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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158592/epidemiology-pathology-and-identification-of-colletotrichum-including-a-novel-species-associated-with-avocado-persea-americana-anthracnose-in-israel
#1
Gunjan Sharma, Marcel Maymon, Stanley Freeman
Anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species is a major constraint for the shelf-life and marketability of avocado fruits. To date, only C. gloeosporioides sensu lato and C. aenigma have been reported as pathogens affecting avocado in Israel. This study was conducted to identify and characterize Colletotrichum species associated with avocado anthracnose and to determine their survival on different host-structures in Israel. The pathogen survived and over-wintered mainly on fresh and dry leaves, as well as fresh twigs in the orchard...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157945/food-allergy-a-review-and-update-on-epidemiology-pathogenesis-diagnosis-prevention-and-management
#2
Scott H Sicherer, Hugh A Sampson
This review provides general information to serve as a primer for those embarking on understanding food allergy and also details advances and updates in epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment that have occurred over the four years since our last comprehensive review. Although firm prevalence data are lacking, there is a strong impression that food allergy has increased, and rates as high as ∼10% have been documented. Genetic, epigenetic and environmental risk factors are being increasingly elucidated, opening the potential for improved prevention and treatment strategies targeted to those at risk...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157484/actualisation-sur-l%C3%A2-hypoparathyro%C3%A3-die-un-peu-de-th%C3%A3-orie-beaucoup-de-pratique-update-on-hypoparathyroidism-a-little-theory-a-lot-of-practice
#3
S Espiard, M-C Vantyghem, R Desailloud
Parathormone (PTH), produced by parathyroid glands, is the main regulator of calcium homeostasis. Hypoparathyroidism (hypoPT), due to decrease of PTH production, is a rare disease. Symptoms are multiple, altering function of several organs and leading to a decrease of quality of life. Acquired etiologies, including thyroïdectomy, the main cause of hypoPT, can be distinguished from congenital etiologies, including genetic defects. HypoPT, which is classically treated by supplementation by calcium and active vitamin D, can now be treated by recombinant injection in certain indications as a poor control under classical therapy...
October 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157198/independent-impacts-of-aging-on-mitochondrial-dna-quantity-and-quality-in-humans
#4
Ruoyu Zhang, Yiqin Wang, Kaixiong Ye, Martin Picard, Zhenglong Gu
BACKGROUND: The accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, and the reduction of mtDNA copy number, both disrupt mitochondrial energetics, and may contribute to aging and age-associated phenotypes. However, there are few genetic and epidemiological studies on the spectra of blood mtDNA heteroplasmies, and the distribution of mtDNA copy numbers in different age groups and their impact on age-related phenotypes. In this work, we used whole-genome sequencing data of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the UK10K project to investigate in parallel mtDNA heteroplasmy and copy number in 1511 women, between 17 and 85 years old, recruited in the TwinsUK cohorts...
November 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156511/molecular-epidemiology-and-prevalence-of-echovirus-30-in-zhejiang-province-china-from-2002-to-2015
#5
Yin Chen, Yi Sun, Juying Yan, Ziping Miao, Changping Xu, Yanjun Zhang, Haiyan Mao, Liming Gong
Echovirus 30 serotype (ECHO30) has been responsible for several, recent, worldwide outbreaks of viral meningitis. In Zhejiang Province, China, ECHO30 has been one of the main causes of viral meningitis for years. This study, using phylogenetic analysis on VP1 gene, was performed to investigate the general molecular epidemiology and genetic patterns of ECHO30 circulating in Zhejiang Province between the years 2002 and 2015. The nucleotide sequences of ECHO30 VP1 showed that they were 64.8% identical with the prototype strain, Bastianni, while the amino acids were 84...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155947/dementia-after-moderate-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-coexistence-of-multiple-proteinopathies
#6
Kimbra Kenney, Diego Iacono, Brian L Edlow, Douglas I Katz, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Daniel H Daneshvar, Allison Stevens, Allison L Moreau, Lee S Tirrell, Ani Varjabedian, Anastasia Yendiki, Andre van der Kouwe, Azma Mareyam, Jennifer A McNab, Wayne A Gordon, Bruce Fischl, Ann C McKee, Daniel P Perl
We report the clinical, neuroimaging, and neuropathologic characteristics of 2 patients who developed early onset dementia after a moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuropathological evaluation revealed abundant β-amyloid neuritic and cored plaques, diffuse β-amyloid plaques, and frequent hyperphosphorylated-tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) involving much of the cortex, including insula and mammillary bodies in both cases. Case 1 additionally showed NFTs in both the superficial and deep cortical layers, occasional perivascular and depth-of-sulci NFTs, and parietal white matter rarefaction, which corresponded with decreased parietal fiber tracts observed on ex vivo MRI...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155827/the-asian-house-shrew-suncus-murinus-as-a-reservoir-and-source-of-human-outbreaks-of-plague-in-madagascar
#7
Soanandrasana Rahelinirina, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Sandra Telfer, Cyril Savin, Elisabeth Carniel, Jean-Marc Duplantier
Identifying key reservoirs for zoonoses is crucial for understanding variation in incidence. Plague re-emerged in Mahajanga, Madagascar in the 1990s but there has been no confirmed case since 1999. Here we combine ecological and genetic data, from during and after the epidemics, with experimental infections to examine the role of the shrew Suncus murinus in the plague epidemiological cycle. The predominance of S. murinus captures during the epidemics, their carriage of the flea vector and their infection with Yersinia pestis suggest they played an important role in the maintenance and transmission of plague...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154994/evolutionary-epidemiology-of-schistosomiasis-linking-parasite-genetics-with-disease-phenotype-in-humans
#8
Tine Huyse, Nele A M Boon, Frederik Van den Broeck, Moustapha Mbow, Anurag Chaturvedi, Lynn Meurs, Filip A M Volckaert, Katja Polman
Here we assess the role of parasite genetic variation in host disease phenotype in human schistosomiasis by implementing concepts and techniques from environmental association analysis in evolutionary epidemiology. Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease that affects more than 200 million people worldwide and is caused by parasitic flatworms belonging to the genus Schistosoma. While the role of host genetics has been extensively studied and demonstrated, nothing is yet known on the contribution of parasite genetic variation to host disease phenotype in human schistosomiasis...
