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Jan S Suchodolski
This article provides a brief overview of the advances made in microbiota research in parrots and pet birds. It describes this complex ecosystem and the contribution of the intestinal microbiota to host health and disease, including the nervous system.
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Jeann Leal de Araujo, Raquel R Rech, J Jill Heatley, Jianhua Guo, Paula R Giaretta, Ian Tizard, Aline Rodrigues-Hoffmann
Parrot bornaviruses (PaBVs) are the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease, however key aspects of its pathogenesis, such as route of infection, viral spread and distribution, and target cells remain unclear. Our study aimed to track the viral spread and lesion development at 5, 10, 20, 25, 35, 40, 60, 80, 95 and 114 dpi using histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR. After intramuscular inoculation of parrot bornavirus 2 (PaBV-2) in the pectoral muscle of cockatiels, this virus was first detected in macrophages and lymphocytes in the inoculation site and adjacent nerves, then reached the brachial plexus, centripetally spread to the thoracic segment of the spinal cord, and subsequently invaded the other spinal segments and brain...
2017: PloS One
Cornelia Habl, Alice Marie Isabel Auersperg
The ability to move an object in alignment to a surface develops early in human ontogeny. However, aligning not just your own body but also the object itself in relation to a surface with a specific shape requires using landmarks rather than the own body as a frame of reference for orientation. The ability to do so is considered important in the development of tool use behaviour in human and non-human animals. Aside from humans, with the exception of a single study on habitually tool using primates, shape-frame matching abilities remain largely unstudied...
2017: PloS One
Elena K Perry, Andrew Digby, Michael W Taylor
The critically endangered kākāpō, an herbivorous parrot endemic to New Zealand, is subject to intensive management to increase its population size. Key aspects of the management program include supplementary feeding and translocation of kākāpō between different predator-free islands to optimize the genetic composition of the breeding populations. While these practices have helped boost the kākāpō population, their impact on the kākāpō fecal microbiota is uncertain. Previous studies have found that the kākāpō possesses a low-diversity fecal microbiota, typically dominated by Escherichia/Shigella spp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ingrid M D Torres, Luiz C S Lopez, Carlos B de Araújo
Acoustic signal production is affected by allometric relationships, by which the larger the animal, the lower its call frequency. In this paper, three evolutionary acoustic hypotheses were tested: the Signal-to-Noise Ratio Hypothesis (SNRH), in which evolution maximizes call ranges by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio; the Stimulus Threshold Hypothesis (STH), in which evolution maximizes the range of a specific signal threshold; and the Body Size Hypothesis (BSH), in which the emission of long wavelengths is enabled by body size...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Delphine Parrot, Laurent Intertaglia, Philippe Jehan, Martin Grube, Marcelino T Suzuki, Sophie Tomasi
Alphaproteobacterium strain MOLA1416, related to Mycoplana ramosa DSM 7292 and Chelativorans intermedius CC-MHSW-5 (93.6% 16S rRNA sequence identity) was isolated from the marine lichen, Lichina pygmaea and its chemical composition was characterized by a metabolomic network analysis using LC-MS/MS data. Twenty-five putative different compounds were revealed using a dereplication workflow based on MS/MS signatures available through GNPS ( In total, ten chemical families were highlighted including isocoumarins, macrolactones, erythrinan alkaloids, prodiginines, isoflavones, cyclohexane-diones, sterols, diketopiperazines, amino-acids and most likely glucocorticoids...
