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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106937/naltrexone-for-the-treatment-of-comorbid-tobacco-and-pornography-addiction
#1
Noah A Capurso
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Co-occurring addictive disorders are common, however treatment strategies for this population have not been extensively studied. This is especially the case for behavioral addictions. METHODS: We present a patient (N = 1) with tobacco use disorder and problematic pornography use treated with naltrexone. RESULTS: Naltrexone treatment resulted in a decrease in pornography viewing and cigarette smoking, however had the adverse effect of anhedonia...
January 20, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105567/effects-of-oleuropein-on-pentylenetetrazol-induced-seizures-in-mice-involvement-of-opioidergic-and-nitrergic-systems
#2
Nastaran Rahimi, Bahram Delfan, Nazgol Motamed-Gorji, Ahmad R Dehpour
Oleuropein, a well-known olive polyphenol, has been shown to mediate neuroprotection in Alzheimer's disease and cerebral ischemia. We investigated the effects of oleuropein on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in male NMRI mice, with diazepam as the standard drug. We also examined the possible involvement of opioidergic/nitrergic pathways in the probable effects of oleuropein. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of different doses of oleuropein (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg) significantly increased the seizure threshold 60 min prior to induction of seizure, in a dose-dependent manner...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093021/altering-ethanol-pharmacokinetics-to-treat-alcohol-use-disorder-can-you-teach-an-old-dog-new-tricks
#3
Carolina L Haass-Koffler, Fatemeh Akhlaghi, Robert M Swift, Lorenzo Leggio
Disulfiram was the first pharmacotherapy approved to treat alcohol use disorder in the 1950s. Disulfiram alters ethanol pharmacokinetics and causes uncomfortable reactions (e.g. headache, tachycardia, nausea, flushing and hypotension) when alcohol is consumed. Subsequently, a better understanding of the neurobiological pathways involved in alcohol use disorder led to the development of other medications (e.g. naltrexone and acamprosate). These neurobiological-based medications act on alcohol use disorder-related phenotypes including craving, stress, and/or withdrawal...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088065/methionine-enkephalin-menk-mounts-antitumor-effect-via-regulating-dendritic-cells-dcs
#4
Yiming Meng, Xinghua Gao, Wenna Chen, Nicolas P Plotnikoff, Noreen Griffin, Guirong Zhang, Fengping Shan
MENK, an endogenous opioid peptide has been reported to have many immunological and antitumor activities. So far the detailed mechanisms of antitumor through regulating DCs by MENK have not been elucidated yet. The aim of this work was to investigate the antitumor mechanisms of MENK via regulating DC. The monitoring methods, such as ELISA, MTS assay, CFSE, Real-time PCR and Western blot were included in our research. We found bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in 36 female C57BL/6 mice treated with MENK enhanced expression of key surface molecules, increased production of critical cytokines reduced endocytosis of FITC-dextran, upregulated TLR4 through MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway and mounted higher antitumor activity...
January 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080912/comparison-of-medetomidine-ketamine-and-butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine-in-captive-bennett-s-wallabies-macropus-rufogriseus
#5
Megan K Watson, Mary Thurber, Sathya K Chinnadurai
The objective of this study was to compare a traditional partially reversible medetomidine-ketamine sedation with a more reversible butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine combination in Bennett's wallabies ( Macropus rufogriseus ) maintained in a zoological collection. Fourteen animals were divided into two treatment groups. Individuals in group 1 received an intramuscular (i.m.) injection of butorphanol (0.54 ± 0.05 mg/kg), azaperone (0.22 ± 0.02 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.16 ± 0.02 mg/kg). Individuals in group 2 received an i...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070862/pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-once-weekly-and-once-monthly-buprenorphine-subcutaneous-injection-depots-cam2038-versus-intravenous-and-sublingual-buprenorphine-in-healthy-volunteers-under-naltrexone-blockade-an-open-label-phase-1-study
#6
Muna Albayaty, Margareta Linden, Håkan Olsson, Markus Johnsson, Kerstin Strandgården, Fredrik Tiberg
INTRODUCTION: CAM2038 q1w (once weekly) and q4w (once monthly) are investigational buprenorphine subcutaneous (SC) formulations based on FluidCrystal(®) injection depot technology. These two drug products are being developed for opioid dependence treatment, with a target for once-weekly and once-monthly SC dosing. The rationale for developing two products with different dosing frequencies is that treatment strategies/routines, and hence different treatment preferences, can vary between patients, different stages of opioid maintenance treatment, and countries...
