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White matter lesions on brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785359/white-matter-microstructure-white-matter-lesions-and-hypertension-an-examination-of-early-surrogate-markers-of-vascular-related-brain-change-in-midlife
#1
Thaddeus Haight, R Nick Bryan, Guray Erus, Meng-Kang Hsieh, Christos Davatzikos, Ilya Nasrallah, Mark D'Esposito, David R Jacobs, Cora Lewis, Pamela Schreiner, Stephen Sidney, Osorio Meirelles, Lenore J Launer
Objective: We examined imaging surrogates of white matter microstructural abnormalities which may precede white matter lesions (WML) and represent a relevant marker of cerebrovascular injury in adults in midlife. Methods: In 698 community-dwelling adults (mean age 50 years ±3.5 SD) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Brain MRI sub-study, WML were identified on structural MR and fractional anisotropy (FA), representing WM microstructural integrity, was derived using Diffusion Tensor Imaging...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781194/paraneoplastic-autoimmune-encephalitis-associated-with-pleomorphic-lung-carcinoma-an-autopsy-case-report
#2
Takashi Ando, Yoji Goto, Kazuo Mano, Fumio Nomura, Masako Kurashige, Masafumi Ito, Maya Mimuro, Yasushi Iwasaki, Masahisa Katsuno, Mari Yoshida
A 64-year-old man was admitted with acute onset disturbed consciousness. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis and elevated protein, with negative cultures and PCR. Serum antibodies for autoimmune encephalitis were also negative. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was unremarkable, but whole-body CT scan showed a tumor in the left lower lung lobe. Bronchial brush cytology demonstrated clusters of malignant cells, and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed multiple lesions and increased uptake in the lung tumor...
May 20, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780132/a-japanese-case-of-cadasil-with-a-rare-mutation-in-exon-24-of-the-notch3-gene
#3
Yuka Ebihara, Hitoshi Mochizuki, Nobuyuki Ishii, Ikuko Mizuta, Kazutaka Shiomi, Toshiki Mizuno, Masamitsu Nakazato
A 50-year-old man with a family history of stroke and depression slowly developed brain lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense lesions in the diffuse white matter, external capsules, and temporal poles on T2-weighted imaging. A heterozygous mutation c.3879C>G in exon 24 of the NOTCH3 gene (p.Cys1293Trp) was detected, confirming a diagnosis of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Exon 24 mutations are rather rare and this represents the first Japanese case of CADASIL...
May 18, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775168/dysphagia-in-supratentorial-recent-small-subcortical-infarcts-results-from-bilateral-pyramidal-tract-damage
#4
Simon Fandler, Thomas Gattringer, Daniela Pinter, Lukas Pirpamer, Florian Borsodi, Sebastian Eppinger, Kurt Niederkorn, Christian Enzinger, Franz Fazekas
Background Dysphagia occurs in up to 20% of patients with a recent small subcortical infarct, even when excluding brainstem infarcts. Aim To examine the impact of lesion topography and concomitant cerebrovascular lesions on the occurrence of dysphagia in patients with a single supratentorial recent small subcortical infarct. Methods We retrospectively identified all inpatients with magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed supratentorial recent small subcortical infarcts over a five-year period. Dysphagia was determined by speech-language therapists...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769374/better-diet-quality-relates-to-larger-brain-tissue-volumes-the-rotterdam-study
#5
Pauline H Croll, Trudy Voortman, M Arfan Ikram, Oscar H Franco, Josje D Schoufour, Daniel Bos, Meike W Vernooij
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation of diet quality with structural brain tissue volumes and focal vascular lesions in a dementia-free population. METHODS: From the population-based Rotterdam Study, 4,447 participants underwent dietary assessment and brain MRI scanning between 2005 and 2015. We excluded participants with an implausible energy intake, prevalent dementia, or cortical infarcts, leaving 4,213 participants for the current analysis. A diet quality score (0-14) was calculated reflecting adherence to Dutch dietary guidelines...
