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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647680/a-retrospective-review-of-unintentional-opioid-overdose-risk-and-mitigating-factors-among-acutely-injured-trauma-patients
#1
Jannette Baird, Mark Faul, Traci C Green, Jonathan Howland, Charles A Adams, Ann George, Michael J Mello
BACKGROUND: Opioid medication to treat acutely injured patients is usual care in trauma settings. A higher prevalence of alcohol and other substance misuse in this population compared to the general population increases the vulnerability of such patients to both misuse of their prescribed opioids, and also unintentional opioid overdose. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of substance use and unintentional opioid overdose risk among acutely injured trauma patients, and to examine the frequency and predictors of high opioid dose at discharge...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647675/abstinence-from-prolonged-ethanol-exposure-affects-plasma-corticosterone-glucocorticoid-receptor-signaling-and-stress-related-behaviors
#2
Sucharita S Somkuwar, Leandro F Vendruscolo, McKenzie J Fannon, Brooke E Schmeichel, Tran Bao Nguyen, Jasmin Guevara, Harpreet Sidhu, Candice Contet, Eric P Zorrilla, Chitra D Mandyam
Alcohol dependence is linked to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Here, we investigated effects of repeated ethanol intoxication-withdrawal cycles (using chronic intermittent ethanol vapor inhalation; CIE) and abstinence from CIE on peak and nadir plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels. Irritability- and anxiety-like behaviors as well as glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were assessed at various intervals (2h-28d) after cessation of CIE. Results show that peak CORT increased during CIE, transiently decreased during early abstinence (1-11d), and returned to pre-abstinence levels during protracted abstinence (17-27d)...
June 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647624/shape-memory-polyurethanes-with-oxidation-induced-degradation-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-correlations-for-endovascular-material-applications
#3
Andrew C Weems, Kevin T Wacker, James K Carrow, Anthony J Boyle, Duncan J Maitland
The synthesis of thermoset shape memory polymer (SMP) polyurethanes from symmetric, aliphatic alcohols and diisocyanates has previously demonstrated excellent biocompatibility in short term in vitro and in vivo studies, although long term stability has not been investigated. Here we demonstrate that while rapid oxidation occurs in these thermoset SMPs, facilitated by the incorporation of multi-functional, branching amino groups, byproduct analysis does not indicate toxicological concern for these materials...
June 21, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646866/engineering-redox-homeostasis-to-develop-efficient-alcohol-producing-microbial-cell-factories
#4
REVIEW
Chunhua Zhao, Qiuwei Zhao, Yin Li, Yanping Zhang
The biosynthetic pathways of most alcohols are linked to intracellular redox homeostasis, which is crucial for life. This crucial balance is primarily controlled by the generation of reducing equivalents, as well as the (reduction)-oxidation metabolic cycle and the thiol redox homeostasis system. As a main oxidation pathway of reducing equivalents, the biosynthesis of most alcohols includes redox reactions, which are dependent on cofactors such as NADH or NADPH. Thus, when engineering alcohol-producing strains, the availability of cofactors and redox homeostasis must be considered...
June 24, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646834/beverage-osmolality-as-a-marker-for-maintaining-appropriate-body-hydration
#5
Anna Sadowska1, Franciszek Świderski, Rita Rakowska, Bożena Waszkiewicz-Robak, Małgorzata Żebrowska-Krasuska, Ewa Dybkowska
Background: Osmolalities can be useful markers for determining whether given beverages are suited for maintaining an adequate hydration of the body. Losing 2% of body water relative to body mass reduces the efficiency of body function when undertaking physical effort by around 20%. Deficiencies in water intakes approaching 5-8% of body mass, double the impairment to the body’s physical and mental functioning, whereas at a level of 10% the body becomes incapable of performing any sort of physical effort...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646566/structural-neuroimaging-correlates-of-alcohol-and-cannabis-use-in-adolescents-and-adults
#6
Rachel E Thayer, Sophie YorkWilliams, Hollis C Karoly, Amithrupa Sabbineni, Sarah Feldstein Ewing, Angela D Bryan, Kent E Hutchison
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic alcohol use is associated with lower gray matter volume, and we recently reported that alcohol use showed negative associations with widespread gray matter (GM) volume even among young adults. The current study aimed to test the strength of association between (1) alcohol use and GM volume; (2) alcohol use and white matter (WM) integrity; (3) cannabis use and GM volume; and (4) cannabis use and WM integrity among adults and adolescents. DESIGN AND SETTING: General linear models within large pooled cross-sectional samples of adolescents and adults who had participated in studies collecting substance use and neuroimaging data in the southwestern United States...
