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White matter lesions on brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334139/interleaved-susceptibility-weighted-and-flair-mri-for-imaging-lesion-penetrating-veins-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Refaat E Gabr, Amol S Pednekar, Arash Kamali, John A Lincoln, Flavia M Nelson, Jerry S Wolinsky, Ponnada A Narayana
PURPOSE: To simultaneously image brain lesions and veins in multiple sclerosis. METHODS: An interleaved sequence was developed to simultaneously acquire 3-dimensional T2*-weighted (or susceptibility-weighted (SW)) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images on a 3T MRI system. The pulse sequence parameters were calculated to minimize signal perturbation from steady state while maintaining acceptable image contrast and scan time. Fifteen multiple sclerosis patients were enrolled in this prospective study and underwent a standard multiple sclerosis imaging protocol...
January 15, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332036/relationships-between-lower-olfaction-and-brain-white-matter-lesions-in-elderly-subjects-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Juliette Heinrich, Jean-Sébastien Vidal, Axelle Simon, Anne-Sophie Rigaud, Olivier Hanon, Jacques Epelbaum, Cecile Viollet, Emmanuelle Duron
BACKGROUND: Olfactory impairment is reported in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is associated with hippocampal atrophy. In elderly people, dementia with AD neuropathology and white matter lesions (WML) is common. In this context, olfactory impairment could also depend on the presence of WML. OBJECTIVE: To assess the cross-sectional relationship between olfaction and WML in elderly subjects with MCI. METHODS: Consecutive subjects, >65 years old, diagnosed as MCI after a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in an expert memory center, with a brain MRI performed within a year and without major depressive state, were included...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324249/disability-in-progressive-ms-is-associated-with-t2-lesion-changes
#3
C Ammitzbøll, T B Dyrby, M Lyksborg, K Schreiber, R Ratzer, J Romme Christensen, P Iversen, M Magyari, E Garde, P S Sørensen, H R Siebner, F Sellebjerg
BACKGROUND: Progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterised by diffuse changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which complicates the use of MRI as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. The relationship between MRI measures (conventional and non-conventional) and clinical disability in progressive MS therefore warrants further investigation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between clinical disability and MRI measures in patients with progressive MS...
December 18, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321138/sensorimotor-functional-and-structural-networks-after-intracerebral-stem-cell-grafts-in-the-ischemic-mouse-brain
#4
Claudia Green, Anuka Minassian, Stefanie Vogel, Michael Diedenhofen, Andreas Beyrau, Dirk Wiedermann, Mathias Hoehn
Past investigations on stem cell mediated recovery after stroke have limited their focus on the extent and morphological development of the ischemic lesion itself over time or on the integration capacity of the stem cell graft ex vivo However, an assessment of the long-term functional and structural improvement in vivo is essential to reliably quantify the regenerative capacity of cell implantation after stroke.We induced ischemic stroke in nude mice and implanted human neural stem cells (H9 derived) into the ipsilateral cortex in the acute phase...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303036/cognitive-reserve-cognition-and-regional-brain-damage-in-ms-a-2%C3%A2-year-longitudinal-study
#5
Maria Assunta Rocca, Gianna C Riccitelli, Alessandro Meani, Elisabetta Pagani, Paola Del Sette, Vittorio Martinelli, Giancarlo Comi, Andrea Falini, Massimo Filippi
BACKGROUND: According to the cognitive reserve (CR) theory, enriching experiences protect against cognitive decline. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the dynamic interaction between CR and global/regional measures of brain white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) damage and their effect on cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Baseline and 2 -year three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted scans were obtained from 54 MS patients and 20 healthy controls...
