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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156239/examining-the-effects-of-alcohol-on-gabaa-receptor-mrna-expression-and-function-in-neural-cultures-generated-from-control-and-alcohol-dependent-donor-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Richard Lieberman, Henry R Kranzler, Eric S Levine, Jonathan Covault
Factors influencing the development of alcohol-use disorder (AUD) are complex and heterogeneous. While animal models have been crucial to identifying actions of alcohol on neural cells, human-derived in vitro systems that reflect an individual's genetic background hold promise in furthering our understanding of the molecular and functional effects of alcohol exposure and the pathophysiology of AUD. In this report, we utilized induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs)-derived neural cell cultures obtained from healthy individuals (CTLs) and those with alcohol dependence (ADs) to 1) examine the effect of 21-day alcohol exposure on mRNA expression of three genes encoding GABAA receptor subunits (GABRA1, GABRG2, and GABRD) using quantitative PCR, and 2) examine the effect of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on GABA-evoked currents using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology...
August 12, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155847/context-and-culture-associated-with-alcohol-use-amongst-youth-in-major-urban-cities-a-cross-country-population-based-survey
#2
Anne W Taylor, Bridgette M Bewick, Alfred B Makanjuola, Ling Qian, Valentina V Kirzhanova, Paulo Alterwain
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption patterns are dependent upon culture and context. The aim of this study was to interview people aged 18-34 year old living in four cities in different regions of the world to explore differences in a range of alcohol measures to assist in determining culturally appropriate alcohol initiatives for this age group. METHOD: Multistage random sampling was consistent across the four cities (Ilorin (Nigeria), Wuhan (China), Montevideo (Uruguay) and Moscow (Russia))...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155597/aggregation-and-rheological-behavior-of-the-lavender-oil-pluronic-p123-microemulsions-in-water-ethanol-mixed-solvents
#3
Oyais Ahmad Chat, Nighat Nazir, Parvaiz Ahmad Bhat, Puthusserickal Abdulrahiman Hassan, Vinod Kumar Aswal, Aijaz Ahmad Dar
The effect of lavender oil on aggregation characteristics of P123 in aqueous-ethanolic solutions is investigated systematically by DLS, SANS and Rheology. The solubilization capacity of the formulation increased by increasing P123 concentration. The study unveiled the importance of the short chain alcohol-ethanol, as solubilization enhancer. The apparent hydrodynamic radius (Rh) increased significantly with increase in lavender oil concentration up to maximum oil solubilization capacity of the copolymer at a particular ethanol concentration...
November 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154553/a-randomized-trial-of-female-specific-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-alcohol-dependent-women
#4
Elizabeth E Epstein, Barbara S McCrady, Kevin A Hallgren, Sharon Cook, Noelle K Jensen, Thomas Hildebrandt
This study compared Female-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (FS-CBT) to evidence-based, gender-neutral CBT (GN-CBT; Epstein & McCrady, 2009) for women with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Women (N = 99) with AUD, mean age 48, were randomly assigned to 12 outpatient manual-guided sessions of FS-CBT (n = 44) or GN-CBT (n = 55). Women were assessed at baseline and 3, 9 and 15 months after baseline for drinking and for specific issues common among women with AUD. A FS-CBT protocol was developed that was discriminable on treatment integrity ratings from GN-CBT...
