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White matter lesions on brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623483/normal-appearing-white-matter-permeability-a-marker-of-inflammation-and-information-processing-speed-deficit-among-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#1
Eldar Eftekhari, Seyed-Parsa Hojjat, Rita Vitorino, Timothy J Carroll, Charles Grady Cantrell, Liesly Lee, Matthew W Taylor, Sarah A Morrow, Haddas Benhabib, Richard I Aviv, Andrea Kassner
PURPOSE: Blood-brain barrier breakdown (BBBB) occurs in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Relative recirculation (rR), a BBBB surrogate, may show inflammation undetectable by gadolinium. We compared normal appearing white matter (NAWM) rR in patients with and without disability measured with Symbol Digit Modalities Test and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). METHODS: Thirty-nine RRMS patients were prospectively recruited and classified as impaired or non-impaired based on the SDMT and EDSS threshold ≥3...
June 16, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620783/advanced-neuroimaging-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#2
REVIEW
Gordon W Blair, Maria Valdez Hernandez, Michael J Thrippleton, Fergus N Doubal, Joanna M Wardlaw
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is characterised by damage to deep grey and white matter structures of the brain and is responsible for a diverse range of clinical problems that include stroke and dementia. In this review, we describe advances in neuroimaging published since January 2015, mainly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), that, in general, are improving quantification, observation and investigation of SVD focussing on three areas: quantifying the total SVD burden, imaging brain microstructural integrity and imaging vascular malfunction...
July 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617385/-differential-diagnosis-of-cerebral-autosomal-dominant-arteriopathy-with-subcortical-infarcts-and-leukoencephalopathy
#3
A A Moroz, N Yu Abramycheva, M S Stepanova, R N Konovalov, S L Timerbaeva, S N Illarioshkin
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarctions and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited CNS disease, which is caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. Selective disorders of small vessels underlie the disease pathogenesis. Clinically CADASIL is characterized by headaches, multiple stroke-like disorders (in most cases transient ischemic attacks and lacunar strokes), and different focal neurological symptoms and dementia. There are specific MRI signs of the disease: multiple lacunar infarctions located in the basal ganglia, brain steam and cerebellum, focal lesions of temporal poles, capsula externa, periventricular and subcortical areas; diffuse white matter changes and leukoaraiosis can be observed as well...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617152/impact-of-immunoablation-and-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-on-gray-and-white-matter-atrophy-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Hyunwoo Lee, Kunio Nakamura, Sridar Narayanan, Robert Brown, Jacqueline Chen, Harold L Atkins, Mark S Freedman, Douglas L Arnold
BACKGROUND: Immunoablation and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (IA/aHSCT) halts relapses, white matter (WM) lesion formation, and pathological whole-brain (WB) atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Whether the latter was due to effects on gray matter (GM) or WM warranted further exploration. OBJECTIVE: To model GM and WM volume changes after IA/aHSCT to further understand the effects seen on WB atrophy. METHODS: GM and WM volume changes were calculated from serial baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ranging from 1...
June 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611513/brain-changes-detected-by-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Kun Lv, Yi-Hong Fan, Li Xu, Mao-Sheng Xu
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, non-specific granulomatous inflammatory disorder that commonly affects the small intestine and is a phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CD is prone to relapse, and its incidence displays a persistent increase in developing countries. However, the pathogenesis of CD is poorly understood, with some studies emphasizing the link between CD and the intestinal microbiota. Specifically, studies point to the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis as a key player in the occurrence and development of CD...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608454/accelerated-atherosclerosis-in-anca-associated-vasculitis
#6
I González-Suárez, J J Ríos-Blanco, J Arpa
OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction and stroke, is a major cause of mortality in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Although AAV affects small vessels, an accelerated atherosclerosis not explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) has been demonstrated. We aimed to investigate the association of atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and cerebral small vessel disease in AAV-patients. MATERIALS & METHODS: Twenty-three AAV-patients in complete remission were recruited...
June 12, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607651/assessment-of-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-double-inversion-recovery-sequence-compared-with-flair-and-t2w_tse-in-detection-of-cerebral-multiple-sclerosis-lesions
#7
Zahra Abidi, Fariborz Faeghi, Zahra Mardanshahi, Hasan Mortazavi
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. MRI has an important role in early diagnosis of MS within diagnostic criteria. AIM: To determine the diagnostic value of the double inversion recovery (DIR) sequence in detection of brain MS lesions. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 55 patients were admitted to the MRI department in Vali-E-Asr Hospital in Qaemshahr, Iran, from May 2016 to February 2016...