January 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296901/low-fetal-hemoglobin-percentage-is-associated-with-silent-brain-lesions-in-adults-with-homozygous-sickle-cell-disease
#6
David Calvet, Titien Tuilier, Nicolas Mélé, Guillaume Turc, Anoosha Habibi, Nassim Ait Abdallah, Loubna Majhadi, François Hemery, Myriam Edjlali, Frédéric Galacteros, Pablo Bartolucci
Silent white matter changes (WMCs) on brain imaging are common in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) and are associated with cognitive deficits in children. We investigated the factors predictive of WMCs in adults with homozygous SCD and no history of neurological conditions. Patients were recruited from a cohort of adults with homozygous SCD followed up at an adult sickle cell referral center for which steady-state measurements of biological parameters and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain were available...
December 12, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289936/development-and-validation-of-a-priori-risk-model-for-extensive-white-matter-lesions-in-people-age-65-years-or-older-the-dijon-mri-study
#7
Phillip J Tully, Sarah Qchiqach, Edwige Pereira, Stephanie Debette, Bernard Mazoyer, Christophe Tzourio
OBJECTIVES: The objective was to develop and validate a risk model for the likelihood of extensive white matter lesions (extWML) to inform clinicians on whether to proceed with or forgo diagnostic MRI. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study and multivariable prediction model. SETTING: Two representative samples from France. PARTICIPANTS: Persons aged 60-80 years without dementia or stroke. Derivation sample n=1714; validation sample n=789...
December 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288410/central-nervous-system-involvement-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-possible-role-of-chronic-inflammation-and-tnf-blocker-therapy
#8
Sinem Sağ, Mustafa Serdar Sağ, Ibrahim Tekeoğlu, Ayhan Kamanlı, Kemal Nas, Bilgehan Atilgan Acar
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease, the etiology of which has yet to be clarified, which causes activation of proinflammatory pathways that bring about joint and systemic inflammation. Although peripheral nervous system anomalies are observed widely in RA, very few case reports on changes in the central nervous system (CNS) have been published. In recent years, the pathophysiology of CNS involvement that can occur in RA has attracted a great deal of attention. Emphasis has focused on the possibility that CNS involvement occurs due to blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage associated with chronic inflammation...
December 29, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260024/unihemispheric-central-nervous-system-vasculitis
#9
Sikawat Thanaviratananich, Bashar Katirji
Patients with primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) usually manifest with multiple enhancing bilateral hemispheric lesions. We presented an extremely rare clinical course and follow-up of a patient with PCNSV affecting only a single (right) hemisphere. A 33-year-old previously healthy man presented with a left hand clonic seizure followed by a secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizure and dysarthria. MRI brain revealed multiple hyperintense lesions confined to only the right hemisphere with contrast enhancement, involving both white and grey matters...
June 2017: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249763/intravascular-lymphoma-with-an-acute-course-of-cerebellar-hemorrhage-a-case-report
#10
Takeo Uzuka, Fumi Higuchi, Hadzuki Matsuda, Ryohei Otani, Phyo Kim, Keisuke Ueki
Intravascular lymphoma (IVL) has been characterized in many case reports by multiple white matter lesions reflecting ischemic changes. In contrast, there are very few case reports of cerebral or cerebellar hemorrhage resulting from IVL. A 56-year-old woman was referred to our department with two-week history of headache, nausea, and poor appetite. Gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed dilated veins on the cerebellar surface. No ischemic lesions were detected on diffusion-weighted images...
December 15, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248158/the-role-of-left-insula-in-executive-set-switching-lesion-evidence-from-an-acute-stroke-cohort
#11
Andreja Varjačić, Dante Mantini, Jacob Levenstein, Elitsa D Slavkova, Nele Demeyere, Céline R Gillebert
Impairments in executive functions are common in stroke survivors, both in the acute and in the chronic phase. However, little is known about the underlying lesion neuroanatomy of these deficits. This study aimed to elucidate the pattern of brain damage underlying executive dysfunction in a large and acute stroke cohort. Executive set-switching deficits were evaluated by a shape-based analogue of the Trail Making Test (from the Oxford Cognitive Screen) in a consecutive sample of 144 stroke patients (age: 70 ± 15 years, examination: 5 ± 4 days post-stroke; brain imaging: 1...
