keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

intestinal organoids

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819250/oblique-scanning-laser-microscopy-for-simultaneously-volumetric-structural-and-molecular-imaging-using-only-one-raster-scan
#1
Lei Zhang, Amalia Capilla, Weiye Song, Gustavo Mostoslavsky, Ji Yi
Multi-modal three dimensional (3D) optical imaging combining both structural sensitivity and molecular specificity is highly desirable in biomedical research. In this paper, we present a method termed oblique scanning laser microscopy (OSLM) to combine optical coherence tomography (OCT), for simultaneously volumetric structural and molecular imaging with cellular resolution in all three dimensions. Conventional 3D laser scanning fluorescence microscopy requires repeated optical sectioning to create z-stacks in depth...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815516/gastrointestinal-epithelial-organoid-cultures-from-postsurgical-tissues
#2
Soojung Hahn, Jongman Yoo
An organoid is a cellular structure three-dimensionally (3D) cultured from self-organizing stem cells in vitro, which has a cell population, architectures, and organ specific functions like the originating organs. Recent advances in the 3D culture of isolated intestinal crypts or gastric glands have enabled the generation of human gastrointestinal epithelial organoids. Gastrointestinal organoids recapitulate the human in vivo physiology because of all the intestinal epithelial cell types that differentiated and proliferated from tissue resident stem cells...
August 17, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812582/control-of-intestinal-stem-cell-function-and-proliferation-by-mitochondrial-pyruvate-metabolism
#3
John C Schell, Dona R Wisidagama, Claire Bensard, Helong Zhao, Peng Wei, Jason Tanner, Aimee Flores, Jeffrey Mohlman, Lise K Sorensen, Christian S Earl, Kristofor A Olson, Ren Miao, T Cameron Waller, Don Delker, Priyanka Kanth, Lei Jiang, Ralph J DeBerardinis, Mary P Bronner, Dean Y Li, James E Cox, Heather R Christofk, William E Lowry, Carl S Thummel, Jared Rutter
Most differentiated cells convert glucose to pyruvate in the cytosol through glycolysis, followed by pyruvate oxidation in the mitochondria. These processes are linked by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC), which is required for efficient mitochondrial pyruvate uptake. In contrast, proliferative cells, including many cancer and stem cells, perform glycolysis robustly but limit fractional mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation. We sought to understand the role this transition from glycolysis to pyruvate oxidation plays in stem cell maintenance and differentiation...
August 14, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803915/neural-crest-cell-implantation-restores-enteric-nervous-system-function-and-alters-the-gastrointestinal-transcriptome-in-human-tissue-engineered-small-intestine
#4
Christopher R Schlieve, Kathryn L Fowler, Matthew Thornton, Sha Huang, Ibrahim Hajjali, Xiaogang Hou, Brendan Grubbs, Jason R Spence, Tracy C Grikscheit
Acquired or congenital disruption in enteric nervous system (ENS) development or function can lead to significant mechanical dysmotility. ENS restoration through cellular transplantation may provide a cure for enteric neuropathies. We have previously generated human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) from human intestinal organoids (HIOs). However, HIO-TESI fails to develop an ENS. The purpose of our study is to restore ENS components derived exclusively from hPSCs in HIO-TESI...
August 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802143/extrinsic-control-of-wnt-signaling-in-the-intestine
#5
REVIEW
Stefan Koch
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a central regulator of development and tissue homeostasis. In the intestine, Wnt signaling is primarily known as the principal organizer of epithelial stem cell identity and proliferation. Within the last decade, numerous scientific breakthroughs have shed light on epithelial self-organization in the gut, and organoids are now routinely used to study stem cell biology and intestinal pathophysiology. The contribution of non-epithelial cells to Wnt signaling in the gut has received less attention...
