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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773646/a-blood-capillary-plexus-derived-population-of-progenitor-cells-contributes-to-genesis-of-the-dermal-lymphatic-vasculature-during-embryonic-development
#1
Cathy Pichol-Thievend, Kelly L Betterman, Xiaolei Liu, Wanshu Ma, Renae Skoczylas, Emmanuelle Lesieur, Frank L Bos, Dorte Schulte, Stefan Schulte-Merker, Benjamin M Hogan, Guillermo Oliver, Natasha L Harvey, Mathias Francois
Despite the essential role of the lymphatic vasculature in tissue homeostasis and disease, knowledge of the organ-specific origins of lymphatic endothelial progenitor cells remains limited. The assumption that most murine embryonic lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are venous derived has recently been challenged. Here, we show that the embryonic dermal blood capillary plexus constitutes an additional, local source of LECs that contributes to the formation of the dermal lymphatic vascular network. We describe a novel mechanism whereby rare PROX1-positive endothelial cells exit the capillary plexus in a Ccbe1 -dependent manner to establish discrete LEC clusters...
May 17, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749639/the-homeodomain-transcription-factor-prox1-is-a-direct-target-of-soxc-proteins-during-developmental-vertebrate-neurogenesis
#2
Anne Jacob, Hannah M Wüst, Johannes M Thalhammer, Franziska Fröb, Melanie Küspert, Simone Reiprich, Elli-Anna Balta, D Chichung Lie, Michael Wegner, Elisabeth Sock
The high-mobility-group-domain containing SoxC transcription factors Sox4 and Sox11 are expressed and required in the vertebrate central nervous system in neuronal precursors and neuroblasts. To identify genes that are widely regulated by SoxC proteins during vertebrate neurogenesis we generated expression profiles from developing mouse brain and chicken neural tube with reduced SoxC expression and found the transcription factor Prox1 strongly downregulated under both conditions. This led us to hypothesize that Prox1 expression depends on SoxC proteins in the developing central nervous system of mouse and chicken...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749465/12-s-hete-induces-lymph-endothelial-cell-retraction-in-vitro-by-upregulation-of-sox18
#3
Adryan Fristiohady, Daniela Milovanovic, Sigurd Krieger, Nicole Huttary, Chi Huu Nguyen, Jose Basilio, Walter Jäger, Rainer De Martin, Georg Krupitza
Metastasising breast cancer cells communicate with adjacent lymph endothelia, intravasate and disseminate through lymphatic routes, colonise lymph nodes and finally metastasize to distant organs. Thus, understanding and blocking intravasation may attenuate the metastatic cascade at an early step. As a trigger factor, which causes the retraction of lymph endothelial cells (LECs) and opens entry ports for tumour cell intravasation, MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells secrete the pro-metastatic arachidonic acid metabolite, 12S-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid [12(S)-HETE]...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706463/characterizing-a-novel-vglut3-p2a-icreer-knockin-mouse-strain-in-cochlea
#4
Chao Li, Yilai Shu, Guangqin Wang, He Zhang, Ying Lu, Xiang Li, Gen Li, Lei Song, Zhiyong Liu
Precise mouse genetic studies rely on specific tools that can label specific cell types. In mouse cochlea, previous studies suggest that vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (vGlut3), also known as Slc17a8, is specifically expressed in inner hair cells (IHCs) and loss of vGlut3 causes deafness. To take advantage of its unique expression pattern, here we generate a novel vGlut3-P2A-iCreER knockin mouse strain. The P2A-iCreER cassette is precisely inserted before stop codon of vGlut3, by which the endogenous vGlut3 is intact and paired with iCreER as well...
