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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102740/update-on-functional-and-genetic-laboratory-assays-for-the-detection-of-platelet-microvesicles
#1
Maxime Laroche, Claire Dunois, Anne Marie Vissac, Jean Amiral
Functional and genetic assays for measuring platelet microvesicles (PMVs) are presented and discussed. Functional assays concern two groups of methods: a) homogeneous assays using the cofactor activity of phospholipids (PPLs) contained in PMVs and present in assayed plasmas, and a coagulation or a thrombin generation assay (TGA) as "end points"; b) capture-based assays, in which PMVs bind to an immobilized ligand, such as Annexin V in the presence of calcium, or monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) specific for membrane proteins...
January 19, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100788/genomic-infectious-disease-epidemiology-in-partially-sampled-and-ongoing-outbreaks
#2
Xavier Didelot, Christophe Fraser, Jennifer Gardy, Caroline Colijn
Genomic data is increasingly being used to understand infectious disease epidemiology. Isolates from a given outbreak are sequenced, and the patterns of shared variation are used to infer which isolates within the outbreak are most closely related to each other. Unfortunately, the phylogenetic trees typically used to represent this variation are not directly informative about who infected whom - a phylogenetic tree is not a transmission tree. However, a transmission tree can be inferred from a phylogeny while accounting for within-host genetic diversity by colouring the branches of a phylogeny according to which host those branches were in...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100614/human-rhinovirus-diversity-and-evolution-how-strange-the-change-from-major-to-minor
#3
Nicole Lewis-Rogers, Jon Seger, Frederick R Adler
: Rhinoviruses are the most common cause of the common cold. Their many distinct lineages fall into "major" and "minor" groups that use different cell-surface receptors to enter host cells. Minor-group rhinoviruses are more immunogenic in laboratory studies, although their patterns of transmission and their cold symptoms are broadly similar to those of the major group. Here we present evolutionary evidence that minor-group viruses are also more immunogenic in humans. A key finding is that rates of amino-acid substitution at exposed sites in the capsid proteins VP2, VP3 and VP1 tend to be elevated in minor-group relative to major-group viruses, while rates at buried sites show no consistent differences...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100285/characterization-of-the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-setaria-digitata-nematoda-setariidae-from-china
#4
G-H Liu, J-Y Li, X-Q Zhu
Setaria digitata is a filarial parasite that causes fatal cerebrospinal nematodiasis in goats, horses and sheep, resulting in substantial economic losses to livestock farmers. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of S. digitata from China was determined, characterized and compared with that of S. digitata from Sri Lanka. The identity of the mt genomes was 98.3% between S. digitata from China and Sri Lanka, and the complete mt genome sequence of S. digitata from China was slightly shorter (25 bp) than that from Sri Lanka...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098394/use-of-asian-samples-in-genetic-research-of-alcohol-use-disorders-genetic-variation-of-alcohol-metabolizing-enzymes-and-the-effects-of-acetaldehyde
#5
Sachio Matsushita, Susumu Higuchi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies consistently find that Asian populations report lower rates of alcohol use disorders (AUD) compared with other racial groups. These differences result from a variety of biological, genetic, and environmental influences, some of which are related to the metabolism of alcohol. We will review several studies of these metabolic factors, including several alcohol clamping studies conducted in our laboratory, that provide further insight into the role of the alcohol metabolizing genes and drinking behavior among Japanese drinkers...
January 18, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098392/bayesian-nonparametric-clustering-in-phylogenetics-modeling-antigenic-evolution-in-influenza
#6
Gabriela B Cybis, Janet S Sinsheimer, Trevor Bedford, Andrew Rambaut, Philippe Lemey, Marc A Suchard
Influenza is responsible for up to 500,000 deaths every year, and antigenic variability represents much of its epidemiological burden. To visualize antigenic differences across many viral strains, antigenic cartography methods use multidimensional scaling on binding assay data to map influenza antigenicity onto a low-dimensional space. Analysis of such assay data ideally leads to natural clustering of influenza strains of similar antigenicity that correlate with sequence evolution. To understand the dynamics of these antigenic groups, we present a framework that jointly models genetic and antigenic evolution by combining multidimensional scaling of binding assay data, Bayesian phylogenetic machinery and nonparametric clustering methods...