August 5, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789943/reciprocal-inflammatory-signaling-between-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-adipocytes-in-the-absence-of-immune-cells
#6
Yu Takahashi, Shintaro Sato, Yosuke Kurashima, Chen-Yi Lai, Makoto Otsu, Mikio Hayashi, Takayuki Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Kiyono
Visceral fat accumulation as observed in Crohn's disease and obesity is linked to chronic gut inflammation, suggesting that accumulation of gut adipocytes can trigger local inflammatory signaling. However, direct interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and adipocytes have not been investigated, in part because IEC physiology is difficult to replicate in culture. In this study, we originally prepared intact, polarized, and cytokine responsive IEC monolayers from primary or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids by simple and repeatable methods...
August 2, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766983/lkb1-ampk-modulates-nutrient-induced-changes-in-the-mode-of-division-of-intestinal-epithelial-crypt-cells-in-mice
#7
Katherine Blackmore, Weinan Zhou, Megan J Dailey
Nutrient availability influences intestinal epithelial stem cell proliferation and tissue growth. Increases in food result in a greater number of epithelial cells, villi height and crypt depth. We investigated whether this nutrient-driven expansion of the tissue is the result of a change in the mode of intestinal epithelial stem cell division and if LKB1-AMPK signaling plays a role. We utilized in vivo and in vitro experiments to test this hypothesis. C57BL/6J mice were separated into four groups and fed varying amounts of chow for 18 h: (1) ad libitum, (2) 50% of their average daily intake (3) fasted or (4) fasted for 12 h and refed...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756760/spray-delivery-of-intestinal-organoids-to-reconstitute-epithelium-on-decellularized-native-extracellular-matrix
#8
Dana M Schwartz, Meryem O Pehlivaner Kara, Allan Goldstein, Harold C Ott, Adam Ekenseair
The native extracellular matrix (ECM) serves as a unique platform for tissue engineering because it provides an organ-specific scaffold in terms of both matrix composition and tissue architecture. However, efficacious cell-seeding techniques for recellularizing the ECM constructs with appropriate cell types to restore biologic function remain under development. In this study, the impact of spraying as a seeding technique for repopulation of decellularized small intestine was investigated. In a series of experiments, CaCo-2 cells was first used to investigate the effect of spray device type and pressure on cell viability and to optimize parameters for seeding intestinal epithelial cells...
July 29, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751424/a-simple-cost-effective-method-for-generating-murine-colonic-3d-enteroids-and-2d-monolayers-for-studies-of-primary-epithelial-cell-function
#9
Elizabeth H Fernando, Michael Dicay, Martin Stahl, Marilyn H Gordon, Andrew Vegso, Cristiane Baggio, Laurie Alston, Fernando Lopes, Kristi Baker, Simon Andrew Hirota, Derek M McKay, Bruce A Vallance, Wallace K MacNaughton
Cancer cell lines have been the mainstay of intestinal epithelial experimentation for decades, due primarily to their immortality and ease of culture. However, because of the inherent biological abnormalities of cancer cell lines, many cellular biologists are currently transitioning away from these models, and toward more representative primary cells. This has been particularly challenging, but recent advances in the generation of intestinal organoids have brought the routine use of primary cells within reach of most epithelial biologists...
July 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750888/the-tumor-suppressor-cyld-controls-epithelial-morphogenesis-and-homeostasis-by-regulating-mitotic-spindle-behavior-and-adherens-junction-assembly
#10
Wei Xie, Yunfan Yang, Siqi Gao, Ting Song, Yuhan Wu, Dengwen Li, Min Liu, Jun Zhou
Epithelial morphogenesis and homeostasis are essential for animal development and tissue regeneration, and epithelial disorganization is associated with developmental disorders and tumorigenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the morphogenesis and homeostasis of the epithelium remain elusive. Herein, we report a novel role for the cylindromatosis (CYLD) tumor suppressor in these events. Our results show that CYLD depletion disrupts epithelial organization in both Drosophila egg chambers and mouse skin and intestinal epithelia...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750869/probiotic-lactobacillus-acidophilus-bacteria-or-synthetic-tlr2-agonist-boost-the-growth-of-chicken-embryo-intestinal-organoids-in-cultures-comprising-epithelial-cells-and-myofibroblasts
#11
Malgorzata Pierzchalska, Malgorzata Panek, Malgorzata Czyrnek, Anna Gielicz, Barbara Mickowska, Maja Grabacka
The intestinal epithelial cells reside in close proximity to myofibroblasts and microbiota, which are supposed to have an impact on intestinal stem cells fate and to influence processes of tissue maturation and regeneration. Mechanism underlying these phenomena and their diversity among vertebrates can be studied in 3D organoid cultures. We investigated the growth of chicken embryo intestinal epithelial organoids in Matrigel with and without Toll-like receptors (TLRs) stimulation. The organoid cultures contained also some myofibroblasts with potential to promote intestinal stem cell survival...