April 17, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557780/neurogliaform-cortical-interneurons-derive-from-cells-in-the-preoptic-area
#5
Mathieu Niquille, Greta Limoni, Foivos Markopoulos, Christelle Cadilhac, Julien Prados, Anthony Holtmaat, Alexandre Dayer
Delineating the basic cellular components of cortical inhibitory circuits remains a fundamental issue in order to understand their specific contributions to microcircuit function. It is still unclear how current classifications of cortical interneuron subtypes relate to biological processes such as their developmental specification. Here we identified the developmental trajectory of neurogliaform cells (NGCs), the main effectors of a powerful inhibitory motif recruited by long-range connections. Using in vivo genetic lineage-tracing in mice, we report that NGCs originate from a specific pool of 5-HT3A R-expressing Hmx3+ cells located in the preoptic area (POA)...
March 20, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550018/a-dimeric-thymosin-beta-4-with-novel-bio-activity-protects-post-ischemic-cardiac-function-by-accelerating-vascular-endothelial-cell-proliferation
#6
Qiang Hao, Lei He, Jiming Zhou, Yuan Yuan, Xiaowen Ma, Zhijun Pang, Weina Li, Yingqi Zhang, Wei Zhang, Cun Zhang, Meng Li
BACKGROUND: Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a 43-amino-acid peptide with protective properties in myocardium injury. Previously, we produced a recombinant human dimeric Tβ4 (DTβ4). Here, the cardioprotective effects of DTβ4 and the molecular mechanisms underlying its enhanced activity were investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Echocardiography measurements showed that the cardioprotective effect of DTβ4 in myocardial infarction mice was significantly higher than that of wild-type Tβ4...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536540/microenvironment-of-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy-supports-lymphatic-neovascularization
#7
Erika Gucciardo, Sirpa Loukovaara, Ani Korhonen, Pauliina Repo, Beatriz Martins, Helena Vihinen, Eija Jokitalo, Kaisa Lehti
Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is a major diabetic microvascular complication characterized by pathological angiogenesis. Several retinopathy animal models have been developed to study the disease mechanisms and putative targets. However, knowledge on the human proliferative disease remains incomplete, relying on steady-state results from thin histological neovascular tissue sections and vitreous samples. New translational models are thus required to comprehensively understand the disease pathophysiology and develop improved therapeutic interventions...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501879/negative-regulation-of-lens-fiber-cell-differentiation-by-rtk-antagonists-spry-and-spred
#8
Guannan Zhao, Charles G Bailey, Yue Feng, John Rasko, Frank J Lovicu
Sprouty (Spry) and Spred proteins have been identified as closely related negative regulators of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated MAPK pathway, inhibiting cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation in many systems. As the different members of this antagonist family are strongly expressed in the lens epithelium in overlapping patterns, in this study we used lens epithelial explants to examine the impact of these different antagonists on the morphologic and molecular changes associated with fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-induced lens fiber differentiation...
May 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493038/postnatal-development-of-lymphatic-vasculature-in-the-brain-meninges
#9
Rebecca M Izen, Tomoko Yamazaki, Yoko Nishinaka-Arai, Young-Kwon Hong, Yoh-Suke Mukouyama
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, the central nervous system (CNS) has been viewed as an immune-privileged environment with no lymphatic vessels. This view was partially overturned by the discovery of lymphatic vessels in the dural membrane that surrounds the brain, in contact with the interior surface of the skull. We here examine the distribution and developmental timing of these lymphatic vessels. RESULTS: Using the Prox1-GFP BAC transgenic reporter and immunostaining with antibodies to lymphatic markers LYVE-1, Prox1, and Podoplanin, we have carried out whole-mount imaging of dural lymphatic vasculature at postnatal stages...