January 18, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098174/novel-g9-rotavirus-strains-co-circulate-in-children-and-pigs-taiwan
#7
Fang-Tzy Wu, Krisztián Bányai, Baoming Jiang, Luke Tzu-Chi Liu, Szilvia Marton, Yhu-Chering Huang, Li-Min Huang, Ming-Hui Liao, Chao A Hsiung
Molecular epidemiologic studies collecting information of the spatiotemporal distribution of rotavirus VP7 (G) and VP4 (P) genotypes have shown evidence for the increasing global importance of genotype G9 rotaviruses in humans and pigs. Sequence comparison of the VP7 gene of G9 strains identified different lineages to prevail in the respective host species although some of these lineages appear to be shared among heterologous hosts providing evidence of interspecies transmission events. The majority of these events indicates the pig-to-human spillover, although a reverse route of transmission cannot be excluded either...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098150/a-survey-of-sub-saharan-gene-flow-into-the-mediterranean-at-risk-loci-for-coronary-artery-disease
#8
Miguel M Álvarez-Álvarez, Daniela Zanetti, Robert Carreras-Torres, Pedro Moral, Georgios Athanasiadis
This study tries to find detectable signals of gene flow of Sub-Saharan origin into the Mediterranean in four genomic regions previously associated with coronary artery disease. A total of 366 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in 772 individuals from 10 Mediterranean countries. Population structure analyses were performed, in which a noticeable Sub-Saharan component was found in the studied samples. The overall percentage of this Sub-Saharan component presents differences between the two Mediterranean coasts...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098070/epidemiology-of-cryptosporidium-infection-in-cattle-in-china-a-review
#9
Chao Gong, Xue-Feng Cao, Lei Deng, Wei Li, Xiang-Ming Huang, Jing-Chao Lan, Qi-Cheng Xiao, Zhi-Jun Zhong, Fan Feng, Yue Zhang, Wen-Bo Wang, Ping Guo, Kong-Ju Wu, Guang-Neng Peng
The present review discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in cattle in China and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution in China, which is critical to understanding the economic and public health importance of cryptosporidiosis transmission in cattle. To date, 10 Cryptosporidium species have been detected in cattle in China, with an overall infection rate of 11.9%. The highest rate of infection (19.5%) was observed in preweaned calves, followed by that in juveniles (10...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096965/molecular-typing-of-nosocomial-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-associated-to-biofilm-based-on-the-coagulase-and-protein-a-gene-polymorphisms
#10
Ali Salehzadeh, Hojjatolah Zamani, Maedeh Keshtkar Langeroudi, Amir Mirzaie
OBJECTIVES: Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterial pathogen responsible for a variety numbers of nosocomial and community acquired infections. Biofilm formation is regarded as an important factor in the establishment of S. aureus infection. The contribution of the genetic background of S. aureus to biofilm formation is poorly understood. The aim of the present work was to genotype S. aureus strains associated to biofilm based on the coagulase and protein A genes and to evaluate the association between the genetic background and the biofilm forming ability of clinical S...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096624/genetic-variability-and-discrimination-of-low-doses-of-toxocara-spp-from-public-areas-soil-inferred-by-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-as-a-field-friendly-molecular-tool
#11
Maryam Ozlati, Adel Spotin, Abbas Shahbazi, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Teimour Hazratian, Mohammad Adibpor, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Afsaneh Dolatkhah, Paria Khoshakhlagh
ABSTRACT: Aim: One of the main diagnostic problems of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is indiscrimination of low parasitic loads in soil samples. The aim of this study is to determine the genetic diversity and identification of Toxocara spp. from public areas soil inferred by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 180 soil samples were collected from various streets and public parks of northwest Iran. The DNA of recovered Toxocara eggs were extracted and amplified by PCR and LAMP following ZnSO4 flotation technique...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096484/evolutionary-dynamics-of-pandemic-methicillin-sensitive-staphylococcus-aureus-st398-and-its-international-spread-via-routes-of-human-migration
#12
Anne-Catrin Uhlemann, Paul R McAdam, Sean B Sullivan, Justin R Knox, Hossein Khiabanian, Raul Rabadan, Peter R Davies, J Ross Fitzgerald, Franklin D Lowy
: Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) accounts for the majority of S. aureus infections globally, and yet surprisingly little is known about its clonal evolution. We applied comparative whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses to epidemiologically and geographically diverse ST398-MSSA, a pandemic lineage affecting both humans and livestock. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis predicted divergence of human-associated ST398-MSSA ~40 years ago. Isolates from Midwestern pigs and veterinarians differed substantially from those in New York City (NYC)...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096410/selection-against-variants-in-the-genome-associated-with-educational-attainment
#13
Augustine Kong, Michael L Frigge, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Hreinn Stefansson, Alexander I Young, Florian Zink, Gudrun A Jonsdottir, Aysu Okbay, Patrick Sulem, Gisli Masson, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Agnar Helgason, Gyda Bjornsdottir, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson
Epidemiological and genetic association studies show that genetics play an important role in the attainment of education. Here, we investigate the effect of this genetic component on the reproductive history of 109,120 Icelanders and the consequent impact on the gene pool over time. We show that an educational attainment polygenic score, POLYEDU, constructed from results of a recent study is associated with delayed reproduction (P < 10(-100)) and fewer children overall. The effect is stronger for women and remains highly significant after adjusting for educational attainment...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095909/prevalence-and-genetic-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-species-and-giardia-duodenalis-in-lambs-in-oromia-special-zone-central-ethiopia
#14
Teklu Wegayehu, Md Robiul Karim, Junqiang Li, Haileeyesus Adamu, Berhanu Erko, Longxian Zhang, Getachew Tilahun
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis are gastro-intestinal parasites that infect human and animals worldwide. Both parasites share a broad host range and are believed to be zoonosis. The aim of this study was to identify the species of Cryptosporidium and assemblages of G. duodenalis in lambs and to elucidate their role in zoonotic transmission. RESULTS: A total of 389 fecal samples were collected from lambs and screened by microscopy and nested PCR targeting the small-subunit ribosomal RNA for Cryptosporidium; and the small-subunit ribosomal RNA, triose phosphate isomerase, β-giardin, and glutamate dehydrogenase genes for G...
