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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609473/nutrition-and-husbandry-conditions-of-palearctic-tortoises-testudo-spp-in-captivity
#1
Thomas Bauer, Sven Reese, Petra Koelle
Mediterranean and Russian tortoises (Testudo spp.) are popular companion animals (pets), despite ongoing controversy concerning privately keeping reptiles. The arguments used during these controversial discussions have often been based on outdated facts. Therefore, a survey was developed to evaluate the current population structure, husbandry conditions, diet regime, and health status of Testudo species in captivity. More than 75% of the 1075 respondents housed their tortoises in an outdoor enclosure containing a greenhouse or cold frame, which is considered the most species-appropriate way of husbandry...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590117/a-terrestrial-vertebrate-palaeontological-review-of-aldabra-atoll-aldabra-group-seychelles
#2
Julian P Hume, David Martill, Richard Hing
The Pleistocene vertebrate assemblage of Aldabra Atoll has been comparatively well studied. Three Upper Pleistocene fossil localities have been described yielding birds, reptiles and terrestrial molluscs. Those of Bassin Cabri and Bassin Lebine on Ile Picard are undated but must be in excess of 136,000 YBP, whereas Point Hodoul on Malabar Island is circa 100,000 YBP. Aldabra was seemingly completely submerged between deposition of the Ile Picard and Point Hodoul deposits, resulting in local faunal extinctions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568703/curious-creatures-a-multi-taxa-investigation-of-responses-to-novelty-in-a-zoo-environment
#3
Belinda A Hall, Vicky Melfi, Alicia Burns, David M McGill, Rebecca E Doyle
The personality trait of curiosity has been shown to increase welfare in humans. If this positive welfare effect is also true for non-humans, animals with high levels of curiosity may be able to cope better with stressful situations than their conspecifics. Before discoveries can be made regarding the effect of curiosity on an animal's ability to cope in their environment, a way of measuring curiosity across species in different environments must be created to standardise testing. To determine the suitability of novel objects in testing curiosity, species from different evolutionary backgrounds with sufficient sample sizes were chosen...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531315/author-correction-identification-of-genetically-important-individuals-of-the-rediscovered-floreana-gal%C3%A3-pagos-giant-tortoise-chelonoidis-elephantopus-provides-founders-for-species-restoration-program
#4
Joshua M Miller, Maud C Quinzin, Nikos Poulakakis, James P Gibbs, Luciano B Beheregaray, Ryan C Garrick, Michael A Russello, Claudio Ciofi, Danielle L Edwards, Elizabeth A Hunter, Washington Tapia, Danny Rueda, Jorge Carrión, Andrés A Valdivieso, Adalgisa Caccone
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490038/genetic-pedigree-analysis-of-the-pilot-breeding-program-for-the-rediscovered-galapagos-giant-tortoise-from-floreana-island
#5
Joshua M Miller, Maud C Quinzin, Elizabeth H Scheibe, Claudio Ciofi, Fredy Villalva, Washington Tapia, Adalgisa Caccone
An aim of many captive breeding programs is to increase population sizes for reintroduction and establishment of self-sustaining wild populations. Genetic analyses play a critical role in these programs: monitoring genetic variation, identifying the origin of individuals, and assigning parentage to track family sizes. Here we use genetic pedigree analyses to examine three seasons of a pilot breeding program for the Floreana island Galapagos giant tortoise, C. niger, that had been declared extinct for ~150 years until individuals with mixed ancestry were recently discovered...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480451/when-carapace-governs-size-variation-among-age-classes-and-individuals-in-a-free-ranging-ectotherm-with-delayed-maturity
#6
Dragan Arsovski, Ljiljana Tomović, Ana Golubović, Sonja Nikolić, Bogoljub Sterijovski, Rastko Ajtić, Jean-Marie Ballouard, Xavier Bonnet
Juvenile growth strongly impacts life-history traits during adulthood. Yet, in juveniles with delayed maturity, elusiveness has hindered age-specific studies of growth, precluding any detailed research on its consequences later in life. Different complex growth patterns have been extracted from captive animals, suggesting species-specific trajectories occur in free-ranging animals. How pronounced are growth and body size variation (VBS) throughout a long-lived ectotherm's life? Is VBS constant among age classes prior to maturity, or do compensatory and/or cumulative effects driven by long-lived-animal-specific strategies create distinct VBS cohorts, to ensure survival? To tackle the issue, we modelled growth data from continuous and dense annual capture-mark-recapture sampling (5096 body measurements of 1134 free-ranging individuals) of both immature and mature, long-lived Hermann's tortoises...
