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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907888/a-novel-role-for-gsk3%C3%AE-as-a-modulator-of-drosha-microprocessor-activity-and-microrna-biogenesis
#1
Claire E Fletcher, Jack D Godfrey, Akifumi Shibakawa, Martin Bushell, Charlotte L Bevan
Regulation of microRNA (miR) biogenesis is complex and stringently controlled. Here, we identify the kinase GSK3β as an important modulator of miR biogenesis at Microprocessor level. Repression of GSK3β activity reduces Drosha activity toward pri-miRs, leading to accumulation of unprocessed pri-miRs and reduction of pre-miRs and mature miRs without altering levels or cellular localisation of miR biogenesis proteins. Conversely, GSK3β activation increases Drosha activity and mature miR accumulation. GSK3β achieves this through promoting Drosha:cofactor and Drosha:pri-miR interactions: it binds to DGCR8 and p72 in the Microprocessor, an effect dependent upon presence of RNA...
October 23, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898827/identification-of-genomic-loci-associated-with-the-photochemical-reflectance-index-by-genome-wide-association-study-in-soybean
#2
Matthew Herritt, Arun Prabhu Dhanapal, Felix B Fritschi
The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is determined from canopy spectral reflectance measurements and can provide important information about photosynthesis. The PRI can be used to assess the epoxidation state of xanthophyll pigments, which provides information on nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) and the amount of energy used for photosynthesis. Genome-wide association analyses were conducted to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genomic loci associated with PRI using data from a soybean [ (L...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886674/pri-mir-34b-c-rs4938723-polymorphism-is-associated-with-the-risk-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#3
Mohammad Hashemi, Gholamreza Bahari, Majid Naderi, Simin Sadeghi-Bojd, Mohsen Taheri
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding regulatory RNAs, are key regulators of gene expression. The impact of Pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 variant on development of various cancers is still controversial. In the present study, we examined whether a rs4938723 variant located at the promoter region of Pri-miR-34b/c is associated with childhood ALL. A total of 110 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 120 healthy children were recruited to participate in this study. The rs4938723 variant was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method...
November 2016: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885505/pre-microrna-processing-activity-in-nuclear-extracts-from-arabidopsis-suspension-cells
#4
Manabu Yoshikawa
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in a variety of biological phenomena, such as development and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, by regulating complementary target transcripts. Primary MIRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs) are processed into miRNA/miRNA* duplexes via pre-miRNA intermediates by DICER family proteins. In plants miRNA/miRNA* duplexes are produced from pri-miRNAs exclusively by a complex containing DICER-LIKE1 (DCL1), Hyponastic leaves1 (HYL1) and SERREATE (SE) in the nucleus. Pri-miRNA or pre-miRNA processing activity has been detected using recombinant DCL1, HYL1 and SE proteins expressed in insect cells and immunopurified DCL1-HYL1-SE-containing complexes that transiently co-overexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881313/effect-of-internal-hexagonal-index-on-removal-torque-and-tensile-removal-force-of-different-morse-taper-connection-abutments
#5
Thalisson Saymo de Oliveira Silva, Suyá Moura Mendes Alencar, Valdimar da Silva Valente, Carmem Dolores Vilarinho Soares de Moura
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The maintenance of the mechanical stability of implant-abutment connections is relevant to the clinical success of implant-supported restorations. However, the reduction in the conical area of abutments with an internal hexagonal index may result in a biomechanical disadvantage in Morse taper connections. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of an internal hexagonal index on the removal torque and tensile removal force of different Morse taper connection abutments submitted to thermomechanical cycling...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870853/intron-lariat-rna-inhibits-microrna-biogenesis-by-sequestering-the-dicing-complex-in-arabidopsis
#6
Ziwei Li, Shengpeng Wang, Jinping Cheng, Chuanbin Su, Songxiao Zhong, Qi Liu, Yuda Fang, Yao Yu, Hong Lv, Yun Zheng, Binglian Zheng
