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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813439/comparative-ecophysiology-of-a-critically-endangered-cr-ectotherm-implications-for-conservation-management
#1
Andrea F T Currylow, Angelo Mandimbihasina, Paul Gibbons, Ernest Bekarany, Craig B Stanford, Edward E Louis, Daniel E Crocker
Captive breeding is a vital conservation tool for many endangered species programs. It is often a last resort when wild animal population numbers drop to below critical minimums for natural reproduction. However, critical ecophysiological information of wild counterparts may not be well documented or understood, leading to years of minimal breeding successes. We collected endocrine and associated ecological data on a critically endangered ectotherm concurrently in the wild and in captivity over several years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794959/cutaneous-lesions-due-to-trichosporon-jirovecii-in-a-tortoise-testudo-hermanni
#2
Simona Nardoni, Marco Salvadori, Alessandro Poli, Guido Rocchigiani, Francesca Mancianti
Cutaneous mycoses have been rarely reported in Chelonians. A Testudo hermanni adult male showed a thick erosion of the dorsal neck covered by necrotic material. Trichosporon sp. was cultivated, while arthrospores and hyphae were observed in histological sections. The causative agent was identified as Trichosporon jirovecii by PCR. After a surgical intervention povidone iodine and Iruxol® ointment were daily administered through the drainage for 2 weeks, along with enrofloxacin 5 mg diluted in saline 0.5 ml via the intracelomatic route...
December 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754240/resolution-of-the-enigmatic-phylogenetic-relationship-of-the-critically-endangered-western-swamp-tortoise-pseudemydura-umbrina-pleurodira-chelidae-using-a-complete-mitochondrial-genome
#3
Xiuwen Zhang, Peter J Unmack, Gerald Kuchling, Yinan Wang, Arthur Georges
Pseudemydura umbrina is one of the most endangered turtle species in the world, and the imperative for its conservation is its distinctive morphology and relict status among the Chelidae. We use Illumina sequencing to obtain the complete mitogenome for resolving its uncertain phylogenetic position. A novel nuclear paralogue confounded the assembly, and resolution of the authentic mitogenome required further Sanger sequencing. The P. umbrina mitogenome is 16,414bp comprising 37 genes organized in a conserved pattern for other vertebrates...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754074/detection-of-mycoplasma-spp-herpesviruses-topiviruses-and-ferlaviruses-in-samples-from-chelonians-in-europe
#4
Ekaterina Kolesnik, Anna Obiegala, Rachel E Marschang
We tested samples from 1,015 chelonians in Europe for Mycoplasma spp., herpesviruses, ranaviruses, picornaviruses, and ferlaviruses by PCR. Mycoplasma spp. were detected in 42.1% and herpesviruses were detected in 8.0% of tested chelonians. Differentiation of the herpesviruses revealed that 46.9% of the detected chelonian viruses were testudinid herpesvirus 1 (TeHV-1) and 54.3% were TeHV-3, including co-detections of TeHV-1 and -3 in 3 tortoises. TeHV-4 was detected in a leopard tortoise ( Stigmochelys pardalis), and a herpesvirus that could not be further characterized was found in a pond slider ( Trachemys scripta)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749291/detection-of-intranuclear-coccidiosis-in-tortoises-in-europe-and-china
#5
Ekaterina Kolesnik, Janosch Dietz, Kim O Heckers, Rachel E Marschang
Intranuclear coccidiosis of tortoises (TINC) has been described in association with systemic disease in various species of tortoises. TINC has been detected in numerous tortoises from the United States, but there are only a few reports from tropical tortoises in Germany and no reports from Asia. Using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, samples from 1,011 tortoises were screened for the presence of TINC. Samples originated from animals kept in captivity in Europe and in China. Coccidia were detected in a total of 27 chelonians (2...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749259/management-of-pododermatitis-with-an-orthotic-boot-in-a-southern-isabela-giant-tortoise-chelonoidis-vicina
#6
Lynnette Waugh, Jennifer D'Agostino, Gretchen A Cole, Alicia Hahn, Jonathan D Day
A 62-yr-old male Southern Isabela giant tortoise (Chelonoidis vicina) had a 1-yr history of chronic, reoccurring pododermatitis on the palmar surface of the left forelimb. Aggressive wound management was instituted and included surgical debridement, vacuum-assisted closure, and orthotic boot support during healing. A custom fabricated, carbon fiber clamshell Charcot Restraint Orthotic Walker walking boot was utilized to reduce focal pressure over the wound during weight bearing and promote a more normal gait...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727747/plant-species-dispersed-by-galapagos-tortoises-surf-the-wave-of-habitat-suitability-under-anthropogenic-climate-change
#7
Diego Ellis-Soto, Stephen Blake, Alaaeldin Soultan, Anne Guézou, Fredy Cabrera, Stefan Lötters
Native biodiversity on the Galapagos Archipelago is severely threatened by invasive alien species. On Santa Cruz Island, the abundance of introduced plant species is low in the arid lowlands of the Galapagos National Park, but increases with elevation into unprotected humid highlands. Two common alien plant species, guava (Psidium guajava) and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) occur at higher elevations yet their seeds are dispersed into the lowlands by migrating Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.). Tortoises transport large quantities of seeds over long distances into environments in which they have little or no chance of germination and survival under current climate conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702802/morphological-ultrastructural-and-molecular-characterization-of-intestinal-tetratrichomonads-isolated-from-non-human-primates-in-southeastern-brazil
#8
Caroline Spitz Dos Santos, Vera Lúcia Teixeira de Jesus, Douglas McIntosh, Caroline Cunha Carreiro, Lilian Cristina Oliveira Batista, Bruno do Bomfim Lopes, Daniel Marchesi Neves, Carlos Wilson Gomes Lopes
Non-human primates are our closest relatives and represent an interesting model for comparative parasitological studies. However, research on this topic particularly in relation to intestinal parasites has been fragmentary and limited mainly to animals held in captivity. Thus, our knowledge of host-parasite relationships in this species-rich group of mammals could be considered rudimentary. The current study combined morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular analyses to characterize isolates of intestinal tetratrichomonads recovered from the feces of three species of South American, non-human primates...