June 23, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646036/feeding-on-ripening-and-over-ripening-fruit-interactions-between-sugar-ethanol-and-polyphenol-contents-in-a-tropical-butterfly
#7
Michaël Beaulieu, Kristin Franke, Klaus Fischer
In ripe fruit, energy mostly derives from sugar, while in over-ripe fruit, it also comes from ethanol. Such ripeness differences may alter the fitness benefits associated with frugivory if animals are unable to degrade ethanol when consuming over-ripe fruit. In the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, we found that females consuming isocaloric solutions mimicking ripe (20% sucrose) and over-ripe fruit (10% sucrose, 7% ethanol) of the palm Astrocaryum standleyanum exhibited higher fecundity than females consuming a solution mimicking unripe fruit (10% sucrose)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645961/cognitive-screening-and-behavioural-observation-of-functional-ability-in-patients-with-multiple-episode-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study
#8
Eva Norlin Bagge, Eva Esbjörnsson, Katharina S Sunnerhagen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the usability of a neuropsychological screening instrument and two observation scales of everyday behaviour to describe cognitive and functional capacity of patients with multiepisode schizophrenia and considerable care needs, who frequently refuse to participate in cognitive testing or performance-based functional measurement. SETTING: One psychiatric unit specialised in severe mental illness at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645616/epidemiological-and-sociodemographic-factors-associated-with-complicated-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome
#9
R Monte-Secades, M Blanco-Soto, J A Díaz-Peromingo, A Sanvisens-Bergé, M C Martín-González, A Barbosa, B Rosón-Hernández, M A Tejero-Delgado, R Puerta-Louro, R Rabuñal-Rey
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the influence of epidemiological and sociodemographic factors in complicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multicentre, observational prospective study was conducted on consecutively added patients with AWS hospitalised in internal medicine departments. We recorded sociodemographic, epidemiological, clinical and progression data. Complicated AWS was defined as that which progressed with seizures or delirium tremens...
June 20, 2017: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645092/examining-effectiveness-of-tailorable-computer-assisted-therapy-programmes-for-substance-misuse-programme-usage-and-clinical-outcomes-data-from-breaking-free-online
#10
Sarah Elison, Andrew Jones, Jonathan Ward, Glyn Davies, Stephanie Dugdale
RATIONALE: When evaluating complex, tailorable digital behavioural interventions, additional approaches may be required alongside established methodologies such as randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Research evaluating a computer-assisted therapy (CAT) programme for substance misuse, Breaking Free Online (BFO), is informed by Medical Research Council (MRC) guidance recommending examination of 'mechanisms of action' of individual intervention strategies, which is relevant when evaluating digital interventions with content that may evolve over time...
May 23, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642837/environmental-influences-in-the-etiology-of-colorectal-cancer-the-premise-of-metabolomics
#11
Nicholas J W Rattray, Georgia Charkoftaki, Zahra Rattray, James E Hansen, Vasilis Vasiliou, Caroline H Johnson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review we discuss how environmental exposures predominate the etiology of colorectal cancer (CRC). With CRC being a personalized disease influenced by genes and environment, our goal was to explore the role metabolomics can play in identifying exposures, assessing the interplay between co-exposures, and the development of personalized therapeutic interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Approximately 10 % of CRC cases can be explained by germ-line mutations, whereas the prevailing majority are caused by an initiating exposure event occurring decades prior to diagnosis...
June 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641297/factor-analysis-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-minnesota-nicotine-withdrawal-scale-and-the-minnesota-nicotine-withdrawal-scale-revised-italian-version
#12
Andrea Svicher, Agnese Beghè, Giacomo Mangiaracina, Fiammetta Cosci
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We run Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) and of the MNWS-Revised (MNWS-R). Psychometric properties were also explored. METHODS: Adult Italian smokers, 366 in all, were assessed via the MNWS-R together with rating scales measuring cigarette dependence, alcohol use, anxiety sensitivity and negative affect at baseline and after 3 months. RESULTS: The MNWS showed good psychometric properties (α = 0...
June 23, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641293/measuring-concurrent-polydrug-use-in-general-populations-a-critical-assessment
#13
Karoliina Karjalainen, Kristiina Kuussaari, Kati Kataja, Christoffer Tigerstedt, Pekka Hakkarainen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Polydrug use is a complicated phenomenon that is measured in a wide variety of different ways. Using Finland as an example, we aimed to demonstrate how the prevalence and prevalence trends of concurrent polydrug use (CPU) varied in the general population based on the different measurements used. METHODS: Population-based Drug Surveys conducted every 4 years during 1998-2014 were used. CPU was measured with different measurements: strict, medial and loose definition of CPU, which were based on different combinations of alcohol, illicit drugs, pharmaceutical drugs and cigarettes used during the last 12 months/30 days...
