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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230293/semen-collection-and-ejaculate-characteristics-of-the-leopard-tortoise-stigmochelys-pardalis
#1
Dawn M Zimmerman, Mark A Mitchell
The preservation of spermatozoa is an important tool used in conservation programs to increase the genetic diversity of threatened and endangered species. Although routinely used to manage conservation programs for higher vertebrates, there have been limited attempts to establish reproductive assistance programs for tortoises. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for collecting and characterizing semen in Testudinidae. Semen was collected from 13/16 (81.2%, 95% CI: 62-100) adult male leopard tortoises (Stigmochelys pardalis) via electroejaculation under propofol anesthesia...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230240/utility-of-endoscopic-examination-in-the-diagnosis-of-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-in-the-lower-gastrointestinal-tract
#2
Kosuke Nomura, Toshiro Iizuka, Daisuke Kaji, Hisashi Yamamoto, Yasutaka Kuribayashi, Masami Tanaka, Tsukasa Furuhata, Satoshi Yamashita, Daisuke Kikuchi, Akira Matsui, Toshifumi Mitani, Yasunori Ota, Shuichi Taniguchi, Shu Hoteya
Background and Aims: We retrospectively investigated the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopy. Methods: Of 1231 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between January 2005 and December 2014, 186 of whom underwent colonoscopy and biopsy and had no cytomegalovirus infection. The endoscopic findings and histologic diagnosis from these 186 patients were retrospectively analyzed...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219040/taxonomic-relationships-of-hynobius-stejnegeri-and-h-yatsui-with-description-of-the-amber-colored-salamander-from-kyushu-japan-amphibia-caudata
#3
Masafumi Matsui, Kanto Nishikawa, Atsushi Tominaga
Examination of the holotype of Hynobius stejnegeri Dunn, 1923 revealed that the species is identical with H. yatsui Oyama, 1947 , recently resurrected from H. naevius (Temminck and Schlegel, 1838). The name H. yatsui is therefore relegated to a subjective junior synonym of H. stejnegeri. The latter name, however, has been widely applied to an amber-colored or tortoise-shell salamander from Kyushu, southwestern Japan, which now requires a new name. We, thus, describe the ambercolored salamander as a new species Hynobius ikioi...
December 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217765/zoonotic-potential-of-salmonella-enterica-carried-by-pet-tortoises
#4
Hayley L Bruce, Paul A Barrow, Andrew N Rycroft
The prevalence of Salmonella in chelonians is not known in the UK and it is not clear whether such Salmonella strains would be pathogenic for human beings. Some strains, such as members of the Arizonae subgroup, may be unable to cause anything more than very mild disease. To determine the carriage of Salmonella in pet tortoises, cloacal swabs were taken for culture. Salmonella enterica Group D was isolated from 5 of the 89 samples. All five were from the same household of seven tortoises. Salmonella isolates were shown by PCR to carry the invA and spiC genes associated with pathogenicity islands 1 and 2...
December 7, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192279/self-righting-potential-and-the-evolution-of-shell-shape-in-gal%C3%A3-pagos-tortoises
#5
Ylenia Chiari, Arie van der Meijden, Adalgisa Caccone, Julien Claude, Benjamin Gilles
Self-righting, the capacity of an animal to self-turn after falling on its back, is a fitness-related trait. Delayed self-righting can result in loss of mating opportunities or death. Traits involved in self-righting may therefore be under selection. Galápagos giant tortoises have two main shell morphologies - saddleback and domed - that have been proposed to be adaptive. The more sloped shape on the sides of the shell and the longer extension of neck and legs of the saddlebacks could have evolved to optimize self-righting...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164369/birth-date-promotes-a-tortoise-or-hare-tactic-for-body-mass-development-of-a-long-lived-male-ungulate
#6
Eric S Michel, Stephen Demarais, Bronson K Strickland, Guiming Wang
Maternal and early-life influences may affect life-long individual phenotype, potentially influencing reproductive success. However, some individuals may compensate for a poor start to life, which may improve longevity and reproductive success later in life. We developed four models to assess whether maternal characteristics (age, body mass and previous year cumulative lactation demand) and/or birth date influenced a long-lived mammal's phenotype to maturity. We used a directional separation analysis to assess the relative influence of each maternal characteristic and birth date on captive male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) body mass and antler size...
November 21, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160216/serological-survey-of-australian-native-reptiles-for-exposure-to-ranavirus
#7
E Ariel, E Elliott, J I Meddings, J Miller, M B Santos, L Owens
Ranaviruses have been isolated from many ectothermic vertebrates, and serological surveys of both amphibians and reptiles have shown the presence of ranaviral antibodies in a proportion of these populations. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure serum antibodies against ranavirus in Australian reptiles. The ELISA was validated with serum from challenge trials with Bohle iridovirus (BIV) in 6 reptilian species. A preliminary sero-survey of northern Queensland riparian reptile fauna (saw-shelled turtles Myuchelys latisternum, Krefft's river turtles Emydura macquarii krefftii, freshwater crocodiles Crocodylus johnstoni, as well as the snakes Boiga irregularis, Dendrelaphis punctulatus, Tropidonophis mairii, Morelia spilota, Liasis childreni and L...
