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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719816/sulfate-radical-induced-degradation-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-agonists-salbutamol-and-terbutaline-phenoxyl-radical-dependent-mechanisms
#1
Lei Zhou, Mohamad Sleiman, Corinne Ferronato, Jean-Marc Chovelon, Pascal de Sainte-Claire, Claire Richard
The present study investigated the reactivity and oxidation mechanisms of salbutamol (SAL) and terbutaline (TBL), two typical β2-adrenoceptor agonists, towards sulfate radical (SO4(-)) by using photo-activated persulfate (PS). The reaction pathways and mechanisms were proposed based on products identification using high resolution HPLC-ESI-MS, laser flash photolysis (LFP) and molecular orbital calculations. The results indicated that SO4(-) was the dominant reactive species in the UV/PS process. The second-order rate constants of sulfate radical reaction with SAL and TBL were measured as (3...
July 14, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719666/effects-of-prey-pitcher-age-and-microbes-on-acid-phosphatase-activity-in-fluid-from-pitchers-of-sarracenia-purpurea-sarraceniaceae
#2
Carl S Luciano, Sandra J Newell
Carnivory in pitcher plants generally involves digestion of prey, by the plant itself, by symbionts, or both. While symbionts appear to be important in the digestion of prey in Sarracenia purpurea, the importance of pitcher-derived enzymes is less well documented. Our goal was to reduce microbial numbers in pitcher fluid in order to measure the acid phosphatase activity attributable to the pitchers themselves. Preliminary experiments indicated that various antibiotics were minimally effective at reducing microbial populations and that antibiotic-resistant microbes were easily cultured from pitcher fluid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719029/directly-observed-therapy-of-sofosbuvir-ribavirin-peginterferon-with-minimal-monitoring-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-in-people-with-a-history-of-drug-use-in-chennai-india-c-dot
#3
Sunil S Solomon, Mark S Sulkowski, Pradeep Amrose, Aylur K Srikrishnan, Allison M McFall, Balakrishnan Ramasamy, Muniratnam S Kumar, Santhanam Anand, David L Thomas, Shruti H Mehta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We assessed the feasibility of field-based directly observed therapy (DOT) with minimal monitoring to deliver HCV treatment to people with a history of drug use in Chennai, India. METHODS: 50 participants were randomized 1:1 to sofosbuvir + peginterferon alfa 2a + ribavirin (SOF+PR) for 12 weeks (Arm 1) vs. sofosbuvir + ribavirin (SOF+R) for 24 weeks (Arm 2). SOF+R was delivered daily at participant chosen venues and weekly peginterferon injections at the study clinic...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716791/factors-associated-with-nicotine-dependence-during-methadone-maintenance-treatment-findings-from-a-multisite-survey-in-vietnam
#4
Huyen Phuc Do, Long Hoang Nguyen, Nhung Phuong Thi Nguyen, Chau Ngo, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Giang Tong Le, Linh Khanh Nguyen, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Bach Xuan Tran, Huong Thi Le, Thuc Minh Thi Vu, Huong Thu Thi Phan, Tho Dinh Tran, Carl A Latkin, Michael P Dunne
OBJECTIVES: Smoking is associated with adverse health outcomes among drug users, including those in treatment. To date, however, there has been little evidence about smoking patterns among people receiving opioid-dependence treatment in developing countries. We examined self-reported nicotine dependence and associated factors in a large sample of opioid-dependent patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in northern Vietnam. SETTING: Five clinics in Hanoi (urban area) and Nam Dinh (rural area)...
July 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716609/oxytocin-reduces-alcohol-consumption-in-prairie-voles
#5
J R Stevenson, S M Wenner, D M Freestone, C C Romaine, M C Parian, S M Christian, A E Bohidar, J R Ndem, I R Vogel, C M O'Kane
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) negatively affects millions of people every year in the United States, and effective treatments for AUD are still needed. The neuropeptide oxytocin has shown promise for reducing alcohol drinking in mice and rats. Because oxytocin also plays a key role in complex prosocial behaviors like bonding and attachment, we tested the effect of oxytocin on alcohol drinking in prairie voles, a species that both consumes high amounts of alcohol and forms oxytocin dependent social bonds in a manner similar to humans...
