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N-acetylcysteine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148111/being-overweight-or-obese-as-a-risk-factor-for-acute-liver-injury-secondary-to-acute-acetaminophen-overdose
#1
Summon Chomchai, Chulathida Chomchai
PURPOSE: Increased incidences of hepatotoxicity have been observed in obese patients with acute acetaminophen overdose. We evaluate whether the status of being overweight or obese is associated with increase in the development of hepatotoxicity and acute liver injury (ALI) in patients with acute acetaminophen overdose. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study comparing the risk of hepatotoxicity and ALI between overweight or obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25) and normal BMI patients (BMI ≤ 24...
November 17, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138589/clinical-characteristics-and-outcome-of-toxicity-from-amanita-mushroom-poisoning
#2
Satariya Trakulsrichai, Charuwan Sriapha, Achara Tongpoo, Umaporn Udomsubpayakul, Sunun Wongvisavakorn, Sahaphume Srisuma, Winai Wananukul
Objective: To describe and analyze the clinical characteristics and outcome of amatoxin poisoning cases. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of amatoxin poisoning cases from Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System, from May 2013 to August 2015. Results: There were 30 consultations with a total of 55 poisoning cases. Most cases were male and from the north-east region. Hepatitis, acute kidney injury, jaundice, and coagulopathy accounted for 74%, 46...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132195/current-evidence-for-the-use-of-n-acetylcysteine-following-liver-resection
#3
REVIEW
Richard Kemp, Jonathan Mole, Dhanny Gomez
BACKGROUND: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has many uses in medicine; notable in the management of paracetamol toxicity, acute liver failure and liver surgery. The aim of this review was to critically appraise the published literature for the routine use of NAC in liver resection surgery. METHODS: An electronic search was performed of EBSCOhost (Medline and CINAHL database), PubMed and the Cochrane Library for the period 1990-2016. MeSH headings: 'acetyl-cysteine', 'liver resection' and 'hepatectomy' were used to identify all relevant articles published in English...
November 13, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128613/submicromolar-bisphenol-a-induces-proliferation-and-dna-damage-in-human-hepatocyte-cell-lines-in-vitro-and-in-juvenile-rats-in-vivo
#4
Seoyoung Kim, Gil-Im Mun, Eun Choi, Minjeong Kim, Ji Seong Jeong, Keon Wook Kang, Sunha Jee, Kyung-Min Lim, Yun-Sil Lee
An association between bisphenol A (BPA) exposure and hepatic tumors was suggested, but the employment of high-dose levels raises questions about its relevance to human health. Here, we demonstrate that submicromolar concentrations of BPA induce the proliferation and DNA damage in human hepatocyte cell lines. In HepG2 and NKNT-3, undifferentiated and differentiated hepatocyte cell lines, respectively, submicromolar BPA concentrations promoted the cell proliferation, as indicated by enhanced DNA synthesis and elevated expression of cell-cycle proteins...
November 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125538/cigarette-smoke-regulates-the-competitive-interactions-between-nrf2-and-bach1-for-heme-oxygenase-1-induction
#5
Wen-Hsin Chang, Philip Thai, Jihao Xu, David C Yang, Reen Wu, Ching-Hsien Chen
Cigarette smoke has been shown to trigger aberrant signaling pathways and pathophysiological processes; however, the regulatory mechanisms underlying smoke-induced gene expression remain to be established. Herein, we observed that two smoke-responsive genes, HO-1 and CYP1A1, are robustly induced upon smoke by different mechanisms in human bronchial epithelia. CYP1A1 is mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, while induction of HO-1 is regulated by oxidative stress, and suppressed by N-acetylcysteine treatment...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125225/baicalein-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-cho-cell-cultures-and-improves-recombinant-antibody-productivity
#6
Tae Kwang Ha, Anders Holmgaard Hansen, Stefan Kol, Helene Faustrup Kildegaard, Gyun Min Lee
Oxidative stress that naturally accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as a result of mitochondrial energy metabolism and protein synthesis can disturb the ER function. Because ER has a responsibility on the protein synthesis and quality control of the secreted proteins, ER homeostasis has to be well maintained. When H2O2, an oxidative stress inducer, was added to recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cell cultures, it reduced cell growth, monoclonal antibody (mAb) production, and galactosylated form of mAb in a dose-dependent manner...
November 10, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123322/hypoxia-induced-reactive-oxygen-species-mediate-n-cadherin-and-serpine1-expression-egfr-signalling-and-motility-in-mda-mb-468-breast-cancer-cells
#7
Iman Azimi, Rosalie M Petersen, Erik W Thompson, Sarah J Roberts-Thomson, Gregory R Monteith
One of the hallmarks of the tumour microenvironment is hypoxia resulting from increased oxygen consumption by proliferative cancer cells and altered vasculature. Hypoxic tension initiates various cellular signals and can drive epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process important in cancer progression. In this study, using the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), we show that hypoxia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells, selectively regulate hypoxia-induced increases in N-cadherin and SERPINE1, two proteins involved in cell adhesion...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119993/a-study-of-the-reactivity-of-s-vi-f-containing-warheads-with-nucleophilic-amino-acid-side-chains-under-physiological-conditions
#8
H Mukherjee, J Debreczeni, J Breed, S Tentarelli, B Aquila, J E Dowling, A Whitty, N P Grimster
Sulfonyl fluorides (SFs) have recently emerged as a promising warhead for the targeted covalent modification of proteins. Despite numerous examples of the successful deployment of SFs as covalent probe compounds, a detailed exploration of the factors influencing the stability and reactivity of SFs has not yet appeared. In this work we present an extensive study on the influence of steric and electronic factors on the reactivity and stability of the SF and related S(VI)-F groups. While SFs react rapidly with N-acetylcysteine, the resulting adducts were found to be unstable, rendering SFs inappropriate for the durable covalent inhibition of cysteine residues...
