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Andressa Blainski, Barbara Gionco, Admilton G Oliveira, Galdino Andrade, Ieda S Scarminio, Denise B Silva, Norberto P Lopes, João C P Mello
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Limonium brasiliense (Boiss.) Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae) is commonly known as "baicuru" or "guaicuru" and preparations of its dried rhizomes have been populary used in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome and menstrual disorder, and as an antiseptic in genito-urinary infections. This study evaluated the potential antibacterial activity of rhizome extracts against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains using statistical mixture design. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The statistical design of four components (water, methanol, acetone and ethanol) produced 15 different extracts and also a confirmatory experiment, which was performed using water:acetone (3:7, v/v)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Bárbara O Henriques, Olívia Corrêa, Elaine Patrícia C Azevedo, Rodrigo M Pádua, Vívian Louise S de Oliveira, Thiago Henrique C Oliveira, Daiane Boff, Ana Carolina F Dias, Danielle G de Souza, Flávio A Amaral, Mauro M Teixeira, Rachel O Castilho, Fernão C Braga
Stryphnodendron species, popularly named "barbatimão," are traditionally used in Brazil as anti-inflammatory agents. This study aimed to investigate the effect of barbatimão and 11 other species on the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated THP-1 cells, as well as their anti-arthritis activity. The extracts of Stryphnodendron adstringens, Stryphnodendron obovatum, Campomanesia lineatifolia, and Terminalia glabrescens promoted a concentration-dependent inhibition of TNF-α...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Honorata M Ropiak, Olivier Desrues, Andrew R Williams, Aina Ramsay, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Stig M Thamsborg
Parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of livestock are increasingly developing resistance to synthetic nematocidal drugs. Moreover, the use of nematocides can induce ecotoxicity by affecting free-living nematodes. Condensed tannins (CT) are a structurally diverse group of bioactive plant compounds possessing anthelmintic activity against GIN. We investigated the relationship between the chemical structure of contrasting, purified CT and nematocidal effects using Caenorhabditis elegans. We also explored whether the nematocidal activity of CT could synergize with trans-cinnamaldehyde (CIN)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Samara Requena Nocchi, Mychelle Vianna Pereira Companhoni, João Carlos Palazzo de Mello, Benedito Prado, Dias Filho, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Denise Brentan Silva, Tânia Ueda-Nakamura
Herpes simplex virus infections persist throughout the lifetime of the host and affect more than 80 % of the humans worldwide. The intensive use of available therapeutic drugs has led to undesirable effects, such as drug-resistant strains, prompting the search for new antiherpetic agents. Although diverse bioactivities have been identified in Schinus terebinthifolia, its antiviral activity has not attracted much attention. The present study evaluated the antiherpetic effects of a crude hydroethanolic extract from the stem bark of S...
October 5, 2016: Planta Medica
Olga Pascual, Elena González-Royo, Mariona Gil, Sergio Gómez-Alonso, Esteban García-Romero, Joan Miquel Canals, Isidro Hermosín-Gutíerrez, Fernando Zamora
The aim of this paper is to study the real influence of seeds and stems on wine composition, astringency, and bitterness. A decolored grape juice and a grape juice macerated for 4 days from the same Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were fermented with or without supplementation with 100% seeds, 300% seeds, or 100% stems. Once alcoholic fermentation had finished, the wines were analyzed and tasted. The presence of seeds and stems increased the concentration of flavan-3-ol monomers with respect to the controls. However, the seeds mainly released (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, whereas the stems mainly released (+)-catechin and (+)-gallocatechin...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Natércia Teixeira, Nuno Mateus, Victor de Freitas
This data article contains raw and processed data related to research published in Teixeira et al. (2016) [1]. Here we introduce data acquired from the synthesis of a prodelphinidin dimer gallate. All synthesis steps are described and a dataset for the removal of the protecting on prodelphinidin synthesis is presented. With hydrogenolysis in situ with triethylsilane the hydrogen required is produced and used at the same time, making the reaction possible without resorting to bottled hydrogen. Full NMR and HPLC-ESI-MS analysis data is also provided...
