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How-Yee Lai, Yau-Yan Lim, Kah-Hwi Kim
BACKGROUND: Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae), a fern, is traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments, such as skin diseases, stomach pain, urinary bladder complaints, and also as a female contraceptive. Previously, we reported a strong radical scavenging activity, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity against HT29 colon cancer cells by aqueous extract of B. orientale. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we attempted to isolate and identify the active compound from the aqueous extract of B...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Ignacio García-Estévez, Cristina Alcalde-Eon, M Teresa Escribano-Bailon
The determination of the detailed flavanol composition in food matrices is not a simple task because of the structural similarities of monomers and, consequently, oligomers and polymers. The aim of this study was the development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method that would allow the accurate and precise quantification of catechins, gallocatechins and oligomeric proanthocyanidins. The high correlation coefficients of the calibration curves (>0.993), the recoveries not statistically different from 100%, the good intra- and inter-day precision (lower than 5%) and the LOD and LOQ values, low enough to quantify flavanols in grapes, are good results from the method validation procedure...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Wei-Ming Chai, Mei-Zhen Lin, Hui-Ling Feng, Zheng-Rong Zou, Ying-Xia Wang
Fruit pericarp of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels, a food waste, was selected as a raw material for proanthocyanidins. The proanthocyanidins' structures were integrally analyzed using three methods: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results elucidated that these compounds were composed of prodelphinidin (75%) and procyanidin (25%) with a degree of polymerization (DP) up to the 20-mers...
January 27, 2017: Food & Function
K Kempf, C S Malisch, C Grieder, F Widmer, R Kölliker
Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a perennial forage legume with great potential for use in sustainable agriculture due to its low input requirements, good drought tolerance, and production of forage rich in polyphenolic compounds, which are beneficial for animal health. However, its distribution and cultivation are limited due to its moderate agronomic performance and a general lack of well adapted, highly yielding cultivars. Faster progress in breeding is imperative, but is often hampered by the complex inheritance of traits and limited knowledge on the genetic composition of this tetraploid, outbreeding species...
January 23, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Honorata M Ropiak, Peter Lachmann, Aina Ramsay, Rebecca J Green, Irene Mueller-Harvey
A diverse panel of condensed tannins was used to resolve the confounding effects of size and subunit composition seen previously in tannin-protein interactions. Turbidimetry revealed that size in terms of mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) or average molecular weight (amw) was the most important tannin parameter. The smallest tannin with the relatively largest effect on protein aggregation had an mDP of ~7. The average size was significantly correlated with aggregation of bovine serum albumin, BSA (mDP: r = -0...
2017: PloS One
Olivier Desrues, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Wilbert F Pellikaan, Heidi L Enemark, Stig M Thamsborg
Condensed tannins' (CTs) fate along the digestive tract of ruminants may account for the variable efficacy of CTs against gastrointestinal nematodes. We analyzed CTs in the digesta of cattle fed sainfoin. With the acetone-butanol-HCl assay, the total CTs concentrations in the digesta were close to those in the diets (6.3 and 1.5% of DM in experiments 1 and 2, respectively); thus, CTs remained potentially largely undegraded/unabsorbed. With the thiolysis assay, CTs concentration was much higher in the abomasum (2...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Andressa Blainski, Barbara Gionco, Admilton G Oliveira, Galdino Andrade, Ieda S Scarminio, Denise B Silva, Norberto P Lopes, João C P Mello
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Limonium brasiliense (Boiss.) Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae) is commonly known as "baicuru" or "guaicuru" and preparations of its dried rhizomes have been populary used in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome and menstrual disorder, and as an antiseptic in genito-urinary infections. This study evaluated the potential antibacterial activity of rhizome extracts against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains using statistical mixture design. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The statistical design of four components (water, methanol, acetone and ethanol) produced 15 different extracts and also a confirmatory experiment, which was performed using water:acetone (3:7, v/v)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Bárbara O Henriques, Olívia Corrêa, Elaine Patrícia C Azevedo, Rodrigo M Pádua, Vívian Louise S de Oliveira, Thiago Henrique C Oliveira, Daiane Boff, Ana Carolina F Dias, Danielle G de Souza, Flávio A Amaral, Mauro M Teixeira, Rachel O Castilho, Fernão C Braga
