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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932304/vitamin-d-and-type-2-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Paul Lips, Marelise Eekhoff, Natasja Vzn Schoor, Mirjam Oosterwerff, Renate de Jongh, Yvonne Krul-Poel, Suat Simsek
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a decreased insulin release, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in experimental and epidemiological studies. Animal studies show that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) stimulates the pancreatic β-cell to secrete insulin. The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance could develop through inflammation, as vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased inflammatory markers. In addition, genetic polymorphisms of vitamin D -related genes may predispose to impaired glycemic control and type 2 diabetes...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930510/cxc-motif-chemokine-receptor-4-gene-polymorphism-and-cancer-risk
#2
Yang Wu, Chun Zhang, Weizhang Xu, Jianzhong Zhang, Yuxiao Zheng, Zipeng Lu, Dongfang Liu, Kuirong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiological studies have reported the relationship between CXC motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) synonymous polymorphism (rs2228014), and risk of cancer, but the results remained conflicting and controversial. Therefore, this study was devised to evaluate the genetic effects of the rs2228014 polymorphism on cancer risk in a large meta-analysis. METHODS: The computer-based databases (EMBASE, Web of Science, and PubMed) were searched for all relevant studies evaluating rs2228014 and susceptibility to cancer...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928437/increased-copeptin-levels-in-metabolic-syndrome-from-a-romanian-population
#3
Vintilă M, Gheorghiu Ml, Caragheorgheopol A, Baculescu N, Lichiardopol C, Badiu C, Coculescu M, Grigorescu F, Poiană C
Rationale: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is secreted under conditions of water deprivation. Since AVP has a low half-life in the plasma, the C-terminal fragment of AVP-precursor (copeptin) was used to estimate the AVP levels. High copeptin levels increase the risk for the development of diabetes mellitus. Aim: This study was aimed to measure copeptin levels in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Romanians using a competitive enzyme immunoassay. Methods and results: Patients prone to present MetS (n = 63) were compared to controls (n = 42)...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927935/large-scale-identification-of-patients-with-cerebral-aneurysms-using-natural-language-processing
#4
Victor M Castro, Dmitriy Dligach, Sean Finan, Sheng Yu, Anil Can, Muhammad Abd-El-Barr, Vivian Gainer, Nancy A Shadick, Shawn Murphy, Tianxi Cai, Guergana Savova, Scott T Weiss, Rose Du
OBJECTIVE: To use natural language processing (NLP) in conjunction with the electronic medical record (EMR) to accurately identify patients with cerebral aneurysms and their matched controls. METHODS: ICD-9 and Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to obtain an initial data mart of potential aneurysm patients from the EMR. NLP was then used to train a classification algorithm with .632 bootstrap cross-validation used for correction of overfitting bias. The classification rule was then applied to the full data mart...
December 7, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927274/characterization-of-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-prevalence-in-humans-and-poultry-in-huai-an-china-molecular-epidemiology-phylogenetic-and-dynamics-analyses
#5
Peng Fei Yang, Qing Li Yan, Chun Cheng Liu, Ya Dong Xing, Min Hui Zhang, Qiang Gao, Hao Yu, Hai Bo Yao, Nan Jiang He
OBJECTIVE: To trace the source of human H7N9 cases in Huai'an and elucidate the genetic characterization of Huai'an strains associated with both humans and birds in live poultry market. METHODS: An enhanced surveillance was implemented when the first human H7N9 case was confirmed in Huai'an. Clinical specimens, cloacal swabs, and fecal samples were collected and screened by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for H7N9 virus. The positive samples were subjected to further RT-PCR and genome sequencing...
October 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925785/accelerating-scientific-advancement-for-pediatric-rare-lung-disease-research-report-from-a-national-institutes-of-health-nhlbi-workshop-september-3-and-4-2015
#6
Lisa R Young, Bruce C Trapnell, Kenneth D Mandl, Daniel T Swarr, Jennifer A Wambach, Carol J Blaisdell
Pediatric rare lung disease (PRLD) is a term that refers to a heterogeneous group of rare disorders in children. In recent years, this field has experienced significant progress marked by scientific discoveries, multicenter and interdisciplinary collaborations, and efforts of patient advocates. Although genetic mechanisms underlie many PRLDs, pathogenesis remains uncertain for many of these disorders. Furthermore, epidemiology and natural history are insufficiently defined, and therapies are limited. To develop strategies to accelerate scientific advancement for PRLD research, the NHLBI of the National Institutes of Health convened a strategic planning workshop on September 3 and 4, 2015...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925593/a-review-of-machine-learning-and-statistical-approaches-for-detecting-snp-interactions-in-high-dimensional-genomic-data
#7
Suneetha Uppu, Aneesh Krishna, Raj Gopalan
In this era of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the quest for understanding the genetic architecture of complex diseases is rapidly increasing more than ever before. The development of high throughput genotyping and next generation sequencing technologies enables genetic epidemiological analysis of large scale data. These advances have led to the identification of a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) responsible for disease susceptibility. The interactions between SNPs associated with complex diseases are increasingly being explored in the current literature...