November 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134096/co-infection-does-not-predict-disease-signs-in-gopherus-tortoises
#8
Chava L Weitzman, Ryan Gov, Franziska C Sandmeier, Sarah J Snyder, C Richard Tracy
In disease ecology, the host immune system interacts with environmental conditions and pathogen properties to affect the impact of disease on the host. Within the host, pathogens may interact to facilitate or inhibit each other's growth, and pathogens interact with different hosts differently. We investigated co-infection of two Mycoplasma and the association of infection with clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease in four congeneric tortoise host species (Gopherus) in the United States to detect differences in infection risk and disease dynamics in these hosts...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031945/assessing-colour-preference-in-aldabra-giant-tortoises-geochelone-gigantea
#9
Caterina Spiezio, Carola Leonardi, Barbara Regaiolli
Tortoises perceive different colours and rely on the visual system to find food. However, few studies have considered colour preference in tortoises, especially in land species. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Aldabra giant tortoises (Geochelone gigantea) housed in Parco Natura Viva (VR), an Italian zoological garden, show a specific colour preference in their social context. The study was divided into two different periods in which red and yellow balls of the same size were scattered around in the outdoor enclosure...
October 12, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975528/effects-of-military-activity-and-habitat-quality-on-dna-damage-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-largest-population-of-the-federally-threatened-gopher-tortoise
#10
Christopher W Theodorakis, S Marshall Adams, Chandra Smith, Jamie Rotter, Ashley Hay, Joy Eslick
Department of Defense lands are essential for providing important habitat for threatened, endangered, and at-risk species (TER-S). However, there is little information on the effects of military-related contaminants on TER-S on these lands in field situations. Thus, this study examined genotoxicity and oxidative stress in gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) on Camp Shelby, MS-the largest known population of this species, which is listed as an "endangered species" in Mississippi and a "threatened species" by the U...
October 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950002/free-living-and-captive-turtles-and-tortoises-as-carriers-of-new-chlamydia-spp
#11
Agata Mitura, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Kinga Zaręba, Magdalena Zając, Karine Laroucau, Monika Szymańska-Czerwińska
A variety of Chlamydia species belonging to the Chlamydiaceae family have been reported in reptilian hosts but scarce data about their occurrence in turtles and tortoises are available. In this study, research was conducted to acquire information on invasive alien species (IAS) of turtles and indigenous turtles and tortoises, living both free and in captivity, as possible reservoirs of Chlamydiaceae. Analysis of specimens (pharyngeal and cloacal swabs and tissues) from 204 turtles and tortoises revealed an overall Chlamydiaceae prevalence of 18...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934299/a-novel-copro-diagnostic-molecular-method-for-qualitative-detection-and-identification-of-parasitic-nematodes-in-amphibians-and-reptiles
#12
Lucas G Huggins, Christopher J Michaels, Sheena M Cruickshank, Richard F Preziosi, Kathryn J Else
Anthropogenic disturbance via resource acquisition, habitat fragmentation and climate change, amongst other factors, has led to catastrophic global biodiversity losses and species extinctions at an accelerating rate. Amphibians are currently one of the worst affected classes with at least a third of species categorised as being threatened with extinction. At the same time, they are also critically important for many habitats and provide man with a powerful proxy for ecosystem health by acting as a bioindicator group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910262/work-minimization-accounts-for-footfall-phasing-in-slow-quadrupedal-gaits
#13
James R Usherwood, Zoe T Self Davies
Quadrupeds, like most bipeds, tend to walk with an even left/right footfall timing. However, the phasing between hind and forelimbs shows considerable variation. Here, we account for this variation by modeling and explaining the influence of hind-fore limb phasing on mechanical work requirements. These mechanics account for the different strategies used by: (1) slow animals (a group including crocodile, tortoise, hippopotamus and some babies); (2) normal medium to large mammals; and (3) (with an appropriate minus sign) sloths undertaking suspended locomotion across a range of speeds...