November 20, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154368/precision-medicine-in-alcohol-dependence-a-controlled-trial-testing-pharmacotherapy-response-among-reward-and-relief-drinking-phenotypes
#5
Karl Mann, Corey R Roos, Sabine Hoffmann, Helmut Nakovics, Tagrid Leménager, Andreas Heinz, Katie Witkiewitz
Randomized trials of medications for alcohol dependence (AD) often report no differences between active medications. Few studies in AD have tested hypotheses regarding which medication will work best for which patients (ie, precision medicine). The PREDICT Study tested acamprosate and naltrexone versus placebo in 426 randomly assigned AD patients in a 3-month treatment. PREDICT proposed individuals whose drinking was driven by positive reinforcement (ie, reward drinkers) would have a better treatment response to naltrexone, whereas individuals whose drinking was driven by negative reinforcement (ie, relief drinkers) would have a better treatment response to acamprosate...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153716/facet-and-morphology-dependent-photocatalytic-hydrogen-evolution-with-cds-nanoflowers-using-a-novel-mixed-solvothermal-strategy
#6
Yi Liu, Yongjin Ma, Wenwen Liu, Yanyang Shang, Anquan Zhu, Pengfei Tan, Xiang Xiong, Jun Pan
As the highest energy facet of wurtzite CdS, (0 0 2) facet is well worth investigating toward the contribution in photocatalytic hydrogen (H2) evolution. In this study, flower-like CdS with highly preferred (0 0 2) facet was fabricated through a low temperature mixed-solvothermal strategy. The mixted-solvent of diethylenetriamine (DETA) and ethyl alcohol (EtOH) was used to inhibit the growth of (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) facets. For comparison, porous flower-like, belt-like and net-like CdS samples with different preferred degrees of (0 0 2) facet were controllably synthesized by the addition of H2O in different proportions...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153579/liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-quadrupole-orbitrap-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-based-method-for-target-analysis-and-suspect-screening-of-non-ionic-surfactants-in-textiles
#7
Xin Luo, Li Zhang, Zengyuan Niu, Xiwen Ye, Zhixu Tang, Shuwei Xia
In this study, we describe a high-throughput and sensitive method for textiles analysis, using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS), for the simultaneously quantitative analysis of 40 target alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO) oligomers with reference standards and screening of 160 alcohol polyethoxylates (AEO) oligomers without standards in textiles. The APEOs contain nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) and octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEOs) with an EO number of ethylene oxide of 1-20, while AEOs focus on C11EOs-C18EOs with an EO number of 1-20...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152143/therapeutic-hexapeptide-pgpipn-prevents-and-cures-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-affecting-the-expressions-of-genes-related-with-lipid-metabolism-and-oxidative-stress
#8
Nan Qi, Chen Liu, Haoran Yang, Wanrong Shi, Shenyi Wang, Yan Zhou, Cai Wei, Fang Gu, Yide Qin
PGPIPN is a therapeutic hexapeptide derived from bovine β-casein. Here we investigated the role and mechanism of this peptide on alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD). We took human hepatic cell line LO2 and hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 to establish the models of steatosis hepatocyte induced by alcohol, taken PGPIPN as pharmacological intervention. And we also established the model of AFLD mice, taken PGPIPN as therapeutic drug and glutathione (GSH) as positive control. We assayed the biochemical materials related to liver injury, lipid metabolism and oxidation, and observed morphology change and fat accumulation of hepatocyte...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150721/adaptive-snp-set-association-testing-in-generalized-linear-mixed-models-with-application-to-family-studies
#9
Jun Young Park, Chong Wu, Saonli Basu, Matt McGue, Wei Pan
In genome-wide association studies (GWAS), it has been increasingly recognized that, as a complementary approach to standard single SNP analyses, it may be beneficial to analyze a group of functionally related SNPs together. Among the existent population-based SNP-set association tests, two adaptive tests, the aSPU test and the aSPUpath test, offer a powerful and general approach at the gene- and pathway-levels by data-adaptively combining the results across multiple SNPs (and genes) such that high statistical power can be maintained across a wide range of scenarios...
November 17, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149893/association-between-severity-of-illicit-drug-dependence-and-quality-of-life-in-a-psychosocial-care-center-in-brazil-cross-sectional-study
#10
Selva Rios Campêlo, Maria Alves Barbosa, Danilo Rocha Dias, Camila Cardoso Caixeta, Cláudio Rodrigues Leles, Celmo Celeno Porto
BACKGROUND: Quality of life must be one of the main purposes for the treatment of drug users, requiring a better understanding of the association between the quality of life and the severity of dependency. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between severity of substance use in various areas of human functioning and quality of life of illicit drug users in a psychosocial care center for alcohol and drugs. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 60 participants - illicit drug users - treated at a psychosocial care center for alcohol and drugs...
