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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789708/combined-genotyping-microbial-diversity-and-metabolite-profiling-studies-on-farmed-mytilus-spp-from-kiel-fjord
#1
Caroline Utermann, Delphine Parrot, Corinna Breusing, Heiko Stuckas, Tim Staufenberger, Martina Blümel, Antje Labes, Deniz Tasdemir
The blue mussel Mytilus is a popular food source with high economical value. Species of the M. edulis complex (M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus) hybridise whenever their geographic ranges overlap posing difficulties to species discrimination, which is important for blue mussel aquaculture. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic structure of farmed blue mussels in Kiel Fjord. Microbial and metabolic profile patterns were studied to investigate a possible dependency on the genotype of the bivalves...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778701/natural-history-of-avian-papillomaviruses
#2
REVIEW
Daniel A Truchado, Richard A J Williams, Laura Benítez
Papillomaviruses (Family: Papillomaviridae) are small non-enveloped viruses that cause skin and mucosa infections in diverse vertebrates. The vast majority have been detected in mammals. However, the number of papillomaviruses described in birds is growing, especially because of metagenomic studies. Seven complete genomes and one partial sequence have been described, corresponding to five papillomavirus genera. These have been detected from various sample types, including skin, internal epithelium, and faecal material, from seven highly diverse wild and captive avian species...
May 17, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765033/an-epizootic-of-chlamydia-psittaci-equine-reproductive-loss-associated-with-suspected-spillover-from-native-australian-parrots
#3
Cheryl Jenkins, Martina Jelocnik, Melinda L Micallef, Francesca Galea, Alyce Taylor-Brown, Daniel R Bogema, Michael Liu, Brendon O'Rourke, Catherine Chicken, Joan Carrick, Adam Polkinghorne
Chlamydia psittaci is an avian pathogen capable of spill-over infections to humans. A parrot C. psittaci strain was recently detected in an equine reproductive loss case associated with a subsequent cluster of human C. psittaci infections. In this study, we screened for C. psittaci in cases of equine reproductive loss reported in regional New South Wales, Australia during the 2016 foaling season. C. psittaci specific-PCR screening of foetal and placental tissue samples from cases of equine abortion (n = 161) and foals with compromised health status (n = 38) revealed C...
May 16, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738601/the-meniscal-comma-sign-characterization-and-treatment-of-a-displaced-fragment-in-the-meniscotibial-recess
#4
Hytham S Salem, Aaron H Carter, Weilong J Shi, Fotios P Tjoumakaris, Steven B Cohen, Adam C Zoga, Kevin B Freedman
Displaced parrot beak flap tears in the meniscotibial recess are complex tears of the meniscus that begin as central radial tears and progressively extend toward the periphery, creating a detached fragment. These tears have not been described in the literature, but the authors have described them as the "meniscal comma sign" based on their appearance on magnetic resonance imaging. Displaced fragments are clinically significant because of the pain and mechanical symptoms they can cause as a result of tenting of the deep medial collateral ligament...
May 8, 2018: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709038/hcmv-triggers-frequent-and-persistent-ul40-specific-unconventional-hla-e-restricted-cd8-t-cell-responses-with-potential-autologous-and-allogeneic-peptide-recognition
#5
Nicolas Jouand, Céline Bressollette-Bodin, Nathalie Gérard, Magali Giral, Pierrick Guérif, Audrey Rodallec, Romain Oger, Tiphaine Parrot, Mathilde Allard, Anne Cesbron-Gautier, Nadine Gervois, Béatrice Charreau
Immune response against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) includes a set of persistent cytotoxic NK and CD8 T cells devoted to eliminate infected cells and to prevent reactivation. CD8 T cells against HCMV antigens (pp65, IE1) presented by HLA class-I molecules are well characterized and they associate with efficient virus control. HLA-E-restricted CD8 T cells targeting HCMV UL40 signal peptides (HLA-EUL40) have recently emerged as a non-conventional T-cell response also observed in some hosts. The occurrence, specificity and features of HLA-EUL40 CD8 T-cell responses remain mostly unknown...
April 30, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705149/assessment-of-the-potential-toxicological-hazard-of-the-green-parrot-snake-leptophis-ahaetulla-marginatus-characterization-of-its-venom-and-venom-delivery-system
#6
Matías N Sánchez, Gladys P Teibler, Carlos A López, Stephen P Mackessy, María E Peichoto
Snakes are the major group of venomous vertebrates, and the rear-fanged snakes represent the vast majority of species and occur worldwide; however, relatively few studies have characterized their venoms and evaluated their potential hazards for humans. Herein we explore the protein composition and properties of the venom of the rear-fanged Green Parrot Snake, Leptophis ahaetulla marginatus, the most common snake found in the Iguazu National Park (Argentina), as well as the main features of its venom delivery system...
