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C M Makau, P K Towett, K S P Abelson, T I Kanui
The study was designed to investigate the involvement of noradrenergic and serotonergic receptor systems in the modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Intradermal injection of 100 μL of formalin at a dilution of 12.5% caused pain-related behaviour (hindlimb withdrawal) that lasted for a mean time of 19.28 min (monophasic response). Intrathecal administration of clonidine (α2 -adrenergic receptor agonist) and yohimbine (α2 -adrenergic receptor antagonist) at a dose of 40 μg/kg and 37...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jane Christman, Michael Devau, Heather Wilson-Robles, Sharman Hoppes, Raquel Rech, Karen E Russell, J Jill Heatley
Based on necropsy review, neoplasia in reptiles has a comparable frequency to that of mammals and birds. Reptile neoplasia is now more frequently diagnosed in clinical practice based on increased use of advanced diagnostic techniques and improvements in reptilian husbandry allowing greater longevity of these species. This article reviews the current literature on neoplasia in reptiles, and focuses on advanced diagnostics and therapeutic options for reptilian patientssuffering neoplastic disease. Although most applied clinical reptile oncology is translated from dog and cat oncology, considerations specific to reptilian patients commonly encountered in clinical practice (turtles, tortoises, snakes, and lizards) are presented...
January 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Jana Jezkova, Michaela Horcickova, Lenka Hlaskova, Bohumil Sak, Dana Kvetonova, Jan Novak, Lada Hofmannova, John McEvoy, Martin Kvac
Understanding of the diversity of species of Cryptosporidium Tyzzer, 1910 in tortoises remains incomplete due to the limited number of studies on these hosts. The aim of the present study was to characterise the genetic diversity and biology of cryptosporidia in tortoises of the family Testudinidae Batsch. Faecal samples were individually collected immediately after defecation and were screened for presence of cryptosporidia by microscopy using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining, and by PCR amplification and sequence analysis targeting the small subunit rRNA (SSU), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and actin genes...
October 14, 2016: Folia Parasitologica
Sara López-Pérez, Santiago Zaragoza-Caballero, Caroline S Chaboo
The tortoise beetle genus Ogdoecosta Spaeth 1909 is revised and an illustrated key to 12 species is provided, based on a morphological analysis of all species. All the known species are redescribed and one new species, Ogdoecosta paraflavomaculata López-Pérez sp. nov., is described from Belize and México. Lectotypes are designated for O. omissa Dohrn 1880, O. epilachnoides (Champion 1893), O. fasciata (Boheman 1856), O. flavomaculata (Champion 1893), O. mexicana (Champion 1893 and O. obliterata (Champion 1893)...
October 31, 2016: Zootaxa
Jeffrey M Goessling, Craig Guyer, Mary T Mendonça
Studies have suggested a role for natural seasonal change to drive patterns of disease, especially within ectothermic vertebrates. In light of recent climate change, it is important to understand baseline disease resistance in a seasonal context to further understand the role that changes in seasonal weather patterns may have in increasing disease frequency. Herein we found support for the seasonal acclimation hypothesis in Gopherus polyphemus (gopher tortoise), which indicated that natural seasonal variation causes differences in baseline immune function across seasonal acclimation states...