May 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492404/direct-reprogramming-of-spiral-ganglion-non-neuronal-cells-into-neurons-toward-ameliorating-sensorineural-hearing-loss-by-gene-therapy
#10
Teppei Noda, Steven J Meas, Jumpei Nogami, Yutaka Amemiya, Ryutaro Uchi, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Koji Nishimura, Alain Dabdoub
Primary auditory neurons (PANs) play a critical role in hearing by transmitting sound information from the inner ear to the brain. Their progressive degeneration is associated with excessive noise, disease and aging. The loss of PANs leads to permanent hearing impairment since they are incapable of regenerating. Spiral ganglion non-neuronal cells (SGNNCs), comprised mainly of glia, are resident within the modiolus and continue to survive after PAN loss. These attributes make SGNNCs an excellent target for replacing damaged PANs through cellular reprogramming...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427637/ceacam1-resists-hypoxia-induced-inhibition-of-tube-formation-of-human-dermal-lymphatic-endothelial-cells
#11
Qi Xie, Xiaocui Chen, Yinghua Xu, Jing Liang, Fufang Wang, Ju Liu
Tube formation is one of the fundamental events required by angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. To date, there is little knowledge on the effects of hypoxia on tube formation of human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs). In this study, we found that tube formation of HDLECs was inhibited under hypoxic condition with decreased expressions of VEGF-D, CEACAM1 and Prox1 genes. However, hypoxia-induced inhibition of tube formation of HDLECs was reversed by conditional media from hypoxic tumor cells. After knockdown of CEACAM1 by siRNA transfection, tube formation of HDLECs was increased with elevated Prox1 expression, suggesting that CEACAM1 downregulates Prox1 and plays an inhibitory role in tube formation of HDLECs...
May 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417440/caffeine-protects-against-anticonvulsant-induced-impaired-neurogenesis-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#12
Stefanie Endesfelder, Ulrike Weichelt, Cornelia Schiller, Katja Winter, Clarissa von Haefen, Christoph Bührer
In preterm infants, phenobarbital is the first-line antiepileptic drug for neonatal seizures while caffeine is used for the treatment of apnea. Data from experimental animals suggest that phenobarbital and other anticonvulsants are toxic for the developing brain, while neuroprotective effects have been reported for caffeine both in newborn rodents and preterm human infants. To characterize the interaction of phenobarbital and caffeine in the hippocampus of the developing rodent brain, we examined the effects of both drugs given separately or together on postnatal neurogenesis after administration to neonatal rats throughout postnatal day (P) 4 to P6...
February 7, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406257/high-expression-of-prospero-related-homeobox-1-prox1-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-salivary-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma
#13
Tao Gao, Chao Ma, Yun Li, Jun Ju, Xiangfeng Kang, Yuanlin Cai, Moyi Sun
PURPOSE: Prospero-related homeobox-1 (PROX1) plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of many human cancers. However, the expression pattern of PROX1 in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate PROX1 expression and its prognostic value in SACC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PROX1 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in SACC tissue specimens. Correlations between PROX1 expression and clinicopathologic features were investigated...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371975/the-role-of-prospero-homeobox-1-prox1-expression-in-follicular-thyroid-carcinoma-cells
#14
Magdalena Rudzinska, Joanna K Ledwon, Damian Gawel, Justyna Sikorska, Barbara Czarnocka
The prospero homeobox 1 (Prox1) transcription factor is a key player during embryogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Altered Prox1 expression has been found in a variety of human cancers, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Interestingly, Prox1 may exert tumor suppressive or tumor promoting effect, depending on the tissue context. In this study, we have analyzed Prox1 expression in normal and malignant human thyroid carcinoma cell lines. Moreover, we determined the effect of Prox1 silencing and overexpression on the cellular processes associated with the metastatic potential of tumor cells: proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis and anchorage-independent growth, in the follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) FTC-133 cell line...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329401/morphological-and-functional-characterization-of-non-fast-spiking-gabaergic-interneurons-in-layer-4-microcircuitry-of-rat-barrel-cortex
#15
Vishalini Emmenegger, Guanxiao Qi, Haijun Wang, Dirk Feldmeyer
GABAergic interneurons are notorious for their heterogeneity, despite constituting a small fraction of the neuronal population in the neocortex. Classification of interneurons is crucial for understanding their widespread cortical functions as they provide a complex and dynamic network, balancing excitation and inhibition. Here, we investigated different types of non-fast-spiking (nFS) interneurons in Layer 4 (L4) of rat barrel cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings with biocytin-filling. Based on a quantitative analysis on a combination of morphological and electrophysiological parameters, we identified 5 distinct types of L4 nFS interneurons: 1) trans-columnar projecting interneurons, 2) locally projecting non-Martinotti-like interneurons, 3) supra-granular projecting Martinotti-like interneurons, 4) intra-columnar projecting VIP-like interneurons, and 5) locally projecting neurogliaform-like interneurons...
