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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511106/mechanical-properties-and-numerical-simulation-of-sulcata-tortoise-carapace
#1
Nadda Jongpairojcosit, Petch Jearanaisilawong
Carapace of Sulcata tortoise acts as a natural shield that protects the body from natural predators. The carapace consists of four layers: keratin scutes, dorsal cortex, cancellous interior and ventral cortex. This study aims to investigate the load-bearing mechanisms of the carapace by characterizing the layers, measuring their mechanical properties and relating them to the macroscopic behavior under compression and bending loads. Test results indicate the influence of layers' morphology, especially porosity and structural compositions, on the macroscopic properties of the carapace...
May 8, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509658/haemosporidian-parasites-of-reptiles-and-birds-from-gabon-central-africa
#2
Larson Boundenga, Susan L Perkins, Benjamin Ollomo, Virginie Rougeron, Eric M Leroy, François Renaud, Franck Prugnolle
Haemosporidian parasites are protozoans that infect many different vertebrates hosts. Re-examination of the diversity of haemosporidian parasites, using molecular tools, has generally led to rearrangements of traditional classifications. In this study, we explored the diversity of haemosporidian parasites infecting two genera of vertebrates living in the forests of Gabon, by analyzing a collection of 128 samples of reptiles and birds. We found that samples from two tortoise species (Pelusios castaneus and Kinixys erosa) and three bird species (Turtur afer, Ceratogymna atrata and Agelastes niger) were infected by Haemocystidium spp...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508199/selective-specificity-of-calcium-binding-proteins-calbindin-and-calretinin-expression-in-the-magnocellular-neurosecretory-hypothalamic-nuclei-of-tortoises-and-turtles
#3
M G Belekhova, N B Kenigfest, E V Chernigovskaya, N P Veselkin
We have studied the distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the magnocellular neurosecretory nuclei of nonapeptidergic neurosecretory nuclei of the preoptic-hypothalamic complex in a tortoise (Testudo horsfieldi) and a pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) using immunohistochemistry. We have found that different types of cells in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei predominantly express calbindin and, to a lesser extent, calretinin, but not parvalbumin. The selective calbindin/calretinin control of the neurohormone secretion in these hypothalamic nuclei is an evolutionary conservative feature typical of reptiles and mammals...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480017/the-evolution-of-different-maternal-investment-strategies-in-two-closely-related-desert-vertebrates
#4
Joshua R Ennen, Jeffrey E Lovich, Roy C Averill-Murray, Charles B Yackulic, Mickey Agha, Caleb Loughran, Laura Tennant, Barry Sinervo
We compared egg size phenotypes and tested several predictions from the optimal egg size (OES) and bet-hedging theories in two North American desert-dwelling sister tortoise taxa, Gopherus agassizii and G. morafkai, that inhabit different climate spaces: relatively unpredictable and more predictable climate spaces, respectively. Observed patterns in both species differed from the predictions of OES in several ways. Mean egg size increased with maternal body size in both species. Mean egg size was inversely related to clutch order in G...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460581/whip-like-heterophil-projections-in-consecutive-blood-films-from-an-injured-gopher-tortoise-gopherus-polyphemus-with-systemic-inflammation
#5
N I Stacy, D V Fredholm, C Rodriguez, L Castro, J W Harvey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437174/more-than-fever-thermoregulatory-responses-to-immunological-stimulation-and-consequences-of-thermoregulatory-strategy-on-innate-immunity-in-gopher-tortoises-gopherus-polyphemus
#6
Jeffrey M Goessling, Craig Guyer, Mary T Mendonça
Organisms possess a range of thermoregulatory strategies that may vary in response to sickness, thereby driving important life-history consequences. Because the immune system is vital to maintaining organism function, understanding the suite of immune responses to infection indicates basic costs and benefits of physiological strategies. Here, we assessed consequences of thermoregulation and seasonality on immune function in both immunologically stimulated and nonstimulated gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390059/benefits-of-the-destinations-not-costs-of-the-journeys-shape-partial-migration-patterns
#7
Charles B Yackulic, Stephen Blake, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau
1.The reasons that lead some animals to seasonally migrate, and others to remain in the same area year-round, are poorly understood. Associations between traits, such as body size, and migration provide clues. For example, larger species and individuals are more likely to migrate. 2.One explanation for this size bias in migration is that larger animals are capable of moving faster (movement hypothesis). However, body size is linked to many other biological processes. For instance, the energetic balances of larger animals are generally more sensitive to variation in food density because of body size effects on foraging and metabolism and this sensitivity could drive migratory decisions (forage hypothesis)...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387863/neutral-genetic-processes-influence-mhc-evolution-in-threatened-gopher-tortoises-gopherus-polyphemus
