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Prodelphinidin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958520/the-kinetics-of-oxygen-and-so2-consumption-by-red-wines-what-do-they-tell-about-oxidation-mechanisms-and-about-changes-in-wine-composition
#1
Vanesa Carrascón, Anna Vallverdú-Queralt, Emmanuelle Meudec, Nicolas Sommerer, Purificación Fernandez-Zurbano, Vicente Ferreira
This work seeks to understand the kinetics of O2 and SO2 consumption of air-saturated red wine as a function of its chemical composition, and to describe the chemical changes suffered during the process in relation to the kinetics. Oxygen Consumption Rates (OCRs) are faster with higher copper and epigallocatechin contents and with higher absorbance at 620nm and slower with higher levels of gallic acid and catechin terminal units in tannins. Acetaldehyde Reactive Polyphenols (ARPs) may be key elements determining OCRs...
February 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957714/genus-wide-variation-in-foliar-polyphenolics-in-eucalypts
#2
Karen J Marsh, Carsten Kulheim, Simon P Blomberg, Andrew H Thornhill, Joseph T Miller, Ian R Wallis, Dean Nicolle, Juha-Pekka Salminen, William J Foley
Many studies quantify total phenolics or total tannins, but understanding the ecological role of polyphenolic secondary metabolites requires at least an understanding of the diversity of phenolic groups present. We used UPLC-MS/MS to measure concentrations of different polyphenol groups - including the four most common tannin groups, the three most common flavonoid groups, and quinic acid derivatives - in foliage from 628 eucalypts from the genera Eucalyptus, Angophora and Corymbia. We also tested for phylogenetic signal in each of the phenolic groups...
September 25, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934913/flavonoid-compounds-related-to-seed-coat-color-of-wheat
#3
Noriko Kohyama, Makiko Chono, Hiroyuki Nakagawa, Yosuke Matsuo, Hiroshi Ono, Hitoshi Matsunaka
In red wheat, reddish-brown pigments accumulate in testa of mature seeds. Half-cut wheat seeds were immersed in p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA) reagent that stains flavanol structures blue. Testa of 10-40 days after flowering (DAF) in red wheat ("Norin 61" and "Satonosora") seeds were stained blue and the reagent color changed to blue with 10-25 DAF seeds. No blue staining was observed in white wheat ("Tamaizumi") seeds during maturation. "Norin 61" seed coats at 10 DAF contained dihydroquercetin, dihydromyricetin, (+)-catechin, procyanidin B3, and prodelphinidin B3, which were identified by HPLC-diode array detector and LC-MS/MS analyses...
September 22, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862687/changes-in-tannin-composition-of-syrah-grape-skins-and-seeds-during-fruit-ripening-under-contrasting-water-conditions
#4
Maria Kyraleou, Stamatina Kallithraka, Nikolaos Theodorou, Pierre-Louis Teissedre, Yorgos Kotseridis, Stefanos Koundouras
Tannin accumulation and composition were determined in skins and seeds isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah grapes submitted to contrasting water regimes under semiarid climatic conditions. Three irrigation treatments were conducted, starting at berry set through harvest of two growing seasons, 2011 and 2012: irrigation at 100% of crop evapotranspiration ETc (FI), irrigation at 50% of ETc (DI) and non-irrigated (NI). Seed total tannins did not vary with maturity but those of skins underwent a progressive decline (especially in 2011), expressed both on a fresh weight and on a per berry basis...