November 17, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149878/assessing-the-delivery-of-alcohol-screening-and-brief-intervention-in-sexual-health-clinics-in-the-north-east-of-england
#11
C Sullivan, N Martin, C White, D Newbury-Birch
BACKGROUND: Risky drinking is associated with risky sexual experiences, however the relationship between alcohol and sex is complex. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of delivering alcohol screening and brief interventions in genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics. The objectives were to; understand the levels of alcohol use amongst patients; report on the number of alcohol interventions delivered; and to analyse the relationship between alcohol use with demographic data as well as diagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to see if there were any associations...
November 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148266/nad-dependent-dehydrogenase-pctp-and-plp-dependent-aminotransferase-pctc-catalyze-the-first-post-glycosylation-modification-of-sugar-intermediate-in-pactamycin-biosynthesis
#12
Akane Hirayama, Jinmiao Chu, Ena Goto, Fumitaka Kudo, Tadashi Eguchi
The unique five-membered aminocyclitol core of the antitumor antibiotic pactamycin originates from D-glucose, so unprecedented enzymatic modifications of the sugar intermediate are involved in the biosynthesis. However, the order of the modification reactions remains elusive. Here, we examined the timing of introduction of an amino group into certain sugar-derived intermediates using recombinant enzymes that are encoded in the pactamycin biosynthesis gene cluster. We found that the NAD+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase PctP and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase PctC convert N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-3-aminoacetophonone to 3'-amino-3'-deoxy-GlcNAc-3AAP...
November 17, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146495/polysaccharides-from-citrus-grandis-l-osbeck-suppress-inflammation-and-relieve-chronic-pharyngitis
#13
Liyan Chen, Yongfeng Lai, Lei Dong, Shasha Kang, Xiumei Chen
Chronic pharyngitis, a common inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa, is often caused by bacteria, viruses, alcohol abuse, overuse of the voice and cigarettes. This study aimed to explore the effects of polysaccharides of Citrus grandis L. Osbeck (PCG) in relieving chronic pharyngitis and illustrate the underlying mechanisms. Polysaccharides were obtained from PCG by column chromatographic extraction. Six clinical symptom scores, such as the severity of itchy throat, hoarseness, pain, odynophagia, cough and otalgia were evaluated in chronic pharyngitis patients after the oral intake of PCG...
November 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146067/risky-movies-risky-behaviors-and-ethnic-identity-among-black-adolescents
#14
Amy Bleakley, Morgan E Ellithorpe, Michael Hennessy, Patrick E Jamieson, Atika Khurana, Ilana Weitz
PURPOSE: To investigate how exposure to sex, alcohol and violent content in mainstream and Black-oriented movies relates to corresponding adolescent behavior among Black youth from the United States and whether those relationships are moderated by ethnic identity. METHODS: The present study uses survey data from an online sample of 1000 Black adolescents and content analysis ratings on top-grossing 2014 films and 2013/2014 Black-oriented films. Content-specific exposure measures for alcohol, sexual activity, and violence were calculated from self-reported exposure data and content analysis ratings...
October 30, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144408/antioxidant-effect-of-barley-sprout-extract-via-enhancement-of-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2-activity-and-glutathione-synthesis
#15
Yun-Hee Lee, Sou Hyun Kim, Seunghyun Lee, Kyung-Mi Kim, Jae-Chul Jung, Tae Gen Son, Sung Hwan Ki, Woo-Duck Seo, Jae-Hwan Kwak, Jin Tae Hong, Young-Suk Jung
We previously showed that barley sprout extract (BSE) prevents chronic alcohol intake-induced liver injury in mice. BSE notably inhibited glutathione (GSH) depletion and increased inflammatory responses, revealing its mechanism of preventing alcohol-induced liver injury. In the present study we investigated whether the antioxidant effect of BSE involves enhancing nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity and GSH synthesis to inhibit alcohol-induced oxidative liver injury. Mice fed alcohol for four weeks exhibited significantly increased oxidative stress, evidenced by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) immunostaining in the liver, whereas treatment with BSE (100 mg/kg) prevented these effects...