#8
Jean P Elbers, Rachel W Clostio, Sabrina S Taylor
Levels of adaptive genetic variation influence how species deal with environmental and ecological change, but these levels are frequently inferred using neutral genetic markers. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play a key role in the adaptive branch of the immune system and have been used extensively to estimate levels of adaptive genetic variation. Parts of the peptide binding region, sites where MHC molecules directly interact with pathogen and self-proteins, were sequenced from a MHC class I (95/441 tortoises) and class II (245/441 tortoises) gene in threatened and non-threatened populations of gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus), and adaptive genetic variation at MHC genes was compared to neutral genetic variation derived from 10 microsatellite loci (441 tortoises)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382789/lag-of-immunity-across-seasonal-acclimation-states-in-gopher-tortoises-gopherus-polyphemus
#9
Jeffrey M Goessling, Shane A Koler, Brian D Overman, Elizabeth M Hiltbold, Craig Guyer, Mary T Mendonça
Disease outbreaks are of increasing importance to ectothermic vertebrates as one of numerous results of global change. Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to increase climatic instability, thereby altering natural thermal environments. In this study, we evaluated the direct effects of rapid temperature change on immunity in Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). Specifically, we tested the lag hypothesis, which predicts significant misalignment of optimal and realized immunity when temperature rapidly changes...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363080/hematology-and-plasma-chemistry-of-the-ploughshare-tortoise-astrochelys-yniphora-in-a-captive-breeding-program
#10
Javier López, Michael Waters, Andrew Routh, Tsanta F Rakotonanahary, Lance Woolaver, Ann Thomasson, Emma Holmes, Hanspeter W Steinmetz
Blood samples from 172 captive and 40 wild, healthy, juvenile and adult, ploughshare tortoises ( Astrochelys yniphora ) were analyzed to determine hematological and biochemical reference intervals. Hematological analytes included packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell count (WBC), and WBC differential estimates. Biochemical analysis included total protein measured by photometry (TP) and by refractometry (TPr), albumin (ALB), creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), bile acids (BA), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), urea (UREA), and uric acid (UA)...
March 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360999/stress-response-to-handling-is-short-lived-but-may-reflect-personalities-in-a-wild-critically-endangered-tortoise-species
#11
Andrea F T Currylow, Edward E Louis, Daniel E Crocker
We investigated the acute stress response associated with animal personalities by measuring plasma glucocorticoids throughout handling and collected ~2 years of movement and behavioural data in a wild, Critically Endangered animal, Astrochelys radiata (radiated tortoise). To determine whether our standard, brief conscientious handling procedures induce a stress response in our target species, we applied a stressor by way of initial animal processing and deployment of telemetry equipment. During surveys and processing, we sampled animals immediately upon detection, again after completing transmitter attachment and processing, and a final time the following day...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331618/movement-of-leopard-tortoises-in-response-to-environmental-and-climatic-variables-in-a-semi-arid-environment
#12
Martyn Drabik-Hamshare, Colleen T Downs
BACKGROUND: Tortoises (Testudinidae) occur in a wide range of environments, providing important ecosystem functions, such as seed dispersal and refuge in the form of burrows. Tortoise movement has previously been shown to be related to resource availability, reproductive status and local environmental conditions. However, understanding of the variables that drive their movement remains comparatively low. We investigated aspects of movement in leopard tortoises Stigmochelys pardalis-the largest and most abundant tortoise species in sub-Saharan Africa-in response to environmental, climatic and individual variables in the semi-arid Karoo, South Africa...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327883/chapiniella-variabilis-nematoda-parasitizing-chelonoidis-carbonarius-and-c-denticulatus-testudinidae-in-the-state-of-piau%C3%A3
#13
Simone Mousinho Freire, Anangela Ravena da Silva Leal, Marcelo Knoff, Delir Corrêa Gomes, Jeannie Nascimento Dos Santos, Elane Guerreiro Giese, Reinaldo José da Silva, Ivete Lopes Mendonça
Chapiniella variabilis (Chapin, 1924), a strongylid nematode, was collected parasitizing the large intestine of the tortoises Chelonoidis carbonarius (Spix, 1824) (Cc) and C. denticulatus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Cd) in the Zoobotanical Park of the municipality of Teresina, state of Piauí, Brazil. The taxonomic identification was based on morphological and morphometric features, using bright-field and scanning electron microscopy. The present study adds new observations on the morphology, mainly relating to the mouth papillae, external and internal leaf-crown elements, excretory pore, deirids and male and female posterior end...
