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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895598/pharmacotherapy-for-alcohol-use-disorders-physicians-perceptions-and-practices
#1
Caridad Ponce Martinez, Priyanka Vakkalanka, Nassima Ait-Daoud
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) recommendations that medications be considered for patients with alcohol dependence, the mainstay of treatment has been counseling. We designed a survey to assess the treatment practices of psychiatrists and family medicine (FM) physicians in an effort to identify barriers to the use of pharmacotherapy and develop strategies to increase physician knowledge and utilization of these medications...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891289/nor-bni-antagonism-of-kappa-opioid-agonist-induced-reinstatement-of-ethanol-seeking-behavior
#2
Erin Harshberger, Emily A Gilson, Kelli Gillett, Jasmine H Stone, Laila El Amrani, Glenn R Valdez
Recent work suggests that the dynorphin (DYN)/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system may be a key mediator in the behavioral effects of alcohol. The objective of the present study was to examine the ability of the KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI) to attenuate relapse to ethanol seeking due to priming injections of the KOR agonist U50,488 at time points consistent with KOR selectivity. Male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer a 10% ethanol solution, and then responding was extinguished. Following extinction, rats were injected with U50,488 (0...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888590/erythrocytes-membrane-alterations-reflecting-liver-damage-in-ccl%C3%A2-induced-cirrhotic-rats-the-ameliorative-effect-of-naltrexone
#3
Fatemeh Sarhadi Kholari, Ahmad Reza Dehpour, Mitra Nourbakhsh, Amir Hossein Doustimotlagh, Molood Bagherieh, Abolfazl Golestani
Cirrhosis is the consequence of chronic liver disease. Deleterious effects of oxidative stress on hepatocytes may be reflected in the erythrocyte membrane. Naltrexone (NTX) has been shown to attenuate hepatocellular injury in fibrotic animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the progressive effect of CCl4 on the liver and whether the improvement of liver cirrhosis can be monitored through alterations in the erythrocyte membrane. In this study, 84 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and received reagents (i...
October 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875802/urgency-traits-moderate-daily-relations-between-affect-and-drinking-to-intoxication-among-young-adults
#4
Krysten W Bold, Lisa M Fucito, Kelly S DeMartini, Robert F Leeman, Henry R Kranzler, William R Corbin, Stephanie S O'Malley
BACKGROUND: Young adults with higher trait urgency (i.e., a tendency to act rashly in response to heightened affect) may be especially vulnerable to heavy drinking. The current study examined 1) the influence of urgency on daily relations between affect and drinking to intoxication, and 2) whether urgency influenced the effectiveness of naltrexone (vs. placebo) for reducing alcohol use. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of data from 126 (n=40 female) heavy drinking young adults, ages 18-25, enrolled in a double-blind, 8-week clinical trial comparing brief motivational intervention and either naltrexone or placebo...
November 3, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871910/pharmacological-studies-on-the-nop-and-opioid-receptor-agonist-pwt2-dmt-1-n-ofq-1-13
#5
Maria Camilla Cerlesi, Huiping Ding, Mark F Bird, Norikazu Kiguchi, Federica Ferrari, Davide Malfacini, Anna Rizzi, Chiara Ruzza, David G Lambert, Mei-Chuan Ko, Girolamo Calo, Remo Guerrini
An innovative chemical strategy named peptide welding technology (PWT) has been developed for the facile synthesis of tetrabranched peptides. [Dmt(1)]N/OFQ(1-13)-NH2 acts as a universal agonist for nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and classical opioid receptors. The present study investigated the pharmacological profile of the PWT derivative of [Dmt(1)]N/OFQ(1-13)NH2 (PWT2-[Dmt(1)]) in several assays in vitro and in vivo after spinal administration in monkeys subjected to the tail withdrawal assay. PWT2-[Dmt(1)] mimicked the effects of [Dmt(1)]N/OFQ(1-13)-NH2 displaying full agonist activity, similar affinity/potency and selectivity at human recombinant N/OFQ (NOP) and opioid receptors in receptor binding, stimulation of [(35)S]GTPγS binding, calcium mobilization in cells expressing chimeric G proteins, and BRET studies for measuring receptor/G-protein and receptor/β-arrestin 2 interaction...