April 26, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698080/superficial-chronic-ulcerative-dermatitis-scud-in-psittacine-birds-review-of-11-cases-2008-2016
#7
Tariq Abou-Zahr, Daniel Calvo Carrasco, Naomi Shimizu Dvm, Neil A Forbes, Thomas A G Dutton, Fiona Froehlich, Filippo De Bellis
We reviewed 11 cases of superficial chronic ulcerative dermatitis (SCUD) in psittacine birds that presented to an exotic animal practice over an 8-year period. African grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus) were overrepresented, accounting for 55% of SCUD-affected birds. All affected birds were hand-reared pets and bonded strongly to their owners. In all cases, fungal culture results were negative. The most commonly cultured bacteria were Enterobacter cloacae (27%), followed by Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus (both 18%)...
March 2018: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698074/use-of-a-compounded-poloxamer-407-antibiotic-topical-therapy-as-part-of-the-successful-management-of-chronic-ulcerative-dermatitis-in-a-congo-african-grey-parrot-psittacus-erithacus
#8
Anthony A Pilny
A 23-year-old, 425-g male African grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus) was evaluated for chronic ulcerative dermatitis of the axillary regions under both wings. Initial swab cultures of the sites had revealed a coagulase-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureas (MRSA) with marked antibiotic resistance. A second swab culture obtained 8 weeks after the initial culture showed heavy growth of a coagulase-positive Staphylococcus species, which could not be speciated, but showed the same sensitivity as the previous culture...
March 2018: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666766/mirnaome-expression-profiles-in-the-gonads-of-adult-melopsittacus-undulatus
#9
Lan Jiang, Qingqing Wang, Jue Yu, Vinita Gowda, Gabriel Johnson, Jianke Yang, Xianzhao Kan, Xiaojun Yang
The budgerigar ( Melopsittacus undulatus ) is one of the most widely studied parrot species, serving as an excellent animal model for behavior and neuroscience research. Until recently, it was unknown how sexual differences in the behavior, physiology, and development of organisms are regulated by differential gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous short non-coding RNA molecules that can post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and play a critical role in gonadal differentiation as well as early development of animals...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656091/serial-reversal-learning-and-behavioural-flexibility-in-two-species-of-neotropical-parrots-diopsittaca-nobilis-and-pionites-melanocephala
#10
Jayden O van Horik, Nathan J Emery
Serial reversal learning of colour discriminations was assessed as an index of behavioural flexibility in two captive species of Neotropical parrots. Both species showed similar performances across serial reversals and no between species differences were observed. In a second task subjects' performances were assessed after they experienced either a low or high pre-reversal learning criterion. If reversal performances improve through processes of associative learning, a high pre-reversal criterion is expected to strengthen previously learned associations and hence impede post-reversal performances...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627533/lead-exposure-in-an-urban-free-ranging-parrot-investigating-prevalence-effect-and-source-attribution-using-stable-isotope-analysis
#11
Aditi Sriram, Wendi Roe, Matu Booth, Brett Gartrell
Anthropogenic lead use has resulted in widespread environmental lead contamination known to affect wildlife populations worldwide. Ecotoxicological investigations in wild birds have thus far prioritised waterfowl and raptor species and primarily addressed contamination in natural ecosystems. Urban areas are increasingly associated with high levels of heavy metal contamination, however the risk of lead exposure in urban wildlife is less well known. This study investigates lead exposure in an urban population of North Island Kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis), an endemic New Zealand parrot...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624763/hydrogen-peroxide-production-and-myo-inositol-metabolism-as-important-traits-for-virulence-of-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae
#12
M G Ferrarini, S G Mucha, D Parrot, G Meiffren, J F R Bachega, G Comte, A Zaha, M F Sagot
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia. In our previous work, we reconstructed the metabolic models of this species along with two other mycoplasmas from the respiratory tract of swine: Mycoplasma hyorhinis, considered less pathogenic but which nonetheless causes disease and Mycoplasma flocculare, a commensal bacterium. We identified metabolic differences that partially explained their different levels of pathogenicity. One important trait was the production of hydrogen peroxide from the glycerol metabolism only in the pathogenic species...
April 6, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558492/comparative-analysis-of-volatile-organic-compounds-for-the-classification-and-identification-of-mycobacterial-species
#13
Anne Küntzel, Peter Oertel, Sina Fischer, Andreas Bergmann, Phillip Trefz, Jochen Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch, Petra Reinhold, Heike Köhler
BACKGROUND: Species of Mycobacteriaceae cause serious zoonotic diseases in mammals, for example tuberculosis in humans, dogs, parrots, and elephants (caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and in ruminants and humans (caused by M. bovis and M. caprae). Pulmonary diseases, lymphadenitis, skin diseases, and disseminated diseases can be caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Diagnosis and differentiation among Mycobacterium species are currently done by culture isolation. The established diagnostic protocols comprise several steps that allow species identification...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528667/initial-evidence-for-probabilistic-reasoning-in-a-grey-parrot-psittacus-erithacus
#14
Katherine A Clements, Suzanne L Gray, Brya Gross, Irene M Pepperberg
Research has shown that some forms of inferential reasoning are likely widespread throughout the animal kingdom (e.g., exclusion, in which a subject infers the placement of a reward by eliminating potential alternative sites), but other types of inferential tasks have not been extensively tested. We examined whether a nonhuman might succeed in an experiment based on probabilistic reasoning, specifically, the ability to make inferences about a sample based on information about a population. A Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus), previously trained to use English labels referentially to identify objects, observed a human researcher deposit 2 different types of items in a 3:1 ratio (e...
