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White matter lesions on brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225493/acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-treatment-alleviated-cognitive-impairment-caused-by-delayed-encephalopathy-due-to-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-two-case-reports-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#1
Kumi Yanagiha, Kazuhiro Ishii, Akira Tamaoka
INTRODUCTION: Delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can even occur in patients with mild symptoms of acute CO poisoning. Some cases taking conventional hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy or steroid-pulse therapy may be insufficient, and AchEI may be effective. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: We report two cases of delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning involving two women aged 69 (Case 1) and 60 years (Case 2) whose cognitive function improved with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AchEI) treatment...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220365/binding-of-11-c-pittsburgh-compound-b-correlated-with-white-matter-injury-in-hypertensive-small-vessel-disease
#2
Tetsuya Hashimoto, Chiaki Yokota, Kazuhiro Koshino, Takashi Temma, Makoto Yamazaki, Satoshi Iguchi, Ryo Shimomura, Toshiyuki Uehara, Naoko Funatsu, Tenyu Hino, Kazuo Minematsu, Hidehiro Iida, Kazunori Toyoda
OBJECTIVE: (11)C-Pittsburgh compound-B ((11)C-PIB) positron emission tomography (PET) is used to visualize and quantify amyloid deposition in the brain cortex in pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intense (11)C-PIB retention is also observed in the white matter (WM) of both healthy individuals and AD patients. However, the clinical implications of this retention in brain WM have not been clarified. We investigated the relationship between the extent of white matter lesions (WMLs) and the binding potential of (11)C-PIB (BPND) in the WM in patients with hypertensive small vessel disease...
February 20, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217385/silent-ischemic-lesion-laterality-in-asymptomatic-internal-carotid-artery-stenosis-relates-to-reduced-cerebral-vasoreactivity
#3
Makoto Isozaki, Hiroharu Kataoka, Kazuhito Fukushima, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Naoaki Yamada, Hidehiro Iida, Koji Iihara
BACKGROUND: We investigated the relationship between silent ischemic lesions, defined as hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans of brain white matter and cerebral hemodynamics (baseline cerebral blood flow and cerebral vasoreactivity). METHODS: Between January 2007 and December 2012, 61 patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis were evaluated for asymptomatic silent ischemic lesions, acute infarction, and cerebral hemodynamics...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214960/axonal-disruption-in-white-matter-underlying-cortical-sulcus-tau-pathology-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#4
Laurena Holleran, Joong Hee Kim, Mihika Gangolli, Thor Stein, Victor Alvarez, Ann McKee, David L Brody
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disorder associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury. One of the primary defining neuropathological lesions in CTE, based on the first consensus conference, is the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in gray matter sulcal depths. Post-mortem CTE studies have also reported myelin loss, axonal injury and white matter degeneration. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE is restricted to post-mortem neuropathological analysis. We hypothesized that high spatial resolution advanced diffusion MRI might be useful for detecting white matter microstructural changes directly adjacent to gray matter tau pathology...
February 18, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209579/patterns-of-brain-injury-in-newborns-treated-with-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#5
M A Wien, M T Whitehead, D Bulas, M Ridore, L Melbourne, G Oldenburg, B L Short, A N Massaro
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neonates treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are at risk for brain injury and subsequent neurodevelopmental compromise. Advances in MR imaging and improved accessibility have led to the increased use of routine MR imaging after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Our objective was to describe the frequency and patterns of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-related brain injury based on MR imaging findings in a large contemporary cohort of neonates treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation...
February 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208139/mri-based-neuroanatomical-predictors-of-dysphagia-dysarthria-and-aphasia-in-patients-with-first-acute-ischemic-stroke%C3%A2
#6
Heather L Flowers, Mohammed A AlHarbi, David Mikulis, Frank L Silver, Elizabeth Rochon, David Streiner, Rosemary Martino
BACKGROUND: Due to the high post-stroke frequency of dysphagia, dysarthria, and aphasia, we developed comprehensive neuroanatomical, clinical, and demographic models to predict their presence after acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: The sample included 160 randomly selected first-ever stroke patients with confirmed infarction on magnetic resonance imaging from 1 tertiary stroke center. We documented acute lesions within 12 neuroanatomical regions and their associated volumes...
February 16, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205364/altered-neural-mechanisms-of-cognitive-control-in-patients-with-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-an-effective-connectivity-study
#7
Ekaterina Dobryakova, Maria Assunta Rocca, Paola Valsasina, John DeLuca, Massimo Filippi
Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) leads to physical and cognitive disability. Specifically, cognitive deficits in PPMS have been explained by both grey matter atrophy and white matter lesions. However, existing research still lacks in the understanding of how the brain of a patient with PPMS functions under cognitive control demands. Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine information integration in patients with PPMS using a search-based effective connectivity method. Fourteen patients with PPMS and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) performed the Stroop task, a cognitively demanding interference task that taxes neural resources required for cognitive control and response inhibition...