May 16, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764622/absolute-cbv-for-the-differentiation-of-recurrence-and-radionecrosis-of-brain-metastases-after-gamma-knife-radiotherapy-a-comparison-with-relative-cbv
#6
B Wang, B Zhao, Y Zhang, M Ge, P Zhao, Na Sun, C Li, Q Pang, S Xu, Y Liu
AIM: To investigate the efficiency of absolute cerebral blood volume (CBV) in the differentiation of tumour recurrence (TR) and radionecrosis (RN) in brain metastases (BM) and to evaluate the performance of absolute CBV compared to relative CBV (rCBV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2015 and June 2017, 46 patients with BM underwent quantitative dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI) because new enhancement had been demonstrated in irradiated lesions after gamma knife radiotherapy...
May 12, 2018: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746715/quantitative-susceptibility-map-analysis-in-preterm-neonates-with-germinal-matrix-intraventricular-hemorrhage
#7
Domenico Tortora, Mariasavina Severino, Jan Sedlacik, Benedetta Toselli, Mariya Malova, Alessandro Parodi, Giovanni Morana, Marco Massimo Fato, Luca Antonio Ramenghi, Andrea Rossi
BACKGROUND: Germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) is a common form of intracranial hemorrhage occurring in preterm neonates that may affect normal brain development. Although the primary lesion is easily identified on MRI by the presence of blood products, its exact extent may not be recognizable with conventional sequences. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) quantify the spatial distribution of magnetic susceptibility within biological tissues, including blood degradation products...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737956/connection-disruption-underlying-attention-deficit-in-subcortical-stroke
#8
Jingchun Liu, Caihong Wang, Qingqing Diao, Wen Qin, Jingliang Cheng, Chunshui Yu
Purpose To investigate neural substrates underlying attention deficit in patients with chronic subcortical stroke by combining voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and diffusion-tensor (DT) tractography. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data were prospectively acquired from August 1, 2014, to March 30, 2015, in 49 patients (32 men, 17 women; mean age, 55.7 years ± 8.0; age range, 40-71 years) with subcortical infarctions in the basal ganglia and neighboring regions and 52 control subjects (30 men, 22 women; mean age, 54...
May 8, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731669/transcranial-light-emitting-diode-therapy-for-neuropsychological-improvement-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-new-perspective-for-diffuse-axonal-lesion-management
#9
REVIEW
João Gustavo Rocha Peixoto Dos Santos, Wellingson Silva Paiva, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
The cost of traumatic brain injury (TBI) for public health policies is undeniable today. Even patients who suffer from mild TBI may persist with cognitive symptoms weeks after the accident. Most of them show no lesion in computed tomography or conventional magnetic resonance imaging, but microstructural white matter abnormalities (diffuse axonal lesion) can be found in diffusion tensor imaging. Different brain networks work together to form an important part of the cognition process, and they can be affected by TBI...
2018: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725611/fingolimod-associated-pml-with-mild-iris-in-ms-a-clinicopathologic-study
#10
Shuhei Nishiyama, Tatsuro Misu, Yukiko Shishido-Hara, Kazuo Nakamichi, Masayuki Saijo, Yoshiki Takai, Kentarou Takei, Naoki Yamamoto, Hiroshi Kuroda, Ryuta Saito, Mika Watanabe, Teiji Tominaga, Ichiro Nakashima, Kazuo Fujihara, Masashi Aoki
Objective: To clarify the clinical, neuropathologic, and virologic characteristics of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and its immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in a patient with fingolimod-treated MS. Methods: A case study. Results: A 34-year-old patient with MS using fingolimod for 4 years had a gradual progression of right hemiparesis and aphasia with a new subcortical white matter lesion in the precentral gyrus by initial MRI...
