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White matter lesions on brain

Jung Sook Yeom, Chung Mo Koo, Ji Sook Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Eun Sil Park, Jae-Young Lim, Hyang-Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn
We report the case of a 12-year-old girl who had mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) associated with acutepyelonephritis caused by Escherichia coli . The patient was admitted with a high fever, and she was diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis based on pyuria and the results of urine culture, which detected cefotaxime-sensitive E. coli . Although intravenous cefotaxime and tobramycin were administered, her fever persisted and her C-reactive protein level increased to 307 mg/L. On day 3 of admission, she demonstrated abnormal neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as delirium, ataxia, and word salad...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Anders Wallin, Gustavo C Román, Margaret Esiri, Petronella Kettunen, Johan Svensson, George P Paraskevas, Elisabeth Kapaki
Subcortical small-vessel disease (SSVD) is a disorder well characterized from the clinical, imaging, and neuropathological viewpoints. SSVD is considered the most prevalent ischemic brain disorder, increasing in frequency with age. Vascular risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, elevated homocysteine, and obstructive sleep apnea. Ischemic white matter lesions are the hallmark of SSVD; other pathological lesions include arteriolosclerosis, dilatation of perivascular spaces, venous collagenosis, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, microbleeds, microinfarcts, lacunes, and large infarcts...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Russell Ouellette, Åsa Bergendal, Sara Shams, Juha Martola, Caterina Mainero, Maria Kristoffersen Wiberg, Sten Fredrikson, Tobias Granberg
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term progression of cognitive dysfunction and its neuroanatomical correlates and predictors in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: A cohort of 37 MS patients reflecting five decades of disease duration and all subtypes was followed over 17.5 years. Matched controls were recruited at the last follow-up. Global cognitive functioning was assessed using a principal component cognitive index based on comprehensive neuropsychological testing...
March 6, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Katsuyuki Taguchi, Toshihide Itoh, Matthew K Fuld, Eric Fournie, Okkyun Lee, Kyo Noguchi
OBJECTIVES: A novel imaging technique ("X-map") has been developed to identify acute ischemic lesions for stroke patients using non-contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (NE-DE-CT). Using the 3-material decomposition technique, the original X-map ("X-map 1.0") eliminates fat and bone from the images, suppresses the gray matter (GM)-white matter (WM) tissue contrast, and makes signals of edema induced by severe ischemia easier to detect. The aim of this study was to address the following 2 problems with the X-map 1...
March 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Hui Zhu, Zhixing Li, Jinglei Lv, Renliang Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) describes a syndrome of neuroimaging, pathological, and associated clinical features caused by small intracranial vascular lesions, which commonly coexists with large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and has been identified as a major cause of motor impairment over time. In this review, we aim to summarize the relationship between CSVD and LAA, and discuss the effects of CSVD on the clinical outcome of patients with ischemic stroke caused by LAA...
March 15, 2018: Neurological Research
Changqing Lu, Lihua Dong, Hui Zhou, Qianmei Li, Guojiao Huang, Shu Jun Bai, Linchuan Liao
Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-producing cells of the central nervous system (CNS). A variety of brain disorders from "classical" demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, stroke, schizophrenia, depression, Down syndrome and autism, are shown myelination defects. Oligodendrocyte myelination is regulated by a complex interplay of intrinsic, epigenetic and extrinsic factors. Gpr17 (G protein-coupled receptor 17) is a G protein-coupled receptor, and has been identified to be a regulator for oligodendrocyte development...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Charlotte Zerna, Amy Y X Yu, Jayesh Modi, Shiel K Patel, Jonathan I Coulter, Eric E Smith, Shelagh B Coutts
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesions (WML) are associated with cognitive decline, increased stroke risk, and disability in old age. We hypothesized that superimposed acute cerebrovascular occlusion on chronic preexisting injury (leukoaraiosis) leads to worse outcome after minor cerebrovascular event, both using quantitative (volumetric) and qualitative (Fazekas scale) assessment, as well as relative total brain volume. METHODS: WML volume assessment was performed in 425 patients with high-risk transient ischemic attack (TIA; motor/speech deficits >5 minutes) or minor strokes from the CATCH study (CT and MRI in the Triage of TIA and Minor Cerebrovascular Events to Identify High Risk Patients)...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Laura Gaetano, Dieter A Häring, Ernst-Wilhelm Radue, Nicole Mueller-Lenke, Avinash Thakur, Davorka Tomic, Ludwig Kappos, Till Sprenger
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of fingolimod on deep gray matter (dGM), thalamus, cortical GM (cGM), white matter (WM), and ventricular volume (VV) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: Data were pooled from 2 phase III studies. A total of 2,064 of 2,355 (88%) contributed to the analysis: fingolimod 0.5 mg n = 783, fingolimod 1.25 mg n = 799, or placebo n = 773. Percentage change from baseline in dGM and thalamic volumes was evaluated with FMRIB's Integrated Registration & Segmentation Tool; WM, cGM, and VV were evaluated with structural image evaluation using normalization of atrophy cross-sectional version (SIENAX) at months 12 and 24...
