR. Whole blood and swabs of the oral mucosa were collected from 365 adults (154 females, 195 males, 16 unknown sex) and 44 juveniles...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093476/muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-m-currents-underlie-efferent-mediated-slow-excitation-in-calyx-bearing-vestibular-afferents
#3
J Chris Holt, Paivi M Jordan, Anna Lysakowski, Amit Shah, Kathy Barsz, Donatella Contini
: Stimulation of vestibular efferent neurons excites calyx and dimorphic (CD) afferents. This excitation consists of fast and slow components that differ over 100-fold in activation kinetics and response duration. In turtle, efferent-mediated fast excitation arises in CD afferents when the predominant efferent neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) activates calyceal nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs); however, it is unclear whether the accompanying efferent-mediated slow excitation is also attributed to cholinergic mechanisms...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092958/moments-of-von-mises-and-fisher-distributions-and-applications
#4
Thomas Hillen, Kevin J Painter, Amanda C Swan, Albert D Murtha
The von Mises and Fisher distributions are spherical analogues to the Normal distribution on the unit circle and unit sphere, respectively. The computation of their moments, and in particular the second moment, usually involves solving tedious trigonometric integrals. Here we present a new method to compute the moments of spherical distributions, based on the divergence theorem. This method allows a clear derivation of the second moments and can be easily generalized to higher dimensions. In particular we note that, to our knowledge, the variance-covariance matrix of the three dimensional Fisher distribution has not previously been explicitly computed...
June 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092603/gut-microbiota-isolated-from-the-european-pond-turtle-emys-orbicularis-and-its-antimicrobial-resistance
#5
M Ruzauskas, S Misyte, L Vaskeviciute, Z Mikniene, R Siugzdiniene, I Klimiene, A Pikuniene, J Kucinskiene
The aim of the study was to isolate cultivable gut microbiota from European pond turtles kept at the Lithuanian Zoo and to determine antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. The study subjects included 8 elderly turtles living at the Lithuanian Zoo for about 50 years as well as their offspring - 24 young individuals (1-2 years old) that were hatched at the same zoo. Animals were not exposed by treatment with antimicrobials during the last 3 years. Gut samples were taken from the cloaca and inoculated onto universal media...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089857/na-k-atpase-activity-in-the-anoxic-turtle-trachemys-scripta-brain-at-different-acclimation-temperature
#6
Jonathan A W Stecyk, Anthony P Farrell, Matti Vornanen
Survival of prolonged anoxia requires a balance between cellular ATP demand and anaerobic ATP supply from glycolysis, especially in critical tissues such as the brain. To add insight into the ATP demand of the brain of the anoxia-tolerant red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) during prolonged periods of anoxic submergence, we quantified and compared the number of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase units and their molecular activity in brain tissue from turtles acclimated to either 21°C or 5°C and exposed to either normoxia or anoxia (6h 21°C; 14 d at 5°C)...
January 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076432/development-of-a-humane-slaughter-device-for-green-turtles-for-use-by-traditional-owners-in-the-torres-strait-islands-australia
#7
Mark Flint, Paul C Mills, Frank Loban, Tristan Simpson, Stan Lui, Ronald Fujii, Don Whap, Jaylene B Flint, Helen Owen
Marine turtles are caught and slaughtered for consumption as part of traditional indigenous community harvest in Australia as well as in many countries in which marine turtles can be found. However, changes to the Animal Care and Protection Act 2001 in 2012 resulted in Australian indigenous hunters becoming potentially liable to prosecution for using traditional practices to slaughter marine turtles. To provide indigenous hunters with an alternative scientifically tested method to hunt, we developed and tested a humane method as an option to use in indigenous communities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075017/intrapopulation-variability-in-the-timing-of-ontogenetic-habitat-shifts-in-sea-turtles-revealed-using-%C3%AE-15-n-values-from-bone-growth-rings
#8
Calandra N Turner Tomaszewicz, Jeffrey A Seminoff, S Hoyt Peckham, Larisa Avens, Carolyn M Kurle
Determining location and timing of ontogenetic shifts in the habitat use of highly migratory species, along with possible intrapopulation variation in these shifts, is essential for understanding mechanisms driving alternate life histories and assessing overall population trends. Measuring variations in multi-year habitat-use patterns is especially difficult for remote oceanic species. To investigate the potential for differential habitat use among migratory marine vertebrates, we measured the naturally occurring stable nitrogen isotope (δ(15) N) patterns that differentiate distinct ocean regions to create a 'regional isotope characterization', analysed the δ(15) N values from annual bone growth layer rings from dead-stranded animals, and then combined the bone and regional isotope data to track individual animal movement patterns over multiple years...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070454/marine-turtles-are-not-fussy-nesters-a-novel-test-of-small-scale-nest-site-selection-using-structure-from-motion-beach-terrain-information
#9
Ilana Kelly, Javier X Leon, Ben L Gilby, Andrew D Olds, Thomas A Schlacher