January 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717153/cystatin-f-involvement-in-adenosine-a-2a-receptor-mediated-neuroinflammation-in-bv2-microglial-cells
#11
Wei Duan, Haoxiang Wang, Qinlin Fan, Lin Chen, Heqing Huang, Hong Ran
Our previous studies have shown adenosine A2A R activation markedly promotes the expression of cystatin F (CF) and exacerbates the white matter lesions induced by hypoxic brain injuries. Thus, we hypothesized that CF was probably involved in neuroinflammation of activated microglia induced by A2A R activation. We transfected the BV2 cells with a CF shRNA vector and examined the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in hypoxic-BV2 cells in which A2A R was activated or inactivated to confirm this hypothesis...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714673/measurement-of-whole-brain-and-gray-matter-atrophy-in-multiple-sclerosis-assessment-with-mr-imaging
#12
Loredana Storelli, Maria A Rocca, Elisabetta Pagani, Wim Van Hecke, Mark A Horsfield, Nicola De Stefano, Alex Rovira, Jaume Sastre-Garriga, Jacqueline Palace, Diana Sima, Dirk Smeets, Massimo Filippi
Purpose To compare available methods for whole-brain and gray matter (GM) atrophy estimation in multiple sclerosis (MS) in terms of repeatability (same magnetic resonance [MR] imaging unit) and reproducibility (different system/field strength) for their potential clinical applications. Materials and Methods The softwares ANTs-v1.9, CIVET-v2.1, FSL-SIENAX/SIENA-5.0.1, Icometrix-MSmetrix-1.7, and SPM-v12 were compared. This retrospective study, performed between March 2015 and March 2017, collected data from (a) eight simulated MR images and longitudinal data (2 weeks) from 10 healthy control subjects to assess the cross-sectional and longitudinal accuracy of atrophy measures, (b) test-retest MR images in 29 patients with MS acquired within the same day at different imaging unit field strengths/manufacturers to evaluate precision, and (c) longitudinal data (1 year) in 24 patients with MS for the agreement between methods...
May 27, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710708/cerebral-white-matter-lesions-have-low-impact-on-cognitive-function-in-a-large-elderly-memory-clinic-population
#13
Jules J Claus, Mirthe Coenen, Salka S Staekenborg, Jacqueline Schuur, Caroline E M Tielkes, Pieter Koster, Philip Scheltens
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that cerebral white matter lesions (WML) play a role in cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of cerebral WML on cognitive function relative to absence or presence of medial temporal atrophy (MTA) in a large single-center memory clinic population. METHODS: Patients included had subjective cognitive impairment (SCI, n = 333), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 492) and Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 832)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710024/-transient-recurrent-white-matter-lesions-in-x-linked-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-with-heterozygote-mutation-of-gjb1-gene-case-report-of-a-female-patient
#14
Makoto Takemaru, Yutaka Shimoe, Kota Sato, Akihiro Hashiguchi, Hiroshi Takashima, Masaru Kuriyama
A 32-year-old woman showed transient central type facial nerve palsy and bulbar symptoms. Brain MRI revealed high intensity signals in the cerebral white matter, splenium of corpus callosum, and posterior limb of internal capsule. Two elder brothers of the patient had distal dominant peripheral neuropathies in four limbs. In this family, the point mutation of GJB1 gene, encoding connexin 32, was revealed and X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX1) was diagnosed. The presented case was a heterozygote of this mutation...
