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Alcohol dependence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341402/isotope-substitution-of-promiscuous-alcohol-dehydrogenase-reveals-origin-of-substrate-preference-in-transition-state
#1
Rudolf K Allemann, J Javier Ruiz-Pernia, Louis Luk, Inaki Tunon, Vicent Moliner, Enas Behiry
The origin of substrate preference in promiscuous enzymes was investigated by enzyme isotope labeling of the alcohol dehydrogenase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (BsADH). At physiological temperature, protein dynamic coupling to the reaction coordinate was insignificant. However, the extent of dynamic coupling was highly substrate-dependent at lower temperatures. For benzyl alcohol, an enzyme isotope effect larger than unity was observed, whereas the enzyme isotope effect was close to unity for isopropanol...
January 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341392/cannabis-use-is-associated-with-reduced-prevalence-of-progressive-stages-of-alcoholic-liver-disease
#2
Adeyinka Charles Adejumo, Tokunbo Opeyemi Ajayi, Oluwole Muyiwa Adegbala, Kelechi Lauretta Adejumo, Samson Alliu, Akintunde Micheal Akinjero, Nnaemeka Egbuna Onyeakusi, Ogooluwa Ojelabi, Terence Ndonyi Bukong
BACKGROUND: Abusive alcohol use has well-established health risks including causing liver disease (ALD) characterized by alcoholic steatosis (AS), steatohepatitis (AH), fibrosis, cirrhosis (AC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Strikingly, a significant number of individuals who abuse alcohol also use Cannabis, which has seen increased legalization globally. While cannabis has demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties, its combined use with alcohol and the development of liver disease remains unclear...
January 17, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339696/chronic-ethanol-increases-calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinaseii%C3%AE-gene-expression-and-decreases-monoamine-oxidase-amount-in-rat-heart-muscles-rescue-effect-of-zingiber-officinale-ginger-extract
#3
Elaheh Heshmati, Alireza Shirpoor, Fatemeh Kheradmand, Mohammad Alizadeh, Farzaneh Hosseini Gharalari
OBJECTIVE: Association between chronic alcohol intake and cardiac abnormality is well known; however, the precise underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced heart abnormalities remain elusive. This study investigated the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) gene expression and monoamine oxidase (MAO) levels and histological changes in rat heart. It was also planned to find out whether Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract mitigated the abnormalities induced by ethanol in rat heart...
January 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339652/smoking-and-promoter-specific-deoxyribonucleic-acid-methylation-of-the-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-gene-methylation-of-smokers-and-non-smokers-differs-significantly-during-withdrawal
#4
Alexander Glahn, Mathias Rhein, Helge Frieling, Rilana Schuster, Alain El Aissami, Stefan Bleich, Thomas Hillemacher, Marc Muschler
BACKGROUND: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is well known in psychiatric disorders to modulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Disturbances of ANP have been described in early abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. This is the first longitudinal investigation on cytosine-phosphatidyl-guanine (CpG)-island promoter methylation of the ANP gene in the blood of tobacco-dependent patients. METHODS: In a longitudinal approach, we investigated whether changes in ANP serum levels correlated to CpG methylation of the respective gene promoters on days 1, 7, and 14 of tobacco withdrawal...
January 16, 2018: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339307/anticoccidial-activity-of-fruit-peel-of-punica-granatum-l
#5
Shazia Ahad, Syed Tanveer, Tauseef Ahmad Malik, Irshad Ahmad Nawchoo
In the interests of food safety and public health, plants and their compounds are now re-emerging as an alternative approach to treat parasitic diseases. Here, we studied the anticoccidial effect of different solvent extracts of the fruit peel of Punica granatum-a commercial waste from pomegranate juice industries. The hope underlying these experiments was to find a sustainable natural product for controlling coccidiosis. The plant extracts were prepared using solvents of different polarity. Acute oral toxicity study was first carried out to see the safety of crude extracts...
January 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339294/ketamine-for-the-treatment-of-addiction-evidence-and-potential-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
I Ivan Ezquerra-Romano, W Lawn, E Krupitsky, C J A Morgan
Ketamine is a dissociative anaesthetic drug which acts on the central nervous system chiefly through antagonism of the n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Recently, ketamine has attracted attention as a rapid-acting anti-depressant but other studies have also reported its efficacy in reducing problematic alcohol and drug use. This review explores the preclinical and clinical research into ketamine's ability to treat addiction. Despite methodological limitations and the relative infancy of the field, results thus far are promising...
