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Zhong Liu, Cheng Zhang, Alireza Khodadadi-Jamayran, Lam Dang, Xiaosi Han, Kitai Kim, Hu Li, Rui Zhao
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, and therefore represent a promising donor tissue source for treating neurodegenerative diseases and repairing injuries of the nervous system. However, it remains unclear how canonical microRNAs (miRNAs), the subset of miRNAs requiring the Drosha-Dgcr8 microprocessor and the type III RNase Dicer for biogenesis, regulate NSCs. In this study, we established and characterized <i>Dgcr8</i><sup>-/-</sup> NSCs from conditionally <i>Dgcr8</i>-disrupted mouse embryonic brain...
October 20, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Hui Cheng, Yuanyuan Zhang, Hongyan Wang, Na Sun, Min Liu, Hongxia Chen, Renjun Pei
Riboswitches are functional non-coding RNA regulatory components that play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in diverse organisms. In particular, using riboswitches to modulate RNA interference (RNAi) enables temporal and spatial control of gene expression in mammalian cells. Herein, a ribozyme gene switch to activate RNAi was fabricated for the artificial regulation of versatile gene silencing through the interaction of an RNA aptamer with small molecules. The device comprised an allosteric HDV ribozyme with an embedded theophylline aptamer and a primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) to silence the MAP4K4 gene in hepatic (HepG2) cells, aiming to achieve dose-dependent control of the activation of RNAi, and then the regulation of the MAP4K4 gene by theophylline...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Qingxin Zhou, Yuekun Zhu, Xiaoli Wei, Jianhua Zhou, Liang Chang, Hong Sui, Yu Han, Daxun Piao, Ruihua Sha, Yuxian Bai
Altered expression of microRNA-590-5p (miR-590-5p) is involved in tumorigenesis, however, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains to be determined. In this study, we focused on examining the effects of different expression levels of miR-590-5p in cancer cells and normal cells. Results showed that there are lower expression levels of miR-590-5p in human CRC cells and tissues than in normal control cells and tissues. Similarly, in our xenograft mouse model, knockdown of miR-590-5p promoted the progression of CRC...
October 13, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Ulrike Flierl, Florian Zauner, Jan-Thorben Sieweke, Christine Berliner, L Christian Napp, Jochen Tillmanns, Johann Bauersachs, Andreas Schäfer
Prasugrel, a potent thienopyridine, achieves stronger inhibition of platelet activation than clopidogrel. However, onset of inhibition is significantly delayed in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), as haemodynamic instability and morphine application seem to exhibit significant influence. Since rapid onset of effect was demonstrated in non-STEMI patients when prasugrel was administered only after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) without increasing cardiovascular event rates we assessed the efficacy of prasugrel loading immediately after PCI for STEMI instead of pre-loading before revascularisation...
October 13, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Rasmus Bo Hasselbalch, Louis Lind Plesner, Mia Pries-Heje, Lisbet Ravn, Morten Lind, Rasmus Greibe, Birgitte Nybo Jensen, Lars S Rasmussen, Kasper Iversen
BACKGROUND: Crowding in the emergency department (ED) is a well-known problem resulting in an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Effective triage might counteract this problem by identifying the sickest patients and ensuring early treatment. In the last two decades, systematic triage has become the standard in ED's worldwide. However, triage models are also time consuming, supported by limited evidence and could potentially be of more harm than benefit. The aim of this study is to develop a quicker triage model using data from a large cohort of unselected ED patients and evaluate if this new model is non-inferior to an existing triage model in a prospective randomized trial...
October 10, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
A Shohet, A Khlebtovsky, N Roizen, Y Roditi, R Djaldetti
BACKGROUND: Cannabis can alleviate pain of various etiologies. This study assessed the effect of cannabis on motor symptoms and pain parameters in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Twenty patients with PD who were licensed to use cannabis underwent evaluation before and 30 min after cannabis consumption and again after long-term use. Motor function was assessed with the Unified PD Rating scale (UPDRS) by two raters, one blinded. Pain was assessed with the Pain Rating Index (PRI) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Erik Alexandersson, Tewodros Mulugeta, Åsa Lankinen, Erland Liljeroth, Erik Andreasson
This review provides a current summary of plant resistance inducers (PRIs) that have been successfully used in the Solanaceae plant family to protect against pathogens by activating the plant's own defence. Solanaceous species include many important crops such as potato and tomato. We also present findings regarding the molecular processes after application of PRIs, even if the number of such studies still remains limited in this plant family. In general, there is a lack of patterns regarding the efficiency of induced resistance (IR) both between and within solanaceous species...