January 9, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068780/long-acting-injectable-naltrexone-induction-a-randomized-trial-of-outpatient-opioid-detoxification-with-naltrexone-versus-buprenorphine
#7
Maria Sullivan, Adam Bisaga, Martina Pavlicova, C Jean Choi, Kaitlyn Mishlen, Kenneth M Carpenter, Frances R Levin, Elias Dakwar, John J Mariani, Edward V Nunes
OBJECTIVE: At present there is no established optimal approach for transitioning opioid-dependent adults to extended-release injection naltrexone (XR-naltrexone) while preventing relapse. The authors conducted a trial examining the efficacy of two methods of outpatient opioid detoxification for induction to XR-naltrexone. METHOD: Participants were 150 opioid-dependent adults randomly assigned 2:1 to one of two outpatient detoxification regimens, naltrexone-assisted detoxification or buprenorphine-assisted detoxification, followed by an injection of XR-naltrexone...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064151/supervised-disulfiram-s-superior-effectiveness-in-alcoholism-treatment-ethical-methodological-and-psychological-aspects
#8
REVIEW
Colin Brewer, Emmanuel Streel, Marilyn Skinner
Disulfiram (DSF) causes the ALDH-mediated deterrence of alcohol consumption. We review recent meta-analyses showing the superior effectiveness of supervised disulfiram (SD) in alcoholism treatment compared with oral naltrexone or acamprosate (ACP). The success of SD is also consistent with the almost complete absence of alcoholism in Japanese homozygotes for 'inefficient' ALDH. However, SD is an underused treatment and some clinicians have ethical objections to DSF. We examine these objections and argue that they are based on a misunderstanding of how DSF works...
January 7, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061017/feasibility-and-safety-of-extended-release-naltrexone-treatment-of-opioid-and-alcohol-use-disorder-in-hiv-clinics-a-pilot-feasibility-randomized-trial
#9
P Todd Korthuis, Paula J Lum, Pamela Vergara-Rodriguez, Keith Ahamad, Evan Wood, Lynn E Kunkel, Neal L Oden, Robert Lindblad, James L Sorensen, Virgilio Arenas, Doan Ha, Raul N Mandler, Dennis Mccarty
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: HIV-infected persons with substance use disorders are least likely to benefit from advances in HIV treatment. Integration of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) into HIV clinics may increase engagement in the HIV care continuum by decreasing substance use. We aimed to compare 1) XR-NTX treatment initiation, 2) retention, and 3) safety of XR-NTX versus treatment as usual (TAU) for treating opioid use disorder (OUD) and/or alcohol use disorder (AUD) in HIV clinics...
January 6, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055135/a-combination-of-naltrexone-varenicline-retards-the-expression-of-a-genetic-predisposition-toward-high-alcohol-drinking
#10
Janice C Froehlich, Stephen M Fischer, Emily R Nicholson, Julian E Dilley, Nicholas J Filosa, Teal N Smith, Logan C Rademacher
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether naltrexone (NTX) or varenicline (VAR), alone or in combination, can retard the phenotypic expression of a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol drinking in rats selectively bred for high alcohol intake when drug treatment is initiated prior to, or concomitantly with, the onset of alcohol drinking. METHODS: Alcohol-naïve P rats were treated daily with NTX (15.0 mg/kg BW), VAR (1.0 mg/kg BW), a combination of NTX (15.0 mg/kg BW) + VAR (1...
January 5, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044452/nitric-oxide-mediates-effects-of-acute-not-chronic-naltrexone-on-lps-induced-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-cirrhotic-rats
#11
Bentolhoda Ghiassy, Nastaran Rahimi, Mehrak Javadi-Paydar, Mohammad Hadi Gharedaghi, Abbas Norouzi-Javidan, Ahmad R Dehpour
Recent studies suggest endogenous opioids and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In this study, the interaction between the opioid receptor antagonist and NO was investigated on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced HE in cirrhotic rats. Male rats were divided in the sham- and bile duct ligation (BDL)-operated groups. Animals were treated with saline; naltrexone (10 mg/kg, i.p.); or L-NAME (3 mg/kg, i.p.), alone or in combination with naltrexone. To induce HE, LPS (1 mg/kg, i...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039905/ultraviolet-a-eye-irradiation-ameliorates-colon-carcinoma-induced-by-azoxymethane-and-dextran-sodium-sulfate-through-%C3%AE-endorphin-and-methionine-enkephalin
#12
Keiichi Hiramoto, Satoshi Yokoyama, Yurika Yamate
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that ultraviolet (UV) A eye irradiation reduces the ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). This study examined the effects of UVA on colon carcinoma induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and DSS. METHODS: We irradiated the eyes of ICR mice with UVA at a dose of 110 kJ/m(2) using an FL20SBLB-A lamp for the experimental period. RESULTS: In mice treated with these drugs, the symptom of colon carcinoma was reduced by UVA eye irradiation...
December 31, 2016: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029718/a-smart-data-analysis-method-for-constructing-adaptive-treatment-strategies-for-substance-use-disorders
#13
Inbal Nahum-Shani, Ashkan Ertefaie, Xi Lu, Kevin G Lynch, James R McKay, David Oslin, Daniel Almirall
AIMS: To demonstrate how Q-learning, a novel data analysis method, can be used with data from a sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trial (SMART) to construct empirically an adaptive treatment strategy (ATS) that is more tailored than the ATSs already embedded in a SMART. METHOD: We use Q-learning with data from the Extending Treatment Effectiveness of Naltrexone (ExTENd) SMART (N = 250) to construct empirically an ATS employing naltrexone, behavioral intervention, and telephone disease management to reduce alcohol consumption over 24 weeks in alcohol dependent individuals...
