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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781884/extended-release-naltrexone-improves-viral-suppression-levels-in-prisoners-with-hiv-and-alcohol-use-disorders-who-are-transitioning-to-the-community-results-from-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#1
Sandra A Springer, Angela Di Paola, Russell Barbour, Marwan M Azar, Frederick L Altice
OBJECTIVE: To determine if extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) would improve or maintain viral suppression (VS) among incarcerated individuals with HIV and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) transitioning to the community. DESIGN: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among incarcerated individuals with HIV and AUDs transitioning to the community from 2010 through 2016. METHODS: Eligible participants (N=100) were randomized 2:1 to receive 6 monthly injections of XR-NTX (n=67) or Placebo (n=33) starting at release and continued for 6 months...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779230/role-of-mu-but-not-delta-or-kappa-opioid-receptors-in-context-induced-reinstatement-of-oxycodone-seeking
#2
Jennifer M Bossert, Jennifer K Hoots, Ida Fredriksson, Sweta Adhikary, Michelle Zhang, Marco Venniro, Yavin Shaham
Relapse to nonmedical use of prescription opioids often occurs after exposure to places previously associated with drug use. Here, we describe a rat model of context-induced reinstatement of oxycodone seeking after repeated cycles of drug self-administration and extinction-induced abstinence. We also determined the role of mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, KOR) in this reinstatement. We trained rats to self-administer oxycodone for 6 h/d in Context A; lever pressing was paired with a discrete cue...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771745/national-institute-on-drug-abuse-international-program-improving-opioid-use-disorder-treatment-through-international-research-training
#3
Steven W Gust, Judy McCormally
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For more than 25 years, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has supported research-training programs, establishing a global research network and expanding the knowledge base on substance use disorders. International research to inform approaches to opioid addiction is particularly important and relevant to the United States, where opioid misuse, addiction, and overdose constitute an emerging public health crisis. This article summarizes the NIDA International Program and illustrates its impact by reviewing recent articles about treatment approaches for opioid use disorders (OUD)...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744741/effect-of-naltrexone-hydrochloride-on-cytochrome-p450-1a2-2c9-2d6-and-3a4-activity-in-human-liver-microsomes
#4
Haitham AlRabiah, Abdul Ahad, Gamal A E Mostafa, Fahad I Al-Jenoobi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4 are the most important phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver, but there is a dearth of literature available on the effects of naltrexone hydrochloride on these major enzymes present in the human liver. Thus, in the present study, the effect of naltrexone hydrochloride on the activity of CYP1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4 using human liver microsomes (HLM) was investigated. METHODS: A selective probe for CYP1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4 was incubated with HLM with or without naltrexone hydrochloride...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729492/naltrexone-as-an-efficient-adjuvant-in-induction-of-th1-immunity-and-protection-against-fasciola-hepatica-infection
#5
Hakim Azizi, Hadi Mirzaeei, Ali Akbar Nasiri, Ali Bazi, Aliyar Mirzapour, Mehrdad Khatami, Kareem Hatam Nahavandi, Ako Azimi, Hajar Yaghoobi
Toxic effects of available therapeutics are major drawbacks for conventional management approaches in parasitic infections. Vaccines have provided a promising opportunity to obviate such unwanted complications. In present study, we examined immune augmenting capacities of an emerging adjuvant, Naltrexone, against Fasciola hepatica infection in BALB/c mice. Seventy BALB/c mice were divided into five experimental groups (14 mice per group) including 1- control (received PBS), 2- vaccine (immunized with F. hepatica E/S antigens), 3- Alum-vaccine (immunized with Alum adjuvant and E/S antigens), 4- NLT-vaccine (immunized with NLT adjuvant and E/S antigens), and 5- Alum-NLT-vaccine (immunized with mixed Alum-NLT adjuvant and E/S antigens)...