Lariat RNAs formed as by-products of splicing are quickly degraded by the RNA debranching enzyme 1 (DBR1), leading to their turnover. Null dbr1 mutants in both animals and plants are embryo lethal, but the mechanism underlying the lethality remains unclear. Here we characterized a weak mutant allele of DBR1 in Arabidopsis, dbr1-2, and showed that a global increase in lariat RNAs was unexpectedly accompanied by a genome-wide reduction in miRNA accumulation. The dbr1-2 mutation had no effects on expression of miRNA biogenesis genes or primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs), but the association of pri-miRNAs with the DCL1/HYL1 dicing complex was impaired...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863087/posttranscriptional-coordination-of-splicing-and-mirna-biogenesis-in-plants
#7
REVIEW
Agata Stepien, Katarzyna Knop, Jakub Dolata, Michal Taube, Mateusz Bajczyk, Maria Barciszewska-Pacak, Andrzej Pacak, Artur Jarmolowski, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single-stranded, noncoding RNAs that play a crucial role in basic physiological and morphological processes and in response to various stresses in eukaryotic organisms. However, the miRNA biogenesis, which is based on the action of complex protein machinery, varies between plants and animals, with the differences largely concerning the location of the process, the protein composition of the microprocessor, the mechanism of miRNA action on mRNA target, and the miRNA gene ( MIR ) structure...
November 9, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859394/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-comparative-effectiveness-of-aspirin-vs-screening-for-colorectal-cancer-prevention
#8
REVIEW
L Emilsson, Ø Holme, M Bretthauer, N R Cook, J E Buring, M Løberg, H-O Adami, H D Sesso, M J Gaziano, M Kalager
BACKGROUND: Both aspirin use and screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy or guaiac faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) may reduce mortality from colorectal cancer, but comparative effectiveness of these interventions is unknown. AIM: To compare aspirin to guaiac FOBT screening with regard to incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer in a network meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched Medline, EMBASE and the COCHRANE central register (CENTRAL) for relevant randomised trials identified until 31 October 2015...
November 17, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855158/high-resolution-genetics-identifies-the-lipid-transfer-protein-sec14p-as-target-for-antifungal-ergolines
#9
Ireos Filipuzzi, Simona Cotesta, Francesca Perruccio, Britta Knapp, Yue Fu, Christian Studer, Verena Pries, Ralph Riedl, Stephen B Helliwell, Katarina T Petrovic, N Rao Movva, Dominique Sanglard, Jianshi Tao, Dominic Hoepfner
Invasive infections by fungal pathogens cause more deaths than malaria worldwide. We found the ergoline compound NGx04 in an antifungal screen, with selectivity over mammalian cells. High-resolution chemogenomics identified the lipid transfer protein Sec14p as the target of NGx04 and compound-resistant mutations in Sec14p define compound-target interactions in the substrate binding pocket of the protein. Beyond its essential lipid transfer function in a variety of pathogenic fungi, Sec14p is also involved in secretion of virulence determinants essential for the pathogenicity of fungi such as Cryptococcus neoformans, making Sec14p an attractive antifungal target...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846460/coronary-risk-stratification-of-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-valvular-heart-disease
#10
Rasmus Bo Hasselbalch, Thomas Engstrøm, Mia Pries-Heje, Merete Heitmann, Frants Pedersen, Morten Schou, Hans Mickley, Hanne Elming, Rolf Steffensen, Lars Køber, Kasper Iversen
BACKGROUND: Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) is a non-invasive, less expensive, low-radiation alternative to coronary angiography (CAG) prior to valvular heart surgery. MSCT has a high negative predictive value for coronary artery disease (CAD) but previous studies of patients with valvular disease have shown that MSCT, as the primary evaluation technique, lead to re-evaluation with CAG in about a third of cases and it is therefore not recommended. If a subgroup of patients with low- to intermediate risk of CAD could be identified and examined with MSCT, it could be cost-effective, reduce radiation and the risk of complications associated with CAG...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837036/combining-home-garden-poultry-and-nutrition-education-program-targeted-to-families-with-young-children-improved-anemia-among-children-and-anemia-and-underweight-among-nonpregnant-women-in-nepal
#11
Akoto Osei, Pooja Pandey, Jennifer Nielsen, Alissa Pries, David Spiro, Dale Davis, Victoria Quinn, Nancy Haselow
BACKGROUND: The impact of food-based interventions on child and maternal anthropometry and anemia has not been adequately studied. OBJECTIVE: This study tested the effect of an enhanced homestead food production (EHFP) program consisting of home garden, poultry raising, and nutrition education implemented over 2.5 years versus control (no intervention) on anthropometry and anemia among children (12-48 months) and their mothers. METHODS: An unblinded cluster-randomized controlled trial involving pre- and post-surveys with independent samples was conducted in rural areas of Baitadi District, Nepal...