December 28, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029083/psychopathological-behaviour-and-cognition-in-morbid-obesity
#14
Alba Calderone, Pasquale Fabio Calabrò, Chita Lippi, Roberta Jaccheri, Jacopo Vitti, Ferruccio Santini
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a chronic condition with high prevalence and multifaceted aetiology, accompanied by an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Obesity has several negative effects on the psychological status, and the severity of psychological disorders correlates with the degree of obesity. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this review is to provide an overview of the literature concerning the psychological distress associated with severe obesity, which contributes to deterioration of the quality of life of affected patients...
December 26, 2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026920/method-of-use-study-of-naltrexone-sustained-release-sr-bupropion-sr-on-body-weight-in-individuals-with-obesity
#15
Amy Halseth, Kevin Shan, Brandon Walsh, Kye Gilder, Ken Fujioka
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effects of 32 mg naltrexone sustained release (SR)/360 mg bupropion SR (NB) on body weight in adults with obesity, with comprehensive lifestyle intervention (CLI), for 78 weeks. METHODS: In this phase 3b, randomized, open-label, controlled study, subjects received NB + CLI or usual care (standard diet/exercise advice) for 26 weeks. NB subjects not achieving 5% weight loss at week 16 were discontinued, as indicated by product labeling...
December 27, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011389/extended-release-naltrexone-for-pre-release-prisoners-a-randomized-trial-of-medical-mobile-treatment
#16
Michael S Gordon, Frank J Vocci, Terrence T Fitzgerald, Kevin E O'Grady, Charles P O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), is an effective treatment for opioid use disorder but is rarely initiated in US prisons or with criminal justice populations. Mobile treatment for chronic diseases has been implemented in a variety of settings. Mobile treatment may provide an opportunity to expand outreach to parolees to surmount barriers to traditional clinic treatment. METHODS: Male and female prisoners (240) with pre-incarceration histories of opioid use disorder who are within one month of release from prison will be enrolled in this randomized clinical trial...
December 20, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010130/treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorder-and-co-occurring-ptsd
#17
Mandrill Taylor, Ismene Petrakis, Elizabeth Ralevski
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a serious psychiatric disorder with medical, psychiatric, and social consequences. In individuals with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), treatment outcomes are notably worse in comparison with treatment outcomes associated with either disorder occurring alone. There is a growing literature evaluating treatments, both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy focused, in individuals with co-occurring AUD and PTSD. The main objective of this review was to evaluate pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy studies that were specifically designed to evaluate the treatment of individuals with comorbid AUD and PTSD...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988274/improving-efficacy-of-the-adjustable-gastric-band-studies-of-the-use-of-adjuvant-approaches-in-a-rodent-model
#18
Aneta Stefanidis, Christine Cheuk Man Lee, Wendy A Brown, Brian J Oldfield
BACKGROUND: The laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (AGB) has been effective in reducing excess weight by approximately 50% for at least 16 years. However, as with all weight loss approaches, reduction in weight resulting from bariatric surgery is associated with a compensatory reduction in energy expenditure, which may confound and limit weight loss. Adjuvant therapies that reduce food intake and increase energy expenditure may be used to improve weight loss outcomes by ameliorating, or even reversing, this reduction in energy expenditure...
September 14, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987236/evaluation-of-the-counter-regulatory-responses-to-hypoglycemia-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-during-opiate-receptor-blockade-with-naltrexone
#19
Sarita Naik, Renata Belfort-DeAguiar, Anne-Sophie Sejling, Barbara Szepietowska, Robert S Sherwin
AIMS: Hypoglycemia is the major limiting factor in achieving optimal glycemic control in people with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), especially intensively treated patients with impaired glucose counterregulation during hypoglycemia. Naloxone, an opiate receptor blocker, has been reported to enhance the acute counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia when administered intravenously in humans. The current study was undertaken to investigate if the oral formulation of the long acting opiate antagonist, naltrexone, could have a similar effect, and thus might be useful therapeutically in T1DM patients with a high risk for hypoglycemia...
December 17, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984008/treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorder-in-patients-with-alcoholic-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
Lorenzo Leggio, Mary R Lee
Alcohol is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. Although alcohol abstinence is the crucial therapeutic goal for patients with alcoholic liver disease, these patients have less access to psychosocial, behavioral and/or pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorder. Psychosocial and behavioral therapies include 12-step facilitation, brief interventions, cognitive behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy. In addition to medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for alcohol use disorder (disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate), recent efforts to identify potential new treatments have yielded promising candidate pharmacotherapies...
October 28, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
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