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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645180/alcohol-metabolism-and-oesophageal-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#1
Marco Matejcic, M J Gunter, Pietro Ferrari
Alcohol is a major risk factor for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the most prevalent histological subtype of oesophageal cancer (OC) worldwide. The metabolism of alcohol is regulated by specific enzymes whose activity and expression is influenced by genetic polymorphisms. We conducted a systematic review of current epidemiological evidence of the relationship between alcohol intake and OC risk, including the role of tobacco smoking and functional polymorphisms of dehydrogenases (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs)...
June 22, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645128/-headache-news
#2
Hans-Christoph Diener, Charly Gaul, Dagny Holle-Lee, Lazaros Lazaridis, Steffen Nägel, Mark Obermann
A review of the latest and most relevant information on different disorders of head and facial pain is presented. News from epidemiologic studies regarding the relationship between migraine and patent foramen ovale, the cardiovascular risk in migraine, and migraine behavior during menopause, and the development of white matter lesions or migraine genetics are presented. Regarding pathophysiology there are very recent insights regarding the role of the hypothalamus during prodromal phase and the interplay of brain-stem and hypothalamus during the attack...
June 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644851/comorbidities-in-the-diseasome-are-more-apparent-than-real-what-bayesian-filtering-reveals-about-the-comorbidities-of-depression
#3
Peter Marx, Peter Antal, Bence Bolgar, Gyorgy Bagdy, Bill Deakin, Gabriella Juhasz
Comorbidity patterns have become a major source of information to explore shared mechanisms of pathogenesis between disorders. In hypothesis-free exploration of comorbid conditions, disease-disease networks are usually identified by pairwise methods. However, interpretation of the results is hindered by several confounders. In particular a very large number of pairwise associations can arise indirectly through other comorbidity associations and they increase exponentially with the increasing breadth of the investigated diseases...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644780/avoiding-racial-essentialism-in-medical-science-curricula
#4
Lundy Braun, Barry Saunders
A wave of medical student activism is shining a spotlight on medical educators' sometimes maladroit handling of racial categories in teaching about health disparities. Coinciding with recent critiques, primarily by social scientists, regarding the imprecise and inappropriate use of race as a biological or epidemiological risk factor in genetics research, medical student activism has triggered new collaborations among students, faculty, and administrators to rethink how race is addressed in the medical curriculum...
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644547/a-genetic-epidemiology-study-of-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-in-italy
#5
Alessandro Gialluisi, Soara Menabò, Lilia Baldazzi, Letizia Casula, Antonella Meloni, Maria Carla Farci, Stefano Mariotti, Luisa Balestrino, Rita Ortolano, Stefania Murru, Carlo Carcassi, Sandro Loche, Antonio Balsamo, Giovanni Romeo
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD-CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting steroidogenesis, due to mutations in CYP21A2 (6p21.3). 21OHD-CAH neonatal screening is based on 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) serum levels, showing high type I error rate and low sensitivity to mild CAH forms. Here, we used an epidemiological approach, which estimates the allelic frequency (q) of an autosomal recessive disorder using the proportion of homozygous patients, the mutational spectrum and the inbreeding coefficient in a sample of affected individuals...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642752/a-comprehensive-epidemiological-research-for-clinical-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-in-shanghai
#6
Huan Li, Rong Tang, Yang Lou, Zelin Cui, Wenjing Chen, Qing Hong, Zhaohuan Zhang, Pradeep K Malakar, Yingjie Pan, Yong Zhao
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the most important pathogen for seafood-borne gastroenteritis in Shanghai and the rest of the world. A total of 42 V. parahaemolyticus strains were isolated from 1900 fecal specimens collected from patients in Shanghai hospital presenting from January 2014 to December 2015. All isolates were evaluated for potential virulence factors [tdh, trh, and type three secretion system (T3SS) genes], typed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and screened for antimicrobial resistance phenotype and genotype...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642064/the-genetic-basis-of-deafness-in-populations-of-african-descent
#7
REVIEW
Jason R Rudman, Rosemary I Kabahuma, Sara E Bressler, Yong Feng, Susan H Blanton, Denise Yan, Xue-Zhong Liu
Hearing loss is the most common sensorineural disorder worldwide and is associated with more than 1000 mutations in more than 90 genes. While mutations in genes such as GJB2 (gap-junction protein β 2) and GJB6 (gap-junction protein β 6) are highly prevalent in Caucasian, Asian, and Middle Eastern populations, they are rare in both native African populations and those of African descent. The objective of this paper is to review the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology and genetics of hearing loss in African populations with a focus on native sub-Saharan African populations...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642059/new-trends-on-obesity-and-nafld-in-asia