September 1, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813594/facile-purification-of-milligram-to-gram-quantities-of-condensed-tannins-according-to-mean-degree-of-polymerization-and-flavan-3-ol-subunit-composition
#5
Ron H Brown, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Wayne E Zeller, Laurie Reinhardt, Elisabetta Stringano, An Gea, Christopher Drake, Honorata M Ropiak, Christos Fryganas, Aina Ramsay, Emily E Hardcastle
Unambiguous investigation of condensed tannin (CT) structure-activity relationships in biological systems requires well-characterized, high-purity CTs. Sephadex LH-20 and Toyopearl HW-50F resins were compared for separating CTs from acetone/water extracts, and column fractions analyzed for flavan-3-ol subunits, mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and purity. Toyopearl HW-50F generated fractions with higher mDP values and better separation of procyanidins (PC) and prodelphinidins (PD) but required a prepurification step, needed more time for large scale purifications, and gave poorer recoveries...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783085/characterization-of-proanthocyanidin-oligomers-of-ephedra-sinica
#6
Joanna Orejola, Yosuke Matsuo, Yoshinori Saito, Takashi Tanaka
Ephedra sinica, an important plant in Chinese traditional medicine, contains a complex mixture of proanthocyanidin oligomers as major constituents; however, only the minor components have been chemically characterized. In this study, oligomers with relatively large molecular weights, which form the main body of the proanthocyanidin fractions, were separated by adsorption and size-exclusion chromatography. Acid-catalyzed degradation in the presence of mercaptoethanol or phloroglucinol led to the isolation of 18 fragments, the structures of which were elucidated from their experimental and TDDFT-calculated ECD spectra...
August 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625677/profiling-of-vitis-vinifera-l-canes-poly-phenolic-compounds-using-comprehensive-two-dimensional-liquid-chromatography
#7
Lidia Montero, Vania Sáez, Dietrich von Baer, Alejandro Cifuentes, Miguel Herrero
Grapevine canes, a pruning-derived by-product, possess a great amount of bioactive (poly)phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical classes, thus, having a good potential for further valorization. However, in order to properly design valorization strategies, the precise chemical composition of this material has to be known. Up to now, this chemical characterization has been based on analysis of different groups of components individually, due to difficulties related to their huge chemical variability...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529565/prodelphinidins-isolated-from-chinese-bayberry-leaves-induces-apoptosis-via-the-p53-dependent-signaling-pathways-in-ovcar-3-human-ovarian-cancer-cells
#8
Yu Fu, Xingqian Ye, Malcolm Lee, Gary Rankin, Yi Charlie Chen
Chinese bayberry leaves are rich in prodelphinidins. Since the isolation and purification of prodelphinidins is difficult, the association between the degree of prodelphinidin polymerization and their anti-carcinogenic activity remains ambiguous. The cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of prodelphinidin Chinese bayberry leaf extracts (PCBLs), oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPAs) and polymeric proanthocyanidins (PPAs), isolated by normal-phase preparative high-performance liquid chromatography were investigated in OVCAR-3 human ovarian cancer cells...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348066/poplar-myb115-and-myb134-transcription-factors-regulate-proanthocyanidin-synthesis-and-structure
#9
Amy Midori James, Dawei Ma, Robin Mellway, Andreas Gesell, Kazuko Yoshida, Vincent Walker, Lan Tran, Don Stewart, Michael Reichelt, Jussi Suvanto, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Jonathan Gershenzon, Armand Séguin, C Peter Constabel
The accumulation of proanthocyanidins is regulated by a complex of transcription factors composed of R2R3 MYB, basic helix-loop-helix, and WD40 proteins that activate the promoters of biosynthetic genes. In poplar (genus Populus), MYB134 is known to regulate proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by activating key flavonoid genes. Here, we characterize a second MYB regulator of proanthocyanidins, MYB115. Transgenic poplar overexpressing MYB115 showed a high-proanthocyanidin phenotype and reduced salicinoid accumulation, similar to the effects of MYB134 overexpression...