July 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716128/tobacco-dependence-among-people-with-mental-illness-a-facility-based-cross-sectional-study-from-southwest-ethiopia
#6
Zemenay Molla, Lamesa Dube, Wolfgang Krahl, Matiwos Soboka
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a health care issue in developed as well as in developing countries. Tobacco smoking among people with mental illness is significantly higher than in the general population. Tobacco smoking has negative effects on physical, mental and financial well-being of people with mental illness but little is known about tobacco dependence among mental health service users in sub-Saharan African countries, including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study attempted to assess the prevalence of tobacco dependence and associated factors among mental health service users at Jimma University teaching hospital...
July 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715699/gambling-and-negative-life-events-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-uk-men
#7
Amanda Roberts, Stephen Sharman, Jeremy Coid, Raegan Murphy, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Sean Cowlishaw, Jason Landon
INTRODUCTION: The links between gambling problems, trauma and life stressors are known to exist but understanding the extent of these relationships will allow for greater efficacy in early intervention and treatment. We investigated these relationships among men and sought to determine whether links were attenuated by alcohol and drug use problems. METHODS: A cross-sectional UK representative general population survey was conducted in 2009 with 3025 men aged 18-64years...
July 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715440/transcriptional-profiling-of-the-rat-nucleus-accumbens-after-modest-or-high-alcohol-exposure
#8
Julia Morud, Arghavan Ashouri, Erik Larsson, Mia Ericson, Bo Söderpalm
Alcohol use disorder is a chronic relapsing brain disorder and a global health issue. Prolonged high alcohol consumption increases the risk for dependence development, a complex state that includes progressive alterations in brain function. The molecular mechanisms behind these changes remain to be fully disclosed, but several genes show altered expression in various regions of the rat brain even after modest alcohol exposure. The present study utilizes whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate expression changes in the brain nucleus accumbens (NAc), an area of particular interest in addictive disorders, of alcohol consuming rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715221/pressure-dependent-light-emission-of-charged-and-neutral-excitons-in-monolayer-mose2
#9
Xinpeng Fu, Fangfei Li, Jung-Fu Lin, Yuan-Bo Gong, Xiaoli Huang, Yanping Huang, Bo Han, Qiang Zhou, Tian Cui
Tailoring the excitonic properties in two-dimensional monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) through strain engineering is an effective means to explore their potential applications in optoelectronics and nanoelectronics. Here we report pressure-tuned photon emission of trions and excitons in monolayer MoSe2 via a diamond anvil cell (DAC) through photoluminescence measurements and theoretical calculations. Under quasi-hydrostatic compressive strain, our results show neutral (X0) and charged (X-) excitons emission of monolayer MoSe2 can be effectively tuned by alcohol mixture vs...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715159/alcohol-antiretroviral-interactive-toxicity-beliefs-as-a-potential-barrier-to-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#10
Seth C Kalichman, Lisa Eaton
INTRODUCTION: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) offers as much as 90% protection against HIV transmission. However, the effectiveness of PrEP depends on uptake and adherence to even intermittent dosing. Along with intoxication leading to unintentional non-adherence, believing that alcohol mixed with pharmaceuticals is harmful (i.e., interactive toxicity beliefs) may lead to poor uptake and intentional non-adherence. METHODS: HIV-negative sexually active men who have sex with men (N = 272) at a large Gay Pride event in Atlanta, GA, completed anonymous surveys of demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, alcohol use and PrEP-related alcohol interactive toxicity beliefs...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715125/acute-alcohol-binge-deteriorates-metabolic-and-respiratory-compensation-capability-after-blunt-chest-trauma-followed-by-hemorrhagic-shock-a-new-research-model
#11
Nils Wagner, Niklas Franz, Scott Dieteren, Mario Perl, Katharina Mörs, Ingo Marzi, Borna Relja
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The clinical relevance of blunt (thoracic) chest trauma (TxT) and hemorrhagic shock is indisputable due to the high prevalence of this injury type, as well as its close association with mortality and/or preventable deaths. Furthermore, there is an ongoing discussion about the influence of alcohol in trauma patients. Thus, we established a model of TxT followed by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (H/R) in alcohol-intoxicated rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Depending on group allocation, twelve (sub-acute) or two (acute) hours before experimentation, the animals received a single oral dose of alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) or saline (NaCl) followed by TxT, hemorrhagic shock (35 ± 3 mm Hg) and resuscitation (TxT+H/R)...