February 16, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203247/elevated-serum-uric-acid-levels-are-related-to-cognitive-deterioration-in-an-elderly-japanese-population
#8
Kazushi Suzuki, Daisuke Koide, Kurumi Fujii, Tsutomu Yamazaki, Shoji Tsuji, Atsushi Iwata
AIMS: The association between serum uric acid (UA) levels and cognitive function is controversial since UA can be a risk factor for cerebral ischemia as well as acting as a neuroprotective antioxidant. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 228 elderly participants and examined neuropsychological test results, clinical data as well as brain magnetic resonance imaging data. PATIENTS: Overall, 64 participants were diagnosed with cognitive deterioration...
September 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203182/treatable-leukoencephalopathy-in-a-patient-with-hypophosphatemia
#9
Masahiro Okazaki, Makito Hirano, Tomoki Iwatsu, Masaki Yamana, Hidekazu Suzuki, Takao Satou, Susumu Kusunoki
We report the first patient with pathologically proven leukoencephalopathy associated with hypophosphatemia. A 61-year-old woman had repetitive episodes of decreased consciousness with pontine and pallidal lesions and extensive leukoencephalopathy on MRI, later found to be associated with hypophosphatemia. Although hypophosphatemia has been linked to central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis (osmotic myelinolysis), lesions in the deep white matter have not been reported. Brain biopsy performed during the first diagnosis process revealed nonspecific demyelination with gliosis, a finding similar to that of chronic osmotic myelinolysis...
September 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202818/-hypoglycemic-hemiplegia
#10
Eriko Sugawara, Yosuke Kudo, Ken Johkura
Hypoglycemia may cause acute hemiplegia. The most common diffusion-weighted MR imaging finding in patients with hypoglycemic hemiplegia is the hyperintense lesion involving the internal capsule, mimicking acute ischemic stroke. Thus, in patients with acute onset hemiplegia, it is important to differentiate hypoglycemia on arrival by immediate blood glucose measurement. It has recently been shown that hypoglycemic brain injury start in large white matter tracts such as internal capsule and spread throughout the whole brain, including the gray matter...
February 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188915/machine-learning-based-compartment-models-with-permeability-for-white-matter-microstructure-imaging
#11
Gemma L Nedjati-Gilani, Torben Schneider, Matt G Hall, Niamh Cawley, Ioana Hill, Olga Ciccarelli, Ivana Drobnjak, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Daniel C Alexander
Some microstructure parameters, such as permeability, remain elusive because mathematical models that express their relationship to the MR signal accurately are intractable. Here, we propose to use computational models learned from simulations to estimate these parameters. We demonstrate the approach in an example which estimates water residence time in brain white matter. The residence time τi of water inside axons is a potentially important biomarker for white matter pathologies of the human central nervous system, as myelin damage is hypothesised to affect axonal permeability, and thus τi...
February 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188307/early-life-risk-factors-for-cerebrovascular-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Ellen V Backhouse, Caroline A McHutchison, Vera Cvoro, Susan D Shenkin, Joanna M Wardlaw
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) causes subclinical brain vascular lesions detected using neuroimaging and childhood factors may increase later CVD risk. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE, and meta-analyzed all available evidence on childhood (premorbid) IQ, socioeconomic status (SES), education, and subclinical CVD in later life. Overall odds ratios (OR), mean difference or correlation, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects methods...