April 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606752/how-does-the-interaction-of-presumed-timing-location-and-extent-of-the-underlying-brain-lesion-relate-to-upper-limb-function-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy
#8
Lisa Mailleux, Katrijn Klingels, Simona Fiori, Cristina Simon-Martinez, Philippe Demaerel, Marlies Locus, Eva Fosseprez, Roslyn N Boyd, Andrea Guzzetta, Els Ortibus, Hilde Feys
BACKGROUND: Upper limb (UL) function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) vary largely depending on presumed timing, location and extent of brain lesions. These factors might exhibit a complex interaction and the combined prognostic value warrants further investigation. This study aimed to map lesion location and extent and assessed whether these differ according to presumed lesion timing and to determine the impact of structural brain damage on UL function within different lesion timing groups...
May 29, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603687/prematurity-and-brain-perfusion-arterial-spin-labeling-mri
#9
Domenico Tortora, Peter Angelo Mattei, Riccardo Navarra, Valentina Panara, Rita Salomone, Andrea Rossi, John A Detre, Massimo Caulo
PURPOSE: Abnormal brain perfusion is a critical mechanism in neonatal brain injury. The aim of the present study was to compare Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) evaluated with ASL MRI in three groups of neonates: preterms without brain lesions on MRI (PN), preterms with periventricular white matter lesions (PNp) and term neonates with normal MRI (TN). The correlation between CBF and clinical outcome was explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The institutional review board approved this prospective study and waived informed consent...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603479/mri-analysis-of-white-matter-myelin-water-content-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-novel-approach-applied-to-finding-correlates-of-cortical-thinning
#10
Michael Dayan, Sandra M Hurtado Rúa, Elizabeth Monohan, Kyoko Fujimoto, Sneha Pandya, Eve M LoCastro, Tim Vartanian, Thanh D Nguyen, Ashish Raj, Susan A Gauthier
A novel lesion-mask free method based on a gamma mixture model was applied to myelin water fraction (MWF) maps to estimate the association between cortical thickness and myelin content, and how it differs between relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) groups (135 and 23 patients, respectively). It was compared to an approach based on lesion masks. The gamma mixture distribution of whole brain, white matter (WM) MWF was characterized with three variables: the mode (most frequent value) m1 of the gamma component shown to relate to lesion, the mode m2 of the component shown to be associated with normal appearing (NA) WM, and the mixing ratio (λ) between the two distributions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592010/-clinical-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-three-cases-with-hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria-syndrome
#11
H Z Guan, Y Ding, D X Li, H Dong, J Q Song, Y Jin, Z J Zhu, L Y Sun, Y L Yang
Objective: To study the clinical characteristics, methods of diagnosis and treatment of hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia- homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome. Method: From July 2011 to August 2016, 3 Chinese patients with HHH syndrome were enrolled in this study. The clinical course, biochemical features, brain MRI findings, and gene mutations were analyzed. Result: The three patients' age at onset of symptoms was 3 months to 7 years, and the age of diagonosis was 3 years and 10 months to 9 years and 10 months...
June 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589049/chronic-lymphocytic-inflammation-with-pontine-perivascular-enhancement-responsive-to-steroids-with-cranial-and-caudal-extension
#12
Mahmood Mubasher, Aseel Sukik, Ahmed Hassan El Beltagi, Ali Rahil
A 23-year-old lady presented with vertigo and imbalance in walking, blurring of vision, diplopia, and headache, in addition to numbness in the lower limbs over a period of six days. On examination patient had nystagmus, ataxia, positive Romberg test, and hyperreflexia. MRI examination of the brain and spinal cord showed evidence of faint bright signal intensity foci in T2/FLAIR involving bilateral cerebral hemispheres, subcortical deep white matter, bilateral thalami, posterior pons and left brachium pontis, and basal ganglia, with small nodular enhancement that aligned along curvilinear structures; those lesions also were apparent along the spinal cord at multiple levels...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582689/the-impact-of-white-matter-lesions-on-the-cognitive-outcome-of-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
J Blume, M Lange, E Rothenfusser, C Doenitz, U Bogdahn, A Brawanski, J Schlaier
OBJECTIVES: White Matter lesions (WML) are a risk factor for cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. There is no clear evidence of reduced general cognitive function after DBS. However, a subgroup of patients develops dementia rapidly after DBS despite careful patient selection processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the load of WML as a possible risk factor for cognitive decline following STN DBS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 40 PD-patients receiving bilateral STN-DBS were followed at least three years after surgery to detect dementia...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575905/association-of-white-matter-lesions-cerebral-atrophy-intracranial-extravascular-calcifications-and-ventricular-communicating-hydrocephalus-with-delirium-among-veterans
#14
Mark B Detweiler, Rathnakara M Sherigar, Geoffrey Bader, Kelly Sullivan, Arline Kenneth, Naciye Kalafat, Pavan Reddy, Brian Lutgens
OBJECTIVES: The literature regarding the underlying neuropathogenesis of delirium on head computed tomography (CT) is limited. The aim of this research was to investigate, using case-control retrospective chart review, the association of white matter lesions (WML), cerebral atrophy, intracranial extravascular calcifications, and ventricular-communicating hydrocephalus in older adult military veterans with and without delirium hospitalized in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. METHODS: Head CT scans were examined for WML, atrophy, and intracranial extravascular calcifications globally in the cortex, subcortex (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital lobes), basal ganglia (globus pallidus, caudate, putamen), and internal capsule, in addition to the presence of ventricular-communicating hydrocephalus...