March 14, 2018: Neurology
R Guerrero, C Qin, O Oktay, C Bowles, L Chen, R Joules, R Wolz, M C Valdés-Hernández, D A Dickie, J Wardlaw, D Rueckert
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are a feature of sporadic small vessel disease also frequently observed in magnetic resonance images (MRI) of healthy elderly subjects. The accurate assessment of WMH burden is of crucial importance for epidemiological studies to determine association between WMHs, cognitive and clinical data; their causes, and the effects of new treatments in randomized trials. The manual delineation of WMHs is a very tedious, costly and time consuming process, that needs to be carried out by an expert annotator (e...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Sanuji Gajamange, David Raffelt, Thijs Dhollander, Elaine Lui, Anneke van der Walt, Trevor Kilpatrick, Joanne Fielding, Alan Connelly, Scott Kolbe
Long term irreversible disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be primarily driven by axonal degeneration. Axonal degeneration leads to degenerative atrophy, therefore early markers of axonal degeneration are required to predict clinical disability and treatment efficacy. Given that additional pathologies such as inflammation, demyelination and oedema are also present in MS, it is essential to develop axonal markers that are not confounded by these processes. The present study investigated a novel method for measuring axonal degeneration in MS based on high angular resolution diffusion magnetic resonance imaging...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Sándor Csizmadia, Erika Vörös
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is most commonly recognized by β-amyloid deposition in the small and medium sized vessels of the brain. The 71-year-old female presented with a sudden onset of vertigo and headache. By native computer tomography (CT) examination we found cerebral atrophy and the sign of chronic vascular injury. The complaints of the patient worsened, thus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. The MRI scan revealed a bleeding transformation of an ischemic lesion in the right occipital region...
March 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
B Cannerfelt, J Nystedt, A Jönsen, J Lätt, D van Westen, A Lilja, A Bengtsson, P Nilsson, J Mårtensson, P C Sundgren
Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of white matter lesions, atrophy of the hippocampus and corpus callosum, and their correlation with cognitive dysfunction (CD), in patients diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Seventy SLE patients and 25 healthy individuals (HIs) were included in the study. To evaluate the different SLE and neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) definition schemes, patients were grouped both according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) definition, as well as the more stringent ACR-Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics definition...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
J Zhang, M Liu, L Zhou, Z B Zhang, J M Wang, Y W Jiang, Y Wu
Objective: To analyze the clinical and imaging features of hypomyelination with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity (HBSL) due to mutations in DARS, and to identify DARS mutations responsible for HBSL. Methods: Data on 2 HBSL patients who were admitted to the pediatric department of Peking University First Hospital from January 2009 through December 2016 were reviewed and the 2 patients were followed up. Targeted next generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were employed to identify potential genetic variations of the children and their parents...