February 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180074/regional-staging-of-white-matter-signal-abnormalities-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Emily R Lindemer, Douglas N Greve, Bruce R Fischl, Jean C Augustinack, David H Salat
White matter lesions, quantified as 'white matter signal abnormalities' (WMSA) on neuroimaging, are common incidental findings on brain images of older adults. This tissue damage is linked to cerebrovascular dysfunction and is associated with cognitive decline. The regional distribution of WMSA throughout the cerebral white matter has been described at a gross scale; however, to date no prior study has described regional patterns relative to cortical gyral landmarks which may be important for understanding functional impact...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169883/compensatory-functional-reorganization-may-precede-hypertension-related-brain-damage-and-cognitive-decline-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#14
Patrycja Naumczyk, Agnieszka Sabisz, Marta Witkowska, Beata Graff, Krzysztof Jodzio, Dariusz Gąsecki, Edyta Szurowska, Krzysztof Narkiewicz
OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed at exploring structural and functional differences in the brain during higher cognitive processing between middle-aged hypertensive patients and controls matched for sex, age and years of education. METHODS: Two groups of 20 patients took part in MRI examinations. This article reports the results of functional MRI during a Stroop color interference task and structural evaluations based on a modified Fazekas scale. RESULTS: No intergroup differences were found in regards to the severity of white matter lesions (Mann-Whitney U test = 150...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154284/chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-presenting-with-multiple-punctate-intracranial-lesions-on-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Makoto Terada, Kiyotaka Nakamagoe, Naoshi Obara, Shinichi Ogawa, Noriaki Sakamoto, Taiki Sato, Seitaro Nohara, Shigeru Chiba, Akira Tamaoka
Central nervous system graft-versus-host disease can present quite a diagnostic challenge. We herein present a case of histologically-confirmed chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) involving the central nervous system that occurred at 19 months after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed areas of confluent hyperintensity in the deep/subcortical white matter with multiple punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancements, suggesting the disruption of the blood-brain barrier...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148632/serum-neurofilament-is-associated-with-progression-of-brain-atrophy-and-disability-in-early-ms
#16
Jens Kuhle, Bardia Nourbakhsh, Donna Grant, Steve Morant, Christian Barro, Özgür Yaldizli, Daniel Pelletier, Gavin Giovannoni, Emmanuelle Waubant, Sharmilee Gnanapavan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate a potential effect of riluzole on serum neurofilaments (Nf) compared to placebo and the relationship between longitudinal clinical and MRI outcomes and serum Nf levels. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from participants enrolled in a randomized double-blind trial of neuroprotection with riluzole vs placebo as an add-on to weekly interferon-β (IFN-β)-1a IM initiated 3 months after randomization. Nf measurements were performed by ELISA and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay...
February 1, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131201/urinary-albumin-to-creatinine-ratio-is-associated-with-white-matter-lesions-severity-in-first-ever-stroke-patients
#17
Satoshi Suda, Takuya Kanamaru, Seiji Okubo, Junya Aoki, Takashi Shimoyama, Kentaro Suzuki, Chikako Nito, Akiko Ishiwata, Kazumi Kimura
BACKGROUND: The presence of white matter lesions (WML) is an indicator of small vessel disease; however, the underlying pathological mechanisms are still unclear. We aimed to investigate the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) with WML severity in first-ever stroke patients. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 284 consecutive patients (177 male; median age 72years) admitted to our stroke center between May 2010 and January 2012...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130412/update-on-disease-modifying-therapies-for-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Diana L Vargas, William R Tyor
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It predominantly affects young women and is one of the most common causes of disability in young adults. MS is characterized by formation of white matter lesions in the CNS as a result of inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss. Treatment has been a focus of neurological research for over 60 years. A number of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) have become available making MS a treatable disease. These compounds target the inflammatory response in MS...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125807/the-role-of-white-matter-damage-in-the-risk-of-periprocedural-diffusion-weighted-lesions-after-carotid-artery-stenting
#19
Paola Maggio, Claudia Altamura, Domenico Lupoi, Matteo Paolucci, Riccardo Altavilla, Francesco Tibuzzi, Francesco Passarelli, Roberto Arpesani, Guido Di Giambattista, Rosario Francesco Grasso, Giacomo Luppi, Fabrizio Fiacco, Mauro Silvestrini, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Fabrizio Vernieri
BACKGROUND: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are a common finding in aged individuals affected by carotid artery disease and are a risk factor for first-ever and recurrent stroke. We investigated if white matter damage increases the risk of brain microembolism during carotid artery stenting (CAS), as evaluated by the appearance of new areas of restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted images (DWI). METHODS: We evaluated 47 patients with severe internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis undergoing CAS, comparing preprocedural clinical, ultrasound and radiological characteristics...
January 27, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123950/novel-surface-features-for-automated-detection-of-focal-cortical-dysplasias-in-paediatric-epilepsy
#20
Sophie Adler, Konrad Wagstyl, Roxana Gunny, Lisa Ronan, David Carmichael, J Helen Cross, Paul C Fletcher, Torsten Baldeweg
Focal cortical dysplasia is a congenital abnormality of cortical development and the leading cause of surgically remediable drug-resistant epilepsy in children. Post-surgical outcome is improved by presurgical lesion detection on structural MRI. Automated computational techniques have improved detection of focal cortical dysplasias in adults but have not yet been effective when applied to developing brains. There is therefore a need to develop reliable and sensitive methods to address the particular challenges of a paediatric cohort...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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