July 13, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642457/human-mediated-secondary-contact-of-two-tortoise-lineages-results-in-sex-biased-introgression
#9
Eva Graciá, Roberto C Rodríguez-Caro, Ana C Andreu, Uwe Fritz, Andrés Giménez, Francisco Botella
Human-mediated secondary contact of recently diverged taxa offers valuable opportunities for studying the evolutionary mechanisms involved in the establishment and maintenance of genetic boundaries between taxa. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite markers to examine a recently introduced population of the spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) of mixed origin in the Doñana National Park (SW Spain). The earliest records of tortoises in Doñana trace back to the 18th century, but several population reinforcements in the 20th century with animals from Morocco are well-documented...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629961/tortoises-in-front-of-mirrors-brain-asymmetries-and-lateralized-behaviours-in-the-tortoise-testudo-hermanni
#10
Valeria Anna Sovrano, Caterina Quaresmini, Gionata Stancher
Brain lateralization in response to social stimuli is well known for its involvement of the right hemisphere in several vertebrate species, including humans. This study aimed to investigate the laterality of the social behavior during the mirror-images inspection in tortoises (Testudo hermanni). In a rectangular apparatus, in presence or in absence of two mirrors as the longer walls, we assessed: 1) the animal's position and 2) the monocular viewing compared to the longer walls, 3) the paw used to start a movement from a resting position...
June 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620610/molecular-detection-of-tick-borne-pathogen-diversities-in-ticks-from-livestock-and-reptiles-along-the-shores-and-adjacent-islands-of-lake-victoria-and-lake-baringo-kenya
#11
David Omondi, Daniel K Masiga, Burtram C Fielding, Edward Kariuki, Yvonne Ukamaka Ajamma, Micky M Mwamuye, Daniel O Ouso, Jandouwe Villinger
Although diverse tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are endemic to East Africa, with recognized impact on human and livestock health, their diversity and specific interactions with tick and vertebrate host species remain poorly understood in the region. In particular, the role of reptiles in TBP epidemiology remains unknown, despite having been implicated with TBPs of livestock among exported tortoises and lizards. Understanding TBP ecologies, and the potential role of common reptiles, is critical for the development of targeted transmission control strategies for these neglected tropical disease agents...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562605/the-agassiz-s-desert-tortoise-genome-provides-a-resource-for-the-conservation-of-a-threatened-species
#12
Marc Tollis, Dale F DeNardo, John A Cornelius, Greer A Dolby, Taylor Edwards, Brian T Henen, Alice E Karl, Robert W Murphy, Kenro Kusumi
Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) is a long-lived species native to the Mojave Desert and is listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. To aid conservation efforts for preserving the genetic diversity of this species, we generated a whole genome reference sequence with an annotation based on deep transcriptome sequences of adult skeletal muscle, lung, brain, and blood. The draft genome assembly for G. agassizii has a scaffold N50 length of 252 kbp and a total length of 2.4 Gbp. Genome annotation reveals 20,172 protein-coding genes in the G...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511106/mechanical-properties-and-numerical-simulation-of-sulcata-tortoise-carapace
#13
Nadda Jongpairojcosit, Petch Jearanaisilawong
Carapace of Sulcata tortoise acts as a natural shield that protects the body from natural predators. The carapace consists of four layers: keratin scutes, dorsal cortex, cancellous interior and ventral cortex. This study aims to investigate the load-bearing mechanisms of the carapace by characterizing the layers, measuring their mechanical properties and relating them to the macroscopic behavior under compression and bending loads. Test results indicate the influence of layers' morphology, especially porosity and structural compositions, on the macroscopic properties of the carapace...