April 27, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719204/drug-drug-interactions-in-the-treatment-for-alcohol-use-disorders-a-comprehensive-review
#6
REVIEW
Guerzoni Simona, Pellesi Lanfranco, Pini Luigi Alberto, Caputo Fabio
Drug interactions are one of the most common causes of side effects in polypharmacy. Alcoholics are a category of patients at high risk of pharmacological interactions, due to the presence of comorbidities, the concomitant intake of several medications and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interferences of ethanol. However, the data available on this issue are limited. These reasons often frighten clinicians when prescribing appropriate pharmacological therapies for alcohol use disorder (AUD), where less than 15% of patients receive an appropriate treatment in the most severe forms...
April 29, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710079/neurobiology-of-opioid-use-disorder-and-comorbid-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Thomas R Kosten, David P Graham, David A Nielsen
Importance: Treating patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) and traumatic brain injury illustrates 6 neurobiological principles about the actions of 2 contrasting opioid analgesics, morphine and fentanyl, as well as pharmacotherapies for OUD, methadone, naltrexone, and buprenorphine. Observations: This literature review focused on a patient with traumatic brain injury who developed OUD from chronic morphine analgesia. His treatment is described in a neurobiological framework of 6 opioid action principles...
April 25, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700231/use-of-subcutaneous-and-intraperitoneal-administration-methods-to-facilitate-cassette-dosing-in-microdialysis-studies-in-rats
#8
Matthew R Durk, Gauri Deshmukh, Nicole Valle, Xiao Ding, Bianca M Liederer, Xingrong Liu
Microdialysis is a powerful technique allowing for real-time measurement of unbound drug concentrations in brain interstitial fluid (ISF) in conscious animals. Use of microdialysis in drug discovery is limited by high resource requirement and low throughput, but this may be improved by cassette dosing. Administering multiple compounds intravenously (IV) of diverse physiochemical properties, it is often very challenging and time-consuming to identify a vehicle that can dissolve all the compounds. To overcome this limitation, the present study explores the possibility of administering a cassette dose of 9 diverse compounds (carbamazepine, citalopram, desmethylclozapine, diphenhydramine, gabapentin, metoclopramide, naltrexone, quinidine, and risperidone) in suspension, rather than in solution, by intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes, and determining if this is a viable option for assessing BBB penetration in microdialysis studies...
April 26, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697312/a-mixture-of-butorphanol-azaperone-and-medetomidine-for-the-immobilization-of-american-beavers-castor-canadensis
#9
Annette Roug, Heather Talley, Troy Davis, Marilei Roueche, Darren DeBloois
A total of 58 American beavers ( Castor canadensis) was immobilized with butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM) for the purpose of health assessments, sex determination, and placement of very high-frequency tail transmitters in a subset of animals. Isoflurane gas anesthesia was available to aid with induction when needed, and all animals received supplementary oxygen. Thirty-one beavers immobilized with a mean (SD) dose of 0.65 (0.15) mg/kg butorphanol, 0.22 (0.05) mg/kg azaperone, and 0.26 (0.06) mg/kg medetomidine did not require supplemental isoflurane during induction and the mean induction time was 8 min (range: 3-21 min)...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689646/beyond-lifestyle-interventions-exploring-the-potential-of-anti-obesity-medications-in-the-uk
#10
REVIEW
J P H Wilding
In the UK, over one-quarter of the adult population have obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg m-2 ). This has major implications for patients' health and the National Health Service. Despite published studies showing that significant weight loss can be achieved and maintained in primary care, and guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, weight management services are inconsistently implemented. This may be due primarily to workload and financial constraints. There is also a lack of belief that specialist weight management services and anti-obesity medications (AOMs) are a viable alternative to bariatric surgery for long-term maintenance of weight loss...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678127/a-health-economic-model-to-assess-the-cost-effectiveness-of-optifast-%C3%A2-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-in-usa