November 9, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119850/dopamine-induces-platelet-production-from-megakaryocytes-via-oxidative-stress-mediated-signaling-pathways
#9
Shilei Chen, Mengjia Hu, Mingqiang Shen, Yang Xu, Cheng Wang, Xinmiao Wang, Fengju Li, Dongfeng Zeng, Fang Chen, Gaomei Zhao, Mo Chen, Fengchao Wang, Tianmin Cheng, Yongping Su, Jinghong Zhao, Song Wang, Junping Wang
Dopamine (DA), a catecholamine neurotransmitter, is known to for its diverse roles on hematopoiesis, yet its function in thrombopoiesis remains poorly understood. This study shows that DA stimulation can directly induce platelet production from megakaryocytes (MKs) in the final stages of thrombopoiesis via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent pathway. The mechanism was suggested by the results that DA treatment could significantly elevate the ROS levels in MKs, and time-dependently activate oxidative stress-mediated signaling, including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and caspase-3 signaling pathways, while the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and L-glutathione could effectively inhibit the activation of these signaling pathways, as well as the ROS increase and platelet production triggered by DA...
November 9, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117515/metformin-and-epothilone-a-treatment-up-regulate-pro-apoptotic-parp-1-casp-3-and-h2ax-genes-and-decrease-of-akt-kinase-level-to-control-cell-death-of-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-ovary-adenocarcinoma-cells
#10
Aneta Rogalska, Barbara Bukowska, Agnieszka Marczak
High mortality rates in ovarian and liver cancer are largely a result of resistance to currently used chemotherapy. Here, we investigated genotoxic and pro-oxidant effects of metformin (MET) and epothilone A (A) in combination with respect to apoptosis in HepG2 and SKOV-3 cancer cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was studied using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate, and samples were analyzed for the presence and absence of the N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Expression of genes involved in programmed cell death, oxidative and alkylating DNA damage was measured...
November 5, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115506/angiotensin-ii-induces-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein%C3%A2-1-expression-by-increasing-reactive-oxygen-species%C3%A2-mediated-activation-of-the-nuclear-factor%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-osteoblasts
#11
Changyao Wang, Cailong Zhang, Feng Zhou, Lei Gao, Yingzhen Wang, Chunsheng Wang, Yongtao Zhang
The present study investigated the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1 (MCP‑1) expression and the underlying mechanism in osteoblasts. MCP‑1 expression levels were analyzed by ELISA and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR). Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression levels was examined by RT‑qPCR, western blotting and immunostaining. In addition, the nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signaling pathway was investigated via western blot analysis...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115375/persistent-stat5-mediated-ros-production-and-involvement-of-aberrant-p53-apoptotic-signaling-in-the-resistance-of-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-to-imatinib
#12
Yanhong Cheng, Yingchan Hao, Aimei Zhang, Chaojie Hu, Xiaoxiao Jiang, Quan Wu, Xiucai Xu
The persistent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) may principally be attributed to breakpoint cluster region (BCR)-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (ABL1), and have multi-faceted effects in the development of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The p53 protein network regulates important mechanisms in DNA damage repair, cell cycle regulation/checkpoints, and cell senescence and apoptosis, as demonstrated by its ability to positively regulate the expression of various pro-apoptotic genes, including B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax)...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115169/protective-effect-of-captopril-against-diazinon-induced-nephrotoxicity-and-neurotoxicity-via-inhibition-of-ros-no-pathway
#13
Milad Vahidirad, Milad Arab-Nozari, Hamidreza Mohammadi, Ehsan Zamani, Fatemeh Shaki
Diazinon (Dz) is a widely used insecticide. It can induce nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity via oxidative stress. Captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, is known for its antioxidant properties. In this study, we used captopril for ameliorating of Dz-induced kidney and brain toxicity in rats. Animals were divided into five groups as follows: negative control (olive oil), Dz (150 mg kg(-1)), captopril (60 and 100 mg kg(-1)) and positive control (N-acetylcysteine 200 mg kg(-1)) were injected intraperitoneally 30 min before Dz...
