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genetic epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732187/do-genetic-markers-of-inflammation-modify-the-relationship-between-periodontitis-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-findings-from-the-ship-study
#1
A A Akinkugbe, C L Avery, A S Barritt, S R Cole, M Lerch, J Mayerle, S Offenbacher, A Petersmann, M Nauck, H Völzke, G D Slade, G Heiss, T Kocher, B Holtfreter
An association between periodontitis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported by experimental animal and epidemiologic studies. This study investigated whether circulating levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and a weighted genetic CRP score representing markers of inflammatory burden modify the association between periodontitis and NAFLD. Data came from 2,481 participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania who attended baseline examination that occurred between 1997 and 2001. Periodontitis was defined as the percentage of sites (0%, <30%, ≥30%) with probing pocket depth (PD) ≥4 mm, and NAFLD status was determined using liver ultrasound assessment...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732083/apol1-risk-alleles-among-individuals-with-ckd-in-northern-tanzania-a-pilot-study
#2
John W Stanifer, Francis Karia, Venance Maro, Kajiru Kilonzo, Xuejun Qin, Uptal D Patel, Elizabeth R Hauser
INTRODUCTION: In sub-Saharan Africa, approximately 100 million people have CKD, yet genetic risk factors are not well-understood. Despite the potential importance of understanding APOL1 risk allele status among individuals with CKD, little genetic research has been conducted. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study evaluating the feasibility of and willingness to participate in genetic research on kidney disease, and we estimated APOL1 risk allele frequencies among individuals with CKD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731995/-update-on-chronic-pancreatitis-review-article
#3
Frank Czul, Emmanuel Coronel, Jean A Donet
Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive fibro-inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by irreversible fibrosis of the gland with eventual failure of exocrine and endocrine functions and hallmark features of abdominal pain, malabsorption, malnutrition, diabetes mellitus and pancreatic calcifications. In many patients this disease results from a complex mix of environmental (eg, alcohol, cigarettes, and occupational chemicals), genetic factors and a few patients with hereditary or autoimmune disease...
April 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731861/genetic-control-of-apoprotein-a-i-and-atheroprotection-some-insights-from-inbred-strains-of-mice
#4
Godfrey S Getz, Catherine A Reardon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Previous epidemiological studies and studies in experimental animals have provided strong evidence for the atheroprotective effect of HDL and its major apoprotein, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). Identification of genetic loci associating apoA-I/HDL with cardiovascular disease is needed to establish a causal relationship. RECENT FINDINGS: Pharmacological interventions to increase apoA-I or HDL cholesterol levels in humans are not associated with reduction in atherosclerosis...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731859/air-pollution-and-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-and-future-directions
#5
REVIEW
Natalia Palacios
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology that is thought to be caused by a complex combination of environmental and/or genetic factors. Air pollution exposure is linked to numerous adverse effects on human health, including brain inflammation and oxidative stress, processes that are believed to contribute to the development and progression of PD. This review provides an overview of recent advances in the epidemiology of air pollution and PD, including evidence of the effects of various pollutants (ozone, PM10, PM2...
July 21, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730970/healthy-diet-and-reduction-of-chronic-disease-risks-of-night-shift-workers
#6
Giovanni M Ferri, Domenica Cavone, Graziana Intranuovo, Linda Macinagrossa
BACKGROUND: The large increase in epidemiological studies on night shift work is due to the important effects of night shift work on workers' health and psychophysical wellbeing. The short-term effects-insomnia, difficulties in managing work and private life, lower work performance, and more work and extra-work accidents-are easily studied. However, there are several long-term effects that are difficult to study because of the need for detailed exposure assessment and the long latency periods of these diseases...
July 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729708/new-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-beijing-clonal-complexes-in-china-revealed-by-phylogenetic-and-bayesian-population-structure-analyses-of-24-loci-miru-vntrs
#7
Chao Zheng, Yann Reynaud, Changsong Zhao, Thierry Zozio, Song Li, Dongxia Luo, Qun Sun, Nalin Rastogi
Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis constitutes the most predominant lineage in East Asia. Beijing epidemiology, evolutionary history, genetics are studied in details for years revealing probable origin from China followed by worldwide expansion, partially linked to higher mutation rate, hypervirulence, drug-resistance, and association with cases of mixed infections. Considering huge amount of data available for 24-loci Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats, we performed detailed phylogenetic and Bayesian population structure analyses of Beijing lineage strains in mainland China and Taiwan using available 24-loci MIRU-VNTR data extracted from publications or the SITVIT2 database (n = 1490)...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729090/the-overlap-between-essential-tremor-and-parkinson-disease
#8
Musleh Algarni, Alfonso Fasano
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are common disorders especially in the aging population and can have overlapping features that can make it difficult to differentiate between the two. In addition, a possible overlap from a pathophysiological standpoint has been often advocated in the past. METHODS: In this review article, we gather the recent evidence in favor or against a possible relationship between ET and PD. This exercise follows the new advances in the field of tremor from both a pathophysiological and nosological perspective...