August 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745625/a-protocol-for-multiple-gene-knockout-in-mouse-small-intestinal-organoids-using-a-crispr-concatemer
#12
Alessandra Merenda, Amanda Andersson-Rolf, Roxana C Mustata, Taibo Li, Hyunki Kim, Bon-Kyoung Koo
CRISPR/Cas9 technology has greatly improved the feasibility and speed of loss-of-function studies that are essential in understanding gene function. In higher eukaryotes, paralogous genes can mask a potential phenotype by compensating the loss of a gene, thus limiting the information that can be obtained from genetic studies relying on single gene knockouts. We have developed a novel, rapid cloning method for guide RNA (gRNA) concatemers in order to create multi-gene knockouts following a single round of transfection in mouse small intestinal organoids...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724787/disrupted-apical-exocytosis-of-cargo-vesicles-causes-enteropathy-in-fhl5-patients-with-munc18-2-mutations
#13
Georg F Vogel, Jorik M van Rijn, Iris M Krainer, Andreas R Janecke, Carsten Posovzsky, Marta Cohen, Claire Searle, Prevost Jantchou, Johanna C Escher, Natalie Patey, Ernest Cutz, Thomas Müller, Sabine Middendorp, Michael W Hess, Lukas A Huber
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 5 (FHL5) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in STXBP2, coding for Munc18-2, which is required for SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. FHL5 causes hematologic and gastrointestinal symptoms characterized by chronic enteropathy that is reminiscent of microvillus inclusion disease (MVID). However, the molecular pathophysiology of FHL5-associated diarrhea is poorly understood. Five FHL5 patients, including four previously unreported patients, were studied...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720124/defining-the-role-of-lgr5-stem-cells-in-colorectal-cancer-from-basic-research-to-clinical-applications
#14
Masayuki Fujii, Toshiro Sato
Intestinal epithelium is structured by two distinct components: the villi and the crypts. The crypts harbor stem cells expressing Lgr5 and thus have been a representative model to study tissue stem cell functions. Recent advances in organoid technology and analytical modalities have enabled precise characterization of Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells, providing insights into their roles in homeostasis and cancer.
July 18, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717211/epithelial-cell-specific-raptor-is-required-for-initiation-of-type-2-mucosal-immunity-in-small-intestine
#15
Bola Aladegbami, Lauren Barron, James Bao, Jason Colasanti, Christopher R Erwin, Brad W Warner, Jun Guo
Intestinal tuft cells are one of 4 secretory cell linages in the small intestine and the source of IL-25, a critical initiator of the type 2 immune response to parasite infection. When Raptor, a critical scaffold protein for mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), was acutely deleted in intestinal epithelium via Tamoxifen injection in Tritrichomonas muris (Tm) infected mice, tuft cells, IL-25 in epithelium and IL-13 in the mesenchyme were significantly reduced, but Tm burden was not affected. When Tm infected mice were treated with rapamycin, DCLK1 and IL-25 expression in enterocytes and IL-13 expression in mesenchyme were diminished...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716720/met-signaling-mediates-intestinal-crypt-villus-development-regeneration-and-adenoma-formation-and-is-promoted-by-stem-cell-cd44-isoforms
#16
Sander P J Joosten, Jurrit Zeilstra, Harmen van Andel, R Clinton Mijnals, Joost Zaunbrecher, Annet A M Duivenvoorden, Marc van de Wetering, Hans Clevers, Marcel Spaargaren, Steven T Pals
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Resistance of metastatic human colorectal cancer cells to drugs that block epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling could be caused by aberrant activity of other receptor tyrosine kinases, activating overlapping signaling pathways. One of these receptor tyrosine kinases could be MET, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We investigated how MET signaling, and its interaction with CD44 (a putative MET co-receptor regulated by Wnt signaling and highly expressed by intestinal stem cells [ISCs] and adenomas) affects intestinal homeostasis, regeneration, and adenoma formation in mini-gut organoids and mice...
