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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089032/rule-of-three-for-esophageal-dilation-like-the-tortoise-versus-the-rabbit-low-and-slow-is-our-friend-and-our-patients-win
#1
EDITORIAL
Joel E Richter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080924/selected-plasma-biochemistry-analytes-of-healthy-captive-sulcata-african-spurred-tortoises-centrochelys-sulcata
#2
David Eshar, Ady Y Gancz, Nili Avni-Magen, Effi Wagshal, Lisa M Pohlman, Mark A Mitchell
The sulcata or African spurred tortoise (Centrochelys sulcata) is a large tortoise species that is commonly kept in zoologic collections and as a pet. The objectives of this study were to establish reference intervals for selected biochemical analytes in clinically healthy captive sulcata tortoises and to evaluate the impact of blood sampling site and sex. Blood samples were collected from 60 tortoises from either the dorsal coccygeal (tail) vein or the subcarapacial venous plexus based on their body size. The packed cell volume and refractometric total solids (TS) were determined...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077774/tropical-ancient-dna-reveals-relationships-of-the-extinct-bahamian-giant-tortoise-chelonoidis-alburyorum
#3
Christian Kehlmaier, Axel Barlow, Alexander K Hastings, Melita Vamberger, Johanna L A Paijmans, David W Steadman, Nancy A Albury, Richard Franz, Michael Hofreiter, Uwe Fritz
Ancient DNA of extinct species from the Pleistocene and Holocene has provided valuable evolutionary insights. However, these are largely restricted to mammals and high latitudes because DNA preservation in warm climates is typically poor. In the tropics and subtropics, non-avian reptiles constitute a significant part of the fauna and little is known about the genetics of the many extinct reptiles from tropical islands. We have reconstructed the near-complete mitochondrial genome of an extinct giant tortoise from the Bahamas (Chelonoidis alburyorum) using an approximately 1 000-year-old humerus from a water-filled sinkhole (blue hole) on Great Abaco Island...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018649/latitudinal-diversity-gradients-in-mesozoic-non-marine-turtles
#4
David B Nicholson, Patricia A Holroyd, Paul Valdes, Paul M Barrett
The latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG)-the pattern of increasing taxonomic richness with decreasing latitude-is prevalent in the structure of the modern biota. However, some freshwater taxa show peak richness at mid-latitudes; for example, extant Testudines (turtles, terrapins and tortoises) exhibit their greatest diversity at 25° N, a pattern sometimes attributed to recent bursts of climatically mediated species diversification. Here, we test whether this pattern also characterizes the Mesozoic distribution of turtles, to determine whether it was established during either their initial diversification or as a more modern phenomenon...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933166/sex-specific-ecophysiological-responses-to-environmental-fluctuations-of-free-ranging-hermann-s-tortoises-implication-for-conservation
#5
Adélaïde Sibeaux, Catherine Louise Michel, Xavier Bonnet, Sébastien Caron, Kévin Fournière, Stephane Gagno, Jean-Marie Ballouard
Physiological parameters provide indicators to evaluate how organisms respond to conservation actions. For example, individuals translocated during reinforcement programmes may not adapt to their novel host environment and may exhibit elevated chronic levels of stress hormones and/or decreasing body condition. Conversely, successful conservation actions should be associated with a lack of detrimental physiological perturbation. However, physiological references fluctuate over time and are influenced by various factors (e...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922064/ancient-tortoise-hunting-in-the-southwest-pacific
#6
Stuart Hawkins, Trevor H Worthy, Stuart Bedford, Matthew Spriggs, Geoffrey Clark, Geoff Irwin, Simon Best, Patrick Kirch
We report the unprecedented Lapita exploitation and subsequent extinction of large megafauna tortoises (?Meiolania damelipi) on tropical islands during the late Holocene over a 281,000 km(2) region of the southwest Pacific spanning from the Vanuatu archipelago to Viti Levu in Fiji. Zooarchaeological analyses have identified seven early archaeological sites with the remains of this distinctive hornless tortoise, unlike the Gondwanan horned meiolaniid radiation to the southwest. These large tortoise radiations in the Pacific may have contributed to the rapid dispersal of early mobile Neolithic hunters throughout southwest Melanesia and on to western Polynesia...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891620/modulation-of-formalin-induced-pain-related-behaviour-by-clonidine-and-yohimbine-in-the-speke-s-hinged-tortoise-kiniskys-spekii
#7
C M Makau, P K Towett, K S P Abelson, T I Kanui
The study was designed to investigate the involvement of noradrenergic and serotonergic receptor systems in the modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Intradermal injection of 100 μL of formalin at a dilution of 12.5% caused pain-related behaviour (hindlimb withdrawal) that lasted for a mean time of 19.28 min (monophasic response). Intrathecal administration of clonidine (α2 -adrenergic receptor agonist) and yohimbine (α2 -adrenergic receptor antagonist) at a dose of 40 μg/kg and 37...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890294/oncology-of-reptiles-diseases-diagnosis-and-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Jane Christman, Michael Devau, Heather Wilson-Robles, Sharman Hoppes, Raquel Rech, Karen E Russell, J Jill Heatley
Based on necropsy review, neoplasia in reptiles has a comparable frequency to that of mammals and birds. Reptile neoplasia is now more frequently diagnosed in clinical practice based on increased use of advanced diagnostic techniques and improvements in reptilian husbandry allowing greater longevity of these species. This article reviews the current literature on neoplasia in reptiles, and focuses on advanced diagnostics and therapeutic options for reptilian patientssuffering neoplastic disease. Although most applied clinical reptile oncology is translated from dog and cat oncology, considerations specific to reptilian patients commonly encountered in clinical practice (turtles, tortoises, snakes, and lizards) are presented...