#11
Mark Nuijten, Agnieszka Marczewska, Krysmaru Araujo Torress, Bahareh Rasouli, Moreno Perugini
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is associated with high direct medical costs and indirect costs resulting from productivity loss. High prevalence of obesity generates a justified need to identify cost-effective weight loss approaches from a payer's perspective. Within the variety of weight management techniques, OPTIFAST® is a clinically recognized and scientifically proven total meal replacement Low Calorie Diet that provides meaningful results in terms of weight loss and reduction in comorbidities...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677019/mu-opioid-receptors-in-nociceptive-afferents-produce-a-sustained-suppression-of-hyperalgesia-in-chronic-pain
#12
Amie Severino, Wenling Chen, Joshua K Hakimian, Brigitte L Kieffer, Claire Gaveriaux-Ruff, Wendy Walwyn, Juan Carlos Marvizon
The latent sensitization model of chronic pain reveals that recovery from some types of long-term hyperalgesia is an altered state in which nociceptive sensitization persists but is suppressed by the ongoing activity of analgesic receptors such as µ-opioid receptors (MORs). To determine whether these MORs are the ones present in nociceptive afferents, we bred mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the Nav1.8 channel promoter (Nav1.8cre) with MOR-floxed mice (flMOR). These Nav1.8cre/flMOR mice had reduced MOR expression in primary afferents, as revealed by quantitative PCR, in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence colocalization with the neuropeptide CGRP...
April 17, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674251/outpatient-transition-to-extended-release-injectable-naltrexone-for-patients-with-opioid-use-disorder-a-phase-3-randomized-trial
#13
Adam Bisaga, Paolo Mannelli, Miao Yu, Narinder Nangia, Christine E Graham, D Andrew Tompkins, Thomas R Kosten, Sarah C Akerman, Bernard L Silverman, Maria A Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Injectable extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), approved to prevent relapse to opioid dependence, requires initial abstinence. This multisite outpatient clinical trial examined the efficacy and safety of low-dose oral naltrexone (NTX), combined with a brief buprenorphine (BUP) taper and standing ancillary medications, for detoxification and induction onto XR-NTX. METHODS: Patients (N = 378) were randomized, stratified by primary short-acting opioid-of-use, to one of three regimens: NTX + BUP; NTX + placebo BUP (PBO-B); placebo NTX (PBO-N) + PBO-B...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670752/quality-of-life-binge-eating-and-sexual-function-in-participants-treated-for-obesity-with-sustained-release-naltrexone-bupropion
#14
A Halseth, K Shan, K Gilder, M Malone, L Acevedo, K Fujioka
Objective: This multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label trial examined weight-related quality of life, control over eating behaviour and sexual function after 26 weeks of treatment with either 32 mg naltrexone sustained release (SR)/360 mg bupropion SR plus a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program (NB + CLI, N = 153) or usual care (UC, N = 89), which included minimal lifestyle intervention. Methods: Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite, Binge Eating Scale and Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale were assessed at baseline (BL) and weeks 16 and 26...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668645/coverage-of-medications-that-treat-opioid-use-disorder-and-opioids-for-pain-management-in-marketplace-plans-2017
#15
Haiden A Huskamp, Lauren E Riedel, Colleen L Barry, Alisa B Busch
BACKGROUND: Efficacious medications to treat opioid use disorders (OUDs) have been slow to diffuse into practice, and insurance coverage limits may be one important barrier. OBJECTIVES: To compare coverage for medications used to treat OUDs and opioids commonly prescribed for pain management in plans offered on the 2017 Health Insurance Marketplace exchanges. RESEARCH DESIGN: We identified a sample of 100 plans offered in urban and in rural counties on the 2017 Marketplaces, weighting by population...