November 2016: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
John J Poterucha, Lawrence S Friedman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Franziska C Sandmeier, Chava L Weitzman, K Nichole Maloney, C Richard Tracy, Nathan Nieto, Mike B Teglas, Kenneth W Hunter, Sally DuPré, C M Gienger, Michael W Tuma
Pathogens that cause subclinical diseases or exhibit low infection intensities are difficult to quantify in wild populations. Mojave desert tortoises ( Gopherus agassizii ) have been the focus of much research aimed at measuring the presence of upper respiratory disease (URTD) and URTD-associated pathogens, and techniques used to quantify disease in Gopherus species have also been used for disease surveillance in other species of turtles and tortoises of conservation concern. Published surveys of G. agassizii populations have found a relatively low prevalence of URTD, with most URTD-positive animals exhibiting moderate, intermittent signs of morbidity...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Nobuhide Kido, Iori Itagaki, Daisuke Kiryu, Tomoko Omiya, Kaori Ono
Two radiated tortoises (Astrochelys radiata) exhibited anorexia and hypokinesia. In both cases, hematological and serum biochemical examinations revealed high alkaline phosphatase levels, moderately high aspartate aminotransferase levels and white blood cell counts approximately within the normal range. Despite being treated, the tortoises died 9 and 43 days after the first clinical examination. Gross pathological examinations revealed that the livers of both animals were extremely swollen and contained pale yellow necrotic tissue...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Jacques M Pasteels, Olivier Deparis, Sébastien R Mouchet, Donald M Windsor, Johan Billen
Charidotella ambita offers a unique opportunity for unambiguously locating its gold reflector by comparing the structure of reflecting and non-reflecting cuticle of the elytron and pronotum. Using light microscopy and TEM, the reflector was located underneath the macrofiber endocuticle just above the epidermis. The reflector is a multilayer comprising up to 50 bilayers alternating high and low density layers parallel to the surface of the cuticle. It is chirped, i.e., showing a progressive decrease in layer thickness from approximately 150 nm-100 nm across its depth...
November 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Tom Hellebuyck, Richard Ducatelle, Leslie Bosseler, Annemie Van Caelenberg, Han Versnaeyen, Koen Chiers, An Martel
Neoplastic disorders are frequently encountered in the practice of reptile medicine. Herein we report the clinical behavior, antemortem diagnosis, and histopathologic characteristics of a recurrent intraoral keratinizing basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and a metastatic BCC of the carapace in 2 Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni). Although squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in tortoises show similar predilection sites and gross pathologic features, the BCCs described in our report were characterized by a remarkably fast and highly infiltrative growth in comparison to SCCs...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Jinxing Ma, Di He, Richard N Collins, Chuanshu He, T David Waite
A comparative study of the ability of microparticulate zerovalent iron (mZVI) and nanoparticulate zerovalent iron (nZVI) to oxidize a target compound (in this study, (14)C-labelled formate) under aerobic conditions has been conducted with specific consideration given to differences in reaction mechanisms. Results of Fe K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy showed that mZVI underwent a slow transformation to ferrihydrite while nZVI, in contrast, rapidly transformed into lepidocrocite...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Evelyn L Jensen, Arne Ø Mooers, Adalgisa Caccone, Michael A Russello
In the midst of the current biodiversity crisis, conservation efforts might profitably be directed towards ensuring that extinctions do not result in inordinate losses of evolutionary history. Numerous methods have been developed to evaluate the importance of species based on their contribution to total phylogenetic diversity on trees and networks, but existing methods fail to take complementarity into account, and thus cannot identify the best order or subset of taxa to protect. Here, we develop a novel iterative calculation of the heightened evolutionary distinctiveness and globally endangered metric (I-HEDGE) that produces the optimal ranked list for conservation prioritization, taking into account complementarity and based on both phylogenetic diversity and extinction probability...
2016: PeerJ
Chulwoo Shin
The genus Eurypedus Gistel is revised based on detailed morphological study, including examination of the mouthparts and genitalia. Besides previously known diagnostic characters, such as an oblong and laterally parallel-sided body, narrow elytral lamella, narrow prosternal process between the procoxae, and angled pronotal base, new diagnostic characters are identified: antennal notches on the ventral surface of antennomeres V-XI, a stridulatory file on the vertex, and paired projections on the ventral surface of the pronotum...