October 29, 2017: Phytochemistry
Andréa de Andrade Rangel de Freitas, Adriana Rocha Faria, Tatiana de Castro Abreu Pinto, Vânia Lúcia Carreira Merquior, Daniel Marchesi Neves, Rodrigo de Cerqueira da Costa, Lúcia Martins Teixeira
Enterococcal strains recovered from fecal samples of captive blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva) assisted at two wild animal screening centers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were identified as Enterococcus hirae (the predominant species; 75.3%), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (17.3%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (4.8%), Enterococcus gallinarum (1.7%), and Enterococcus hermanniensis (0.9%). All strains were susceptible to linezolid and teicoplanin. Rates of nonsusceptibility (including resistant and intermediate categories) to other 16 antimicrobials tested varied from 69...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chia-Fang Ho, Shr-Wei Huang, Kun-Wei Chan, Jian-Shin Wu, Shu-Ping Chang, Chi-Young Wang
Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) is characterised by degenerative feather, feather dystrophy, and beak deformity. Sometimes acute forms can lead to fatal cases in nestlings. The worldwide distribution of this disease affects numerous species of parrots with an average prevalence of 40%, including in Taiwan. The pathogen of PBFD is beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), which is a single-stranded circular DNA virus, circovirus. To date, hemagglutination and PCR assays have been routinely used to detect this virus...
October 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
Justin R Eastwood, Raoul F H Ribot, Lee Ann Rollins, Katherine L Buchanan, Ken Walder, Andrew T D Bennett, Mathew L Berg
Genetic diversity at community, population and individual levels is thought to influence the spread of infectious disease. At the individual level, inbreeding and heterozygosity are associated with increased risk of infection and disease severity. Host genotype rarity may also reduce infection risk if pathogens are co-adapted to common or local hosts, but to date, no studies have investigated the relative importance of genotype rarity and heterozygosity for infection in a wild, sexually reproducing vertebrate...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Chi Guan, Delphine Parrot, Jutta Wiese, Frank D Sönnichsen, Mahasweta Saha, Deniz Tasdemir, Florian Weinberger
A bioassay-guided approach was used to identify defense compounds that are present on the surface of Zostera marina and which inhibit settlement of microfoulers at natural concentrations. Moderately polar eelgrass surface extracts inhibited the settlement of seven marine bacteria and one yeast that originated from non-living substrata. In contrast, five other bacterial strains that had been directly isolated from eelgrass surfaces were all insensitive, which suggested a selective effect of surface metabolites on the microbial communities present on eelgrass...
October 16, 2017: Biofouling
Guillaume Carteaux, Damien Contou, Guillaume Voiriot, Antoine Khalil, Marie-France Carette, Martine Antoine, Antoine Parrot, Muriel Fartoukh
PURPOSE: Severe hemoptysis (SH) associated with non-tuberculosis bacterial lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is poorly described, and the efficacy of the usual decision-making process is unknown. This study aimed at describing the clinical, radiological patterns, mechanism, and microbiological spectrum of SH related to bacterial LRTI, and assessing whether the severity of hemoptysis and the results of usual therapeutic strategy are influenced by the presence of parenchymal necrosis...
October 12, 2017: Lung
Kamel Eddine Benallal, Razika Benikhlef, Rafik Garni, Brahim Gassen, Jean-Pierre Dedet, Zoubir Harrat
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus longicuspis are two phlebotomine sand fly species morphologically similar and differing in males only by the shape of the copulatory valves which are bifurcated in P. perniciosus, tip long and tapered in P. longicuspis. METHODS: A count of the median coxite setae was carried out on 208 specimens from the collections of Dedet and of Parrot, identified previously as P. longicuspis and on 38 P. perniciosus male sand flies captured during the year 2012-2013, in order to seek the presence of atypical P...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
Thomas F Cooke, Curt R Fischer, Ping Wu, Ting-Xin Jiang, Kathleen T Xie, James Kuo, Elizabeth Doctorov, Ashley Zehnder, Chaitan Khosla, Cheng-Ming Chuong, Carlos D Bustamante
Parrot feathers contain red, orange, and yellow polyene pigments called psittacofulvins. Budgerigars are parrots that have been extensively bred for plumage traits during the last century, but the underlying genes are unknown. Here we use genome-wide association mapping and gene-expression analysis to map the Mendelian blue locus, which abolishes yellow pigmentation in the budgerigar. We find that the blue trait maps to a single amino acid substitution (R644W) in an uncharacterized polyketide synthase (MuPKS)...