May 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216880/isolation-and-characterisation-of-a-proanthocyanidin-with-antioxidative-antibacterial-and-anti-cancer-properties-from-fern-blechnum-orientale
#10
How-Yee Lai, Yau-Yan Lim, Kah-Hwi Kim
BACKGROUND: Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae), a fern, is traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments, such as skin diseases, stomach pain, urinary bladder complaints, and also as a female contraceptive. Previously, we reported a strong radical scavenging activity, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity against HT29 colon cancer cells by aqueous extract of B. orientale. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we attempted to isolate and identify the active compound from the aqueous extract of B...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158946/flavanol-quantification-of-grapes-via-multiple-reaction-monitoring-mass-spectrometry-application-to-differentiation-among-clones-of-vitis-vinifera-l-cv-rufete-grapes
#11
Ignacio García-Estévez, Cristina Alcalde-Eon, M Teresa Escribano-Bailón
The determination of the detailed flavanol composition in food matrices is not a simple task because of the structural similarities of monomers and, consequently, oligomers and polymers. The aim of this study was the development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method that would allow the accurate and precise quantification of catechins, gallocatechins, and oligomeric proanthocyanidins. The high correlation coefficients of the calibration curves (>0.993), the recoveries not statistically different from 100%, the good intra- and interday precisions (<5%), and the LOD and LOQ values, low enough to quantify flavanols in grapes, are good results from the method validation procedure...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128839/proanthocyanidins-purified-from-fruit-pericarp-of-clausena-lansium-lour-skeels-as-efficient-tyrosinase-inhibitors-structure-evaluation-inhibitory-activity-and-molecular-mechanism
#12
Wei-Ming Chai, Mei-Zhen Lin, Hui-Ling Feng, Zheng-Rong Zou, Ying-Xia Wang
Fruit pericarp of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels, a food waste, was selected as a raw material for proanthocyanidins. The proanthocyanidins' structures were integrally analyzed using three methods: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results elucidated that these compounds were composed of prodelphinidin (75%) and procyanidin (25%) with a degree of polymerization (DP) up to the 20-mers...
March 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128424/marker-trait-association-analysis-for-agronomic-and-compositional-traits-in-sainfoin-onobrychis-viciifolia
#13
K Kempf, C S Malisch, C Grieder, F Widmer, R Kölliker
Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a perennial forage legume with great potential for use in sustainable agriculture due to its low input requirements, good drought tolerance, and production of forage rich in polyphenolic compounds, which are beneficial for animal health. However, its distribution and cultivation are limited due to its moderate agronomic performance and a general lack of well adapted, highly yielding cultivars. Faster progress in breeding is imperative, but is often hampered by the complex inheritance of traits and limited knowledge on the genetic composition of this tetraploid, outbreeding species...
January 23, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125657/identification-of-structural-features-of-condensed-tannins-that-affect-protein-aggregation
#14
Honorata M Ropiak, Peter Lachmann, Aina Ramsay, Rebecca J Green, Irene Mueller-Harvey
A diverse panel of condensed tannins was used to resolve the confounding effects of size and subunit composition seen previously in tannin-protein interactions. Turbidimetry revealed that size in terms of mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) or average molecular weight (amw) was the most important tannin parameter. The smallest tannin with the relatively largest effect on protein aggregation had an mDP of ~7. The average size was significantly correlated with aggregation of bovine serum albumin, BSA (mDP: r = -0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120611/condensed-tannins-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-cattle-after-sainfoin-onobrychis-viciifolia-intake-and-their-possible-relationship-with-anthelmintic-effects
#15
Olivier Desrues, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Wilbert F Pellikaan, Heidi L Enemark, Stig M Thamsborg
Condensed tannins' (CTs) fate along the digestive tract of ruminants may account for the variable efficacy of CTs against gastrointestinal nematodes. We analyzed CTs in the digesta of cattle fed sainfoin. With the acetone-butanol-HCl assay, the total CTs concentrations in the digesta were close to those in the diets (6.3 and 1.5% of DM in experiments 1 and 2, respectively); thus, CTs remained potentially largely undegraded/unabsorbed. With the thiolysis assay, CTs concentration was much higher in the abomasum (2...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089736/antibacterial-activity-of-limonium-brasiliense-baicuru-against-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-using-a-statistical-mixture-design