April 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274910/disruption-of-liver-development-and-coagulation-pathway-by-ochratoxin-a-in-embryonic-zebrafish
#16
Ting-Shuan Wu, Yu-Ting Lin, Ying-Tzu Huang, Ya-Chih Cheng, Feng-Yih Yu, Biing-Hui Liu
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin that is found in various food and feed products. The molecular mechanisms that are associated with OTA hepatotoxicity and teratogenicity have not been extensively elucidated in a developing organism. In this study, the transcriptomic profile of zebrafish embryos indicates that hemostasis and blood coagulation are the top two pathways affected by OTA. The treatment of embryos with OTA was able to decrease the expression of genes that encode coagulation factors and liver markers, including f7, f9b, cp and vtna...
February 1, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213129/deep-tissue-analysis-of-distal-aqueous-drainage-structures-and-contractile-features
#17
Jose M Gonzalez, Minhee K Ko, Young-Kwon Hong, Robert Weigert, James C H Tan
Outflow resistance in the aqueous drainage tract distal to trabecular meshwork is potentially an important determinant of intraocular pressure and success of trabecular bypass glaucoma surgeries. It is unclear how distal resistance is modulated. We sought to establish: (a) multimodal 2-photon deep tissue imaging and 3-dimensional analysis of the distal aqueous drainage tract (DT) in transgenic mice in vivo and ex vivo; (b) criteria for distinguishing the DT from blood and lymphatic vessels; and (c) presence of a DT wall organization capable of contractility...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192290/direct-conversion-of-human-fibroblasts-into-hepatocyte-like-cells-by-atf5-prox1-foxa2-foxa3-and-hnf4a-transduction
#18
Daiki Nakamori, Hiroki Akamine, Kazuo Takayama, Fuminori Sakurai, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
Recently, it has been reported that human hepatocyte-like cells can be generated from fibroblasts by direct reprogramming technology. However, the conversion efficiency of human induced hepatocyte-like cells (hiHeps) is not high enough. In addition, comparative analysis with the existing models of hepatocytes, such as human iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells and primary human hepatocytes, has not been sufficiently carried out. In this study, we screened hepatic transcription factors for efficient direct hepatic reprogramming and compared hepatic functions between hiHeps and other existing hepatocyte models...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162051/in-vitro-characterization-of-cd133-lo-cancer-stem-cells-in-retinoblastoma-y79-cell-line
#19
Rohini M Nair, Murali Ms Balla, Imran Khan, Ravi Kiran Reddy Kalathur, Paturu Kondaiah, Geeta K Vemuganti
BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma (Rb), the most common childhood intraocular malignant tumor, is reported to have cancer stem cells (CSCs) similar to other tumors. Our previous investigation in primary tumors identified the small sized cells with low CD133 (Prominin-1) and high CD44 (Hyaluronic acid receptor) expression to be putative Rb CSCs using flow cytometry (FSClo /SSClo /CD133lo /CD44hi ). With this preliminary data, we have now utilized a comprehensive approach of in vitro characterization of Y79 Rb cell line following CSC enrichment using CD133 surface marker and subsequent validation to confirm the functional properties of CSCs...
November 21, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126016/go-and-stop-signals-for-glial-regeneration
#20
REVIEW
Alicia Hidalgo, Ann Logan
The regenerative response of ensheating glia to central nervous system (CNS) injury involves proliferation and differentiation, axonal re-enwrapment and some recovery of behaviour. Understanding this limited response could enable the enhancement of it. In Drosophila, the glial progenitor state is maintained by Notch, an activator of cell division and Prospero (Pros), a repressor. Injury provokes the activation of NFκB and up-regulation of Kon-tiki (Kon), driving cell proliferation. Homeostatic switch-off comes about as two negative feedback loops involving Pros terminate the response...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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