May 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517436/iron-storage-disease-in-african-grey-parrots-psittacus-erithacus-exposed-to-a-carnivorous-diet
#15
Matthew R O'Connor, Michael M Garner
Within a 2-wk period, three African grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus) presented for emergency treatment. All three parrots had depressed behavior, an inability to fly, and significant weight loss. Plasma chemistry abnormalities included severe hypoproteinemia and elevated liver enzymes in all parrots. Two of the parrots died, and histologic examination with hematoxylin and eosin and Prussian blue stains revealed severe hepatic iron storage. Quantitative analysis confirmed high hepatic iron concentrations...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516432/transcatheter-embolotherapy-of-pulmonary-artery-aneurysms-as-emergency-treatment-of-hemoptysis-in-behcet-patients-experience-of-a-referral-center-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#16
Guillaume Voiriot, Antoine Parrot, Martine Antoine, Aude Gibelin, Samuel Haddad, Marie-France Carette, Muriel Fartoukh, Antoine Khalil
Hemoptysis is a life-threatening complication of Behcet's disease that is likely related to pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA). Vascular interventional radiology may offer effective emergency therapeutic option, but has not been thoroughly investigated in this setting. A case series of a French referral center for hemoptysis combined with a literature review of case reports was conducted. Between 1995 and 2016, 12 patients were referred to our center for hemoptysis revealing or complicating the course of Behcet's disease...
March 7, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487507/putative-adult-neurogenesis-in-old-world-parrots-the-congo-african-grey-parrot-psittacus-erithacus-and-timneh-grey-parrot-psittacus-timneh
#17
Pedzisai Mazengenya, Adhil Bhagwandin, Paul R Manger, Amadi O Ihunwo
In the current study, we examined for the first time, the potential for adult neurogenesis throughout the brain of the Congo African grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus ) and Timneh grey parrot ( Psittacus timneh ) using immunohistochemistry for the endogenous markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which labels proliferating cells, and doublecortin (DCX), which stains immature and migrating neurons. A similar distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was found throughout the brain of the Congo African grey and Timneh grey parrots, but minor differences were also observed...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443914/using-unmanned-aerial-vehicles-in-postfire-vegetation-survey-campaigns-through-large-and-heterogeneous-areas-opportunities-and-challenges
#18
José Manuel Fernández-Guisuraga, Enoc Sanz-Ablanedo, Susana Suárez-Seoane, Leonor Calvo
This study evaluated the opportunities and challenges of using drones to obtain multispectral orthomosaics at ultra-high resolution that could be useful for monitoring large and heterogeneous burned areas. We conducted a survey using an octocopter equipped with a Parrot SEQUOIA multispectral camera in a 3000 ha framework located within the perimeter of a megafire in Spain. We assessed the quality of both the camera raw imagery and the multispectral orthomosaic obtained, as well as the required processing capability...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440415/coprolites-reveal-ecological-interactions-lost-with-the-extinction-of-new-zealand-birds
#19
Alexander P Boast, Laura S Weyrich, Jamie R Wood, Jessica L Metcalf, Rob Knight, Alan Cooper
Over the past 50,000 y, biotic extinctions and declines have left a legacy of vacant niches and broken ecological interactions across global terrestrial ecosystems. Reconstructing the natural, unmodified ecosystems that preceded these events relies on high-resolution analyses of paleoecological deposits. Coprolites are a source of uniquely detailed information about trophic interactions and the behaviors, gut parasite communities, and microbiotas of prehistoric animal species. Such insights are critical for understanding the legacy effects of extinctions on ecosystems, and can help guide contemporary conservation and ecosystem restoration efforts...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440360/avian-thermoregulation-in-the-heat-evaporative-cooling-capacity-and-thermal-tolerance-in-two-australian-parrots
#20
Todd J McWhorter, Alexander R Gerson, William A Talbot, Eric Krabbe Smith, Andrew E McKechnie, Blair O Wolf
Avian orders differ in their thermoregulatory capabilities and tolerance of high environmental temperatures. Evaporative heat loss, and the primary avenue whereby it occurs, differs amongst taxa. Although Australian parrots (Psittaciformes) have been impacted by mass mortality events associated with extreme weather events (heat waves), their thermoregulatory physiology has not been well characterized. We quantified the upper limits to thermoregulation under extremely hot conditions in two Australian parrots: the mulga parrot ( Psephotellus varius ; ∼55 g) and the galah ( Eolophus roseicapilla ; ∼265 g)...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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