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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791299/spatial-attention-enhances-the-neural-representation-of-invisible-signals-embedded-in-noise
#1
Cooper A Smout, Jason B Mattingley
Recent evidence suggests that voluntary spatial attention can affect neural processing of visual stimuli that do not enter conscious awareness (i.e., invisible stimuli), supporting the notion that attention and awareness are dissociable processes [Wyart, V., Dehaene, S., & Tallon-Baudry, C. Early dissociation between neural signatures of endogenous spatial attention and perceptual awareness during visual masking. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 1-14, 2012; Watanabe, M., Cheng, K., Murayama, Y., Ueno, K...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787924/sleep-architecture-and-epileptic-characteristics-of-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-in-childhood-absence-epilepsy-spectrum-a-prospective-study
#2
Argirios Dinopoulos, Maria A Tsirouda, Anastasios Bonakis, Roser Pons, Ioanna D Pavlopoulou, Konstantinos Tsoumakas
PURPOSE: Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is an epileptic syndrome presenting between 2nd-10th years. The spells are elicited with hyperventilation (HV) while sleep seems to exacerbate the electrical activity. Our aim is to describe sleep architecture and its relationship with epileptic discharges (EDs) in patients with CAE, before treatment and one year later. METHODS: Twenty-eight, drug-naive children were recruited (21 girls), mean age 90.1 ± 32.6 months...
April 30, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782961/baclofen-induced-encephalopathy-in-overdose-modeling-of-the-electroencephalographic-effect-concentration-relationships-and-contribution-of-tolerance-in-the-rat
#3
Magali Chartier, Isabelle Malissin, Salma Tannous, Laurence Labat, Patricia Risède, Bruno Mégarbane, Lucie Chevillard
Baclofen, a γ-amino-butyric acid type-B receptor agonist with exponentially increased use at high-dose to facilitate abstinence in chronic alcoholics, is responsible for increasing poisonings. Baclofen overdose may induce severe encephalopathy and electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities. Whether prior prolonged baclofen treatment may influence the severity of baclofen-induced encephalopathy in overdose has not been established. We designed a rat study to characterize baclofen-induced encephalopathy, correlate its severity with plasma concentrations and investigate the contribution of tolerance...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763673/the-distribution-of-pain-activity-across-the-human-neonatal-brain-is-sex-dependent
#4
Madeleine Verriotis, Laura Jones, Kimberley Whitehead, Pureza Laudiano-Dray, Ismini Panayotidis, Hemani Patel, Judith Meek, Lorenzo Fabrizi, Maria Fitzgerald
In adults, there are differences between male and female structural and functional brain connectivity, specifically for those regions involved in pain processing. This may partly explain the observed sex differences in pain sensitivity, tolerance, and inhibitory control, and in the development of chronic pain. However, it is not known if these differences exist from birth. Cortical activity in response to a painful stimulus can be observed in the human neonatal brain, but this nociceptive activity continues to develop in the postnatal period and is qualitatively different from that of adults, partly due to the considerable cortical maturation during this time...
May 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763658/event-related-potential-analysis-techniques-for-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Priyalakshmi Sheela, Subha D Puthankattil
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) comprise all pervasive neurodevelopmental diseases marked by deficits in social and communication skills, delayed cognitive development, restricted and repetitive behaviors. The core symptoms begin in early childhood, may continue life-long resulting in poor performance in adult stage. Event-related potential (ERP) is basically a time-locked electroencephalogram signal elicited by various stimuli, related to sensory and cognitive processes. The various ERP based techniques used for the study of ASD are considered in this review...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761018/behavioral-and-neurophysiological-abnormalities-during-cued-continuous-performance-tasks-in-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Weixiang Zhao, Ruhong Wu, Suhong Wang, Haihui Qi, Yitao Qian, Suinuan Wang
Objective: This study's aim was to investigate the features and neural mechanisms of sustained attention in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) by comparing and analyzing neuropsychological, behavioral, event-related potentials, and event-related desynchronization and synchronization between mTBI patients and healthy controls. Methods: Twenty mTBI patients with mTBI and 20 healthy controls underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and a cued continuous performance task (AX-CPT)...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756499/machine-learning-for-outcome-prediction-in-electroencephalograph-eeg-monitored-children-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#7
Iván Sánchez Fernández, Arnold J Sansevere, Marina Gaínza-Lein, Kush Kapur, Tobias Loddenkemper
The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of models predicting in-hospital mortality in critically ill children undergoing continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) in the intensive care unit (ICU). We evaluated the performance of machine learning algorithms for predicting mortality in a database of 414 critically ill children undergoing cEEG in the ICU. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) in the test subset was highest for stepwise selection/elimination models (AUC = 0...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754107/amantadine-a-new-treatment-for-refractory-electrical-status-epilepticus-in-sleep
#8
Rujuta B Wilson, Yazan Eliyan, Raman Sankar, Shaun A Hussain
PURPOSE: Electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) is an electrographic abnormality linked to language abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction and specifically associated with Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), the syndrome of continuous spike and wave in slow-wave sleep (CSWS), and autistic regression with epileptiform EEG (AREE). As first-line therapies for treatment of ESES display inadequate efficacy and confer substantial risk, we set out to describe our center's experience with amantadine in the treatment of ESES...