September 2016: Data in Brief
Adriano Costa de Camargo, Marisa Aparecida Bismara Regitano-d'Arce, Aline Camarão Telles Biasoto, Fereidoon Shahidi
Phenolics in food and agricultural processing by-products exist in the soluble and insoluble-bound forms. The ability of selected enzymes in improving the extraction of insoluble-bound phenolics from the starting material (experiment I) or the residues containing insoluble-bound phenolics (experiment II) were evaluated. Pronase and Viscozyme improved the extraction of insoluble-bound phenolics as evaluated by total phenolic content, antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS and DPPH assays, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, reducing power as well as evaluation of inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and lipase activities...
December 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Nirupama Gangopadhyay, Dilip K Rai, Nigel P Brunton, Eimear Gallagher, Mohammad B Hossain
In the present study, the relative contribution of individual/classes of polyphenols in barley, to its antioxidant properties, was evaluated. Flash chromatography was used to fractionate the total polyphenol extract of Irish barley cultivar 'Irina', and fractions with highest antioxidant properties were identified using total phenolic content and three in vitro antioxidant assays: DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC. Flavanols (catechin, procyanidin B, prodelphinidin B, procyanidin C) and a novel substituted flavanol (catechin dihexoside, C27H33O16(-), m/z 613...
November 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Andrew R Williams, Christos Fryganas, Kirsten Reichwald, Søren Skov, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Stig M Thamsborg
Plant-derived proanthocyanidins (PAC) have been promoted as a natural method of improving health and immune function in livestock. It has previously been shown that PAC are effective agonists for activating ruminant γδ T-cells in vitro, however effects on other livestock species are not yet clear. Moreover, the fine structural characteristics of the PAC which contribute to this stimulatory effect have not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate activation of porcine γδ T-cells by PAC via up-regulation of CD25 (IL-2Rα) and show that 1) activation is dependent on degree of polymerization (DP), with PAC fractions containing polymers with mean DP >6 significantly more effective than fractions with mean DP <6, whilst flavan-3-ol monomers (the constituent monomeric units of PAC) did not induce CD25 expression and 2) both procyanidin and prodelphinidin-type PAC are effective agonists...
April 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Yue-Wei Ge, Shu Zhu, Kohei Kazuma, Sheng-Li Wei, Kayo Yoshimatsu, Katsuko Komatsu
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are major anti-diarrhea constituents in rhubarb, one of the frequently used traditional medicines. However, the phytochemical investigation of PAs in rhubarb was hampered by their strenuous purification and identification. In the present study, aiming to clarify the distribution of PAs in different rhubarb species, a molecular ion index was priorly established according to the structural features of B-type PAs, which led to a series of targeted discovery of oligomeric PAs in rhubarb by the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method...
May 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Celia Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa Quirantes-Piné, José Uberos, Cecilia Jiménez-Sánchez, Alejandro Peña, Antonio Segura-Carretero
Phenolic compounds from a cranberry extract were isolated in order to assess their contribution to the antibacterial activity against uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (UPEC). With this purpose, a total of 25 fractions from a cranberry extract were isolated using semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized based on the results obtained by reversed-phase HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry detection. Then, the effects on UPEC surface hydrophobicity and biofilm formation of the cranberry extract as well as the purest fractions (a total of 13) were tested...
March 2016: Food & Function
Olivier Desrues, Christos Fryganas, Honorata M Ropiak, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Heidi L Enemark, Stig M Thamsborg
Plants containing condensed tannins (CT) may have potential to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle. The aim was to investigate the anthelmintic activities of four flavan-3-ols, two galloyl derivatives and 14 purified CT fractions, and to define which structural features of CT determine the anti-parasitic effects against the main cattle nematodes. We used in vitro tests targeting L1 larvae (feeding inhibition assay) and adults (motility assay) of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora. In the larval feeding inhibition assay, O...
April 2016: Parasitology
Honorata M Ropiak, Aina Ramsay, Irene Mueller-Harvey
Medicinal plant materials are not usually analysed for condensed tannins (CT). Thirty commercially available European medicinal plants and herbal products were screened for CT and fourteen CT samples were analysed in detail. This is also the first comprehensive CT analysis of pine buds, walnut leaves, heather flowers and great water dock roots. Acetone/water extracts contained between 3.2 and 25.9 g CT/100g of extract, had CT with mean degrees of polymerisation of 2.9 to 13.3, procyanidin/prodelphinidin ratios of 1...