May 8, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509658/haemosporidian-parasites-of-reptiles-and-birds-from-gabon-central-africa
#14
Larson Boundenga, Susan L Perkins, Benjamin Ollomo, Virginie Rougeron, Eric M Leroy, François Renaud, Franck Prugnolle
Haemosporidian parasites are protozoans that infect many different vertebrate hosts. Re-examination of the diversity of haemosporidian parasites, using molecular tools, has generally led to rearrangements of traditional classifications. In this study, we explored the diversity of haemosporidian parasites infecting some species of reptile and birds living in the forests of Gabon, Central Africa, by analyzing a collection of 128 samples of reptiles and birds. We found that samples from 2 tortoise species (Pelusios castaneus and Kinixys erosa) and 3 bird species (Turtur afer, Ceratogymna atrata, and Agelastes niger) were infected by Haemocystidium spp...
August 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508199/selective-specificity-of-calcium-binding-proteins-calbindin-and-calretinin-expression-in-the-magnocellular-neurosecretory-hypothalamic-nuclei-of-tortoises-and-turtles
#15
M G Belekhova, N B Kenigfest, E V Chernigovskaya, N P Veselkin
We have studied the distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the magnocellular neurosecretory nuclei of nonapeptidergic neurosecretory nuclei of the preoptic-hypothalamic complex in a tortoise (Testudo horsfieldi) and a pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) using immunohistochemistry. We have found that different types of cells in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei predominantly express calbindin and, to a lesser extent, calretinin, but not parvalbumin. The selective calbindin/calretinin control of the neurohormone secretion in these hypothalamic nuclei is an evolutionary conservative feature typical of reptiles and mammals...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480017/the-evolution-of-different-maternal-investment-strategies-in-two-closely-related-desert-vertebrates
#16
Joshua R Ennen, Jeffrey E Lovich, Roy C Averill-Murray, Charles B Yackulic, Mickey Agha, Caleb Loughran, Laura Tennant, Barry Sinervo
We compared egg size phenotypes and tested several predictions from the optimal egg size (OES) and bet-hedging theories in two North American desert-dwelling sister tortoise taxa, Gopherus agassizii and G. morafkai, that inhabit different climate spaces: relatively unpredictable and more predictable climate spaces, respectively. Observed patterns in both species differed from the predictions of OES in several ways. Mean egg size increased with maternal body size in both species. Mean egg size was inversely related to clutch order in G...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460581/whip-like-heterophil-projections-in-consecutive-blood-films-from-an-injured-gopher-tortoise-gopherus-polyphemus-with-systemic-inflammation
#17
N I Stacy, D V Fredholm, C Rodriguez, L Castro, J W Harvey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437174/more-than-fever-thermoregulatory-responses-to-immunological-stimulation-and-consequences-of-thermoregulatory-strategy-on-innate-immunity-in-gopher-tortoises-gopherus-polyphemus
#18
Jeffrey M Goessling, Craig Guyer, Mary T Mendonça
Organisms possess a range of thermoregulatory strategies that may vary in response to sickness, thereby driving important life-history consequences. Because the immune system is vital to maintaining organism function, understanding the suite of immune responses to infection indicates basic costs and benefits of physiological strategies. Here, we assessed consequences of thermoregulation and seasonality on immune function in both immunologically stimulated and nonstimulated gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390059/benefits-of-the-destinations-not-costs-of-the-journeys-shape-partial-migration-patterns
#19
Charles B Yackulic, Stephen Blake, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau
The reasons that lead some animals to seasonally migrate, and others to remain in the same area year-round, are poorly understood. Associations between traits, such as body size, and migration provide clues. For example, larger species and individuals are more likely to migrate. One explanation for this size bias in migration is that larger animals are capable of moving faster (movement hypothesis). However, body size is linked to many other biological processes. For instance, the energetic balances of larger animals are generally more sensitive to variation in food density because of body size effects on foraging and metabolism and this sensitivity could drive migratory decisions (forage hypothesis)...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387863/neutral-genetic-processes-influence-mhc-evolution-in-threatened-gopher-tortoises-gopherus-polyphemus
#20
Jean P Elbers, Rachel W Clostio, Sabrina S Taylor
Levels of adaptive genetic variation influence how species deal with environmental and ecological change, but these levels are frequently inferred using neutral genetic markers. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play a key role in the adaptive branch of the immune system and have been used extensively to estimate levels of adaptive genetic variation. Parts of the peptide binding region, sites where MHC molecules directly interact with pathogen and self-proteins, were sequenced from a MHC class I (95/441 tortoises) and class II (245/441 tortoises) gene in threatened and non-threatened populations of gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus), and adaptive genetic variation at MHC genes was compared to neutral genetic variation derived from 10 microsatellite loci (441 tortoises)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Heredity
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