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White matter lesions on brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150726/tspo-imaging-using-the-novel-pet-ligand-18-f-ge-180-quantification-approaches-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Lena Vomacka, Nathalie Lisa Albert, Simon Lindner, Marcus Unterrainer, Christoph Mahler, Matthias Brendel, Larissa Ermoschkin, Astrid Gosewisch, Anika Brunegraf, Christopher Buckley, Tania Kümpfel, Rainer Rupprecht, Sibylle Ziegler, Martin Kerschensteiner, Peter Bartenstein, Guido Böning
BACKGROUND: PET ligands targeting the translocator protein (TSPO) represent promising tools to visualise neuroinflammation. Here, we analysed parameters obtained in dynamic and static PET images using the novel TSPO ligand [(18)F]GE-180 in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and an approach for semi-quantitative assessment of this disease in clinical routine. Seventeen dynamic [(18)F]GE-180 PET scans of RRMS patients were evaluated (90 min). A pseudo-reference region (PRR) was defined after identification of the least disease-affected brain area by voxel-based comparison with six healthy controls (HC) and upon exclusion of voxels suspected of being affected in static 60-90 min p...
October 26, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149808/delayed-hypoxemia-following-traumatic-brain-injury-exacerbates-long-term-behavioral-deficits
#2
McKenzie Davies, Addison Jacobs, David L Brody, Stuart H Friess
Hypoxemia during initial stabilization of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been associated with poorer outcomes. However, the effects of delayed hypoxemia occurring during intensive care following TBI on outcome is unclear. Preclinical models of TBI have rarely shown cognitive or behavioral deficits beyond six weeks post injury and commonly have not included modeling of secondary insults. We have previously developed a murine model of TBI followed by delayed hypoxemia to model the secondary insult of hypoxemia and brain hypoxia occurring in the intensive care setting...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147631/automated-whole-brain-tractography-affects-preoperative-surgical-decision-making
#3
Hesham Zakaria, Sameah Haider, Ian Lee
Surgery in and around eloquent brain structures poses a technical challenge when the goal of surgery is maximal safe resection. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders, but tractography still remains limited in terms of utility because of the requisite manual labor and time required combined with the high risk of bias and inaccuracy. Automated whole brain tractography (AWBT) has simplified this workflow, overcoming historical barriers, and allowing for integration into modern neuronavigation...
September 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134612/altered-connectivity-patterns-among-resting-state-networks-in-patients-with-ischemic-white-matter-lesions
#4
Ju-Rong Ding, Xin Ding, Bo Hua, Xingzhong Xiong, Yuqiao Wen, Zhongxiang Ding, Qingsong Wang, Paul Thompson
White matter lesions (WMLs) have been associated with cognitive and motor decline. Resting state networks (RSNs) are spatially coherent patterns in the human brain and their interactions sustain our daily function. Therefore, investigating the altered intra- and inter-network connectivity among the RSNs may help to understand the association of WMLs with impaired cognitive and motor function. Here, we assessed alterations in functional connectivity patterns based on six well-defined RSNs-the default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), frontal-parietal control network (FPCN), auditory network (AN), sensory motor network (SMN) and visual network (VN)-in 15 patients with ischemic WMLs and 15 controls...
November 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111092/quantitative-neuroimaging-in-mucopolysaccharidoses-clinical-trials
#5
REVIEW
Igor Nestrasil, Leonardo Vedolin
The mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) disorders are rare lysosomal storage disorders caused by mutations in lysosomal enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) degradation. The resulting intracellular accumulation of GAGs leads to widespread tissue and organ dysfunction. In addition to somatic signs and symptoms, patients with MPS can present with neurological manifestations such as cognitive decline, behavioral problems (e.g. hyperactivity and aggressiveness), sleep disturbances, and/or epilepsy. These are associated with significant abnormalities of the central nervous system (CNS), including white and gray matter lesions, brain atrophy, ventriculomegaly, and spinal cord compression...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107435/growing-cyst-like-white-matter-lesions-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#6
Ji Eun Kim, Jung-Eun Cheon, In-One Kim, Young-Hun Choi, Woo Sun Kim
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disease with prominent neurocutaneous manifestations. The most common intracranial imaging finding of NF1 on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the high-signal intensity foci without a mass effect or growth in size. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: We describe two children with NF1 in whom brain MRI showed growing cystic lesions and adjacent white matter signal abnormalities, which were confirmed as non-neoplastic cystic degeneration and reactive gliosis...
August 4, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101079/graph-theoretical-framework-of-brain-networks-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-review-of-concepts
#7
Vinzenz Fleischer, Angela Radetz, Dumitru Ciolac, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Gabriel Gonzalez-Escamilla, Frauke Zipp, Sergiu Groppa
Network science provides powerful access to essential organizational principles of the human brain. It has been applied in combination with graph theory to characterize brain connectivity patterns. In multiple sclerosis (MS), analysis of the brain networks derived from either structural or functional imaging provides new insights into pathological processes within the gray and white matter. Beyond focal lesions and diffuse tissue damage, network connectivity patterns could be important for closely tracking and predicting the disease course...