May 10, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753784/theta-oscillations-promote-temporal-sequence-learning
#9
Jordan Crivelli-Decker, Liang-Tien Hsieh, Alex Clarke, Charan Ranganath
Many theoretical models suggest that neural oscillations play a role in learning or retrieval of temporal sequences, but the extent to which oscillations support sequence representation remains unclear. To address this question, we used scalp electroencephalography (EEG) to examine oscillatory activity over learning of different object sequences. Participants made semantic decisions on each object as they were presented in a continuous stream. For three "Consistent" sequences, the order of the objects was always fixed...
May 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749573/tone-evoked-acoustic-change-complex-acc-recorded-in-a-sedated-animal-model
#10
Alessandro Presacco, John C Middlebrooks
The acoustic change complex (ACC) is a scalp-recorded cortical evoked potential complex generated in response to changes (e.g., frequency, amplitude) in an auditory stimulus. The ACC has been well studied in humans, but to our knowledge, no animal model has been evaluated. In particular, it was not known whether the ACC could be recorded under the conditions of sedation that likely would be necessary for recordings from animals. For that reason, we tested the feasibility of recording ACC from sedated cats in response to changes of frequency and amplitude of pure-tone stimuli...
May 10, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746906/multi-subject-hierarchical-inverse-covariance-modelling-improves-estimation-of-functional-brain-networks
#11
Giles L Colclough, Mark W Woolrich, Samuel J Harrison, Pedro A Rojas López, Pedro A Valdes-Sosa, Stephen M Smith
A Bayesian model for sparse, hierarchical inverse covariance estimation is presented, and applied to multi-subject functional connectivity estimation in the human brain. It enables simultaneous inference of the strength of connectivity between brain regions at both subject and population level, and is applicable to fmri, meg and eeg data. Two versions of the model can encourage sparse connectivity, either using continuous priors to suppress irrelevant connections, or using an explicit description of the network structure to estimate the connection probability between each pair of regions...
May 7, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745547/-research-on-the-effects-of-the-continuous-theta-burst-transcranial-magnetic-stimuli-on-brain-network-in-emotional-processing
#12
Qi Li, Dan Cao, Yingjie Li, Yingying Tang
The aim of this study is to explore the effects of continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) on functional brain network in emotion processing. Before and after the intervention of cTBS over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of ten participants who were asked to perform the emotion gender recognition task, we recorded their scalp electroencephalograms (EEG). Then we used the phase synchronization of EEG to measure the connectivity between two nodes. We then calculated the network efficiency to describe the efficiency of information transmission in brain regions...
June 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742385/the-neurocognitive-mechanisms-underlying-food-cravings-and-snack-food-consumption-a-combined-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-ctbs-and-eeg-study
#13
Cassandra J Lowe, William R Staines, Felicia Mannochio, Peter A Hall
Regulation of food cravings is thought to be critical for modulating eating behavior, yet we do not fully understand the mechanisms by which cognitive control operates in the eating context. The current study combined rTMS and EEG paradigms to examine the causal role of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in modulating visceral and behavioral responses to high calorie foods, and the mediational mechanisms underlying this relation. 28 right-handed female participants received both active and sham continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS; a rTMS variant used to decrease cortical activity) targeting the left dlPFC in a counterbalanced order...
May 6, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740594/tracking-temporal-hazard-in-the-human-electroencephalogram-using-a-forward-encoding-model
#14
Sophie K Herbst, Lorenz Fiedler, Jonas Obleser
Human observers automatically extract temporal contingencies from the environment and predict the onset of future events. Temporal predictions are modeled by the hazard function, which describes the instantaneous probability for an event to occur given it has not occurred yet. Here, we tackle the question of whether and how the human brain tracks continuous temporal hazard on a moment-to-moment basis, and how flexibly it adjusts to strictly implicit variations in the hazard function. We applied an encoding-model approach to human electroencephalographic data recorded during a pitch-discrimination task, in which we implicitly manipulated temporal predictability of the target tones by varying the interval between cue and target tone (i...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739701/early-identification-of-epileptic-encephalopathy-with-continuous-spikes-and-waves-during-sleep-a-case-control-study
#15
Camille Desprairies, Blandine Dozières-Puyravel, Adina Ilea, Vanina Bellavoine, Hala Nasser, Catherine Delanöe, Stéphane Auvin
Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikes-and-waves during sleep (EE-CSWS) is a rare childhood epilepsy syndrome characterized by a regression in cognitive, behavioral and psychiatric functioning, seizures and a specific electroencephalographic pattern. An early recognition and an appropriate treatment might play a key role in the outcome of this epileptic encephalopathy. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate if there is any clinical or electroencephalographic sign suggestive of EE-CSWS after the first seizure...