January 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339280/simultaneous-degumming-and-production-of-a-natural-gum-from-crotalaria-juncea-seeds-physicochemical-and-rheological-characterization
#7
Suvra Sadhukhan, Annesha Bhattacharjee, Ujjaini Sarkar, Pabitra Kumar Baidya, Sibashish Baksi
The oil extracted from Crotalaria juncea (Sunn-hemp) contains 70% of gum. Several methods of degumming are attempted in order to maximize the yield of gum. During appropriate water induced degumming, about 95-98% of phosphatides are separated. The maximum oil yield for two types of degummimg processes are 0.59% and 0.69% corresponding to hot water and pure O-phosphoric acid (19.88 N) treatment respectively. The % oil yield obtained for TOP degumming is about 0.78%. Physico-chemical characteristics of the isolated gum such as moisture, ash, protein, fat and aqueous solubility along with FTIR and TGA analysis are studied in order to evaluate the effect of extraction process...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338075/lkb1-ampk-mediated-regulation-by-gentiopicroside-ameliorates-p2x7r-dependent-alcoholic-hepatosteatosis
#8
Xia Li, Yu Zhang, Quan Jin, Kai-Li Xia, Min Jiang, Ben-Wen Cui, Yan-Ling Wu, Shun-Zong Song, Li-Hua Lian, Ji-Xing Nan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Regulating P2x7R-NLRP3 inflammasome activation might be a potential therapeutic strategy to treat alcoholic hepatosteatosis. We investigated whether this process would be modulated by gentiopicroside (GPS), which is the main active secoiridoid glycoside from Gentiana manshurica Kitagawa. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In vivo models of acute and chronic alcoholic hepatosteatosis were established by intragastrically administrated ethanol or using chronic plus binge ethanol feeding of Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet to male C57BL/6 mice...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336567/non-isothermal-spreading-dynamics-of-self-rewetting-droplets
#9
Dimitrios Mamalis, Vasileios Koutsos, Khellil Sefiane
We experimentally studied the spreading dynamics of binary alcohol mixtures (and pure liquids for reference) deposited on a heated substrate in a partially wetting situation, under non-isothermal conditions. We show that the spreading mechanism of an evaporating droplet exhibits a power law growth with early-stage exponents that depend strongly and non-monotonically on substrate temperature. Moreover, we investigated the temporal and spatial thermal dynamics in the droplet using infrared thermography revealing the existence of unique thermal patterns due to thermal and/or solutal instabilities which lead to surface tension gradients, namely Marangoni effect...
January 16, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336467/nox4-ros-mediate-ethanol%C3%A2-induced-apoptosis-via-mapk-signal-pathway-in-l%C3%A2-02-cells
#10
Cheng-Fang Yang, Yu-Juan Zhong, Zuheng Ma, Li Li, Lin Shi, Li Chen, Chen Li, Dan Wu, Qi Chen, Yong-Wen Li
The aim of the present study was to assess the molecular mechanism of ethanol‑induced oxidative stress‑mediated apoptosis in L‑02 liver cells in order to elucidate novel pathways associated with alcoholic liver disease. L‑02 cells were treated with 400 mM ethanol with or without inhibitors. The cell viability was measured by an MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry and a single‑stranded DNA (ssDNA) assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of L‑02 cells was determined using the 2',7'‑dichlorofluorescein‑diacetate dye...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336434/acg-clinical-guideline-alcoholic-liver-disease
#11
Ashwani K Singal, Ramon Bataller, Joseph Ahn, Patrick S Kamath, Vijay H Shah
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) comprises a clinical-histologic spectrum including fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis (AH), and cirrhosis with its complications. Most patients are diagnosed at advanced stages and data on the prevalence and profile of patients with early disease are limited. Diagnosis of ALD requires documentation of chronic heavy alcohol use and exclusion of other causes of liver disease. Prolonged abstinence is the most effective strategy to prevent disease progression. AH presents with rapid onset or worsening of jaundice, and in severe cases may transition to acute on chronic liver failure when the risk for mortality, depending on the number of extra-hepatic organ failures, may be as high as 20-50% at 1 month...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335427/chronic-alcohol-exposure-disrupts-top-down-control-over-basal-ganglia-action-selection-to-produce-habits
#12
Rafael Renteria, Emily T Baltz, Christina M Gremel
Addiction involves a predominance of habitual control mediated through action selection processes in dorsal striatum. Research has largely focused on neural mechanisms mediating a proposed progression from ventral to dorsal lateral striatal control in addiction. However, over reliance on habit striatal processes may also arise from reduced cortical input to striatum, thereby disrupting executive control over action selection. Here, we identify novel mechanisms through which chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and withdrawal (CIE) disrupts top-down control over goal-directed action selection processes to produce habits...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334513/opioid-use-disorders-attributed-to-tramadol-among-egyptian-university-students
#13
Medhat M Bassiony, Mohamed Abdelghani, Ghada M Salah El-Deen, Mervat S Hassan, Hayam El-Gohari, Usama M Youssef
BACKGROUND: Tramadol use is an overwhelming problem in Egypt with tremendous medical and social consequences especially among youth. Use liability among Egyptian university students is underevaluated. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated correlates of tramadol use among students from Zagazig University, Egypt. METHODS: A cross-sectional study included a total of 1135 undergraduate students, from 10 colleges in Zagazig University. Participants were randomly selected and assessed for tramadol use using The Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) and The Drug Use Disorders Identification Test-Extended (DUDIT-E)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333614/the-effect-of-risk-factor-misclassification-on-the-partial-population-attributable-risk
#14
Benedict H W Wong, Sarah B Peskoe, Donna Spiegelman
The partial population attributable risk (pPAR) is used to quantify the population-level impact of preventive interventions in a multifactorial disease setting. In this paper, we consider the effect of nondifferential risk factor misclassification on the direction and magnitude of bias of pPAR estimands and related quantities. We found that the bias in the uncorrected pPAR depends nonlinearly and nonmonotonically on the sensitivities, specificities, relative risks, and joint prevalence of the exposure of interest and background risk factors, as well as the associations between these factors...