Stryphnodendron species, popularly named "barbatimão," are traditionally used in Brazil as anti-inflammatory agents. This study aimed to investigate the effect of barbatimão and 11 other species on the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated THP-1 cells, as well as their anti-arthritis activity. The extracts of Stryphnodendron adstringens, Stryphnodendron obovatum, Campomanesia lineatifolia, and Terminalia glabrescens promoted a concentration-dependent inhibition of TNF-α...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Honorata M Ropiak, Olivier Desrues, Andrew R Williams, Aina Ramsay, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Stig M Thamsborg
Parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of livestock are increasingly developing resistance to synthetic nematocidal drugs. Moreover, the use of nematocides can induce ecotoxicity by affecting free-living nematodes. Condensed tannins (CT) are a structurally diverse group of bioactive plant compounds possessing anthelmintic activity against GIN. We investigated the relationship between the chemical structure of contrasting, purified CT and nematocidal effects using Caenorhabditis elegans. We also explored whether the nematocidal activity of CT could synergize with trans-cinnamaldehyde (CIN)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Samara Requena Nocchi, Mychelle Vianna Pereira Companhoni, João Carlos Palazzo de Mello, Benedito Prado, Dias Filho, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Denise Brentan Silva, Tânia Ueda-Nakamura
Herpes simplex virus infections persist throughout the lifetime of the host and affect more than 80 % of the humans worldwide. The intensive use of available therapeutic drugs has led to undesirable effects, such as drug-resistant strains, prompting the search for new antiherpetic agents. Although diverse bioactivities have been identified in Schinus terebinthifolia, its antiviral activity has not attracted much attention. The present study evaluated the antiherpetic effects of a crude hydroethanolic extract from the stem bark of S...
October 5, 2016: Planta Medica
Olga Pascual, Elena González-Royo, Mariona Gil, Sergio Gómez-Alonso, Esteban García-Romero, Joan Miquel Canals, Isidro Hermosín-Gutíerrez, Fernando Zamora
The aim of this paper is to study the real influence of seeds and stems on wine composition, astringency, and bitterness. A decolored grape juice and a grape juice macerated for 4 days from the same Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were fermented with or without supplementation with 100% seeds, 300% seeds, or 100% stems. Once alcoholic fermentation had finished, the wines were analyzed and tasted. The presence of seeds and stems increased the concentration of flavan-3-ol monomers with respect to the controls. However, the seeds mainly released (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, whereas the stems mainly released (+)-catechin and (+)-gallocatechin...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Natércia Teixeira, Nuno Mateus, Victor de Freitas
This data article contains raw and processed data related to research published in Teixeira et al. (2016) [1]. Here we introduce data acquired from the synthesis of a prodelphinidin dimer gallate. All synthesis steps are described and a dataset for the removal of the protecting on prodelphinidin synthesis is presented. With hydrogenolysis in situ with triethylsilane the hydrogen required is produced and used at the same time, making the reaction possible without resorting to bottled hydrogen. Full NMR and HPLC-ESI-MS analysis data is also provided...
September 2016: Data in Brief
Adriano Costa de Camargo, Marisa Aparecida Bismara Regitano-d'Arce, Aline Camarão Telles Biasoto, Fereidoon Shahidi
Phenolics in food and agricultural processing by-products exist in the soluble and insoluble-bound forms. The ability of selected enzymes in improving the extraction of insoluble-bound phenolics from the starting material (experiment I) or the residues containing insoluble-bound phenolics (experiment II) were evaluated. Pronase and Viscozyme improved the extraction of insoluble-bound phenolics as evaluated by total phenolic content, antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS and DPPH assays, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, reducing power as well as evaluation of inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and lipase activities...