July 17, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715065/hypertension-dyslipidemia-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-poland
#12
Magdalena Rogalska-Płońska, Paweł Rogalski, Magdalena Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Justyna Stempkowska, Piotr Kocbach, Aldona Kowalczuk-Kot, Małgorzata Janczarek, Anna Grzeszczuk
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in HIV infected patients increases with aging and duration of the disease. Hypertension (HA), high cholesterol level obesity, diabetes, tobacco exposure and use of alcohol are among the traditional risk factors that contribute to CVD. AIM: was to determinate the incidence of HA, lipid disturbances and CVD risk in dependence on clinical, viral and biochemical factors. METHODS: Four hundred and seventeen HIV infected Caucasian adult patients from the four clinical centers in Poland were enrolled and analyzed on the basis of available medical data from the years 2013-2015...
July 17, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714907/genetic-contribution-to-alcohol-dependence-investigation-of-a-heterogeneous-german-sample-of-individuals-with-alcohol-dependence-chronic-alcoholic-pancreatitis-and-alcohol-related-cirrhosis
#13
Jens Treutlein, Josef Frank, Fabian Streit, Céline S Reinbold, Dilafruz Juraeva, Franziska Degenhardt, Liz Rietschel, Stephanie H Witt, Andreas J Forstner, Monika Ridinger, Jana Strohmaier, Norbert Wodarz, Helene Dukal, Jerome C Foo, Per Hoffmann, Stefan Herms, Stefanie Heilmann-Heimbach, Michael Soyka, Wolfgang Maier, Wolfgang Gaebel, Norbert Dahmen, Norbert Scherbaum, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Susanne Lucae, Marcus Ising, Felix Stickel, Thomas Berg, Ulla Roggenbuck, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Henrike Scholz, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Stephan Buch, Wolfgang H Sommer, Rainer Spanagel, Benedikt Brors, Sven Cichon, Karl Mann, Falk Kiefer, Jochen Hampe, Jonas Rosendahl, Markus M Nöthen, Marcella Rietschel
The present study investigated the genetic contribution to alcohol dependence (AD) using genome-wide association data from three German samples. These comprised patients with: (i) AD; (ii) chronic alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP); and (iii) alcohol-related liver cirrhosis (ALC). Single marker, gene-based, and pathway analyses were conducted. A significant association was detected for the ADH1B locus in a gene-based approach (puncorrected = 1.2 × 10(-6); pcorrected = 0.020). This was driven by the AD subsample...
July 17, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714726/pilot-investigation-of-a-phosphatidylethanol-based-contingency-management-intervention-targeting-alcohol-use
#14
Michael G McDonell, Jordan Skalisky, Emily Leickly, Michael F Orr, Sterling McPherson, John Roll, Nathalie Hill-Kapturczak, Martin Javors
Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) can be detected in blood from 14 to as many as 28 days after alcohol consumption, depending on the amount and frequency of alcohol consumed. PEth may have utility for verifying abstinence in a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol use, particularly in settings where frequent verification of abstinence is impossible or impractical. Five nontreatment-seeking heavy drinkers (40% men) participated in an 11-week, ABA-phased within-subject experiment for which they submitted blood spots for PEth measurement, urine samples for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) testing, and self-report drinking data weekly...
July 17, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714213/smoking-and-alcohol-and-subsequent-risk-of-myelodysplastic-syndromes-in-japan-the-japan-public-health-centre-based-prospective-study
#15
Tomotaka Ugai, Keitaro Matsuo, Norie Sawada, Motoki Iwasaki, Taiki Yamaji, Taichi Shimazu, Shizuka Sasazuki, Manami Inoue, Yoshinobu Kanda, Shoichiro Tsugane
Smoking and alcohol are important modifiable risk factors for human cancers. However, few epidemiological studies have investigated their association with the risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Here, we investigated the association of smoking and alcohol consumption and the risk of MDS in a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan. We included 95 510 Japanese subjects (45 451 men and 50 059 women; age 40-69 years at baseline) and identified 70 MDS cases (50 men and 20 women) during 18·3 years of follow-up...