January 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827334/cryptosporidium-testudinis-sp-n-cryptosporidium-ducismarci-traversa-2010-and-cryptosporidium-tortoise-genotype-iii-apicomplexa-cryptosporidiidae-in-tortoises
#9
Jana Jezkova, Michaela Horcickova, Lenka Hlaskova, Bohumil Sak, Dana Kvetonova, Jan Novak, Lada Hofmannova, John McEvoy, Martin Kvac
Understanding of the diversity of species of Cryptosporidium Tyzzer, 1910 in tortoises remains incomplete due to the limited number of studies on these hosts. The aim of the present study was to characterise the genetic diversity and biology of cryptosporidia in tortoises of the family Testudinidae Batsch. Faecal samples were individually collected immediately after defecation and were screened for presence of cryptosporidia by microscopy using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining, and by PCR amplification and sequence analysis targeting the small subunit rRNA (SSU), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and actin genes...
October 14, 2016: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811681/revision-of-ogdoecosta-spaeth-1909-with-description-of-ogdoecosta-paraflavomaculata-l%C3%A3-pez-p%C3%A3-rez-sp-nov-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-cassidinae-mesomphaliini
#10
Sara López-Pérez, Santiago Zaragoza-Caballero, Caroline S Chaboo
The tortoise beetle genus Ogdoecosta Spaeth 1909 is revised and an illustrated key to 12 species is provided, based on a morphological analysis of all species. All the known species are redescribed and one new species, Ogdoecosta paraflavomaculata López-Pérez sp. nov., is described from Belize and México. Lectotypes are designated for O. omissa Dohrn 1880, O. epilachnoides (Champion 1893), O. fasciata (Boheman 1856), O. flavomaculata (Champion 1893), O. mexicana (Champion 1893 and O. obliterata (Champion 1893)...
October 31, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792530/seasonal-acclimation-of-constitutive-immunity-in-gopher-tortoises-gopherus-polyphemus
#11
Jeffrey M Goessling, Craig Guyer, Mary T Mendonça
Studies have suggested a role for natural seasonal change to drive patterns of disease, especially within ectothermic vertebrates. In light of recent climate change, it is important to understand baseline disease resistance in a seasonal context to further understand the role that changes in seasonal weather patterns may have in increasing disease frequency. Herein we found support for the seasonal acclimation hypothesis in Gopherus polyphemus (gopher tortoise), which indicated that natural seasonal variation causes differences in baseline immune function across seasonal acclimation states...
November 2016: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789236/evaluation-of-abnormal-liver-biochemical-test-results-does-the-hare-finally-beat-the-tortoise
#12
EDITORIAL
John J Poterucha, Lawrence S Friedman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788056/comparison-of-current-methods-for-the-detection-of-chronic-mycoplasmal-urtd-in-wild-populations-of-the-mojave-desert-tortoise-gopherus-agassizii
#13
Franziska C Sandmeier, Chava L Weitzman, K Nichole Maloney, C Richard Tracy, Nathan Nieto, Mike B Teglas, Kenneth W Hunter, Sally DuPré, C M Gienger, Michael W Tuma
Pathogens that cause subclinical diseases or exhibit low infection intensities are difficult to quantify in wild populations. Mojave desert tortoises ( Gopherus agassizii ) have been the focus of much research aimed at measuring the presence of upper respiratory disease (URTD) and URTD-associated pathogens, and techniques used to quantify disease in Gopherus species have also been used for disease surveillance in other species of turtles and tortoises of conservation concern. Published surveys of G. agassizii populations have found a relatively low prevalence of URTD, with most URTD-positive animals exhibiting moderate, intermittent signs of morbidity...