2016: Zootaxa
Jean P Elbers, Rachel W Clostio, Sabrina S Taylor
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are replacing microsatellites for population genetic analyses, but it is not apparent how many SNPs are needed or how well SNPs correlate with microsatellites. We used data from the gopher tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus - a species with small populations, to compare SNPs and microsatellites to estimate population genetic parameters. Specifically, we compared one SNP dataset (16 tortoises from 4 populations sequenced at 17,901 SNPs) to two microsatellite datasets, a full dataset of 101 tortoises and a partial dataset of 16 tortoises previously genotyped at 10 microsatellites...
August 4, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Beatriz Garcia-Morante, Judit J Pénzes, Taiana Costa, Jaime Martorell, Jorge Martínez
A 2-year-old female, spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) was presented with poor body condition (1/5) and weakness. Fecal analysis revealed large numbers of oxyurid-like eggs, and radiographs were compatible with gastrointestinal obstruction. Despite supportive medical treatment, the animal died. At gross examination, an intestinal obstruction was confirmed. Histopathology revealed severe hyperplastic esophagitis and stomatitis with marked epithelial cytomegaly and enormous basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies...
September 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Khemraj Budachetri, Daniel Gaillard, Jaclyn Williams, Nabanita Mukherjee, Shahid Karim
The gopher tortoise tick, Amblyomma tuberculatum, has a unique relationship with the gopher tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus, found in sandy habitats across the southeastern United States. We aimed to understand the overall bacterial community associated with A. tuberculatum while also focusing on spotted fever group Rickettsia. These tortoises in the Southern Mississippi region are a federally threatened species; therefore, we have carefully trapped the tortoises and removed the species-specific ticks attached to them...
October 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Paul A Taylor, A Alhamud, Andre van der Kouwe, Muhammad G Saleh, Barbara Laughton, Ernesta Meintjes
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is susceptible to several artifacts due to eddy currents, echo planar imaging (EPI) distortion and subject motion. While several techniques correct for individual distortion effects, no optimal combination of DTI acquisition and processing has been determined. Here, the effects of several motion correction techniques are investigated while also correcting for EPI distortion: prospective correction, using navigation; retrospective correction, using two different popular packages (FSL and TORTOISE); and the combination of both methods...
December 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Manuela Schmidt, Martin Mehlhorn, Martin S Fischer
Studies into the function of structures are crucial for making connections between morphology and behaviour of organisms, but are still rare for the terrestrial Testudinidae. We investigated the kinematics of shoulder girdle and forelimb motion in Hermann's tortoise Testudo hermanni using biplanar X-ray fluoroscopy with a twofold aim: firstly, to understand how the derived shapes of shoulder girdle and carapace together influence rotation of the girdle; and, secondly, to understand how girdle rotation affects forelimb excursion...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Charles B Yackulic, Jacqueline L Frair, Freddy Cabrera, Stephen Blake
Understanding how individual movement scales with body size is of fundamental importance in predicting ecological relationships for diverse species. One-dimensional movement metrics scale consistently with body size yet vary over different temporal scales. Knowing how temporal scale influences the relationship between animal body size and movement would better inform hypotheses about the efficiency of foraging behaviour, the ontogeny of energy budgets, and numerous life-history trade-offs. We investigated how the temporal scaling of allometric patterns in movement varies over the course of a year, specifically during periods of motivated (directional and fast movement) and unmotivated (stationary and tortuous movement) behaviour...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Xiaolong Zhao, Jigen Tang, Zhou Gu, Jilong Shi, Yimin Yang, Changsui Wang
Oracle Bone Inscriptions in the Shang dynasty (1600-1046 BC) are the earliest well-developed writing forms of the Chinese character system, and their carving techniques have not been studied by tool marks analysis with microscopy. In this study, a digital microscope with three-dimensional surface reconstruction based on extended depth of focus technology was used to investigate tool marks on the surface of four pieces of oracle bones excavated at the eastern area of Huayuanzhuang, Yinxu site(ca., 1319-1046 BC), the last capital of the Shang dynasty, Henan province, China...
September 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
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