September 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904779/discriminating-patterns-and-drivers-of-multiscale-movement-in-herpetofauna-the-dynamic-and-changing-environment-of-the-mojave-desert-tortoise
#14
Giancarlo Sadoti, Miranda E Gray, Matthew L Farnsworth, Brett G Dickson
Changes to animal movement in response to human-induced changes to the environment are of growing concern in conservation. Most research on this problem has focused on terrestrial endotherms, but changes to herpetofaunal movement are also of concern given their limited dispersal abilities and specialized thermophysiological requirements. Animals in the desert region of the southwestern United States are faced with environmental alterations driven by development (e.g., solar energy facilities) and climate change...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904401/identification-of-genetically-important-individuals-of-the-rediscovered-floreana-gal%C3%A3-pagos-giant-tortoise-chelonoidis-elephantopus-provide-founders-for-species-restoration-program
#15
Joshua M Miller, Maud C Quinzin, Nikos Poulakakis, James P Gibbs, Luciano B Beheregaray, Ryan C Garrick, Michael A Russello, Claudio Ciofi, Danielle L Edwards, Elizabeth A Hunter, Washington Tapia, Danny Rueda, Jorge Carrión, Andrés A Valdivieso, Adalgisa Caccone
Species are being lost at an unprecedented rate due to human-driven environmental changes. The cases in which species declared extinct can be revived are rare. However, here we report that a remote volcano in the Galápagos Islands hosts many giant tortoises with high ancestry from a species previously declared as extinct: Chelonoidis elephantopus or the Floreana tortoise. Of 150 individuals with distinctive morphology sampled from the volcano, genetic analyses revealed that 65 had C. elephantopus ancestry and thirty-two were translocated from the volcano's slopes to a captive breeding center...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892557/the-basis-of-differences-in-thermodynamic-efficiency-among-skeletal-muscles
#16
Christopher J Barclay
Muscles convert chemical free energy into mechanical work. The energy conversion occurs in 2 steps. First, free energy obtained from oxidation of metabolic substrates (ΔGS ) is transferred to ATP and, second, free energy from ATP hydrolysis (ΔGATP ) is converted into work by myosin cross-bridges. The fraction of ΔGS transferred to ATP is called mitochondrial efficiency (ηM ) and the fraction of ΔGATP converted into work is called cross-bridge efficiency (ηCB ). Overall cross-bridge efficiency varies among muscles from ~20% and 35% and the analysis presented in the current studies shows that this variation is largely due to differences in ηCB whereas ηM is similar (~80%) in all the muscles assessed...
September 11, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888695/characterization-of-seasonal-reproductive-and-stress-steroid-hormones-in-wild-radiated-tortoises-astrochelys-radiata
#17
Andrea F T Currylow, Tsilavo H Rafeliarisoa, Edward E Louis, Craig B Stanford, Soary T Randrianjafizanaka, Sarah M Chinn, Daniel E Crocker
The critically endangered Radiated Tortoise (Astrochelys radiata) is endemic to the southern coastlines of Madagascar. Once common, wild populations of this tortoise have undergone dramatic declines in recent years. Although there have been studies documenting reproductive activities, reproductive physiological parameters are unknown yet may be crucial in the recovery of the species. Over four research seasons in remote field locations native to A. radiata, we surveyed for, radio-tracked, and sampled wild, free ranging tortoises...
September 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835840/coupling-gene-based-and-classic-veterinary-diagnostics-improves-interpretation-of-health-and-immune-function-in-the-agassiz-s-desert-tortoise-gopherus-agassizii
#18
K Kristina Drake, Lizabeth Bowen, Rebecca L Lewison, Todd C Esque, Kenneth E Nussear, Josephine Braun, Shannon C Waters, A Keith Miles
The analysis of blood constituents is a widely used tool to aid in monitoring of animal health and disease. However, classic blood diagnostics (i.e. hematologic and plasma biochemical values) often do not provide sufficient information to determine the state of an animal's health. Field studies on wild tortoises and other reptiles have had limited success in drawing significant inferences between blood diagnostics and physiological and immunological condition. However, recent research using gene transcription profiling in the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) has proved useful in identifying immune or physiologic responses and overall health...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813439/comparative-ecophysiology-of-a-critically-endangered-cr-ectotherm-implications-for-conservation-management
#19
Andrea F T Currylow, Angelo Mandimbihasina, Paul Gibbons, Ernest Bekarany, Craig B Stanford, Edward E Louis, Daniel E Crocker
Captive breeding is a vital conservation tool for many endangered species programs. It is often a last resort when wild animal population numbers drop to below critical minimums for natural reproduction. However, critical ecophysiological information of wild counterparts may not be well documented or understood, leading to years of minimal breeding successes. We collected endocrine and associated ecological data on a critically endangered ectotherm concurrently in the wild and in captivity over several years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794959/cutaneous-lesions-due-to-trichosporon-jirovecii-in-a-tortoise-testudo-hermanni
#20
Simona Nardoni, Marco Salvadori, Alessandro Poli, Guido Rocchigiani, Francesca Mancianti
Cutaneous mycoses have been rarely reported in Chelonians. A Testudo hermanni adult male showed a thick erosion of the dorsal neck covered by necrotic material. Trichosporon sp. was cultivated, while arthrospores and hyphae were observed in histological sections. The causative agent was identified as Trichosporon jirovecii by PCR. After a surgical intervention povidone iodine and Iruxol® ointment were daily administered through the drainage for 2 weeks, along with enrofloxacin 5 mg diluted in saline 0.5 ml via the intracelomatic route...
December 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
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