July 17, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714204/investigation-on-the-ph-independent-photoluminescence-emission-from-carbon-dots-impregnated-on-polymer-matrix
#16
Pichan Saheeda, Kaviladath Sabira, Mohandas Dhaneesha, Sankaran Jayaleksmi
Highly luminescent, polymer nanocomposite films based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and monodispersed carbon dots (C-dots) derived from multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), as coatings on substrates as well as free standing ones are obtained via solution-based techniques. The synthesized films exhibit pH-independent photoluminescence (PL) emission, which is an advantageous property compared with the pH-dependent photoluminescence intensity variations, generally observed for the C-dots dispersed in aqueous solution...
July 17, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713887/morphology-dependent-catalysis-and-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-sers-studies-using-pd-nanostructures-in-dna-ctab-and-pva-scaffolds
#17
Subrata Kundu, Su-In Yi, Lian Ma, Yunyun Chen, Wei Dai, Alexander M Sinyukov, Hong Liang
Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) of three different morphologies viz., nanocubes with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), nanowires with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Pd NPs with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) scaffolds were synthesized by UV-irradiation. Catalysis and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies were done with the synthesized morphologically distinct Pd nanostructures for the very first time. The catalytic rate was extremely high with Pd nanowires templated with PVA and the order of the catalytic rate was Pd nanowires in PVA > Pd nanocubes in CTAB > DNA-Pd wire-like assemblies...
July 17, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712783/discovery-and-engineering-of-a-1-butanol-biosensor-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#18
Shuobo Shi, Yook Wah Choi, Huimin Zhao, Meng How Tan, Ee Lui Ang
The present study aimed to develop a universal methodology for the discovery of biosensors sensitive to particular stresses or metabolites by using a transcriptome analysis, in order to address the need for in vivo biosensors to drive the engineering of microbial cell factories. The method was successfully applied to the discovery of 1-butanol sensors. In particular, the genome-wide transcriptome profiling of S. cerevisiae exposed to three similar short-chain alcohols, 1-butanol, 1-propanol, and ethanol, identified genes that were differentially expressed only under the treatment of 1-butanol...
June 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712054/alcohol-exposure-promotes-dna-methyltransferase-dnmt3a-upregulation-through-reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-mechanisms
#19
Federico Miozzo, Hélène Arnould, Aurélie de Thonel, Anne-Laure Schang, Délara Sabéran-Djoneidi, Anne Baudry, Benoît Schneider, Valérie Mezger
Abundant evidence has accumulated showing that fetal alcohol exposure broadly modifies DNA methylation profiles in the brain. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), the enzymes responsible for DNA methylation, are likely implicated in this process. However, their regulation by ethanol exposure has been poorly addressed. Here, we show that alcohol exposure modulates DNMT protein levels through multiple mechanisms. Using a neural precursor cell line and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we found that ethanol exposure augments the levels of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, and Dnmt3l transcripts...
July 15, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711599/arachidonic-acid-sex-dependently-affects-obesity-through-linking-gut-microbiota-driven-inflammation-to-hypothalamus-adipose-liver-axis
#20
Pan Zhuang, Qiyang Shou, Yanhua Lu, Guangfa Wang, Jieni Qiu, Jun Wang, Lilin He, Jingnan Chen, Jingjing Jiao, Yu Zhang
Unraveling the role of dietary lipids is beneficial to treat obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Nonetheless, how dietary lipids affect existing obesity remains unknown. Arachidonic acid (AA), a derivative of linoleic acid, is one of the crucial n-6 fatty acids. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AA affects obesity through associating microbiota-driven inflammation with hypothalamus-adipose-liver axis. Four-week old C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% fat) for 10 weeks to induce obesity, and then fed a HFD enriched with 10 g/kg of AA or a continuous HFD in the following 15 weeks...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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