January 15, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332541/after-the-escape-physical-abuse-of-offspring-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-the-legacy-of-political-violence-in-the-dprk
#15
Clifton R Emery, Jieun Yoo, Amia Lieblich, Randall Hansen
What is the relationship between victimization by political violence against women in North Korea and later physical abuse of offspring? This article examines the relationships between victimization by political violence, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse/dependence, and abuse of offspring after arrival in South Korea. A random sample of 204 female North Korean defectors was used to test hypotheses. An oral history conducted with a survivor of North Korean political violence is provided in an appendix to contextualize the results...
October 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332529/alcohol-related-victim-behavior-and-rape-myth-acceptance-as-predictors-of-victim-blame-in-sexual-assault-cases
#16
Mónica Romero-Sánchez, Barbara Krahé, Miguel Moya, Jesús L Megías
Two studies analyzed the influence of victim behavior, drink type, and observer rape myth acceptance (RMA) on attributions of blame to victims of sexual assault. In Study 1, people higher in RMA blamed the victim more when she accepted rather than rejected the aggressor's invitation to buy her a drink. In Study 2, we analyzed if the effects depended on who offered the invitation for a drink (a friend or aggressor). RMA was more closely related to victim blame when she accepted (vs. rejected) the offer of a drink from the aggressor...
October 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331189/-day-clinic-a-gateway-towards-risk-reduction
#17
Viviane Ben Nifla, Philippe Celli, Hélène Samba, Cécile Vincent
The addictology day clinic at Fernand-Widal hospital in Paris caters mainly for patients suffering from alcohol dependence. The aim is to consolidate the withdrawal which has taken place, to help reduce risks and harm and to support people waiting for follow-up care.
January 2018: Revue de L'infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330687/evaluation-of-the-mitochondria-related-redox-and-bioenergetics-effects-of-gastrodin-in-sh-sy5y-cells-exposed-to-hydrogen-peroxide
#18
Marcos Roberto de Oliveira, Flávia Bittencourt Brasil, Cristina Ribas Fürstenau
Mitochondrion is the main site of ATP production in animal cells and also orchestrates signaling pathways associated with cell survival and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to bioenergetics and redox impairment in human diseases, such as neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease. Protective agents able to attenuate mitochondrial impairment are of pharmacological interest. Gastrodin (GAS; 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucoside) is a phenolic glucoside obtained from the Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects in several cell types...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330220/regulation-of-drug-metabolism-by-the-interplay-of-inflammatory-signaling-steatosis-and-xeno-sensing-receptors-in-heparg-cells
#19
Norman Tanner, Lisa Kubik, Claudia Luckert, Maria Thomas, Ute Hofmann, Ulrich M Zanger, Linda Bohmert, Alfonso Lampen, Albert Braeuning
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by triglyceride deposition in hepatocytes due to imbalanced lipid homeostasis, is of increasing concern in Western countries, with progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Previous studies suggest a complex, mutual influence of hepatic fat accumulation, NASH-related inflammatory mediators, and drug-sensing receptors regulating xenobiotic metabolism. Here, we investigated the suitability of human HepaRG hepatocarcinoma cells as a model for NAFLD and NASH...
January 12, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329753/does-social-context-matter-an-ecological-momentary-assessment-study-of-marijuana-use-among-college-students
#20
Kristina T Phillips, Michael M Phillips, Trent L Lalonde, Mark A Prince
INTRODUCTION: Past research has shown that marijuana use occurs commonly in social situations for young adults, though few studies have examined the association between immediate social context and marijuana use patterns and associated problems. The current study examined the impact of demographics, marijuana use and problem use, alcohol use, craving, and social context on the likelihood of using marijuana with others via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). METHODS: College-student marijuana users (N=56) were recruited and completed a baseline assessment and training on the two-week signal-contingent EMA protocol...
January 4, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
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