November 19, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870313/hypothalamic-specific-proopiomelanocortin-deficiency-reduces-alcohol-drinking-in-male-and-female-mice
#6
Yan Zhou, Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone reduces alcohol consumption and relapse in both humans and rodents. The present study investigated whether hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons (producing beta-endorphin and melanocortins) play a role in alcohol drinking behaviors. Both male and female mice with targeted deletion of two neuronal Pomc enhancers nPE1 and nPE2 (nPE-/-), resulting in hypothalamic-specific POMC deficiency, were studied in short-access (4-h/day) drinking-in-the-dark (DID, alcohol in one bottle), intermittent access (IA, 24-hour cycles of alcohol access every other day, alcohol vs...
November 21, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859761/methadone-complications-amongst-opioid-dependent-patients-in-malaysia-a-case-series
#7
Philip George, Balasingam Vicknasingam, Sivakumar Thurairajasingam, Parameswaran Ramasamy, Haslina Mohd Yusof, Mohd Azhar Bin Mohd Yasin, Zia U Bahkt Sultan Shah
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Opioid dependence remains the main type of illicit substance used in Malaysia, which has an estimated 187 771 opiate users. There are currently 333 active methadone maintenance treatment centres nationwide. Although methadone has proven to be an effective maintenance therapy, it has clinical concerns which can have an impact on its effectiveness and safety. DESIGN, METHODS AND RESULTS: A case series of seven patients from Malaysian private and public hospital settings who had an adverse reaction with methadone is discussed...
November 8, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849111/pharmacological-interventions-for-pruritus-in-adult-palliative-care-patients
#8
REVIEW
Waldemar Siemens, Carola Xander, Joerg J Meerpohl, Sabine Buroh, Gerd Antes, Guido Schwarzer, Gerhild Becker
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane review published in 2013 (Issue 6). Pruritus occurs in patients with disparate underlying diseases and is caused by different pathologic mechanisms. In palliative care patients, pruritus is not the most prevalent but is one of the most puzzling symptoms. It can cause considerable discomfort and affects patients' quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different pharmacological treatments for preventing or treating pruritus in adult palliative care patients...
November 16, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818236/a-role-for-the-mu-opioid-receptor-in-the-antidepressant-effects-of-buprenorphine
#9
Shivon A Robinson, Rebecca L Erickson, Caroline A Browne, Irwin Lucki
Buprenorphine (BPN), a mixed opioid drug with high affinity for mu (MOR) and kappa (KOR) opioid receptors, has been shown to produce behavioral responses in rodents that are similar to those of antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs. Although recent studies have identified KORs as a primary mediator of BPN's effects in rodent models of depressive-like behavior, the role of MORs in BPN's behavioral effects has not been as well explored. The current studies investigated the role of MORs in mediating conditioned approach behavior in the novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) test, a behavioral measure previously shown to be sensitive to chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs...
November 3, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813192/naltrexone-changes-the-expression-of-lipid-metabolism-related-proteins-in-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice
#10
Azam Moslehi, Fatemeh Nabavizadeh, Ali Zekri, Fatemeh Amiri
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is closely associated with several chronic diseases such as obesity, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and hepatic steatosis. Steatosis in hepatocytes may also lead to disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and possibly cirrhosis. Opioid peptides are involved in triglyceride and cholesterol dysregulation. Naltrexone also attenuates ER stress induced hepatic steatosis in mice. In this study, we evaluated the effects of naltrexone on the expression of lipid metabolism-related nuclear factors and enzymes in the ER stress induced hepatic steatosis...
November 4, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809868/efficacy-of-naloxone-in-reducing-postictal-central-respiratory-dysfunction-in-patients-with-epilepsy-study-protocol-for-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
Sylvain Rheims, Luc Valton, Véronique Michel, Louis Maillard, Vincent Navarro, Philippe Convers, Fabrice Bartolomei, Arnaud Biraben, Arielle Crespel, Philippe Derambure, Bertrand de Toffol, Edouard Hirsch, Philippe Kahane, Martine Lemesle Martin, Didier Tourniaire, Sébastien Boulogne, Catherine Mercier, Pascal Roy, Philippe Ryvlin
BACKGROUND: Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) are the main risk factor for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Experimental and clinical data strongly suggest that the majority of SUDEP results from a postictal respiratory dysfunction progressing to terminal apnea. Postictal apnea could partly derive from a seizure-induced massive release of endogenous opioids. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of an opioid antagonist, naloxone, administered in the immediate aftermath of a GTCS, in reducing the severity of the postictal central respiratory dysfunction...