March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Alessandra M Valcarcel, Kristin A Linn, Simon N Vandekar, Theodore D Satterthwaite, John Muschelli, Peter A Calabresi, Dzung L Pham, Melissa Lynne Martin, Russell T Shinohara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is crucial for in vivo detection and characterization of white matter lesions (WMLs) in multiple sclerosis. While WMLs have been studied for over two decades using MRI, automated segmentation remains challenging. Although the majority of statistical techniques for the automated segmentation of WMLs are based on single imaging modalities, recent advances have used multimodal techniques for identifying WMLs. Complementary modalities emphasize different tissue properties, which help identify interrelated features of lesions...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Claudine Boiziau, Macha Nikolski, Elodie Mordelet, Justine Aussudre, Karina Vargas-Sanchez, Klaus G Petry
Multiple sclerosis is characterized by inflammatory lesions dispersed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) leading to severe neurological handicap. Demyelination, axonal damage, and blood brain barrier alterations are hallmarks of this pathology, whose precise processes are not fully understood. In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rat model that mimics many features of human multiple sclerosis, the phage display strategy was applied to select peptide ligands targeting inflammatory sites in CNS...
March 7, 2018: Inflammation
Takuya Konno, Takeshi Miura, Andrea M Harriott, Naomi Mezaki, Emily S Edwards, Rosa Rademakers, Owen A Ross, James F Meschia, Takeshi Ikeuchi, Zbigniew K Wszolek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mutations in colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) cause adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP). Patients with ALSP can be misdiagnosed as having acute ischemic stroke due to hyperintensity lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Mutant CSF1R proteins identified in ALSP show a complete loss of autophosphorylation of CSF1R. METHODS: We conducted mutation screening of CSF1R in 123 patients with definite acute ischemic cerebrovascular syndrome and positive family history of stroke...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Renato S Procianoy, Andrea Lucia A Corso, Maria Gabriela Longo, Leonardo Vedolin, Rita C Silveira
OBJECTIVE: To determine the neurodevelopment outcomes after Therapeutic Hypothermia for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) and identify the neonatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings associated with neurological outcome in a middle-income country. STUDY DESIGN: All infants born after 35 completed weeks' gestation with signs of moderate to severe encephalopathy and evidence of perinatal asphyxia before 6 hours of life were submitted to whole-body hypothermia and were imaged at 18 ± 8...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Anne-Laure Lemaitre, Gilles Lafargue, Hugues Duffau, Guillaume Herbet
A growing body of evidence suggests that individuals with pronounced schizotypal traits also display particular neurophysiological and morphological features - notably with regard to left frontotemporal connectivity. However, the studies published to date have focused on subclinical subjects and psychiatric patients, rather than brain-damaged patients. Here, we used the French version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire to assess schizotypal traits in a sample of 97 patients having undergone surgical resection of a diffuse low-grade glioma...
February 27, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Masato Ishibashi, Noriyuki Kimura, Yasuhiro Aso, Etsuro Matsubara
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of white matter lesions on regional cerebral blood flow in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-five subjects with mild cognitive impairment (36 men and 39 women; mean age, 78.1 years) were included in the study. We used the Mini-Mental State Examination to assess cognitive function. All subjects underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and99m Tc ethylcysteinate dimer single photon emission computed tomography...
February 24, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Shahzad Ahmad, Christian Bannister, Sven J van der Lee, Dina Vojinovic, Hieab H H Adams, Alfredo Ramirez, Valentina Escott-Price, Rebecca Sims, Emily Baker, Julie Williams, Peter Holmans, Meike W Vernooij, M Arfan Ikram, Najaf Amin, Cornelia M van Duijn
INTRODUCTION: Exploring the role of Alzheimer's disease (AD) implicated pathways in the predementia phase may provide new insight for preventive and clinical trials targeting disease specific pathways. METHODS: We constructed weighted Genetic risk scores, first based on 20 genome-wide significant AD risk variants and second clustering these variants within pathways. Risk scores were investigated for their association with AD, mild cognitive impairment, and brain magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes including white matter lesions, hippocampal volume, and brain volume...
February 26, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
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