BACKGROUND: Nest selection is widely regarded as a key process determining the fitness of individuals and viability of animal populations. For marine turtles that nest on beaches, this is particularly pivotal as the nesting environment can significantly control reproductive success.The aim of this study was to identify the environmental attributes of beaches (i.e., morphology, vegetation, urbanisation) that may be associated with successful oviposition in green and loggerhead turtle nests...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069277/pathologies-of-the-digestive-system-caused-by-marine-debris-in-chelonia-mydas
#10
Hassan Jerdy, Max Rondon Werneck, Maria Aparecida da Silva, Rachel Bittencourt Ribeiro, Mariah Bianchi, Eduardo Shimoda, Eulógio Carlos Queiróz de Carvalho
The growth of human population and deficient pollution control measures pose significant challenge to the environment. Despite conservation efforts, all sea turtle species are at some risk of extinction. The present study investigated the effect of marine debris on the gastrointestinal tract of green turtles in southeastern Brazil. Of the 777 animals evaluated, 290 showed marine debris in one segment of the gastrointestinal tract. The presence of these materials in the gastrointestinal tract may be harmful, independent of the segment involved, and increases the risk of impaction...
January 6, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054446/the-influence-of-incubation-temperature-on-sea-turtle-hatchling-quality
#11
REVIEW
David T Booth
Since the 1980s it has been known that incubation temperature influences the sex ratio of sea turtle hatchlings emerging from their nests, and there has been much speculation on how global climate change might threaten sea turtle populations by raising nest temperatures and causing highly female biased hatchling sex ratios. More recently, studies have indicated that incubation temperature can also influence the size and locomotor performance of sea turtle hatchlings. Here I review recent studies that have explored the influence of incubation temperature on sea turtle hatchling quality in terms of hatchling morphology and locomotor performance...
January 5, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053614/multilocus-sequence-typing-analysis-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-pet-chinese-stripe-necked-turtles-ocadia-sinensis
#12
Mitchell Wendt, Gang-Joon Heo
Our research sought to characterize the phylogeny of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from pet Chinese stripe-necked turtles (Ocadia sinensis) to better understand its evolutionary relation to other isolates and increase understanding of a potential zoonotic pathogen transmitted through direct contact with pet turtles. Thirty-one Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were obtained from both immature and adult turtles sold in pet shops in Korea. To characterize the phylogenic position of Chinese stripe-necked turtle-borne P...
December 2016: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051941/thyroid-hormones-reduce-incubation-period-without-developmental-or-metabolic-costs-in-murray-river-short-necked-turtles-emydura-macquarii
#13
Jessica K McGlashan, Michael B Thompson, James U Van Dyke, Ricky-John Spencer
Metabolic processes are affected by both temperature and thyroid hormones in ectothermic vertebrates. Temperature is the major determinant of incubation length in oviparous vertebrates, but turtles can also alter developmental rate independent of temperature. Temperature gradients within natural nests cause different developmental rates of turtle embryos within nests. Despite temperature-induced reductions in developmental rate, cooler-incubated neonates often hatch synchronously with warmer siblings via metabolic compensation...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051938/temperature-effects-on-development-and-phenotype-in-a-free-living-population-of-western-pond-turtles-emys-marmorata
#14
Nicole E Christie, Nicholas R Geist
Changes in temperature regimes are occurring globally due to climate change as well as habitat alterations. Temperatures are expected to continue to rise in the future, along with a greater degree of climatic instability. Such changes could have potentially serious consequences for oviparous ectotherms, especially those with temperature-dependent sex determination. To investigate the effects of temperature on a range of developmental phenomena in a population of western pond turtles (Emys marmorata), we placed temperature sensors on top of each layer of eggs within nests and recorded temperatures hourly through the first 2-3 mo of incubation...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048050/mo-fg-campus-tep3-03-calculation-of-proton-pencil-beam-properties-with-full-beamline-model-in-topas
#15
J Wulff, E Abel
PURPOSE: Introducing Monte Carlo based dose calculation algorithms into proton therapy planning systems (TPS) leads to improved accuracy. However accurate modelling of the proton pencil beam impinging the patient is necessary. Current approaches rely on measurement-driven reconstruction of phase-space and spectrum properties, typically constrained to analytical model functions. In this study a detailed Monte Carlo model of the complete cyclotron-based delivery system was created with the aim of providing more representative beam properties at treatment position...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043787/-clusters-of-fusarium-solani-infection-in-juvenile-captive-born-caretta-caretta-sea-turtles
#16
M Garcia-Hartmann, C Hennequin, S Catteau, C Béatini, V Blanc
Various yeasts and filamentous fungi are described as the cause of infection in sea turtles. Among them, Fusarium solani is responsible both for superficial and invasive infection in weakened adults (capture, stranding), and wild nest contamination, causing massive losses during hatching. We illustrate the pathogenicity of this fungus in sea turtles, through our experience with the species Caretta caretta (loggerhead turtle) and its reproduction, which was obtained for the first time in 2010 at the marine park Marineland, Antibes and renewed in 2011 and 2013...