April 28, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710020/-a-15-year-old-girl-with-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-presenting-with-sensorineural-hearing-impairment-and-cerebral-while-matter-lesions-but-no-intellectual-disability
#15
Keiichi Nakagawa, Masato Kadoya, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Moriuchi, Katsunori Ikewaki, Kenichi Kaida
A 15-year-old girl presented with non-progressive sensorineural hearing impairment in her right ear since her early childhood. She had normal intellectual development. When she was 15 years old, small deep white matter lesions around the lateral ventricles were incidentally detected in brain MRI studies through further investigation of auditory organs. Laboratory data including cerebrospinal fluid analysis and antibodies to aquaporin-4 or myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein were normal. She was diagnosed as a congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection based on the detection of CMV DNA from preserved umbilical cord tissue by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
April 28, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706405/detection-of-white-matter-lesion-regions-in-mri-using-slic0-and-convolutional-neural-network
#16
Pedro Henrique Bandeira Diniz, Thales Levi Azevedo Valente, João Otávio Bandeira Diniz, Aristófanes Corrêa Silva, Marcelo Gattass, Nina Ventura, Bernardo Carvalho Muniz, Emerson Leandro Gasparetto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: White matter lesions are non-static brain lesions that have a prevalence rate up to 98% in the elderly population. Because they may be associated with several brain diseases, it is important that they are detected as soon as possible. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) provides three-dimensional data with the possibility to detect and emphasize contrast differences in soft tissues, providing rich information about the human soft tissue anatomy. However, the amount of data provided for these images is far too much for manual analysis/interpretation, representing a difficult and time-consuming task for specialists...
April 19, 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706150/neurosyphilis-mighty-imitator-forays-with-benign-presentation-and-unique-neuroimaging-findings
#17
Harmanpreet Tiwana, Aiesha Ahmed
Background: Common causes of temporal lobe hyper intensities are central nervous system infections like herpes simplex encephalitis, Lyme disease, limbic encephalitis and vascular pathology like Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy. Methods: Personal assessment, laboratory data analysis and neuroimaging for the patient who was admitted to a central Pennsylvania tertiary care referral centre were conducted. Results: A 52-year-old male presented with a 1-year history of diffuse dysesthesia in upper and lower extremities with associated intermittent headaches and neck stiffness...
April 30, 2018: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698391/human-white-matter-and-knowledge-representation
#18
Franco Pestilli
Understanding how knowledge is represented in the human brain is a fundamental challenge in neuroscience. To date, most of the work on this topic has focused on knowledge representation in cortical areas and debated whether knowledge is represented in a distributed or localized fashion. Fang and colleagues provide evidence that brain connections and the white matter supporting such connections might play a significant role. The work opens new avenues of investigation, breaking through disciplinary boundaries across network neuroscience, computational neuroscience, cognitive science, and classical lesion studies...
April 26, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688408/spatiotemporal-distribution-of-fibrinogen-in-marmoset-and-human-inflammatory-demyelination
#19
Nathanael J Lee, Seung-Kwon Ha, Pascal Sati, Martina Absinta, Nicholas J Luciano, Jennifer A Lefeuvre, Matthew K Schindler, Emily C Leibovitch, Jae Kyu Ryu, Mark A Petersen, Afonso C Silva, Steven Jacobson, Katerina Akassoglou, Daniel S Reich
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Although it has been extensively studied, the proximate trigger of the immune response remains uncertain. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the common marmoset recapitulates many radiological and pathological features of focal multiple sclerosis lesions in the cerebral white matter, unlike traditional experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rodents. This provides an opportunity to investigate how lesions form as well as the relative timing of factors involved in lesion pathogenesis, especially during early stages of the disease...
April 20, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686118/pearls-oy-sters-the-critical-role-of-histopathology-in-diagnosing-cancer-associated-necrotizing-cns-vasculitis
#20
Joshua Sheehan, Jessica Tate, Ryan Mott, Carol Geer, Rachel Wolfe, Roy E Strowd, Amy Guzik
OBJECTIVE: To highlight the importance of a broad differential and histopathologic confirmation in patients with newly diagnosed cancer with brain lesions atypical for CNS metastasis. METHODS: We report 2 cases of biopsy-proven CNS vasculitis in patients undergoing treatment for a newly diagnosed nonmetastatic cancer. Comprehensive medical record review was performed to identify the clinical presentation, representative neuroimaging, histopathologic features, and response to treatment...
April 24, 2018: Neurology
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