November 11, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835943/precise-mapping-of-the-transcription-start-sites-of-human-micrornas-using-drosha-knockout-cells
#12
Geon Jeong, Yeong-Hwan Lim, Young-Kook Kim
BACKGROUND: The expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is primarily regulated during their transcription. However, the transcriptional regulation of miRNA genes has not been studied extensively owing to the lack of sufficient information about the promoters and transcription start sites of most miRNAs. RESULTS: In this study, we identified the transcription start sites of human primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) using DROSHA knockout cells. DROSHA knockout resulted in increased accumulation of pri-miRNAs and facilitated the precise mapping of their 5' end nucleotides using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique...
November 11, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812929/mir-212-132-is-epigenetically-downregulated-by-sox4-ezh2-h3k27me3-feedback-loop-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#13
Lin Lin, Zhiwen Wang, Haihong Jin, Hongzhen Shi, Zhihong Lu, Zhenqin Qi
Both miR-212 and miR-132 are usually downregulated in ovarian cancer and act as tumor suppressors. However, the mechanism of their downregulation in ovarian cancer is not clear. In this study, we investigated the regulative effects of miR-212 and miR-132 on SOX4 expression in ovarian cancer cells and also studied whether there is a feedback regulation between miR-212/miR-132 and SOX4 via an epigenetic mechanism. The results showed that both EZH2 and SOX4 overexpressions significantly repressed miR-212 and miR-132 expressions in SKOV3 and OV2008 cells...
November 3, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808368/association-between-polymorphisms-in-the-promoter-region-of-pri-mir-34b-c-and-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
L L Chen, Y Shen, J B Zhang, S Wang, T Jiang, M Q Zheng, Z J Zheng, C X Chen
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. MicroRNA-34 (miR-34) gene plays a key role in altering the apoptotic cycle and pathways of downstream cells, and therefore influences carcinogenesis. In this case-control study, we assessed the role of the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphism in HCC risk. The pri-miR-34b/c polymorphic genotype was determined in 286 patients with HCC and 572 controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The male gender (X(2) = 12...