April 17, 2018: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658501/-anhedonia-depression-anxiety-and-craving-in-opioid-dependent-patients-stabilized-on-oral-naltrexone-or-naltrexone-implant
#16
E M Krupitsky, E E Zvartau, E A Blokhina, E V Verbitskaya, V Yu Wahlgren, M V Tsoy-Podosenin, N M Bushara, A M Burakov, D V Masalov, T N Romanova, A A Tiurina, V Ya Palatkin, T S Yaroslavtseva, G Yu Sulimov, A Pecoraro, G Woody
AIM: To assess the relationship between long-term naltrexone treatment and anxiety, depression and craving in opioid dependent individuals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Opioid dependent patients (n=306) were enrolled in a three cell (102ss/cell) randomized, double blind, double dummy, placebo-controlled 6-month trial comparing extended release implantable naltrexone with oral naltrexone and placebo (oral and implant). Monthly assessments of affective responses used a Visual Analog Scale for opioid craving, the Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger Anxiety Inventory, and the Ferguson and Chapman Anhedonia Scales...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658443/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-uremic-serum-on-hepatic-reductase-functional-expression
#17
Osama Y Alshogran, Esra A F Al-Obaidi, Belal A Al-Husein, Ashraf O Oweis
BACKGROUND: The nonrenal clearance of drugs mediated by hepatic reduction is selectively altered by kidney disease. This study evaluated the influence of uremic serum on the expression and activity of reductase enzymes. METHODS: Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) were incubated with 5% pooled serum collected from patients with hemodialysis (pre- and post-dialysis session) or control subjects. The mRNA expression of various aldo-keto (AKR1C) and carbonyl (CBR) reductases were measured...
April 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651781/abuse-deterrent-opioid-formulations-a-key-ingredient-in-the-recipe-to-prevent-opioid-disasters
#18
Aaron J Salwan, Nicholas E Hagemeier, Sam Harirforoosh
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is encouraging the innovation of long-acting opioid formulations that are manipulation-resistant. The purpose of this commentary is to assess the benefits and limitations of abuse-deterrent opioid formulations (ADFs) and discuss their role in mitigating the current opioid epidemic. ADFs have been created with chemical properties that make it difficult for people who non-medically use prescription drugs to crush and dissolve opioid tablets, as well as by combining opioids with antagonists such as naloxone or naltrexone, which are released only when the dosage form has been manipulated or the drug is taken by a non-intended route...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626646/cirrhosis-induced-by-bile-duct-ligation-alleviates-acetic-acid-intestinal-damages-in-rats-involvements-of-nitrergic-and-opioidergic-systems
#19
Nastaran Rahimi, Mahsa Hassanipour, Narges Sistany Allahabadi, Fatemeh Sabbaghziarani, Maryam Yazdanparast, Ahmadreza Dehpour
BACKGROUND: Colitis, a colonic inflammatory condition, showed a linkage with hepatobiliary disorders such as cirrhosis. It has been reported that both endogenous opioids and nitric oxide (NO) play critical roles in colitis pathogenesis. Moreover, opioid and NO levels showed elevation in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cirrhosis on the experimental model of colitis and the possible involvement of opioidergic/nitrergic systems in rats. METHODS: Colitis was induced by acetic acid 28 days after bile duct ligation (BDL)...
November 22, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617066/the-mixed-opioid-receptor-antagonist-naltrexone-mitigates-stimulant-induced-euphoria-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-naltrexone
#20
Thomas J Spencer, Pradeep Bhide, Jinmin Zhu, Stephen V Faraone, Maura Fitzgerald, Amy M Yule, Mai Uchida, Andrea E Spencer, Anna M Hall, Ariana J Koster, Leah Feinberg, Sarah Kassabian, Barbara Storch, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Supratherapeutic doses of methylphenidate activate μ-opioid receptors, which are linked to euphoria. This study assessed whether naltrexone, a mixed μ-opioid antagonist, may attenuate the euphoric effects of stimulants, thereby minimizing their abuse potential in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We conducted a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of naltrexone in adults with DSM-IV ADHD receiving open treatment with a long-acting formulation of methylphenidate (January 2013 to June 2015)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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