June 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566060/topical-application-of-the-hematostatic-agent-surgiflo%C3%A2-could-attenuate-brain-injury-in-experimental-tbi-mice
#15
Dewei Guo, Dongpeng Li, Jinghong Li, Yunfeng Li, Xiang Hu, Fangxia Guan, Bo Yang
OBJECT: The pathologies resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been thoroughly studied, but rarely have the effects of bleeding and coagulation in the early stage of TBI been considered. In this study, we investigated the effects of topical Surgiflo(®) application on brain injury in experimental TBI mice using S100β, MAP-2 and mNSS scores. METHODS: TBI was induced by modified weight drop injury in male C57BL/6 mice. The mice were then randomly divided into (i) the sham group, (ii) TBI mice applied with saline (vehicle), and (iii) TBI mice applied with Surgiflo(®) in the same volume...
May 31, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559831/internal-carotid-artery-occlusion-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-as-a-potential-mimicker-of-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Kenichiro Sato, Mami Kanzaki, Yoshifumi Ubara, Yoshikazu Uesaka
The diagnosis of neurological symptoms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is often challenging, in part because they sometimes mimic features of multiple sclerosis (MS). Herein we report a case of a young female who presented with relapsing-remitting symptoms of unilateral visual loss and motor aphasia. Additionally, radiological findings revealed multiple white matter lesions on her brain that led to an initial diagnosis of MS based on the established diagnostic criteria. However, she was eventually diagnosed with neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) presenting with extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion...
January 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555103/blood-pressure-control-in-aging-predicts-cerebral-atrophy-related-to-small-vessel-white-matter-lesions
#17
Kyle C Kern, Clinton B Wright, Kaitlin L Bergfield, Megan C Fitzhugh, Kewei Chen, James R Moeller, Nooshin Nabizadeh, Mitchell S V Elkind, Ralph L Sacco, Yaakov Stern, Charles S DeCarli, Gene E Alexander
Cerebral small-vessel damage manifests as white matter hyperintensities and cerebral atrophy on brain MRI and is associated with aging, cognitive decline and dementia. We sought to examine the interrelationship of these imaging biomarkers and the influence of hypertension in older individuals. We used a multivariate spatial covariance neuroimaging technique to localize the effects of white matter lesion load on regional gray matter volume and assessed the role of blood pressure control, age and education on this relationship...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554961/atrial-fibrillation-is-associated-with-anterior-predominant-white-matter-lesions-in-patients-presenting-with-embolic-stroke
#18
Yunis Mayasi, Johanna Helenius, David D McManus, Richard P Goddeau, Adalia H Jun-O'Connell, Majaz Moonis, Nils Henninger
OBJECTIVE: High white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden is commonly found on brain MRI among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, whether the link between AF and WMH extends beyond a common vascular risk factor profile is uncertain. We sought to determine whether AF relates to a distinct WMH lesion pattern which may suggest specific underlying pathophysiological relationships. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed a cohort of consecutive patients presenting with embolic stroke at an academic hospital and tertiary referral centre between March 2010 and March 2014...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547872/cerebral-white-matter-lesion-burden-is-associated-with-the-degree-of-aortic-valve-calcification-and-predicts-peri-procedural-cerebrovascular-events-in-patients-undergoing-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-tavi
#19
Jonas Doerner, Patrick A Kupczyk, Marius Wilsing, Julian A Luetkens, Klaus Storm, Rolf Fimmers, Tilman Hickethier, Lars Eichhorn, Claas P Naehle, Hans H Schild, Nikos Werner, Georg Nickenig, Alexander Ghanem
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of aortic valve calcification and brain morphology on acute peri-procedural cerebrovascular events (CVEs) in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). BACKGROUND: Aortic valve calcification and stenosis can be assessed with echocardiography. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicts and quantifies morphological signs of hypoperfusion and vascular embolism, which is of special interest in patients with severe aortic stenosis...
May 26, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541408/loss-of-homeostatic-microglia-and-patterns-of-their-activation-in-active-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Tobias Zrzavy, Simon Hametner, Isabella Wimmer, Oleg Butovsky, Howard L Weiner, Hans Lassmann
Microglia and macrophages accumulate at the sites of active demyelination and neurodegeneration in the multiple sclerosis brain and are thought to play a central role in the disease process. We used recently described markers to characterize the origin and functional states of microglia/macrophages in acute, relapsing and progressive multiple sclerosis. We found microglia activation in normal white matter of controls and that the degree of activation increased with age. This microglia activation was more pronounced in the normal-appearing white matter of patients in comparison to controls and increased with disease duration...
May 24, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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