July 12, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728857/-rosacea-new-data-for-better-care
#9
B Cribier
In the last 10 years, numerous studies have been published that throw new light on rosacea, in all areas of the disease. This overview summarises all the key developments, based on the indexed bibliography appearing in Medline between 2007 and 2017. Recent epidemiological data show that the prevalence of the disease is doubtless greater than estimated hitherto (more than 10% of adults in some countries) and that we should not overlook rosacea in subjects with skin phototypes V or VI, a condition that exists on all continents...
July 17, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726130/transmission-network-characteristics-based-on-env-and-gag-sequences-from-msm-during-acute-hiv-1-infection-in-beijing-china
#10
Zhimin Zhang, Lili Dai, Yan Jiang, Kaidi Feng, Lifeng Liu, Wei Xia, Fengjiao Yu, Jun Yao, Wenge Xing, Lijun Sun, Tong Zhang, Hao Wu, Bin Su, Maofeng Qiu
Molecular epidemiology can be used to identify human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission clusters, usually using pol sequence for analysis. In the present study, we explored appropriate parameters to construct a simple network using HIV env and gag sequences instead of pol sequences for constructing a phylogenetic tree and a genetic transmission subnetwork, which were used to identify individuals with many potential transmission links and to explore the evolutionary dynamics of the virus among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing...
July 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725045/genomic-epidemiology-of-global-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carbapenemase-kpc-producing-escherichia-coli
#11
N Stoesser, A E Sheppard, G Peirano, L W Anson, L Pankhurst, R Sebra, H T T Phan, A Kasarskis, A J Mathers, T E A Peto, P Bradford, M R Motyl, A S Walker, D W Crook, J D Pitout
The dissemination of carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli has major implications for the management of common infections. bla KPC, encoding a transmissible carbapenemase (KPC), has historically largely been associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae, a predominant plasmid (pKpQIL), and a specific transposable element (Tn4401, ~10 kb). Here we characterize the genetic features of bla KPC emergence in global E. coli, 2008-2013, using both long- and short-read whole-genome sequencing. Amongst 43/45 successfully sequenced bla KPC-E...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725034/common-shared-genetic-variation-behind-decreased-risk-of-breast-cancer-in-celiac-disease
#12
Emilio Ugalde-Morales, Jingmei Li, Keith Humphreys, Jonas F Ludvigsson, Haomin Yang, Per Hall, Kamila Czene
There is epidemiologic evidence showing that women with celiac disease have reduced risk of later developing breast cancer, however, the etiology of this association is unclear. Here, we assess the extent of genetic overlap between the two diseases. Through analyses of summary statistics on densely genotyped immunogenic regions, we show a significant genetic correlation (r = -0.17, s.e. 0.05, P < 0.001) and overlap (P permuted < 0.001) between celiac disease and breast cancer. Using individual-level genotype data from a Swedish cohort, we find higher genetic susceptibility to celiac disease summarized by polygenic risk scores to be associated with lower breast cancer risk (ORper-SD, 0...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724417/examining-the-role-of-unmeasured-confounding-in-mediation-analysis-with-genetic-and-genomic-applications
#13
Sharon M Lutz, Annie Thwing, Sarah Schmiege, Miranda Kroehl, Christopher D Baker, Anne P Starling, John E Hokanson, Debashis Ghosh
BACKGROUND: In mediation analysis if unmeasured confounding is present, the estimates for the direct and mediated effects may be over or under estimated. Most methods for the sensitivity analysis of unmeasured confounding in mediation have focused on the mediator-outcome relationship. RESULTS: The Umediation R package enables the user to simulate unmeasured confounding of the exposure-mediator, exposure-outcome, and mediator-outcome relationships in order to see how the results of the mediation analysis would change in the presence of unmeasured confounding...
July 19, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723901/2b-rad-genotyping-for-population-genomic-studies-of-chagas-disease-vectors-rhodnius-ecuadoriensis-in-ecuador
#14
Luis E Hernandez-Castro, Marta Paterno, Anita G Villacís, Björn Andersson, Jaime A Costales, Michele De Noia, Sofía Ocaña-Mayorga, Cesar A Yumiseva, Mario J Grijalva, Martin S Llewellyn
BACKGROUND: Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is the main triatomine vector of Chagas disease, American trypanosomiasis, in Southern Ecuador and Northern Peru. Genomic approaches and next generation sequencing technologies have become powerful tools for investigating population diversity and structure which is a key consideration for vector control. Here we assess the effectiveness of three different 2b restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD) genotyping strategies in R. ecuadoriensis to provide sufficient genomic resolution to tease apart microevolutionary processes and undertake some pilot population genomic analyses...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722366/-large-vessel-vasculitis-pathogenesis-diagnostic-and-medical-management
#15
Alireza Sadrkhah, Jörg D Seebach, Yannick Muller
Large vessels vasculitis includes two diseases : 1) giant cell arteritis, formerly known as Horton's arteritis and 2) Takayasu arteritis. In this article, we will describe and compare the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria and medical management of both vasculitis. T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 responses, genetic links and the role of viral (varicella zoster) and bacterial infection (Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Chlamydia pneumoniae) will be discussed. Classification criteria, inflammation biomarkers and progress in imaging tools will also be described...