November 3, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803689/naltrexone-prevents-in-males-and-attenuates-in-females-the-expression-of-behavioral-sensitization-to-ethanol-regardless-of-maternal-separation
#12
Suzi E Kawakami, Isabel M H Quadros, Deborah Suchecki
Maternal separation alters the activity of the opioid system, which modulates ethanol-induced stimulation and behavioral sensitization. This study examined the effects of an opioid antagonist, naltrexone (NTX), on the expression of behavioral sensitization to ethanol in adult male and female mice submitted to maternal separation from postnatal days (PNDs) 2 to 14. Whole litters of Swiss mice were either not separated [animal facility rearing (AFR)] or separated from their mothers for 3 h [long maternal separation (LMS)]...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787292/guidelines-and-quality-measures-should-reflect-evidence-for-effectiveness-of-naltrexone
#13
Kevin Fiscella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782295/nitrergic-and-opioidergic-systems-affect-radiographic-density-%C3%A2-and-histomorphometric-indices-in-bile-duct-ligated-cirrhotic-rats
#14
Amir Hossein Doustimotlagh, Ahmad Reza Dehpour, Shahroo Etemad-Moghadam, Mojgan Alaeddini, Yasaman Kheirandish, Abolfazl Golestani
Metabolic bone disease is a major issue in chronic liver disease. Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) and elevation of endogenous opioids have been suggested to occur during cholestasis/cirrhosis. We aimed to investigate the involvement of nitrergic and opioidergic systems in bone loss after bile-duct-ligation (BDL) in rats using optical density (OD) evaluation and histomorphometric analysis. BDL- and sham-operated (SO) rats received injections of 3mg/kg Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester-hydrochloride (L-NAME) as an NO-synthase inhibitor, 10mg/kg naltrexone (NTX) as an opioid-receptors antagonist or saline once daily for 28 days...
October 26, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777966/the-therapeutic-utility-of-employment-in-treating-drug-addiction-science-to-application
#15
Kenneth Silverman, August F Holtyn, Reed Morrison
Research on a model Therapeutic Workplace has allowed for evaluation of the use of employment in the treatment of drug addiction. Under the Therapeutic Workplace intervention, adults with histories of drug addiction are hired and paid to work. To promote drug abstinence or adherence to addiction medications, participants are required to provide drug-free urine samples or take prescribed addiction medications, respectively, to gain access to the workplace and/or to maintain their maximum rate of pay. Research has shown that the Therapeutic Workplace intervention is effective in promoting and maintaining abstinence from heroin, cocaine and alcohol and in promoting adherence to naltrexone...
June 2016: Translational Issues in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773782/obesity-current-and-potential-pharmacotherapeutics-and-targets
#16
REVIEW
Vidya Narayanaswami, Linda P Dwoskin
Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768385/influence-of-naltrexone-bupropion-combination-treatment-on-body-mass-index-in-prader-willi-syndrome-re-prader-willi-syndrome-management-of-impulsivity-and-hyperphagia-in-an-adolescent-by-puri-et-al
#17
Amanda Hor, Louise Purtell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746715/response-commentary-supplier-dependent-differences-in-intermittent-voluntary-alcohol-intake-and-response-to-naltrexone-in-wistar-rats
#18
COMMENT
Lova Segerström, Erika Roman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743985/mu-opioid-receptor-inhibition-decreases-voluntary-wheel-running-in-a-dopamine-dependent-manner-in-rats-bred-for-high-voluntary-running
#19
Gregory N Ruegsegger, Jacob D Brown, M Cathleen Kovarik, Dennis K Miller, Frank W Booth
The mesolimbic dopamine and opioid systems are postulated to influence the central control of physical activity motivation. We utilized selectively bred rats for high (HVR) or low (LVR) voluntary running behavior to examine (1) inherent differences in mu-opioid receptor (Oprm1) expression and function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), (2) if dopamine-related mRNAs, wheel-running, and food intake are differently influenced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) naltrexone injection in HVR and LVR rats, and (3) if dopamine is required for naltrexone-induced changes in running and feeding behavior in HVR rats...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743800/corrigendum-to-extended-release-naltrexone-opioid-treatment-at-jail-reentry-xor-contemp-clin-trials-49-2016-57-64
#20
Ryan D McDonald, Babak Tofighi, Eugene Laska, Keith Goldfeld, Wanda Bonilla, Mara Flannery, Nadina Santana-Correa, Christopher W Johnson, Neil Leibowitz, John Rotrosen, Marc N Gourevitch, Joshua D Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
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