#8
REVIEW
Jian-Gao Fan, Seung-Up Kim, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong
Traditionally, obesity and its related diseases are considered problems in Western countries. However, in the past two decades, urbanization in many Asian countries has led to sedentary lifestyle and overnutrition, and has set the stage for the epidemic of obesity. This article reviews the epidemiological trend of obesity in Asia with special emphasis on the emerging condition of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Currently, the population prevalence of NAFLD in Asia is around 25%, similar to that in many Western countries...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641519/neural-stem-cells-and-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-model-rare-cns-diseases
#9
Lidia De Filippis, Cristina Zalfa, Daniela Ferrari
Despite the great effort spent over the last decades to unravel the pathological mechanisms underpinning the development of central nervous system disorders, most of them remain still unclear. In particular, the study of rare brain diseases is hurdled by the lack of post-mortem samples and of reliable epidemiological studies, thus the setting of in vitro modeling systems appears essential to dissect the puzzle of genetic and environmental alterations affecting neural cells viability and functionality The isolation and expansion in vitro of embryonic (ESC) and fetal neural stem cells (NSC) from human tissue has efficiently allowed to model several neurological diseases "in a dish" and has also provided a novel platform to test potential therapeutic strategies in a pre-clinical setting...
June 15, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640830/optimal-sequencing-strategies-for-identifying-disease-associated-singletons
#10
Sara Rashkin, Goo Jun, Sai Chen, Goncalo R Abecasis
With the increasing focus of genetic association on the identification of trait-associated rare variants through sequencing, it is important to identify the most cost-effective sequencing strategies for these studies. Deep sequencing will accurately detect and genotype the most rare variants per individual, but may limit sample size. Low pass sequencing will miss some variants in each individual but has been shown to provide a cost-effective alternative for studies of common variants. Here, we investigate the impact of sequencing depth on studies of rare variants, focusing on singletons-the variants that are sampled in a single individual and are hardest to detect at low sequencing depths...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639538/metabolic-syndrome-pathophysiology-management-and-modulation-by-natural-compounds
#11
Yogita Rochlani, Naga Venkata Pothineni, Swathi Kovelamudi, Jawahar L Mehta
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that include hypertension, central obesity, insulin resistance, and atherogenic dyslipidemia, and is strongly associated with an increased risk for developing diabetes and atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). The pathogenesis of MetS involves both genetic and acquired factors that contribute to the final pathway of inflammation that leads to CVD. MetS has gained significant importance recently due to the exponential increase in obesity worldwide...
June 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639238/multiple-sclerosis-in-latin-americans-genetic-aspects
#12
REVIEW
Victor M Rivera
Latin Americans (LA) are a heterogeneous, multiethnic group of individuals who inhabit the continental countries in Latin America (LATAM), Caribbean islands and constitute the largest ethnic minority in the USA. Commonly used terminology and ethno racial classifications to define these groups may not be accurate. Risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) among LA is generally low to medium but frequencies are increasing in the American hemisphere. Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) in LA show diverse variants and genetic proportions among Mestizos, the most representative ethnic population, who themselves are the product of centuries of interracial mixing between Native Americans (or Amerindians), White Caucasian Europeans, and Black Africans...
August 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639220/emergence-of-rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-virus-2-in-the-archipelago-of-madeira-portugal-2016-2017
#13
Carina Luísa Carvalho, Sara Silva, Paz Gouveia, Margarida Costa, Elsa Leclerc Duarte, Ana Margarida Henriques, Sílvia Santos Barros, Tiago Luís, Fernanda Ramos, Teresa Fagulha, Miguel Fevereiro, Margarida Dias Duarte
We report the detection of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) in the Madeira archipelago, Portugal. Viral circulation was confirmed by RT-qPCR and vp60 sequencing. Epidemiological data revealed the outbreak initiated in October 2016 in Porto Santo affecting wild and domestic rabbits. It was then detected three months later on the island of Madeira. Five haplotypes were identified and a genetic overall similarity of 99.54 to 99.89% was observed between the two viral populations. Unique single nucleotide polymorphisms were recognised in the Madeira archipelago strains, two of which resulting in amino acid substitutions at positions 480 and 570 in the VP60 protein...