July 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659914/cell-polarization-and-epigenetic-status-shape-the-heterogeneous-response-to-type-iii-interferons-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#17
Sudeep Bhushal, Markus Wolfsmüller, Tharini A Selvakumar, Lucas Kemper, Dagmar Wirth, Mathias W Hornef, Hansjörg Hauser, Mario Köster
Type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are crucial components of the first-line antiviral host response. While specific receptors for both IFN types exist, intracellular signaling shares the same Jak-STAT pathway. Due to its receptor expression, IFN-λ responsiveness is restricted mainly to epithelial cells. Here, we display IFN-stimulated gene induction at the single cell level to comparatively analyze the activities of both IFN types in intestinal epithelial cells and mini-gut organoids. Initially, we noticed that the response to both types of IFNs at low concentrations is based on a single cell decision-making determining the total cell intrinsic antiviral activity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648659/enterochromaffin-cells-are-gut-chemosensors-that-couple-to-sensory-neural-pathways
#18
Nicholas W Bellono, James R Bayrer, Duncan B Leitch, Joel Castro, Chuchu Zhang, Tracey A O'Donnell, Stuart M Brierley, Holly A Ingraham, David Julius
Dietary, microbial, and inflammatory factors modulate the gut-brain axis and influence physiological processes ranging from metabolism to cognition. The gut epithelium is a principal site for detecting such agents, but precisely how it communicates with neural elements is poorly understood. Serotonergic enterochromaffin (EC) cells are proposed to fulfill this role by acting as chemosensors, but understanding how these rare and unique cell types transduce chemosensory information to the nervous system has been hampered by their paucity and inaccessibility to single-cell measurements...
June 29, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648364/differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-colonic-organoids-via-transient-activation-of-bmp-signaling
#19
Jorge O Múnera, Nambirajan Sundaram, Scott A Rankin, David Hill, Carey Watson, Maxime Mahe, Jefferson E Vallance, Noah F Shroyer, Katie L Sinagoga, Adrian Zarzoso-Lacoste, Jonathan R Hudson, Jonathan C Howell, Praneet Chatuvedi, Jason R Spence, John M Shannon, Aaron M Zorn, Michael A Helmrath, James M Wells
Gastric and small intestinal organoids differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have revolutionized the study of gastrointestinal development and disease. Distal gut tissues such as cecum and colon, however, have proved considerably more challenging to derive in vitro. Here we report the differentiation of human colonic organoids (HCOs) from hPSCs. We found that BMP signaling is required to establish a posterior SATB2+ domain in developing and postnatal intestinal epithelium. Brief activation of BMP signaling is sufficient to activate a posterior HOX code and direct hPSC-derived gut tube cultures into HCOs...
July 6, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646678/bioengineering-for-intestinal-organoid-cultures
#20
REVIEW
Ge-Ah Kim, Jason R Spence, Shuichi Takayama
Recent advances allow access to human cell-based intestinal organoids that recreate human physiology to levels not possible with conventional 2D cell cultures. Despite their huge potential, there are many challenges that remain. This review will cover recent bioengineering approaches to improve organoid maturation, scale up, reproducibility and analysis. The first section covers the advances in engineering the culture environment, followed by the section on tools for micro-manipulation and analysis of organoids...
June 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
keyword
keyword
50244
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"