#16
Andressa Blainski, Barbara Gionco, Admilton G Oliveira, Galdino Andrade, Ieda S Scarminio, Denise B Silva, Norberto P Lopes, João C P Mello
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Limonium brasiliense (Boiss.) Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae) is commonly known as "baicuru" or "guaicuru" and preparations of its dried rhizomes have been popularly used in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome and menstrual disorder, and as an antiseptic in genito-urinary infections. This study evaluated the potential antibacterial activity of rhizome extracts against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains using statistical mixture design. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The statistical design of four components (water, methanol, acetone, and ethanol) produced 15 different extracts and also a confirmatory experiment, which was performed using water:acetone (3:7, v/v)...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867403/in-vitro-tnf-%C3%AE-inhibitory-activity-of-brazilian-plants-and-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-stryphnodendron-adstringens-in-an-acute-arthritis-model
#17
Bárbara O Henriques, Olívia Corrêa, Elaine Patrícia C Azevedo, Rodrigo M Pádua, Vívian Louise S de Oliveira, Thiago Henrique C Oliveira, Daiane Boff, Ana Carolina F Dias, Danielle G de Souza, Flávio A Amaral, Mauro M Teixeira, Rachel O Castilho, Fernão C Braga
Stryphnodendron species, popularly named "barbatimão," are traditionally used in Brazil as anti-inflammatory agents. This study aimed to investigate the effect of barbatimão and 11 other species on the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated THP-1 cells, as well as their anti-arthritis activity. The extracts of Stryphnodendron adstringens, Stryphnodendron obovatum, Campomanesia lineatifolia, and Terminalia glabrescens promoted a concentration-dependent inhibition of TNF-α...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796095/structure-activity-relationship-of-condensed-tannins-and-synergism-with-trans-cinnamaldehyde-against-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Honorata M Ropiak, Olivier Desrues, Andrew R Williams, Aina Ramsay, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Stig M Thamsborg
Parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of livestock are increasingly developing resistance to synthetic nematocidal drugs. Moreover, the use of nematocides can induce ecotoxicity by affecting free-living nematodes. Condensed tannins (CT) are a structurally diverse group of bioactive plant compounds possessing anthelmintic activity against GIN. We investigated the relationship between the chemical structure of contrasting, purified CT and nematocidal effects using Caenorhabditis elegans. We also explored whether the nematocidal activity of CT could synergize with trans-cinnamaldehyde (CIN)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706530/antiviral-activity-of-crude-hydroethanolic-extract-from-schinus-terebinthifolia-against-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1
#19
Samara Requena Nocchi, Mychelle Vianna Pereira Companhoni, João Carlos Palazzo de Mello, Benedito Prado Dias Filho, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Denise Brentan Silva, Tânia Ueda-Nakamura
Herpes simplex virus infections persist throughout the lifetime of the host and affect more than 80 % of the humans worldwide. The intensive use of available therapeutic drugs has led to undesirable effects, such as drug-resistant strains, prompting the search for new antiherpetic agents. Although diverse bioactivities have been identified in Schinus terebinthifolia, its antiviral activity has not attracted much attention. The present study evaluated the antiherpetic effects of a crude hydroethanolic extract from the stem bark of S...
April 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523714/influence-of-grape-seeds-and-stems-on-wine-composition-and-astringency
#20
Olga Pascual, Elena González-Royo, Mariona Gil, Sergio Gómez-Alonso, Esteban García-Romero, Joan Miquel Canals, Isidro Hermosín-Gutíerrez, Fernando Zamora
The aim of this paper is to study the real influence of seeds and stems on wine composition, astringency, and bitterness. A decolored grape juice and a grape juice macerated for 4 days from the same Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were fermented with or without supplementation with 100% seeds, 300% seeds, or 100% stems. Once alcoholic fermentation had finished, the wines were analyzed and tasted. The presence of seeds and stems increased the concentration of flavan-3-ol monomers with respect to the controls. However, the seeds mainly released (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, whereas the stems mainly released (+)-catechin and (+)-gallocatechin...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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