November 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099708/neuroimaging-characteristics-and-post-stroke-fatigue-within-the-first-6-months-after-ischemic-strokes
#8
M Delva, I Delva
Aim - identify neuroimaging characteristics associated with different post-stroke fatigue (PSF) domains within first 6 months after ischemic strokes. There were enrolled in the study 107 patients with acute ischemic strokes. General PSF and certain PSF domains (global, physical, mental, motivational, activity-related) were measured by multidimensional fatigue inventory-20 (MFI-20) scale at hospital stay, in 1, 3 and 6 months after stroke occurrence. Brain MRI studies included cerebral infarct localization, planimetric measurements of infarct volumes, measurement of brain atrophy indexes (bifrontal, bicaudate, cortical atrophy indexes, width of third ventricle) and evaluation of leukoaraiosis severity, according to Fazekas scale...
October 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090380/central-nervous-system-aquaporin4-autoimmunity-revealed-by-a-single-pseudotumoral-encephalic-lesion
#9
Guillaume Fargeot, J Aboab, J Savatovsky, R Marignier, A Lecler, O Gout
The radiological spectrum of neuromyelitis optica has become broader since the detection of aquaporin4 antibodies. We report a case of neuromyelitis optica patient with pseudotumoral encephalic lesion. A 66 year-old woman presented with sudden left lateral homonymous hemianopsia. A brain MRI showed an isolated and extensive right temporo-parieto-occipital lesion, involving periventricular white matter and the corpus callosum, with strong enhancement on post-gadolinium T1 weighted images, highly suggestive of lymphoma...
October 31, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083274/executive-dysfunction-and-blockage-of-brain-microvessels-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#10
Kristopher D Langdon, Chris A Cordova, Shirley Granter-Button, Jamie D Boyd, James Peeling, Timothy H Murphy, Dale Corbett
Most research focuses on overt stroke caused by blockage of major blood vessels. Less attention has been paid to small vessel disease which gives rise to covert stroke that often leads to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). One reason for this may be the relative lack of relevant animal models. Herein, we describe, a model of VCI induced in middle-aged Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to a diet high in saturated fats, salt and refined sugar (HFSS). In Experiment 1, rats were fed HFSS and subjected to a small mediodorsal (MD) thalamic stroke with or without concomitant permanent bilateral carotid artery occlusion...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076591/long-term-magnetization-transfer-ratio-evolution-in-multiple-sclerosis-white-matter-lesions
#11
Yufan Zheng, Jar-Chi Lee, Richard Rudick, Elizabeth Fisher
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), a magnetic resonance imaging technique used to assess tissue integrity, correlates with demyelination and axonal loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. In acute white matter lesions, short-term MTR changes mainly reflect demyelination and remyelination, in addition to edema and axonal and glial changes. Long-term MTR changes in MS lesions have not been studied extensively. METHODS: A new quantitative image analysis method was developed to measure long-term MTR changes in MS lesions...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055465/radiologically-isolated-syndrome-and-multiple-sclerosis
#12
REVIEW
B Yamout, M Al Khawajah
BACKGROUND: Incidental white matter lesions (WML) are increasingly seen on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in clinical practice. Demyelination consistent with MS is seen in 0.1-0.7% of the population as evident by autopsy and MRI studies. The term radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) was coined to define a subgroup of patients with demyelinating lesions highly suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). The Okuda criteria for diagnosing RIS help in stratifying the risk of conversion to MS but RIS is still not considered a distinct MS phenotype...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055464/autosomal-dominant-leukodystrophy-presenting-as-alzheimer-s-type-dementia
#13
Valeria Sandoval-Rodríguez, Mariana Aurora Cansino-Torres, Michel Sáenz-Farret, Gema Castañeda-Cisneros, Gabriel Moreno, Carlos Zúñiga-Ramírez
Autosomal dominant leukodystrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by either point mutations or duplication of the lamin B1 gene on chromosome 5q23. The typical clinical picture consists of autonomic symptoms as well as cerebellar and pyramidal signs. Here we present the case of a 57-year-old female referred to our clinic due to cognitive decline. Neurological examination was significant for cognitive impairment as well as pyramidal and cerebellar signs. Brain MRI displayed diffuse hyperintense lesions in the subcortical white matter, pontine nuclei, brachium pontis and restiform body...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054920/csf-%C3%AE-amyloid-and-white-matter-damage-a-new-perspective-on-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Anna M Pietroboni, Marta Scarioni, Tiziana Carandini, Paola Basilico, Marcello Cadioli, Giovanni Giulietti, Andrea Arighi, Michela Caprioli, Laura Serra, Clara Sina, Chiara Fenoglio, Laura Ghezzi, Giorgio G Fumagalli, Milena A De Riz, Alberto Calvi, Fabio Triulzi, Marco Bozzali, Elio Scarpini, Daniela Galimberti
OBJECTIVE: To assess the connection between amyloid pathology and white matter (WM) macrostructural and microstructural damage in demented patients compared with controls. METHODS: Eighty-five participants were recruited: 65 with newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD), non-AD dementia or mild cognitive impairment and 20 age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls. β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ) levels were determined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from all patients and five controls...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054427/common-brain-networks-for-distinct-deficits-in-visual-neglect-a-combined-structural-and-tractography-mri-approach
#15
Monica N Toba, Raffaella Migliaccio, Bénédicte Batrancourt, Clémence Bourlon, Christophe Duret, Pascale Pradat-Diehl, Bruno Dubois, Paolo Bartolomeo
Visual neglect is a heterogeneous, multi-component syndrome resulting from right hemisphere damage. Neglect patients do not pay attention to events occurring on their left side, and have a poor functional outcome. The intra-hemispheric location of lesions producing neglect is debated, because studies using different methods reported different locations in the grey matter and in the white matter of the right hemisphere. These reported locations show various patterns of overlapping with the fronto-parietal attention networks demonstrated by functional neuroimaging...