November 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143356/on-the-ground-application-of-the-temporary-recommendation-for-use-regulatory-measure-on-off-label-use-of-baclofen-for-alcohol-dependence-in-france-a-regional-survey-of-community-pharmacies
#16
Marine Auffret, Benjamin Rolland, Anne-Sylvie Caous, Louise Gaboriau, Sylvie Deheul, Régis Bordet, Sophie Gautier
The "temporary recommendation for use" (TRU) is a French novel regulatory measure for off-label drug. The first TRU to be issued by the French drug agency (in March 2014) pertained to the off-label use of baclofen for alcohol dependence (AD). We performed a questionnaire-based survey of the on-the-ground application of the baclofen TRU among community pharmacies in northern France. A pharmacist from 70 of the 219 pharmacies contacted (response rate: 32.0%) completed the questionnaire. The mean ± standard deviation number of off-label baclofen prescriptions for AD was 2...
November 15, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143209/the-medial-vestibular-nuclei-a-vulnerable-target-in-thiamine-deficiency
#17
Jorge C Kattah, Cindy Guede, Bahareh Hassanzadeh
BACKGROUND: Bilateral medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) is a common target in thiamine depletion and results in acute vestibular failure. Involvement of the MVN was present in 27 out of 38 brainstem sections reported in the largest thiamine deficiency autopsy cohort with Wernicke's encephalopathy. METHOD: Serial clinical, imaging and vestibulo-ocular reflex gain measured with the video head impulse (vHIT) in one patient with acute thiamine deficiency. RESULTS: Low horizontal VOR gain correlated with an abnormal manual head impulse and with MRI evidence of MVN in an alcohol-dependent patient with low thiamine levels...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143133/association-of-dna-repair-genes-polymorphisms-and-mutations-with-increased-risk-of-head-and-neck-cancer-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Agata Dylawerska, Wojciech Barczak, Anna Wegner, Wojciech Golusinski, Wiktoria Maria Suchorska
DNA repair mechanisms allow maintain genomic stability and proper functioning within the cells. Any aberrations may cause an increased risk of many diseases such as cancer. The most crucial risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma are behavioral factors, predominantly chronic exposure to tobacco, alcohol addiction, and infection with human papillomavirus or Epstein-Barr virus. These agents can induce DNA damage; therefore, cells must activate appropriate mechanisms in order to function correctly...
November 15, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138110/neuronal-loss-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex-of-normal-and-bax-deficient-mice-effects-of-ethanol-exposure
#19
Sheena M Britton, Michael W Miller
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is associated with defects in neuronal generation, migration, and differentiation. The present study tested the hypothesis that ethanol exposure during the period of naturally occurring neuronal death causes a time- and Bax-dependent neuronal loss. Wild-type and Bax knockout mice were given a pair of injections (two hours apart) of ethanol (2.5 g/kg) or saline on postnatal day (P) 4, P7, P10, or P13. Mean blood ethanol concentration was 435 mg/dl one hour after the second injection...
November 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137869/morbidity-and-mortality-in-homeless-individuals-prisoners-sex-workers-and-individuals-with-substance-use-disorders-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Robert W Aldridge, Alistair Story, Stephen W Hwang, Merete Nordentoft, Serena A Luchenski, Greg Hartwell, Emily J Tweed, Dan Lewer, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Andrew C Hayward
BACKGROUND: Inclusion health focuses on people in extremely poor health due to poverty, marginalisation, and multimorbidity. We aimed to review morbidity and mortality data on four overlapping populations who experience considerable social exclusion: homeless populations, individuals with substance use disorders, sex workers, and imprisoned individuals. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published between Jan 1, 2005, and Oct 1, 2015...
November 10, 2017: Lancet
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