December 2, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924809/global-molecular-epidemiology-and-genetic-diversity-of-fusarium-a-significant-emerging-group-of-human-opportunists-from-1958-to-2015
#8
Abdullah Ms Al-Hatmi, Ferry Hagen, Steph Bj Menken, Jacques F Meis, G Sybren de Hoog
Fusarium is a rapidly emerging, multidrug-resistant genus of fungal opportunists that was first identified in 1958 and is presently recognized in numerous cases of fusariosis each year. The authors examined trends in global Fusarium distribution, clinical presentation and prevalence since 1958 with the assumption that their distributions in each region had remained unaltered. The phylogeny and epidemiology of 127 geographically diverse isolates, representing 26 Fusarium species, were evaluated using partial sequences of the RPB2 and TEF1 genes, and compared with AFLP fingerprinting data...
December 7, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924684/fifteen-years-of-epidemiologic-virologic-and-syndromic-influenza-surveillance-a-focus-on-type-b-virus-and-the-effects-of-vaccine-mismatch-in-liguria-region-italy
#9
Cecilia Trucchi, Cristiano Alicino, Andrea Orsi, Chiara Paganino C, Ilaria Barberis, Federico Grammatico, Paola Canepa, Emanuela Rappazzo, Bianca Bruzzone, Laura Sticchi, Filippo Ansaldi
In order to estimate the burden of influenza and to describe the genetic evolutionary pattern and antigenic variability of type B viral strains, data deriving from three surveillance systems active in Liguria region, Northern Italy, were described. Since the re-emergence of the Victoria lineage in 2001, the clinical-epidemiological and syndromic surveillances demonstrated the heavy burden of influenza like illness (ILI) syndrome. Focusing on type B influenza virus, it predominated or played a relevant epidemic role in the 50% of the evaluated influenza seasons...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924642/development-of-an-rt-qpcr-assay-for-the-specific-detection-of-a-distinct-genetic-lineage-of-the-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#10
Gonzalo Tomás, Martín Hernández, Ana Marandino, Claudia Techera, Sofia Grecco, Diego Hernández, Alejandro Banda, Yanina Panzera, Ruben Pérez
The infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major health threat to the world's poultry industry despite intensive controls including proper biosafety practices and vaccination. IBDV (Avibirnavirus, Birnaviridae) is a non-enveloped virus with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome. The virus is traditionally classified into classic, variant and very virulent strains, each with different epidemiological relevance and clinical implications. Recently, a novel worldwide spread genetic lineage was described and denoted as distinct (d) IBDV...
December 7, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922502/the-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophies-and-the-dystrophinopathies
#11
Stanley Jones P Iyadurai, John T Kissel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The classic approach to identifying and accurately diagnosing limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) relied heavily on phenotypic characterization and ancillary studies including muscle biopsy. Because of rapid advances in genetic sequencing methodologies, several additional LGMDs have been molecularly characterized, and the diagnostic approach to these disorders has been simplified. This article summarizes the epidemiology, clinical features, and genetic defects underlying the LGMDs...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920173/invasiveness-of-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus-and-vectorial-capacity-for-chikungunya-virus
#12
Leon Philip Lounibos, Laura D Kramer
In this review, we highlight biological characteristics of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, 2 invasive mosquito species and primary vectors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), that set the tone of these species' invasiveness, vector competence, and vectorial capacity (VC). The invasiveness of both species, as well as their public health threats as vectors, is enhanced by preference for human blood. Vector competence, characterized by the efficiency of an ingested arbovirus to replicate and become infectious in the mosquito, depends largely on vector and virus genetics, and most A...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920172/how-chikungunya-virus-virology-affects-its-epidemiology-and-transmission-implications-for-influencing-public-health
#13
Ann M Powers
Chikungunya virus has been causing a series of ongoing epidemics around the globe for the past 12 years. During that time, estimates indicate that >4 million cases occurred worldwide. Despite the magnitude of these outbreaks and the broad interest in understanding the virus and disease, significant gaps still exist in our knowledge base. An in-depth understanding of the basic virological elements that can affect the epidemiology of the agent is critical for future development of control and treatment products...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919898/a-prolonged-outbreak-of-kpc-3-producing-enterobacter-cloacae-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-driven-by-multiple-mechanisms-of-resistance-transmission-at-a-large-academic-burn-center
#14
Hajime Kanamori, Christian M Parobek, Jonathan J Juliano, David van Duin, Bruce A Cairns, David J Weber, William A Rutala
Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacter cloacae have been recently recognized in the United States. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has become a useful tool for analysis of outbreaks and for determining transmission networks of multidrug-resistant organisms in healthcare settings, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). We experienced a prolonged outbreak of CRE of E. cloacae and K. pneumoniae over a three-year period at a large academic burn center despite rigorous infection control measures...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919056/autoimmune-choreas
#15
REVIEW
Francisco Cardoso
Chorea, a movement disorder characterised by a continuous flow of unpredictable muscle contractions, has a myriad of genetic and non-genetic causes. Although autoimmune processes are rare aetiology of chorea, they are relevant both for researchers and clinicians. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features, pathogenesis and management of the most common autoimmune causes of chorea. Emphasis is given particularly to Sydenham's chorea, systemic lupus erythematosus, primary antiphospolipid antibody syndrome, paraneoplastic chorea and anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917368/sex-steroid-hormone-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-pesticide-use-and-the-risk-of-prostate-cancer-a-nested-case-control-study-within-the-agricultural-health-study
#16
Carol H Christensen, Kathryn Hughes Barry, Gabriella Andreotti, Michael C R Alavanja, Michael B Cook, Scott P Kelly, Laurie A Burdett, Meredith Yeager, Laura E Beane Freeman, Sonja I Berndt, Stella Koutros
Experimental and epidemiologic investigations suggest that certain pesticides may alter sex steroid hormone synthesis, metabolism or regulation, and the risk of hormone-related cancers. Here, we evaluated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in hormone homeostasis alter the effect of pesticide exposure on prostate cancer risk. We evaluated pesticide-SNP interactions between 39 pesticides and SNPs with respect to prostate cancer among 776 cases and 1,444 controls nested in the Agricultural Health Study cohort...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916258/the-apicoplast-genomes-of-two-taxonomic-units-of-babesia-from-sheep
#17
Tao Wang, Guiquan Guan, Pasi K Korhonen, Anson V Koehler, Ross S Hall, Neil D Young, Hong Yin, Robin B Gasser
The apicoplast (ap) is a unique, non-photosynthetic organelle found in most apicomplexan parasites. Due to the essential roles that this organelle has, it has been widely considered as target for drugs against diseases caused by apicomplexans. Exploring the ap genomes of such parasites would provide a better understanding of their systematics and their basic molecular biology for therapeutics. However, there is limited information available on the ap genomes of apicomplexan parasites. In the present study, the ap genomes of two operational taxonomic units of Babesia (known as Babesia sp...
November 6, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915089/complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-parasitic-nematode-cylicocyclus-nassatus-and-comparative-analyses-with-cylicocyclus-insigne
#18
Yuan Gao, Jian-Hua Qiu, Bing-Bing Zhang, Xin Su, Xue Fu, Dong-Mei Yue, Chun-Ren Wang
Cylicocyclus nassatus is a common and important parasite in the large intestine of equine. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of C. nassatus was determined and comparatively analysed with Cylicocyclus insigne. The mt genome size of C. nassatus was 13,846 bp, 18 bp longer than that of C. insigne. The circular mt genome includes 12 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and two non-coding regions. All the genes are transcribed in the same direction and gene arrangement is consistent with that of gene arrangement 3 (GA3)...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914655/crohn-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Joana Torres, Saurabh Mehandru, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, with increasing incidence worldwide. Crohn's disease might result from a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and altered gut microbiota, leading to dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. The typical clinical scenario is a young patient presenting with abdominal pain, chronic diarrhoea, weight loss, and fatigue. Assessment of disease extent and of prognostic factors for complications is paramount to guide therapeutic decisions...
November 30, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913979/genetic-diversity-of-the-genotype-vii-newcastle-disease-virus-identification-of-a-novel-viij-sub-genotype
#20
Cong Xue, Yanlong Cong, Renfu Yin, Yixue Sun, Chan Ding, Shengqing Yu, Xiufan Liu, Shunlin Hu, Jing Qian, Qianliang Yuan, Mingxi Yang, Chunfeng Wang, Zhuang Ding
Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of poultry caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Multiple genotypes of NDV have been circulating worldwide and NDV is continuously evolving, resulting into more diversity. Of multiple viral genotypes, VII is particularly important given that it had been associated with most recent ND outbreaks worldwide. In this study, an epidemiological investigation performed in northeastern China during 2014-2015 showed that 11 genotype VII isolates amounted to 55 percent in a total number of NDV isolates...
December 2, 2016: Virus Genes
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