November 22, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245364/x-linked-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-with-gjb1-mutation-presenting-as-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-like-illness-a-case-report
#12
Jin Kyu Kim, Seung-A Han, Sun Jun Kim
RATIONALE: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is typically an autosomal dominant, inherited neuropathy, although there is a rare male X-linked CMT. Such patients show central nervous system (CNS) involvement in addition to peripheral neuropathy. Recently, we encountered a patient who presented with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like symptoms, but was later diagnosed as having X-linked CMT (CMTX) due to a mutation. PATIENT CONCERNS: A previously healthy 11-year-old boy was admitted for a sudden transient weakness of his left side extremities...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244098/clemastine-rescues-myelination-defects-and-promotes-functional-recovery-in-hypoxic-brain-injury
#13
Bruce A C Cree, Jianqin Niu, Kimberly K Hoi, Chao Zhao, Scott D Caganap, Roland G Henry, Dang Q Dao, Daniel R Zollinger, Feng Mei, Yun-An A Shen, Robin J M Franklin, Erik M Ullian, Lan Xiao, Jonah R Chan, Stephen P J Fancy
Hypoxia can injure brain white matter tracts, comprised of axons and myelinating oligodendrocytes, leading to cerebral palsy in neonates and delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy (DPHL) in adults. In these conditions, white matter injury can be followed by myelin regeneration, but myelination often fails and is a significant contributor to fixed demyelinated lesions, with ensuing permanent neurological injury. Non-myelinating oligodendrocyte precursor cells are often found in lesions in plentiful numbers, but fail to mature, suggesting oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation arrest as a critical contributor to failed myelination in hypoxia...
December 13, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243173/magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-of-two-cases-with-multinodular-and-vacuolating-neuronal-tumor
#14
Erkan Gökçe
Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumors (MVNT) are low grade neuronal tumors classified in cerebral tumors based on 2016 WHO central nerve system classification. Previously, MVNTs were probably tumors incidentally determined by imaging methods, but they could not be diagnosed or they were misdiagnosed. Two cases are reported in the present study, for which radiological imaging was carried out for epilepsy in one and for headache in the other. The first case was a twenty seven years old female patient with headache complaint...
December 14, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233158/etiology-of-isolated-pontine-infarctions-a-study-based-on-high-resolution-mri-and-brain-small-vessel-disease-scores
#15
Cheng Xia, Hui-Sheng Chen, Shi-Wen Wu, Wei-Hai Xu
BACKGROUND: In this retrospective study, we investigated the main pathogenesis of the two types of isolated pontine infarction: paramedian pontine infarcts (PPIs) and small deep pontine infarcts (SDPIs). METHODS: Acute ischemic stroke patients, comprising 117 PPI patients and 40 SDPI patients, were enrolled. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) and routine MRI sequences were performed for each patient, and clinical data were collected. The following brain small vessel disease (SVD) features of the MRI scans were each rated (0 or 1) separately: asymptomatic lacunar infarcts, white matter lesions (WMLs), deep and infratentorial cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and enlarged perivascular spaces in the basal ganglia...