January 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746414/hematological-and-pathological-features-of-massive-hepatic-necrosis-in-two-radiated-tortoises-astrochelys-radiata
#14
Nobuhide Kido, Iori Itagaki, Daisuke Kiryu, Tomoko Omiya, Kaori Ono
Two radiated tortoises (Astrochelys radiata) exhibited anorexia and hypokinesia. In both cases, hematological and serum biochemical examinations revealed high alkaline phosphatase levels, moderately high aspartate aminotransferase levels and white blood cell counts approximately within the normal range. Despite being treated, the tortoises died 9 and 43 days after the first clinical examination. Gross pathological examinations revealed that the livers of both animals were extremely swollen and contained pale yellow necrotic tissue...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725254/structural-and-physical-evidence-for-an-endocuticular-gold-reflector-in-the-tortoise-beetle-charidotella-ambita
#15
Jacques M Pasteels, Olivier Deparis, Sébastien R Mouchet, Donald M Windsor, Johan Billen
Charidotella ambita offers a unique opportunity for unambiguously locating its gold reflector by comparing the structure of reflecting and non-reflecting cuticle of the elytron and pronotum. Using light microscopy and TEM, the reflector was located underneath the macrofiber endocuticle just above the epidermis. The reflector is a multilayer comprising up to 50 bilayers alternating high and low density layers parallel to the surface of the cuticle. It is chirped, i.e., showing a progressive decrease in layer thickness from approximately 150 nm-100 nm across its depth...
November 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694187/basal-cell-carcinoma-in-two-hermann-s-tortoises-testudo-hermanni
#16
Tom Hellebuyck, Richard Ducatelle, Leslie Bosseler, Annemie Van Caelenberg, Han Versnaeyen, Koen Chiers, An Martel
Neoplastic disorders are frequently encountered in the practice of reptile medicine. Herein we report the clinical behavior, antemortem diagnosis, and histopathologic characteristics of a recurrent intraoral keratinizing basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and a metastatic BCC of the carapace in 2 Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni). Although squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in tortoises show similar predilection sites and gross pathologic features, the BCCs described in our report were characterized by a remarkably fast and highly infiltrative growth in comparison to SCCs...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639342/the-tortoise-versus-the-hare-possible-advantages-of-microparticulate-zerovalent-iron-mzvi-over-nanoparticulate-zerovalent-iron-nzvi-in-aerobic-degradation-of-contaminants
#17
Jinxing Ma, Di He, Richard N Collins, Chuanshu He, T David Waite
A comparative study of the ability of microparticulate zerovalent iron (mZVI) and nanoparticulate zerovalent iron (nZVI) to oxidize a target compound (in this study, (14)C-labelled formate) under aerobic conditions has been conducted with specific consideration given to differences in reaction mechanisms. Results of Fe K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy showed that mZVI underwent a slow transformation to ferrihydrite while nZVI, in contrast, rapidly transformed into lepidocrocite...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635324/i-hedge-determining-the-optimum-complementary-sets-of-taxa-for-conservation-using-evolutionary-isolation
#18
Evelyn L Jensen, Arne Ø Mooers, Adalgisa Caccone, Michael A Russello
In the midst of the current biodiversity crisis, conservation efforts might profitably be directed towards ensuring that extinctions do not result in inordinate losses of evolutionary history. Numerous methods have been developed to evaluate the importance of species based on their contribution to total phylogenetic diversity on trees and networks, but existing methods fail to take complementarity into account, and thus cannot identify the best order or subset of taxa to protect. Here, we develop a novel iterative calculation of the heightened evolutionary distinctiveness and globally endangered metric (I-HEDGE) that produces the optimal ranked list for conservation prioritization, taking into account complementarity and based on both phylogenetic diversity and extinction probability...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615934/a-revision-of-the-neotropical-tortoise-beetle-genus-eurypedus-gistel-1834-coleoptera-chrysomelidae
#19
Chulwoo Shin
The genus Eurypedus Gistel is revised based on detailed morphological study, including examination of the mouthparts and genitalia. Besides previously known diagnostic characters, such as an oblong and laterally parallel-sided body, narrow elytral lamella, narrow prosternal process between the procoxae, and angled pronotal base, new diagnostic characters are identified: antennal notches on the ventral surface of antennomeres V-XI, a stridulatory file on the vertex, and paired projections on the ventral surface of the pronotum...
September 6, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488693/population-genetic-inferences-using-immune-gene-snps-mirror-patterns-inferred-by-microsatellites
#20
Jean P Elbers, Rachel W Clostio, Sabrina S Taylor
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are replacing microsatellites for population genetic analyses, but it is not apparent how many SNPs are needed or how well SNPs correlate with microsatellites. We used data from the gopher tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus - a species with small populations, to compare SNPs and microsatellites to estimate population genetic parameters. Specifically, we compared one SNP dataset (16 tortoises from 4 populations sequenced at 17,901 SNPs) to two microsatellite datasets, a full dataset of 101 tortoises and a partial dataset of 16 tortoises previously genotyped at 10 microsatellites...
August 4, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
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