November 8, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114910/n-acetylcysteine-attenuates-the-cuprizone-induced-behavioral-changes-and-oligodendrocyte-loss-in-male-c57bl-7-mice-via-its-anti-inflammation-actions
#14
Lin Zhang, Shuqin Xu, Qingjun Huang, Haiyun Xu
Previous animal studies have linked white matter damage to certain schizophrenia-like behaviors in cuprizone (CPZ)-exposed mouse. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and oligodendrocyte loss coexist in the brain of such mice. The aim of this study was to examine effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on CPZ-induced behavioral changes and concurrent oligodendrocyte loss, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation in these animals. Male C57BL/6 mice were given intraperitoneal saline or NAC at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks; animals were fed a CPZ-containing diet (0...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114376/dihydroartemisinin-induces-apoptosis-in-human-bladder-cancer-cell-lines-through-reactive-oxygen-species-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-and-cytochrome-c-pathway
#15
Farhad Poupel, Mahmoud Aghaei, Ahmad Movahedian, Seyyed Mehdi Jafari, Mohammad Keyvanloo Shahrestanaki
Background: Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin and has antiproliferative effect. However, such effects of DHA have not yet been revealed for bladder cancer cells. Methods: We used as bladder cancer cell lines to examine the effect of DHA on the cell viability, cell apoptosis, and monitoring of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) changes. Furthermore, the effect of DHA on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cytochrome c release were also detected...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109043/individual-and-combined-effects-of-fusarium-toxins-on-apoptosis-in-pk15-cells-and-the-protective-role-of-n-acetylcysteine
#16
Wei Zhang, Shihua Zhang, Meiling Zhang, Lige Yang, Baojing Cheng, Jianping Li, Anshan Shan
Deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are among the most toxicologically important Fusarium toxins commonly found in nature that lead to nephrotoxicity in animals. The present study investigated that the individual and combined effects of subcytotoxic DON (0.25 μM), ZEN (20 μM) and FB1 (10 μM) on oxidative stress and apoptosis in porcine kidney cells (PK15). In addition, the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against the toxicity of Fusarium toxins was also evaluated...
November 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108865/insulin-expression-in-cultured-astrocytes-and-the-decrease-by-amyloid-%C3%AE
#17
Katsura Takano, Keisuke Koarashi, Kenji Kawabe, Masanori Itakura, Hidemitsu Nakajima, Mitsuaki Moriyama, Yoichi Nakamura
Insulin resistance in brain has been reported in Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Insulin signaling is important for homeostasis in brain function and reported to be disturbed in neurons leading to tau phosphorylation and neurofibrillary tangles. Many investigations of insulin in neurons have been reported; however, it has not been reported whether astrocytes also produce insulin. In the present study, we assessed the expression of insulin in astrocytes cultured from rat embryonic brain and the effects of amyloid β1-42 (Aβ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression...
November 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107181/antimony-trichloride-induces-a-loss-of-cell-viability-via-reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-autophagy-in-a549-cells
#18
Xinyuan Zhao, Fengjun Xing, Yewen Cong, Yin Zhuang, Muxi Han, Zhiqiang Wu, Shali Yu, Haiyan Wei, Xiaoke Wang, Gang Chen
Antimony (Sb) is one of the most prevalent heavy metals and frequently leads to biological toxicity. Although autophagy is believed to be involved in metal-associated cytotoxicity, there is no evidence of its involvement following exposure. Moreover, the underlying mechanism of autophagy remains unclear. In this study, treatment with antimony trichloride caused autophagy in a dose- and time-dependent manner in A549 cells but did not affect the level of Atg5 or Atg7 mRNA expression. Furthermore, Sb enhanced autophagic flux while upregulating p62 gene and protein levels...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106990/white-light-emitting-diode-suppresses-proliferation-and-induces-apoptosis-in-hippocampal-neuron-cells-through-mitochondrial-cytochrome-c-oxydase-mediated-igf-1-and-tnf-%C3%AE-pathways
#19
Yang Yang, Yibo Zong, Qinwei Sun, Yimin Jia, Ruqian Zhao
Light emitting diode (LED) light has been tested to treat traumatic brain injury, neural degenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. Previous studies indicate that blue LED light affects cell proliferation and apoptosis in photosensitive cells and cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that white LED light exposure impaired proliferation and induced apoptosis in HeLa and HT-22 hippocampal neural cells, but not C2C12 cells. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying the effect of white LED light exposure on HT-22 cells were elucidated...
October 26, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105806/the-orally-active-pterocarpanquinone-lqb-118-exhibits-cytotoxicity-in-prostate-cancer-cell-and-tumor-models-through-cellular-redox-stress
#20
Thiago Martino, Tarana A Kudrolli, Binod Kumar, Isis Salviano, André Mencalha, Marsen Garcia P Coelho, Graça Justo, Paulo R Ribeiro Costa, Kátia C Carvalho Sabino, Shawn E Lupold
BACKGROUND: The targeted induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a developing mechanism for cancer therapy. LQB-118 is a pterocarpanquinone and ROS-inducing agent with proven antineoplastic activity. Here, LQB-118 efficacy and mechanism of activity, were examined in Prostate Cancer (PCa) cell and tumor models. METHODS: PC3, LNCaP, and LAPC4 PCa cells were applied. Dicoumarol treatment was used to inhibit quinone reductase activity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was applied as a ROS scavenger...
November 6, 2017: Prostate
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