June 23, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641002/mechanistic-study-of-smi2-h2o-and-smi2-amine-h2o-promoted-chemoselective-reduction-of-aromatic-amides-primary-secondary-tertiary-to-alcohols-via-aminoketyl-radicals
#14
Syed R Huq, Shicheng Shi, Ray Diao, Michal Szostak
Samarium(II) iodide-water and samarium(II) iodide-water-amine complexes have been recognized as valuable reagents for the selective generation of aminoketyl radicals from amides and derivatives. The resulting aminoketyl radicals can undergo reduction or reductive cyclization pathways, providing a powerful method for (i) direct synthesis of alcohols from amides by the challenging N-C bond scission and (ii) synthesis of nitrogen-containing heterocycles via polarity reversal of the amide bond. This report describes mechanistic investigation into samarium(II) iodide-water and samarium(II) iodide-water-amine-mediated generation of benzylic aminoketyl radicals from aromatic primary, secondary, and tertiary amides (benzamides)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639822/exposure-to-alcohol-advertising-and-adolescents-drinking-beliefs-role-of-message-interpretation
#15
Rebecca L Collins, Steven C Martino, Stephanie A Kovalchik, Elizabeth J D'Amico, William G Shadel, Kirsten M Becker, Anagha Tolpadi
OBJECTIVE: Recent research revealed momentary associations between exposure to alcohol advertising and positive beliefs about alcohol among adolescents (Martino et al., 2016). We reanalyzed those data to determine whether associations depend on adolescents' appraisal of ads. METHOD: Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 youth, ages 11-14, in the Los Angeles, CA, area, participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements as they occurred and completing brief assessments of their skepticism toward, liking of, and identification with any people in each ad, as well as their alcohol-related beliefs at the moment...
June 22, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639261/the-effects-of-ethanol-on-diverse-components-of-choice-in-the-rat-reward-discrimination-preference-and-relative-valuation
#16
Justin J McGraw, Luke C Zona, Howard C Cromwell
Alcohol consumption impairs judgment and choice. How alcohol alters these crucial processes is primarily unknown. Choice can be fractionated into different components including reward discrimination, preference and relative valuation that can function together or in isolation depending upon diverse factors including choice context. We examined the diverse components and contextual effects by analyzing the effects of alcohol drinking on choice behavior in a task with a reduced level of temporal and spatial constraints...
June 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639210/-oxytocin-and-the-mechanisms-of-alcohol-dependence
#17
REVIEW
Till Faehrmann, Gerald Zernig, Sergei Mechtcheriakov
One of the crucial purposes of treating alcohol-dependent patients is to enhance their ability to stay abstinent after detoxification therapy. Anxiety and stress vulnerability are the main factors provoking alcohol craving and relapse. In the first months of abstinence, alcohol-dependent patients frequently show sleep disturbances, irritability and depression, indicating chronic activation of stress pathways. In addition, the loss of confidence in interpersonal interactions results in social withdrawal and reduced willingness to participate in therapeutic programs...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639209/substance-use-and-misuse-among-children-and-youth-with-mental-illness-a%C3%A2-pilot-study
#18
V Herz, N Franzin, J Huemer, D Mairhofer, J Philipp, K Skala
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine prevalence, patterns and predictors of substance use among a sample of adolescent psychiatric inpatients. METHODS: Participants included 25 minors aged 12-17 years admitted to an Austrian department of child and adolescent psychiatry. Lifetime use, initiation, frequency and quantity of substance use, sociodemographic, family and school-related data were collected by self-report measures. Substance use disorders were detected using CAGE (a screening instrument for problem drinking) and FTND (Fagerström Test For Nicotine Dependence)...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638713/the-behavioral-and-physiological-effects-of-high-fat-diet-and-alcohol-consumption-sex-differences-in-c57bl6-j-mice
#19
Rachel R Gelineau, Nicole L Arruda, Jasmin A Hicks, Isabella Monteiro De Pina, Aikaterini Hatzidis, Joseph A Seggio
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Animal studies can be a great tool to investigate sex differences in a variety of different ways, including behavioral and physiological responses to drug treatments and different "lifestyle variables" such as diets. Consumption of both high-fat diets and alcohol is known to affect anxiety behaviors and overall health. This project investigated how high-fat diet and alcohol access and its combination affected the behavior and physiology of male and female C57BL/6J mice...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637673/lipopolysaccharide-downregulates-macrophage-derived-il-22-to-attenuate-alcohol-induced-hepatocyte-cell-death
#20
Yaming Liu, Vikas Verma, Harmeet Malhi, Gregory J Gores, Patrick S Kamath, Arun J Sanyal, Naga Chalasani, Bin Gao, Vijay H Shah
BACKGROUND/AIM: Interleukin 22 (IL-22) is a Th17 cell hepatoprotective cytokine that is undergoing clinical trials to treat patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation of macrophage is implicated in hepatocyte cell death and pathogenesis of AH. The role of IL-22 production from macrophage, its regulation by LPS and effects on alcohol induced hepatocyte cell death are unexplored and were examined in this study. METHODS/RESULTS: Low levels of IL-22 mRNA/protein were detected in macrophage but were significantly upregulated by 6...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
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