October 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053836/long-term-disability-progression-in-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-a-15-year-study
#16
Maria A Rocca, Maria Pia Sormani, Marco Rovaris, Domenico Caputo, Angelo Ghezzi, Enrico Montanari, Antonio Bertolotto, Alice Laroni, Roberto Bergamaschi, Vittorio Martinelli, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi
Prognostic markers of primary progressive multiple sclerosis evolution are needed. We investigated the added value of magnetic resonance imaging measures of brain and cervical cord damage in predicting long-term clinical worsening of primary progressive multiple sclerosis compared to simple clinical assessment. In 54 patients, conventional and diffusion tensor brain scans and cervical cord T1-weighted scans were acquired at baseline and after 15 months. Clinical evaluation was performed after 5 and 15 years in 49 patients...
November 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050399/diagnostic-criteria-for-chronic-lymphocytic-inflammation-with-pontine-perivascular-enhancement-responsive-to-steroids-clippers
#17
W Oliver Tobin, Yong Guo, Karl N Krecke, Joseph E Parisi, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Sean J Pittock, Jay Mandrekar, Divyanshu Dubey, Jan Debruyne, B Mark Keegan
Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a central nervous system inflammatory syndrome predominantly affecting the brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Following its initial description, the salient features of CLIPPERS have been confirmed and expanded upon, but the lack of formalized diagnostic criteria has led to reports of patients with dissimilar features purported to have CLIPPERS. We evaluated clinical, radiological and pathological features of patients referred for suspected CLIPPERS and propose diagnostic criteria to discriminate CLIPPERS from non-CLIPPERS aetiologies...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046903/fod-restoration-for-enhanced-mapping-of-white-matter-lesion-connectivity
#18
Wei Sun, Lilyana Amezcua, Yonggang Shi
To achieve improved understanding of white matter (WM) lesions and their effect on brain functions, it is important to obtain a comprehensive map of their connectivity. However, changes of the cellular environment in WM lesions attenuate diffusion MRI (dMRI) signals and make the robust estimation of fiber orientation distributions (FODs) difficult. In this work, we integrate techniques from image inpainting and compartment modeling to develop a novel method for enhancing FOD estimation in WM lesions from multi-shell dMRI, which is becoming increasingly popular with the success of the Human Connectome Project (HCP)...
September 2017: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042490/remote-ischemic-conditioning-may-improve-outcomes-of-patients-with-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yuan Wang, Ran Meng, Haiqing Song, Gang Liu, Yang Hua, Dehua Cui, Lemin Zheng, Wuwei Feng, David S Liebeskind, Marc Fisher, Xunming Ji
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) in patients with cerebral small-vessel disease. METHODS: Thirty patients with cerebral small-vessel disease-related mild cognitive impairment were enrolled in this prospective, randomized controlled study for 1 year. Besides routine medical treatment, participants were randomized into the experimental group (n=14) undergoing 5 cycles consisting of ischemia followed by reperfusion for 5 minutes on both upper limbs twice daily for 1 year or the control group (n=16) who were treated with sham ischemia-reperfusion cycles...
November 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038505/punctate-white-matter-lesions-associated-with-altered-brain-development-and-adverse-motor-outcome-in-preterm-infants
#20
Nora Tusor, Manon J Benders, Serena J Counsell, Phumza Nongena, Moegamad A Ederies, Shona Falconer, Andrew Chew, Nuria Gonzalez-Cinca, Joseph V Hajnal, Sunay Gangadharan, Vasiliki Chatzi, Karina J Kersbergen, Nigel Kennea, Denis V Azzopardi, A David Edwards
Preterm infants who develop neurodevelopmental impairment do not always have recognized abnormalities on cerebral ultrasound, a modality routinely used to assess prognosis. In a high proportion of infants, MRI detects punctate white matter lesions that are not seen on ultrasonography. To determine the relation of punctate lesions to brain development and early neurodevelopmental outcome we used multimodal brain MRI to study a large cohort of preterm infants. Punctate lesions without other focal cerebral or cerebellar lesions were detected at term equivalent age in 123 (24...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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