February 26, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479431/biochemistry-and-hematology-parameters-of-the-san-crist%C3%A3-bal-gal%C3%A3-pagos-tortoise-chelonoidis-chathamensis
#7
Gregory A Lewbart, John A Griffioen, Alison Savo, Juan Pablo Muñoz-Pérez, Carlos Ortega, Andrea Loyola, Sarah Roberts, George Schaaf, David Steinberg, Steven B Osegueda, Michael G Levy, Diego Páez-Rosas
As part of a planned introduction of captive Galapagos tortoises ( Chelonoidis chathamensis ) to the San Cristóbal highland farms, our veterinary team performed thorough physical examinations and health assessments of 32 tortoises. Blood samples were collected for packed cell volume (PCV), total solids (TS), white blood cell count (WBC) differential, estimated WBC and a biochemistry panel including lactate. In some cases not all of the values were obtainable but most of the tortoises have full complements of results...
2018: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468029/patterns-of-activity-and-body-temperature-of-aldabra-giant-tortoises-in-relation-to-environmental-temperature
#8
Wilfredo Falcón, Rich P Baxter, Samuel Furrer, Martin Bauert, Jean-Michel Hatt, Gabriela Schaepman-Strub, Arpat Ozgul, Nancy Bunbury, Marcus Clauss, Dennis M Hansen
We studied the temperature relations of wild and zoo Aldabra giant tortoises ( Aldabrachelys gigantea ) focusing on (1) the relationship between environmental temperature and tortoise activity patterns ( n  = 8 wild individuals) and (2) on tortoise body temperature fluctuations, including how their core and external body temperatures vary in relation to different environmental temperature ranges (seasons; n  = 4 wild and n  = 5 zoo individuals). In addition, we surveyed the literature to review the effect of body mass on core body temperature range in relation to environmental temperature in the Testudinidae...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467467/synaptic-transmission-a-hare-as-well-as-a-tortoise
#9
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432849/cultivation-of-multiple-genera-of-hydrogenotrophic-methanogens-from-different-environmental-niches
#10
Akshay Joshi, Vikram B Lanjekar, Prashant K Dhakephalkar, Sumit S Dagar
Six genera of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, namely Methanobrevibacter, Methanobacterium, Methanocorpusculum, Methanothermobacter, Methanoculleus, and Methanospirillum were cultivated from diverse environmental niches like rumen, feces, gut, and sediments using BY medium. We also report a putative novel genus and two novel species of methanogens isolated from termite, Indian star tortoise, and green iguana.
February 9, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420867/applying-network-theory-to-animal-movements-to-identify-properties-of-landscape-space-use
#11
Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Iain Douglas-Hamilton, Stephen Blake, Joseph M Northrup, George Wittemyer
Network (graph) theory is a popular analytical framework to characterize the structure and dynamics among discrete objects, particularly effective at identifying critical hubs and patterns of connectivity. The identification of such attributes is a fundamental objective of animal movement research, yet network theory has rarely been applied directly to animal relocation data. We develop an approach that allows the analysis of movement data using network theory by defining occupied pixels as nodes and connection among these pixels as edges...
February 8, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410873/trophic-interactions-between-larger-crocodylians-and-giant-tortoises-on-aldabra-atoll-western-indian-ocean-during-the-late-pleistocene
#12
Torsten M Scheyer, Massimo Delfino, Nicole Klein, Nancy Bunbury, Frauke Fleischer-Dogley, Dennis M Hansen
Today, the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Aldabra Atoll is home to about 100 000 giant tortoises, Aldabrachelys gigantea, whose fossil record goes back to the Late Pleistocene. New Late Pleistocene fossils (age ca. 90-125 000 years) from the atoll revealed some appendicular bones and numerous shell fragments of giant tortoises and cranial and postcranial elements of crocodylians. Several tortoise bones show circular holes, pits and scratch marks that are interpreted as bite marks of crocodylians. The presence of a Late Pleistocene crocodylian species, Aldabrachampsus dilophus, has been known for some time, but the recently found crocodylian remains presented herein are distinctly larger than those previously described...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366714/achilles-and-the-tortoise-some-caveats-to-mathematical-modeling-in-biology
#13
REVIEW
Scott F Gilbert
Mathematical modeling has recently become a much-lauded enterprise, and many funding agencies seek to prioritize this endeavor. However, there are certain dangers associated with mathematical modeling, and knowledge of these pitfalls should also be part of a biologist's training in this set of techniques. (1) Mathematical models are limited by known science; (2) Mathematical models can tell what can happen, but not what did happen; (3) A model does not have to conform to reality, even if it is logically consistent; (4) Models abstract from reality, and sometimes what they eliminate is critically important; (5) Mathematics can present a Platonic ideal to which biologically organized matter strives, rather than a trial-and-error bumbling through evolutionary processes...