October 5, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793909/attenuation-of-colchicine-toxicity-in-drug-resistant-cancer-cells-by-co-treatment-with-anti-malarial-drugs
#15
Ae-Ran Choi, Ju-Hwa Kim, Ji Hyun Cheon, Hyung Sik Kim, Sungpil Yoon
BACKGROUND/AIM: Colchicine (COL) is a well-known and potent microtubule targeting anticancer agent. The purpose of our study was to identify conditions that increase sensitization of COL-resistant cancer cells that overexpress P-glycoprotein (P-gp). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-malarial drugs chloroquine (CHL), mefloquine (MEF) and primaquine (PRI) have been shown to increase sensitization in drug-resistant KBV20C cells via P-gp inhibition. Therefore, we tested whether co-treatment of COL with PRI, CHL or MEF increases sensitivity in COL-resistant KBV20C cells over that of cells treated with COL alone and whether these effects are attributable to P-gp activity...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791094/primate-specific-mir-515-family-members-inhibit-key-genes-in-human-trophoblast-differentiation-and-are-upregulated-in-preeclampsia
#16
Ming Zhang, Sribalasubashini Muralimanoharan, Alison C Wortman, Carole R Mendelson
Dysregulation of human trophoblast invasion and differentiation can result in preeclampsia (PE), a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy with significant morbidity and mortality for mother and offspring. miRNA microarray analysis of RNA from human cytotrophoblasts (CytT), before and after differentiation to syncytiotrophoblast (SynT) in primary culture, revealed that members of miR-515 family-including miR-515-5p, miR-519e-5p, miR-519c-3p, and miR-518f, belonging to the primate- and placenta-specific chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC)-were significantly down-regulated upon human SynT differentiation...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786595/cocaine-mediated-downregulation-of-microglial-mir-124-expression-involves-promoter-dna-methylation
#17
Ming-Lei Guo, Palsamy Periyasamy, Ke Liao, Yeon Hee Kook, Fang Niu, Shannon E Callen, Shilpa Buch
Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the development of reward-related behavior in cocaine self-administration rodents. Cocaine, one of most commonly abused drugs, has been shown to activate microglia both in vitro and in vivo. Detailed molecular mechanisms underlying cocaine-mediated microglial activation remain poorly understood. microRNAs (miRs), belonging to a class of small noncoding RNA superfamily have been shown to modulate the activation status of microglia. miR-124, one of the microglia-enriched miRs, functions as an anti-inflammatory regulator that maintains microglia in a quiescent state...
October 27, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784231/effect-of-oral-methadone-on-ecg-characteristics-and-endocrine-hormonal-changes-and-their-inter-relationship
#18
Shokoufeh Bonakdaran, Mahdi Hassan Zadeh Daloee, Ali Akhoondpoor Manteghi, Mina Akbarirad, Abdollah Firoozi, Fatemeh Akbarirad
INTRODUCTION: Methadone is the most common opioid in use for opioid substitution therapy. The Relation of methadone and electrocardiographic findings is nearly well known while the relationship between its electrocardiographic indexes and hormonal changes are not well recognized. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hormonal changes in patients who are taking methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and its effects on electrocardiographic indexes, in comparison with healthy control groups...
October 26, 2016: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774652/mettl14-suppresses-the-metastatic-potential-of-hcc-by-modulating-m-6-a-dependent-primary-mirna-processing
#19
Jin-Zhao Ma, Fu Yang, Chuan-Chuan Zhou, Feng Liu, Ji-Hang Yuan, Fang Wang, Tian-Tian Wang, Qing-Guo Xu, Wei-Ping Zhou, Shu-Han Sun
: M(6) A modification has been implicated in many biological processes. However, its role in cancer has not been well studied. Here, we demonstrate that m(6) A modifications are decreased in HCC, especially in metastatic HCC, and that METTL14 is the main factor involved in aberrant m(6) A modification. Moreover, METTL14 down-regulation acts as an adverse prognosis factor for recurrence-free survival (RFS) of HCC and is significantly associated with tumour metastasis in vitro and in vivo...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770573/barley-primary-microrna-expression-pattern-is-affected-by-soil-water-availability
#20
Aleksandra Swida-Barteczka, Katarzyna Kruszka, Aleksandra Grabowska, Andrzej Pacak, Artur Jarmolowski, Marzena Kurowska, Iwona Szarejko, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska
MicroRNAs are short molecules of 21-24 nt in length. They are present in all eukaryotic organisms and regulate gene expression by guiding posttranscriptional silencing of mRNAs. In plants, they are key players in signal transduction, growth and development, and in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an economically important monocotyledonous crop plant. Drought is the world's main cause of loss in cereal production. We have constructed a high-throughput Real-Time RT-qPCR platform for parallel determination of 159 barley primary microRNAs' levels...
October 21, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
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