April 27, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738912/functionally-separated-networks-for-self-paced-and-externally-cued-motor-execution-in-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-from-deep-brain-recordings-in-humans
#16
Oliver Bichsel, Roger Gassert, Lennart Stieglitz, Mechthild Uhl, Heide Baumann-Vogel, Daniel Waldvogel, Christian R Baumann, Lukas L Imbach
Spatially segregated cortico-basal ganglia networks have been proposed for the control of goal-directed and habitual behavior. In Parkinson's disease, selective loss of dopaminergic neurons regulating sensorimotor (habitual) behavior might therefore predominantly cause deficits in habitual motor control, whereas control of goal-directed movement is relatively preserved. Following this hypothesis, we examined the electrophysiology of cortico-basal ganglia networks in Parkinson patients emulating habitual and goal-directed motor control during self-paced and externally-cued finger tapping, respectively, while simultaneously recording local field potentials in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and surface EEG...
May 5, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733464/randomized-trial-of-lacosamide-vs-fosphenytoin-for-nonconvulsive-seizures
#17
Aatif M Husain, Jong W Lee, Bradley J Kolls, Lawrence J Hirsch, Jonathan J Halford, Puneet K Gupta, Yafa Minazad, Jennifer M Jones, Suzette M LaRoche, Susan T Herman, Christa B Swisher, Saurabh R Sinha, Adriana Palade, Keith E Dombrowski, William B Gallentine, Cecil D Hahn, Elizabeth E Gerard, Manjushri Bhapkar, Yuliya Lokhnygina, M Brandon Westover
OBJECTIVE: The optimal treatment of nonconvulsive seizures in critically ill patients is uncertain. We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of antiseizure drugs (ASD) lacosamide (LCM) and fosphenytoin (fPHT) in this population. METHODS: The Treatment of Recurrent Electrographic Nonconvulsive Seizures (TRENdS) study was a non-inferiority, prospective, multicenter, randomized treatment trial of patients diagnosed with NCS by continuous electroencephalography (cEEG)...
May 7, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727818/efficacy-and-safety-of-ketogenic-diet-for-treatment-of-pediatric-convulsive-refractory-status-epilepticus
#18
Ravindra Arya, Katrina Peariso, Marina Gaínza-Lein, Jessica Harvey, Ann Bergin, J Nicholas Brenton, Brian T Burrows, Tracy Glauser, Howard P Goodkin, Yi-Chen Lai, Mohamad A Mikati, Iván Sánchez Fernández, Dmitry Tchapyjnikov, Angus A Wilfong, Korwyn Williams, Tobias Loddenkemper
PURPOSE: To describe the efficacy and safety of ketogenic diet (KD) for convulsive refractory status epilepticus (RSE). METHODS: RSE patients treated with KD at the 6/11 participating institutions of the pediatric Status Epilepticus Research Group from January-2011 to December-2016 were included. Patients receiving KD prior to the index RSE episode were excluded. RSE was defined as failure of ≥2 anti-seizure medications, including at least one non-benzodiazepine drug...
April 27, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722743/ongoing-photosensitivity-in-an-elderly-patient-with-jeavons-sydrome
#19
Yeşim Gülen Abanoz, Yasin Abanoz, Çiğdem Özkara
INTRODUCTION: Photosensitivity, which is a main feature of Jeavons syndrome, can be seen in other types of idiopathic or genetic epilepsies with focal or generalized seizures and tends to disappear spontaneously usually in the second decade. Although it responds well to antiepileptic treatment, especially to valproic acid, it may continue into adulthood in rare cases. CASE REPORT: We describe a 63-year-old male patient with eyelid myoclonia with absences, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and severe photosensitivity accompanied by eyelid myoclonia...
May 2018: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718889/therapeutic-benefits-of-acth-and-levetiracetam-in-stxbp1-encephalopathy-with-a-de-novo-mutation-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Shunli Liu, Liyuan Wang, Xiao Tang Cai, Hui Zhou, Dan Yu, Zhiling Wang
RATIONALE: The case report aims to discuss the clinical symptoms and treatment of encephalopathy caused by a novel syntaxin- binding protein 1 (STXBP1) genetic mutation. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient, a girl, was born at 38+4 weeks of gestation. She had frequent spasm attacks accompanied by obvious psychomotor development retardation since the neonatal period. Genetic screening identified a novel STXBP1 genetic mutation. DIAGNOSES: Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with STXBP1 mutation...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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