April 5, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720300/epidemiological-study-of-gastric-helicobacter-spp-in-dogs-with-gastrointestinal-disease-in-japan-and-diversity-of-helicobacter-heilmannii-sensu-stricto
#16
Sanae Kubota-Aizawa, Koichi Ohno, Kenjiro Fukushima, Hideyuki Kanemoto, Ko Nakashima, Kazuyuki Uchida, James K Chambers, Yuko Goto-Koshino, Takayasu Watanabe, Tsutomu Sekizaki, Hitomi Mimuro, Hajime Tsujimoto
Epidemiological and pathological studies of Helicobacter spp. in canine stomachs in Japan were performed to investigate strain specific pathogenicity. Gastric biopsies from 144 dogs with gastrointestinal diseases were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter spp. using genus and species specific PCRs for Helicobacter felis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii, Helicobacter heilmannii sensu stricto (s.s.) and Helicobacter pylori. PCR indicated that 50/144 (34.7%) dogs were infected with Helicobacter spp. Of the genus positive samples, 21/50 could not be amplified by any of the species specific PCRs...
July 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720110/molecular-characterisation-of-protist-parasites-in-human-habituated-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-humans-and-livestock-from-bwindi-impenetrable-national-park-uganda
#17
Matthew J Nolan, Melisa Unger, Yuen-Ting Yeap, Emma Rogers, Ilary Millet, Kimberley Harman, Mark Fox, Gladys Kalema-Zikusoka, Damer P Blake
BACKGROUND: Over 60 % of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, and there is growing evidence of the zooanthroponotic transmission of diseases from humans to livestock and wildlife species, with major implications for public health, economics, and conservation. Zooanthroponoses are of relevance to critically endangered species; amongst these is the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) of Uganda. Here, we assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Giardia, and Entamoeba infecting mountain gorillas in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP), Uganda, using molecular methods...
July 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719948/isolation-and-genotyping-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-brazilian-dogs
#18
Jamille Rodrigues da Silva, Bianca Mendes Maciel, Luana Karla Nogueira de Santana Souza Santos, Fábio Santos Carvalho, Daniele de Santana Rocha, Carlos Wilson Gomes Lopes, George Rêgo Albuquerque
Strains of Toxoplasma gondii in Brazil are highly genetically diverse compared to strains from North America and Europe. Dogs are epidemiologically important because they act as sentinels for T. gondii infections in humans and are good indicators of environmental contamination. The aim of this study was to isolate and genetically characterize T. gondii strains from tissues of naturally infected Brazilian dogs. For this study, 21 blood samples were collected from dogs at the Zoonosis Control Centers of Ilhéus and Itabuna cities, Bahia, Brazil...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718884/dispersal-host-genotype-and-environment-shape-the-spatial-dynamics-of-a-parasite-in-the-wild
#19
Adam Ekholm, Tomas Roslin, Pertti Pulkkinen, Ayco Jm Tack
Dispersal, environment and genetic variation may all play a role in shaping host-parasite dynamics. Yet, in natural systems, their relative importance remains unresolved. Here, we do so for the epidemiology of a specialist parasite (Erysiphe alphitoides) on the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur). For this purpose, we combine evidence from a multi-year field survey and two dispersal experiments, all conducted at the landscape scale. Patterns detected in the field survey suggest that the parasite is structured as a metapopulation, with trees in denser oak stands characterized by higher parasite occupancy, higher colonization rates and lower extinction rates...
July 18, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718431/racial-differences-in-cancer-susceptibility-and-survival-more-than-the-color-of-the-skin
#20
REVIEW
Berna C Özdemir, Gian-Paolo Dotto
Epidemiological studies point to race as a determining factor in cancer susceptibility. In US registries recording cancer incidence and survival by race (distinguishing 'black versus white'), individuals of African ancestry have a globally increased risk of malignancies compared with Caucasians and Asian Americans. Differences in socioeconomic status and health-care access play a key role. However, the lesser disease susceptibility of Hispanic populations with comparable lifestyles and socioeconomic status as African Americans (Hispanic paradox) points to the concomitant importance of genetic determinants...
March 2017: Trends in Cancer
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