October 5, 2017: Cell
Alicia Montesinos-Navarro, Fernando Hiraldo, José L Tella, Guillermo Blanco
Theory predicts that contrasting properties of mutualistic and antagonistic networks differentially promote community resilience to species loss. However, the outcome of most ecological interactions falls within a continuum between mutualism and antagonism, and we ignore the extent to which this interactions' continuum might influence community stability. Using a large data set of interactions, we compared co-extinction cascades that either consider or ignore the mix of beneficial and detrimental actions that parrots exert on plants...
October 2, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Duc Thanh Nguyen, Philip O Ogunbona, Wanqing Li, Elizabeth Tasker, John Yearwood
Ground parrot vocalisation can be considered as an audio event. Test-based diverse density multiple instance learning (TB-DD-MIL) is proposed for detecting this event in audio files recorded in the field. The proposed method is motivated by the advantages of multiple instance learning from incomplete training data. Spectral features suitable for encoding the vocal source information of the ground parrot vocalization are also investigated. The proposed method was benchmarked against a dataset collected in various environmental conditions and an audio detection evaluation scheme is proposed...
September 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Elena M Panova, Alexandr V Agafonov
The research on imitation in the animal kingdom has more than a century-long history. A specific kind of imitation, auditory-vocal imitation, is well known in birds, especially among songbirds and parrots, but data for mammals are limited to elephants, marine mammals, and humans. Cetaceans are reported to imitate various signals, including species-specific calls, artificial sounds, and even vocalizations from other species if they share the same habitat. Here we describe the changes in the vocal repertoire of a beluga whale that was housed with a group of bottlenose dolphins...
November 2017: Animal Cognition
Can Kabadayi, Anastasia Krasheninnikova, Laurie O'Neill, Joost van de Weijer, Mathias Osvath, Auguste M P von Bayern
The ability to inhibit unproductive motor responses triggered by salient stimuli is a fundamental inhibitory skill. Such motor self-regulation is thought to underlie more complex cognitive mechanisms, like self-control. Recently, a large-scale study, comparing 36 species, found that absolute brain size best predicted competence in motor inhibition, with great apes as the best performers. This was challenged when three Corvus species (corvids) were found to parallel great apes despite having much smaller absolute brain sizes...
November 2017: Animal Cognition
Anna Elizabeth McRee, Christine T Higbie, Javier G Nevarez, Nathalie T Rademacher, Thomas N Tully
In 2015, three psittacines were presented within 30 days, each with differing clinical signs and patient histories. A 13-yr-old male eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) was presented for weakness, depression, and acute anorexia. On presentation it was determined to have a heart murmur, severely elevated white blood cell count (93.9 10(3)/μl) with a left shift (2.8 10(3)/μl bands), and anemia (30%). Severe hepatomegaly was noted on radiographs, ultrasonography, and computed tomography. A cytological sample of the liver obtained through a fine needle aspirate revealed intracellular acid-fast bacilli identified as Mycobacterium avium...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Mathias Dislich, Peter Wohlsein, Anna Sophie Croukamp, Ulrich Neumann
Snake bites represent a serious public health risk in many regions of the globe, especially in tropical areas. Clinical signs and postmortem changes are well described in human and other mammalian species. However, detailed case reports about venomous snake attacks in avian species are limited. This report describes presumptive fatal envenomations in three psittacines caused by pit vipers in a Brazilian zoo. In one case, a Brazilian lancehead (Bothrops moojeni) was captured in the aviary. In all three cases the dermis around the suspected snake bite area exhibited hemorrhages and edema...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Annelyse Araújo Pereira, Sandra Márcia Castro, Ranielly Ribeiro Venturini, Fernanda Oliveira César, Patricia Marques Fortes, Paulo Sucasas Costa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
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