November 15, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154843/clinical-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-solely-resistant-to-mecillinam-prevalence-and-epidemiology
#9
Aurore Bousquet, Sarah Bugier, Sébastien Larréché, Christine Bigaillon, Philippe Weber, Hervé Delacour, Eric Valade, Dominique De Briel, Audrey Mérens
OBJECTIVES: We observed a particular resistance phenotype: an E. coli isolate from urine sample exhibited resistance to mecillinam (Amd) but was fully susceptible to other β-lactam antibiotics (Amd-R-BL-S). Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of this phenotype and to describe their phenotype, molecular epidemiology and genetic background. METHODS: Between the 1st Jan 2014 and the 31st Jan 2016, Amd-R-BL-S E. coli isolates from urine were collected. We analysed genes previously reported as mostly involved in Amd resistance...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154293/the-changing-landscape-of-parkinson-epidemiologic-research
#10
Honglei Chen
Despite recent successes in understanding the genetics of Parkinson's disease (PD), the causes of late-onset sporadic PD remain elusive. Many of the epidemiologic findings on PD etiology have been challenged by alternative explanations such as reverse causation. This is mainly because PD often takes decades to develop before it can be diagnosed late in life. Convincing evidence shows that this prodromal stage of PD is characterized by various prodromal symptoms such as olfactory impairment and rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153781/genetic-epidemiology-of-autosomal-recessive-hypercholesterolemia-in-sicily-identification-by-next-generation-sequencing-of-a-new-kindred
#11
Rossella Spina, Davide Noto, Carlo M Barbagallo, Roberto Monastero, Valeria Ingrassia, Vincenza Valenti, Roberta Baschi, Antonina Pipitone, Antonina Giammanco, Maria P La Spada, Gabriella Misiano, Chiara Scrimali, Angelo B Cefalù, Maurizio R Averna
BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) is a rare inherited lipid disorder. In Sardinia, differently from other world regions, the mutated allele frequency is high. It is caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein 1 gene. Fourteen different mutations have been reported so far; in Sardinia, 2 alleles (ARH1 and ARH2) explain most of the cases. Four ARH patients, all carriers of the ARH1 mutation, have been identified in mainland Italy and 2 in Sicily...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152924/population-based-birth-defects-data-in-the-united-states-2010-2014-a-focus-on-gastrointestinal-defects
#12
Philip J Lupo, Jennifer L Isenburg, Jason L Salemi, Cara T Mai, Rebecca F Liberman, Mark A Canfield, Glenn Copeland, Sarah Haight, Sanjiv Harpavat, Adrienne T Hoyt, Cynthia A Moore, Wendy N Nembhard, Hoang N Nguyen, Rachel E Rutkowski, Amy Steele, C J Alverson, Erin B Stallings, Russell S Kirby
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal defects are a phenotypically and etiologically diverse group of malformations. Despite their combined prevalence and clinical impact, little is known about the epidemiology of these birth defects. Therefore, the objective of the 2017 National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) data brief was to better describe the occurrence of gastrointestinal defects. METHODS: As part of the 2017 NBDPN annual report, 28 state programs provided additional data on gastrointestinal defects for the period 2010-2014...