January 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095714/disease-related-and-drug-induced-skin-manifestations-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Pieter Hindryckx, Gregor Novak, Antonio Costanzo, Silvio Danese
Skin manifestations are common in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and can be part of a concomitant illness with a shared genetic background, an extra-intestinal manifestation of the disease, or a drug side-effect. Areas covered: We provide a practical overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapeutic approach and prognosis of the most frequent disease-related and drug-induced cutaneous manifestations in IBD, illustrated by cases encountered in our clinical practice. Among the most frequently encountered IBD-related lesions are erythema nodosum, pyoderma gangrenosum and Sweet's syndrome...
January 17, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095669/complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-a-tongue-worm-armillifer-agkistrodontis
#16
Jian Li, Fu-Nan He, Hong-Xiang Zheng, Rui-Xiang Zhang, Yi-Jing Ren, Wei Hu
Armillifer agkistrodontis (Ichthyostraca: Pantastomida) is a parasitic pathogen, only reported in China, which can cause a zoonotic disease, pentastomiasis. A complete mitochondrial (mt) genome was 16,521 bp comprising 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 non-coding region (NCR). A phylogenetic tree drawn with the concatenated amino acid sequences of the 6 conserved PCGs (atp6, cox1-3, and nad2) showed that A. agkistrodontis and Armillifer armillatus constituted a clade Pentastomida which was a sister group of the Branchiura...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095455/novel-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-pedv-variants-with-large-deletions-in-the-spike-s-gene-coexist-with-pedv-strains-possessing-an-intact-s-gene-in-domestic-pigs-in-japan-a-new-disease-situation
#17
Nguyen Van Diep, Junzo Norimine, Masuo Sueyoshi, Nguyen Thi Lan, Ryoji Yamaguchi
Since late 2013, after an absence of seven years, outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection have reemerged and swept rapidly across Japan, resulting in significant economic losses. In this study, we report the emergence, mixed infection, and genetic characterization of 15 novel field PEDV variants with large genomic deletions. The sizes of deletion varied between 582 nt (194 aa) and 648 nt (216 aa) at positions 28-714 (10-238) on the S gene (protein). Among 17 PEDV samples isolated from individual pigs, all of them contained at least two distinct genotypes with large genomic deletions, and 94...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094293/the-transmission-potential-of-malaria-infected-mosquitoes-an-gambiae-keele-an-arabiensis-ifakara-is-altered-by-the-vertebrate-blood-type-they-consume-during-parasite-development
#18
S Noushin Emami, Lisa C Ranford-Cartwright, Heather M Ferguson
The efficiency of malaria parasite development within mosquito vectors (sporogony) is a critical determinant of transmission. Sporogony is thought to be controlled by environmental conditions and mosquito/parasite genetic factors, with minimal contribution from mosquito behaviour during the period of parasite development. We tested this assumption by investigating whether successful sporogony of Plasmodium falciparum parasites through to human-infectious transmission stages is influenced by the host species upon which infected mosquitoes feed...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093709/molecular-genetic-and-epigenetic-basis-of-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Zohreh Hojati
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of spinal cord and brain. The initial event in MS occurs when activated CD4(+) T cells in periphery exacerbates immune responses by stimulating immune cells such as B cells, CD8(+) cells, mast cells, granulocytes and monocytes. These proinflammatory cells pass blood brain barrier by secreting proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and INF-γ which activate adhesion factors. APCs (antigen-presenting cells) reactivate CD4(+) T cells after infiltrating the CNS and CD4(+) T cells produce cytokines and chemokines...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093343/moyamoya-and-inflammation
#20
Juan C Mejia-Munne, Jason A Ellis, Neil A Feldstein, Philip M Meyers, Edward S Connolly
BACKGROUND: Over fifty years have elapsed since Moyamoya was initially described; however, the disease etiology remains unknown. Although certain genetic loci and immunological characteristics are associated with Moyamoya, this does not fully explain its pathophysiology. An association with inflammatory disease has been postulated but not rigorously explored. We sought to examine the epidemiological association of Moyamoya and inflammatory diseases by analyzing data from a large administrative database...
January 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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