March 20, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Wei-Ming Chai, Rui Wang, Man-Kun Wei, Zheng-Rong Zou, Rong-Gen Deng, Wei-Sheng Liu, Yi-Yuan Peng
The objective of this study was to assess the structure, anti-tyrosinase activity, and mechanism of proanthocyanidins extracted from Rhododendron pulchrum leaves. Results obtained from mass spectra of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) revealed that proanthocyanidins were complex mixtures of procyanidins, prodelphinidins, propelargonidins, and their derivatives, among which procyanidins were the main components...
2015: PloS One
A Ramsay, A R Williams, S M Thamsborg, I Mueller-Harvey
Proanthocyanidins (PA) from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal were investigated by thiolytic degradation with benzyl mercaptan and the reaction products were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These PA were galloylated (≈40%), contained only B-type linkages and had a high proportion of prodelphinidins (>70%). The mean degree of polymerisation was 8 (i.e. average molecular size was 2384Da) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) was the major flavan-3-ol subunit in PA. Shea meal also proved to be a potentially valuable source for extracting free flavan-3-ol-O-gallates, especially EGCg (575mg/kg meal), which is known for its health and anti-parasitic benefits...
February 2016: Phytochemistry
Carsten S Malisch, Andreas Lüscher, Nicolas Baert, Marica T Engström, Bruno Studer, Christos Fryganas, Daniel Suter, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Juha-Pekka Salminen
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) are of interest to ameliorate the sustainability of livestock production. However, sainfoin forage yield and PA concentrations, as well as their composition, require optimization. Individual plants of 27 sainfoin accessions from four continents were analyzed with LC-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS for PA concentrations and simple phenolic compounds. Large variability existed in PA concentrations (23.0-47.5 mg g(-1) leaf dry matter (DM)), share of prodelphinidins (79-96%), and mean degree of polymerization (11-14) among, but also within, accessions...
December 2, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Caili Fu, Dongying Yang, Wan Yi Elaine Peh, Shaojuan Lai, Xiao Feng, Hongshun Yang
UNLABELLED: Proanthocyanidins were isolated and purified from fruits of elephant apple (Dillenia indica Linn.) and their structural and bioactive properties were examined. Bate-Smith alcoholysis, FTIR, and (13) C NMR spectra revealed that elephant apple proanthocyanidins (EAPs) contained a dominant amount of B-type procyanidins (PC) with a minor amount of B-type prodelphinidins (PD) but no A-type interflavan linkage. (13) C NMR spectrum indicated that the cis isomer was dominant in EAPs...
October 2015: Journal of Food Science
Wei-Ming Chai, Man-Kun Wei, Rui Wang, Rong-Gen Deng, Zheng-Rong Zou, Yi-Yuan Peng
Proanthocyanidins were purified from avocado (Persea americana) fruit, and their structures were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-QTRAP mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTRAP MS) techniques. The results obtained from mass spectrometry (MS) analysis demonstrated that the proanthocyanidins were homo- and heteropolymers of procyanidins, prodelphinidins, propelargonidins, and procyanidin gallate...
August 26, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Natércia Teixeira, Joana Azevedo, Nuno Mateus, Victor de Freitas
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are one of the most important polyphenolic compounds in wine. Among PAs, prodelphinidin (PD) dimers and trimers have not been widely detected in wines due to the lack of available commercial standards and the difficulty to detect and isolate them from natural sources. LC-ESI-MS (liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) with the right chromatographic conditions has proven to be a powerful tool for PAs detection and identification in complex samples. This technique has been applied to an exhaustive study of PA composition of two Portuguese red wines made with teinturier grapes, especially for the identification of PD dimers and trimers...
January 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Chaweewan Klongsiriwet, Jessica Quijada, Andrew R Williams, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Elizabeth M Williamson, Hervé Hoste
This study investigated the separate and combined anthelmintic (AH) effects of different phenolic compounds, including condensed tannins and flavonoids, all of which are known to occur in willow leaves, a potentially valuable dry season feed. A range of contrasting model tannins, which span the whole range of willow tannins, were isolated from tilia flowers, goat willow leaves, black currant leaves and red currant leaves. All together, the tested compounds represented the major tannin types (procyanidins and prodelphinidins) and flavonoid types (flavonols, flavones and flavanones)...
December 2015: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
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