November 1, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152229/ticking-time-bombs-connections-between-circadian-clocks-and-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Katja A Lamia
Connections between mammalian circadian and cell division cycles have been postulated since the early 20th century, and epidemiological and genetic studies have linked disruption of circadian clock function to increased risk of several types of cancer. In the past decade, it has become clear that circadian clock components influence cell growth and transformation in a cell-autonomous manner. Furthermore, several molecular mechanistic connections have been described in which clock proteins participate in sensing DNA damage, modulating DNA repair, and influencing the ubiquitination and degradation of key players in oncogenesis (c-MYC) and tumor suppression (p53)...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151896/genotypic-diversity-antimicrobial-resistance-and-biofilm-forming-abilities-of-campylobacter-isolated-from-chicken-in-central-china
#14
Tengfei Zhang, Jun Dong, Yiluo Cheng, Qin Lu, Qingping Luo, Guoyuan Wen, Guoping Liu, Huabin Shao
Background: Campylobacter is considered to be the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis, of which poultry is the main reservoir. Campylobacter contaminated chicken products are a major cause of human Campylobacter infection. In this study, the prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken in central China was investigated, and the genotypic diversity, antimicrobial resistance and biofilm of these isolates were characterized. Results: A total of 206 Campylobacter isolates, including 166 C...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150903/phylogenetic-and-genetic-variation-analyses-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-isolated-from-china
#15
S Yang, S Yin, Y Shang, B Liu, L Yuan, M U Zafar Khan, X Liu, J Cai
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a causative agent of PCV2-associated disease, which is a growing problem in the swine industry worldwide. High nucleotide substitution occurs in the capsid (Cap) gene of PCV2, which allows the continuous evolution and the emergence of novel PCV2 strains. In this study, we sequenced 24 Chinese PCV2 strains collected from healthy and diseased pigs between 2013 and 2015. Analyses of the genome, Cap and phylogeny classified the 24 Chinese PCV2 strains as PCV-2a (four of 24), PCV-2b (five of 24) and PCV-2d (15 of 24)...
November 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150513/high-prevalence-and-genetic-diversity-of-large-phicd211-phicdif1296t-like-prophages-in-clostridioides-difficile
#16
Julian R Garneau, Ognjen Sekulovic, Bruno Dupuy, Olga Soutourina, Marc Monot, Louis-Charles Fortier
Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) is a pathogenic bacterium displaying great genetic diversity. A significant proportion of this diversity is due to the presence of integrated prophages. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of phiCD211, also known as phiCDIF1296T, the largest phage identified in C. difficile so far, with a genome of 131-kbp. It shares morphological and genomic similarity with other large siphophages like phage 949 infecting Lactococcus lactis and phage c-st infecting Clostridium botulinum...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150232/-pathogenesis-genetics-and-diagnosis-of-endometriosis
#17
Emile Daraï, Stéphane Ploteau, Marcos Ballester, Sofiane Bendifallah
Endometriosis is a multifactorial pathology. Trans-tubal reflux theory remains valid. Genetic and epigenetic factors associated with immunological perturbations are involved. The role of endocrine disruptors is discussed although epidemiological studies are contradictory. Therapeutics are primarily based on hormonal treatments but better understanding of pathophysiology should allow targeted non-hormonal therapy. The clinical examination is sometimes negative, which should not eliminate the diagnosis and imposes complementary examinations as best as possible by referents...
November 14, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150149/pregnancy-and-heart-disease-pregnancy-associated-hypertension-and-peripartum-cardiomyopathy
#18
Tobias Jonathan Pfeffer, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner
Cardiovascular diseases are major complications in pregnancy worldwide and the number of patients who develop cardiac problems during pregnancy is increasing. Pregnancy-associated hypertensive complications such as pre-eclampsia (PE) or peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) are potentially life-threatening heart diseases emerging during pregnancy, under delivery or in the first postpartal months in previously healthy women. Both disease entities display substantial morbidity and mortality in the acute phase. Long-term effects are just beginning to be evaluated...
October 31, 2017: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149924/gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-disease-in-spondyloarthritis
#19
REVIEW
Liron Caplan, Kristine A Kuhn
The association of inflammatory arthritis with intestinal pathology extends back more than 100 years. This association is now supported by epidemiologic studies demonstrating an elevated prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in spondyloarthritis and vice versa, compared with the general population. Genetic and intestinal microbiome studies have further linked these diseases. Although diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease disproportionately affect individuals with psoriatic arthritis, diseases of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, and liver are not particularly common in spondyloarthritis...
February 2018: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149254/invited-commentary-gestational-hypertension-and-diabetes-a-major-public-health-concern
#20
Lewis H Kuller, Janet Catov
The obesity epidemic in the United States and other countries has contributed to an increase in the rates of gestational diabetes and hypertension. In the past, it was thought that most cases of gestational diabetes and hypertension would resolve after completion of pregnancy. In this issue of the Journal, Pace et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2017;186(10):1115-1124) clearly documented that both gestational diabetes and hypertension lead to diabetes and hypertension and that the combination of both during pregnancy leads to very high rates of subsequent diabetes and hypertension...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
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