March 16, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316068/contribution-by-vertebrates-to-seed-dispersal-effectiveness-in-the-gal%C3%A3-pagos-islands-a-community-wide-approach
#14
M Nogales, A González-Castro, B Rumeu, A Traveset, P Vargas, P Jaramillo, J M Olesen, R Heleno
Seed dispersal and seedling recruitment are crucial phases in the life cycle of all spermatophyte plants. The net contribution of seed dispersers to plant establishment is known as seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE) and is defined as the product of a quantitative (number of seeds dispersed) and a qualitative (probability of recruitment) component. In Galápagos, we studied the direct contribution to SDE (number of seeds dispersed and effect on seedling emergence) provided by the five island groups of frugivores (giant tortoises, lizards, medium-sized passerine birds, small non-finch passerine birds and finches) in the two main habitats in this archipelago: the lowland and the highland zones, and found 16 vertebrate species dispersing 58 plant species...
March 17, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281776/parasites-of-domestic-and-wild-animals-in-south-africa-li-ticks-infesting-leopard-tortoises-i-stigmochelys-pardalis-i-hingeback-tortoises-i-kinixys-zombensis-i-and-angulate-tortoises-i-chersina-angulata-i
#15
Ivan G Horak, Ashley Pearcy, Kyle J Lloyd
The objective of the study was to record the tick species collected from three species of tortoise, each in a different province of South Africa. Ticks were collected from leopard tortoises, Stigmochyles pardalis, in the southern region of the Kruger National Park, Mpumalanga province; from hingeback tortoises, Kinixys zombensis, in the Enseleni Nature Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal province and from angulate tortoises, Chersina angulata, in the West Coast National Park, Western Cape province. Of the 63 leopard tortoises examined, 58 were infested with Amblyomma marmoreum and 49 with Amblyomma hebraeum, and all stages of development of both species were recovered...
February 28, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273135/low-tortoise-abundances-in-pine-forest-plantations-in-forest-shrubland-transition-areas
#16
Roberto C Rodríguez-Caro, Cornelia S Oedekoven, Eva Graciá, José D Anadón, Stephen T Buckland, Miguel A Esteve-Selma, Julia Martinez, Andrés Giménez
In the transition between Mediterranean forest and the arid subtropical shrublands of the southeastern Iberian Peninsula, humans have transformed habitat since ancient times. Understanding the role of the original mosaic landscapes in wildlife species and the effects of the current changes as pine forest plantations, performed even outside the forest ecological boundaries, are important conservation issues. We studied variation in the density of the endangered spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) in three areas that include the four most common land types within the species' range (pine forests, natural shrubs, dryland crop fields, and abandoned crop fields)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238545/drawing-a-line-in-the-sand-effectiveness-of-off-highway-vehicle-management-in-california-s-sonoran-desert
#17
Nathan A Custer, Lesley A DeFalco, Kenneth E Nussear, Todd C Esque
Public land policies manage multiple uses while striving to protect vulnerable plant and wildlife habitats from degradation; yet the effectiveness of such policies are infrequently evaluated, particularly for remote landscapes that are difficult to monitor. We assessed the use and impacts of recreational vehicles on Mojave Desert washes (intermittent streams) in the Chemehuevi Desert Wildlife Management Area (DWMA) of southern California. Wash zones designated as open and closed to off-highway vehicle (OHV) activity were designed in part to protect Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) habitat while allowing recreation in designated areas...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171733/microsporidiosis-in-four-tortoises-testudo-hermanni-boettgeri
#18
M Eydner, J Donhauser, A Beineke, P Guenther, S Blahak
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, spore-forming fungi. A wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts can be infected; however, cases of infected turtles or tortoises have not yet been described. This is the first description of 4 cases in tortoises ( Testudo spp), which showed general signs of illness as well as intestinal and respiratory signs until death occurred or they were euthanized. Granulomatous and necrotizing inflammation was visible in the lung and liver. Fungal organisms were present in heart blood, lung, liver, and intestine...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169185/reproductive-medicine-in-freshwater-turtles-and-land-tortoises
#19
REVIEW
Sean M Perry, Mark A Mitchell
Chelonian reproductive medicine is an extremely important facet to ensuring captive populations for the pet trade and conservation efforts around the globe. This review covers basic chelonian reproductive anatomy and physiology, natural history, behavior, and sexing chelonians, in addition to discussing reproductive disorders that are commonly seen by veterinarians. Reproductive disorders covered include infertility, dystocia, follicular stasis, egg yolk coelomitis, phallus prolapse, and reproductive neoplasia...
February 4, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148835/long-term-memory-of-relative-reward-values
#20
Francesca Soldati, Oliver H P Burman, Elizabeth A John, Thomas W Pike, Anna Wilkinson
Long-term memory can be adaptive as it allows animals to retain information that is crucial for survival, such as the appearance and location of key resources. This is generally examined by comparing choices of stimuli that have value to the animal with those that do not; however, in nature choices are rarely so clear cut. Animals are able to assess the relative value of a resource via direct comparison, but it remains unclear whether they are able to retain this information for a biologically meaningful amount of time...
February 2017: Biology Letters
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