December 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Nirupama Gangopadhyay, Dilip K Rai, Nigel P Brunton, Eimear Gallagher, Mohammad B Hossain
In the present study, the relative contribution of individual/classes of polyphenols in barley, to its antioxidant properties, was evaluated. Flash chromatography was used to fractionate the total polyphenol extract of Irish barley cultivar 'Irina', and fractions with highest antioxidant properties were identified using total phenolic content and three in vitro antioxidant assays: DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC. Flavanols (catechin, procyanidin B, prodelphinidin B, procyanidin C) and a novel substituted flavanol (catechin dihexoside, C27H33O16(-), m/z 613...
November 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Andrew R Williams, Christos Fryganas, Kirsten Reichwald, Søren Skov, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Stig M Thamsborg
Plant-derived proanthocyanidins (PAC) have been promoted as a natural method of improving health and immune function in livestock. It has previously been shown that PAC are effective agonists for activating ruminant γδ T-cells in vitro, however effects on other livestock species are not yet clear. Moreover, the fine structural characteristics of the PAC which contribute to this stimulatory effect have not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate activation of porcine γδ T-cells by PAC via up-regulation of CD25 (IL-2Rα) and show that 1) activation is dependent on degree of polymerization (DP), with PAC fractions containing polymers with mean DP >6 significantly more effective than fractions with mean DP <6, whilst flavan-3-ol monomers (the constituent monomeric units of PAC) did not induce CD25 expression and 2) both procyanidin and prodelphinidin-type PAC are effective agonists...
April 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Yue-Wei Ge, Shu Zhu, Kohei Kazuma, Sheng-Li Wei, Kayo Yoshimatsu, Katsuko Komatsu
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are major anti-diarrhea constituents in rhubarb, one of the frequently used traditional medicines. However, the phytochemical investigation of PAs in rhubarb was hampered by their strenuous purification and identification. In the present study, aiming to clarify the distribution of PAs in different rhubarb species, a molecular ion index was priorly established according to the structural features of B-type PAs, which led to a series of targeted discovery of oligomeric PAs in rhubarb by the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method...
May 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Celia Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa Quirantes-Piné, José Uberos, Cecilia Jiménez-Sánchez, Alejandro Peña, Antonio Segura-Carretero
Phenolic compounds from a cranberry extract were isolated in order to assess their contribution to the antibacterial activity against uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (UPEC). With this purpose, a total of 25 fractions from a cranberry extract were isolated using semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized based on the results obtained by reversed-phase HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry detection. Then, the effects on UPEC surface hydrophobicity and biofilm formation of the cranberry extract as well as the purest fractions (a total of 13) were tested...
March 2016: Food & Function
Olivier Desrues, Christos Fryganas, Honorata M Ropiak, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Heidi L Enemark, Stig M Thamsborg
Plants containing condensed tannins (CT) may have potential to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle. The aim was to investigate the anthelmintic activities of four flavan-3-ols, two galloyl derivatives and 14 purified CT fractions, and to define which structural features of CT determine the anti-parasitic effects against the main cattle nematodes. We used in vitro tests targeting L1 larvae (feeding inhibition assay) and adults (motility assay) of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora. In the larval feeding inhibition assay, O...
April 2016: Parasitology
Honorata M Ropiak, Aina Ramsay, Irene Mueller-Harvey
Medicinal plant materials are not usually analysed for condensed tannins (CT). Thirty commercially available European medicinal plants and herbal products were screened for CT and fourteen CT samples were analysed in detail. This is also the first comprehensive CT analysis of pine buds, walnut leaves, heather flowers and great water dock roots. Acetone/water extracts contained between 3.2 and 25.9 g CT/100g of extract, had CT with mean degrees of polymerisation of 2.9 to 13.3, procyanidin/prodelphinidin ratios of 1...
March 20, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Wei-Ming Chai, Rui Wang, Man-Kun Wei, Zheng-Rong Zou, Rong-Gen Deng, Wei-Sheng Liu, Yi-Yuan Peng
The objective of this study was to assess the structure, anti-tyrosinase activity, and mechanism of proanthocyanidins extracted from Rhododendron pulchrum leaves. Results obtained from mass spectra of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) revealed that proanthocyanidins were complex mixtures of procyanidins, prodelphinidins, propelargonidins, and their derivatives, among which procyanidins were the main components...
2015: PloS One
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