January 20, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360549/development-and-validation-of-a-quantitative-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-emydoidea-herpesvirus-1-in-free-ranging-blanding-s-turtles-emydoidea-blandingii
#14
Dana M Lindemann, Matthew C Allender, Dan Thompson, Laura Adamovicz, Elena Dzhaman
Blanding's turtles (Emydoidea blandingii), an endangered species in Illinois, have experienced range-wide declines because of habitat degradation and fragmentation, predation, and road mortality. While ongoing studies are crucial to a thorough understanding of the natural history and demographics in these disjointed Illinois populations, infectious disease threats have been largely unevaluated. Herpesvirus outbreaks have been associated with high morbidity and mortality in populations of captive tortoises and turtles worldwide, including the family Emydidae (pond and box turtles)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351737/identifying-genome-wide-immune-gene-variation-underlying-infectious-disease-in-wildlife-populations-a-next-generation-sequencing-approach-in-the-gopher-tortoise
#15
Jean P Elbers, Mary B Brown, Sabrina S Taylor
BACKGROUND: Infectious disease is the single greatest threat to taxa such as amphibians (chytrid fungus), bats (white nose syndrome), Tasmanian devils (devil facial tumor disease), and black-footed ferrets (canine distemper virus, plague). Although understanding the genetic basis to disease susceptibility is important for the long-term persistence of these groups, most research has been limited to major-histocompatibility and Toll-like receptor genes. To better understand the genetic basis of infectious disease susceptibility in a species of conservation concern, we sequenced all known/predicted immune response genes (i...
January 19, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346018/the-tortoise-and-the-hare-interactions-between-reinforcement-learning-and-working-memory
#16
Anne G E Collins
Learning to make rewarding choices in response to stimuli depends on a slow but steady process, reinforcement learning, and a fast and flexible, but capacity-limited process, working memory. Using both systems in parallel, with their contributions weighted based on performance, should allow us to leverage the best of each system: rapid early learning, supplemented by long-term robust acquisition. However, this assumes that using one process does not interfere with the other. We use computational modeling to investigate the interactions between the two processes in a behavioral experiment and show that working memory interferes with reinforcement learning...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333669/blood-pressure-and-goal-titration-of-neurohormonal-antagonists-the-tortoise-wins-again
#17
EDITORIAL
Hector O Ventura, Mandeep R Mehra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301701/thermoregulatory-challenges-in-the-habitat-of-the-world-s-smallest-tortoise-chersobius-signatus
#18
Victor J T Loehr
Ectotherms have various means of dealing with low environmental temperatures, but relatively few species have been rigorously investigated. Consequently, we have little information to predict how ectotherm populations might respond to global temperature changes. Tortoises from temperate and subtropical regions often overcome periodically cool conditions by hibernation, but speckled dwarf tortoises (Chersobius signatus) need to remain active to exploit ephemeral resources in their arid winter-rainfall habitat...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299243/chronic-disease-in-the-mojave-desert-tortoise-host-physiology-and-recrudescence-obscure-patterns-of-pathogen-transmission
#19
Franziska C Sandmeier, K Nichole Maloney, C Richard Tracy, David Hyde, Hamid Mohammadpour, Ron Marlow, Sally DuPré, Kenneth Hunter
A seminatural, factorial-design experiment was used to quantify dynamics of the pathogen Mycoplasma agassizii and upper respiratory tract disease in the Mojave desert tortoise ( Gopherus agassizii ) over 2 years. Groups of initially healthy animals were separated into serologically positive (seropositive), seronegative, and artificially infected groups and paired into 23 pens. We found no evidence of long-term immune protection to M. agassizii or of immunological memory. Initially seronegative, healthy tortoises experienced an equal amount of disease when paired with other seronegative groups as when paired with seropositive and artificially infected groups-suggesting that recrudescence is as significant as transmission in introducing disease in individuals in this host-pathogen system...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297806/extension-of-the-known-host-range-of-intranuclear-coccidiosis-infection-in-three-captive-red-footed-tortoises-chelonoidis-carbonaria
#20
Justin M Stilwell, Natalie K Stilwell, Nicole I Stacy, James F X Wellehan, Lisa L Farina
The intranuclear coccidian parasite of Testudines (TINC) is an emerging pathogen of tortoises. Three captive red-footed tortoises ( Chelonoidis carbonaria) from an isolated collection presented with multiple acute, nonspecific clinical signs. One tortoise died and was diagnosed with intranuclear coccidiosis on histopathology with confirmation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). In addition to tissues where TINC has been previously described, coccidia were identified in the pineal gland, choroid plexus, and testicular Sertoli cells...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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