June 21, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639212/surveillance-of-noroviruses-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-occurrence-of-new-giv-genotype-in-clinical-and-wastewater-samples
#14
Julia Monassa Fioretti, Tulio Machado Fumian, Mônica Simões Rocha, Ingrid de Arruda Lucena Dos Santos, Filipe Aníbal Carvalho-Costa, Matheus Ribeiro de Assis, Janaina de Souza Rodrigues, José Paulo Gagliardi Leite, Marize Pereira Miagostovich
Genogroup (G) IV norovirus (NoV) has been described in the literature as infectious agents in humans, although there are few reports regarding the frequency and spread of this virus, resulting in insufficient epidemiological data. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of GIV norovirus in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in order to evaluate frequency, concentration, and genetic diversity using clinical and environmental approaches. For this purpose, 316 stool samples were collected from acute gastroenteritis cases reported over a period of three years...
June 21, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638141/al-mena-a-comprehensive-resource-of-human-genetic-variants-integrating-genomes-and-exomes-from-arab-middle-eastern-and-north-african-populations
#15
Remya Koshy, Anop Ranawat, Vinod Scaria
Middle East and North Africa (MENA) encompass very unique populations, with a rich history and encompasses characteristic ethnic, linguistic and genetic diversity. The genetic diversity of MENA region has been largely unknown. The recent availability of whole-exome and whole-genome sequences from the region has made it possible to collect population-specific allele frequencies. The integration of data sets from this region would provide insights into the landscape of genetic variants in this region. We integrated genetic variants from multiple data sets systematically, available from this region to create a compendium of over 26 million genetic variations...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637755/seasonal-h3n2-and-2009-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-a-viruses-reassort-efficiently-but-produce-attenuated-progeny
#16
Kara L Phipps, Nicolle Marshall, Hui Tao, Shamika Danzy, Nina Onuoha, John Steel, Anice C Lowen
Reassortment of gene segments between co-infecting influenza A viruses (IAV) facilitates viral diversification and has significant epidemiological impact on seasonal and pandemic influenza. Since 1977, human IAVs of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes have co-circulated with relatively few documented cases of reassortment. We evaluated the potential for viruses of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) and seasonal H3N2 lineages to reassort under experimental conditions. Results of heterologous co-infections with pH1N1 and H3N2 viruses were compared to those obtained following co-infection with homologous, genetically tagged, pH1N1 viruses as a control...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637530/characterization-of-the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-ortleppascaris-sinensis-nematoda-heterocheilidae-and-comparative-mitogenomic-analysis-of-eighteen-ascaridida-nematodes
#17
J H Zhao, G J Tu, X B Wu, C P Li
Ortleppascaris sinensis (Nematoda: Ascaridida) is a dominant intestinal nematode of the captive Chinese alligator. However, the epidemiology, molecular ecology and population genetics of this parasite remain largely unexplored. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of O. sinensis was first determined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based primer-walking strategy, and this is also the first sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome of a member of the genus Ortleppascaris...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637302/re-risk-prediction-for-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-in-11-united-states-based-case-control-studies-incorporation-of-epidemiologic-risk-factors-and-17-confirmed-genetic-loci
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637279/high-dimensional-multivariate-mediation-with-application-to-neuroimaging-data
#19
Oliver Y Chén, Ciprian Crainiceanu, Elizabeth L Ogburn, Brian S Caffo, Tor D Wager, Martin A Lindquist
Mediation analysis is an important tool in the behavioral sciences for investigating the role of intermediate variables that lie in the path between a treatment and an outcome variable. The influence of the intermediate variable on the outcome is often explored using a linear structural equation model (LSEM), with model coefficients interpreted as possible effects. While there has been significant research on the topic, little work has been done when the intermediate variable (mediator) is a high-dimensional vector...
June 15, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637225/characteristics-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-broiler-chickens-with-colibacillosis-in-commercial-farms-from-a-common-hatchery
#20
H Ozaki, Y Matsuoka, E Nakagawa, T Murase
To investigate the epidemiologic aspects of colibacillosis in broiler chickens, 83 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from the pericarditis and perihepatitis lesions in broiler chickens from 4 commercial farms, 5 isolates recovered from 5 samples of yolk sac contents that were pooled from 25 emaciated chicks, and 4 fecal isolates obtained from a hatchery that supplied chicks to the 4 commercial farms mentioned above were genetically and bacteriologically characterized. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), a total of 92 isolates were classified into 33 pulsotypes...
June 20, 2017: Poultry Science
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