December 30, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039527/individual-level-behavioral-responses-of-immature-green-turtles-to-snorkeler-disturbance
#17
Lucas P Griffin, Jacob W Brownscombe, Tyler O Gagné, Alexander D M Wilson, Steven J Cooke, Andy J Danylchuk
Despite many positive benefits of ecotourism, increased human encounters with wildlife may have detrimental effects on wild animals. As charismatic megafauna, nesting and foraging sea turtles are increasingly the focus of ecotourism activities. The purpose of our study was to quantify the behavioral responses of immature green turtles (Chelonia mydas) to disturbance by snorkelers, and to investigate whether turtles have individual-level responses to snorkeler disturbance. Using a standardized disturbance stimulus in the field, we recorded turtle behaviors pre- and post-disturbance by snorkelers...
December 30, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025743/relationship-between-organochlorine-pesticides-and-stress-indicators-in-hawksbill-sea-turtle-eretmochelys-imbricata-nesting-at-punta-xen-campeche-southern-gulf-of-mexico
#18
Nelly Tremblay, Alejandro Ortíz Arana, Mauricio González Jáuregui, Jaime Rendón-von Osten
Data on the impact of environmental pollution on the homeostasis of sea turtles remains scarce, particularly in the Southern Gulf of Mexico. As many municipalities along the coastline of the Yucatan Peninsula do not rely on a waste treatment plant, these organisms could be particularly vulnerable. We searched for relationships between the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and the level of several oxidative and pollutant stress indicators of the hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) during the 2010 nesting season at Punta Xen (Campeche, Mexico)...
December 26, 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018649/latitudinal-diversity-gradients-in-mesozoic-non-marine-turtles
#19
David B Nicholson, Patricia A Holroyd, Paul Valdes, Paul M Barrett
The latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG)-the pattern of increasing taxonomic richness with decreasing latitude-is prevalent in the structure of the modern biota. However, some freshwater taxa show peak richness at mid-latitudes; for example, extant Testudines (turtles, terrapins and tortoises) exhibit their greatest diversity at 25° N, a pattern sometimes attributed to recent bursts of climatically mediated species diversification. Here, we test whether this pattern also characterizes the Mesozoic distribution of turtles, to determine whether it was established during either their initial diversification or as a more modern phenomenon...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009107/detection-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-montevideo-and-newport-in-free-ranging-sea-turtles-and-beach-sand-in-the-caribbean-and-persistence-in-sand-and-seawater-microcosms
#20
A-K Ives, E Antaki, K Stewart, S Francis, M T Jay-Russell, F Sithole, M T Kearney, M J Griffin, E Soto
Salmonellae are Gram-negative zoonotic bacteria that are frequently part of the normal reptilian gastrointestinal flora. The main objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica in the nesting and foraging populations of sea turtles on St. Kitts and in sand from known nesting beaches. Results suggest a higher prevalence of Salmonella in nesting leatherback sea turtles compared with foraging green and hawksbill sea turtles. Salmonella was cultured from 2/9 and identified by molecular diagnostic methods in 3/9 leatherback sea turtle samples...
December 23, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
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