December 12, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228858/common-patterns-of-regional-brain-injury-detectable-by-dti-in-otherwise-normal-appearing-white-matter-in-patients-with-early-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Kristine O'Phelan, Chad Kuniyuki Otoshi, Thomas M Ernst, Linda Chang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) alters the lives of millions of people every year. Although mortality rates have improved, due to better prehospital care and reduction of secondary injury in the critical care setting, improvements in functional outcomes after TBI have been difficult to achieve. Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) allows detailed measurement of microstructural damage in regional brain tissue after TBI, thus improving our understanding of the extent and severity of TBI. METHODS: Twenty subjects were recruited from a Neurological Intensive Care Unit, and compared to 18 healthy control subjects...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219028/ambulatory-pulse-pressure-brain-neuronal-fiber-integrity-and-cerebral-blood-flow-in-older-adults
#17
Takashi Tarumi, Binu P Thomas, Ciwen Wang, Li Zhang, Jie Liu, Marcel Turner, Jonathan Riley, Nikita Tangella, Kyle B Womack, Diana R Kerwin, C Munro Cullum, Hanzhang Lu, Wanpen Vongpatanasin, David C Zhu, Rong Zhang
Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) reflects the end-organ vascular stress in daily life; however, its influence on brain neuronal fiber integrity and cerebral blood flow (CBF) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the associations among ABP, white matter (WM) neuronal fiber integrity, and CBF in older adults. We tested 144 participants via ABP monitoring and diffusion tensor imaging. The total level and pulsatile indices of CBF were measured by phase-contrast MRI and transcranial Doppler, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218106/extracorporeal-shock-wave-therapy-effectively-protects-brain-against-chronic-cerebral-hypo-perfusion-induced-neuropathological-changes
#18
Han-Tan Chai, Kuan-Hung Chen, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Chih-Hung Chen, Pei-Hsun Sung, Yung-Lung Chen, Chun-Man Yuen, Pei-Lin Shao, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Ching-Jen Wang, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip, Sheung-Fat Ko
This study tested the hypothesis that extracorporeal shock wave (ECSW) therapy could protect mouse brain from chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CHP)-induced neuropathological changes in a bilateral carotid arterial stenosis (CAS) model. Adult-male C57BL/6 (B6) mice (n=36) were randomized into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 (CHP) and group 3 [CHP+ECSW (100 impulses at 0.15 mJ/mm2) on day 5, 10 and 15 after CHP induction]. By day 60 after CHP induction, the white matter lesion, protein expressions of inflammatory (TNF-α/NF-κB/iNOS), oxidative-stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/NOX-4/nitrotyrosine), angiogenesis (eNOS/CD31), apoptotic (Bax/caspase-3/PARP), fibrotic (Smad3/TGF-ß) and mitochondrial-damaged (cytosolic cytochrome-C) biomarkers were significantly higher in group 2 than in groups 1 and 3, and significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1, whereas the protein expressions of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2), anti-fibrotic (BMP-2/Smad1/5), and mitochondrial-integrity (mitochondrial cytochrome-C) biomarkers showed an opposite pattern to inflammation among the three groups (all P<0...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212715/bcas1-expression-defines-a-population-of-early-myelinating-oligodendrocytes-in-multiple-sclerosis-lesions
#19
Maryam K Fard, Franziska van der Meer, Paula Sánchez, Ludovico Cantuti-Castelvetri, Sunit Mandad, Sarah Jäkel, Eugenio F Fornasiero, Sebastian Schmitt, Marc Ehrlich, Laura Starost, Tanja Kuhlmann, Christina Sergiou, Verena Schultz, Claudia Wrzos, Wolfgang Brück, Henning Urlaub, Leda Dimou, Christine Stadelmann, Mikael Simons
Investigations into brain function and disease depend on the precise classification of neural cell types. Cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage differ greatly in their morphology, but accurate identification has thus far only been possible for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes in humans. We find that breast carcinoma amplified sequence 1 (BCAS1) expression identifies an oligodendroglial subpopulation in the mouse and human brain. These cells are newly formed, myelinating oligodendrocytes that segregate from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes and mark regions of active myelin formation in development and in the adult...
December 6, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201856/complete-reversal-of-diffusion-restriction-after-treatment-of-traumatic-carotid-cavernous-fistula
#20
Jeong Hyun Shim, Inbo Han
A 15-year-old man presented with stupor following a motorcycle traffic accident. The patient was diagnosed with a traumatic left carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) with pseudoaneurysm of the left internal carotid artery. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed transiently restricted diffusion in the left centrum semiovale white matter and lower temporo-occipital area extending to the splenium of the corpus callosum, with high signal intensity on diffusion-weighted imaging. On the 35th day of admission, the patient had complete neurological recovery and a follow-up brain MRI revealed complete resolution of the lesions in the left centrum semiovale and splenium of the corpus callosum...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
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