October 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maria Barciszewska-Pacak, Katarzyna Knop, Artur Jarmołowski, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulińska
Arabidopsis microRNA162 (miRNA162) level regulation was studied under abiotic stresses, such as drought and salinity. The TaqMan® microRNA assay proved that A. thaliana miRNA162 level was elevated under these stresses, confirming its salt and drought responsiveness. The promoter region analyses of A. thaliana miRNA162a and b genes (MIR162a and MIR162b) identified numerous salinity and drought responsive elements. However, our results indicated that Arabidopsis MIR162a was presumably the main locus responsible for the mature ath-miRNA162 accumulation under the stresses tested, and the MIR162b was generally rather weakly expressed, both in control and under the stress conditions...
October 5, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Edoardo Conte, Andrea Annoni, Gianluca Pontone, Saima Mushtaq, Marco Guglielmo, Andrea Baggiano, Valentina Volpato, Cecilia Agalbato, Alice Bonomi, Fabrizio Veglia, Alberto Formenti, Cesare Fiorentini, Antonio L Bartorelli, Mauro Pepi, Daniele Andreini
AIMS: Recent studies suggested that even non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) increases major cardiovascular adverse events (MACE) rate. Aim of this study was to evaluate whether coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) may detect specific plaque characteristics that may affect prognosis in patients with non-obstructive CAD. METHODS: We enrolled 245 patients who underwent CCTA between April 2004 and April 2007 for suspected CAD and were found to have non-obstructive CAD...
September 27, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Xinyi Yang, Annalisa Marsico
The accurate identification of transcription start regions corresponding to the promoters of known genes, novel coding, and noncoding transcripts, as well as enhancer elements, is a crucial step towards a complete understanding of state-specific gene regulatory networks. Recent high-throughput techniques, such as deepCAGE or single-molecule CAGE, have made it possible to identify the genome-wide location, relative expression, and differential usage of transcription start regions across hundreds of different tissues and cell lines...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Zaheer Abbas, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Arshad Mehmood Abbasi, Andrea Pieroni, Zahid Ullah, Muhammad Iqbal, Zeeshan Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Limited health facilities and malnutrition are major problems in the Karakorum Range of Northern Pakistan, often resulting in various human disorders. Since centuries, however, local communities in these areas have developed traditional methods for treating various ailments and local foods capes that can be significant for devising public health and nutritional policies. This study was intended to document the ethnobotanical knowledge of the local peoples in the Tormik Valley, especially in the medical and food domains...
2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Eyal Hassoun, Mary Safrin, Hana Ziv, Sarah Pri-Chen, Efrat Kessler
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159606.].
2016: PloS One
Nan Zhang, Jie Zhong, Song Han, Yun Li, Yanling Yin, Junfa Li
miRNAs have been linked to many human diseases, including ischemic stroke, and are being pursued as clinical diagnostics and therapeutic targets. Among the aberrantly expressed miRNAs in our previous report using large-scale microarray screening, the downregulation of miR-378 in the peri-infarct region of middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) mice can be reversed by hypoxic preconditioning (HPC). In this study, the role of miR-378 in the ischemic injury was further explored. We found that miR-378 levels significantly decreased in N2A cells following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) treatment...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Laura Lindberg, John Santelli, Sheila Desai
PURPOSE: The decline in U.S. adolescent fertility has accelerated since 2007. Modeling fertility change using behavioral data can inform adolescent pregnancy prevention efforts. METHODS: We used data on sexual activity and contraceptive use from National Surveys of Family Growth for young women 15-19 years of age, and contraceptive failure rates, to estimate a Pregnancy Risk Index (PRI) for the periods 2007, 2009, and 2012. Logistic regression was used to test for change over time in sexual activity, contraceptive use, and PRI...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Timothy Dreyer, Samantha Nicholson, Abdullah Ely, Patrick Arbuthnot, Kristie Bloom
Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains an important global health problem. Currently licensed therapies have modest curative efficacy, which is as a result of their transient effects and limited action on the viral replication intermediate comprising covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Gene editing with artificial HBV-specific endonucleases and use of artificial activators of the RNA interference pathway have shown anti-HBV therapeutic promise. Although results from these gene therapies are encouraging, maximizing durable antiviral effects is important...
September 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ewa Bulzacka, John E Meyers, Laurent Boyer, Tifenn Le Gloahec, Guillaume Fond, Andrei Szöke, Marion Leboyer, Franck Schürhoff
OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the psychometric properties of Ward's seven-subtest short form (SF) for WAIS-IV in a sample of adults with schizophrenia (SZ) and schizoaffective disorder. METHOD: Seventy patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered the full version of the WAIS-IV. Four different versions of the Ward's SF were then calculated. The subtests used were: Similarities, Digit Span, Arithmetic, Information, Coding, Picture Completion, and Block Design (BD version) or Matrix Reasoning (MR version)...
September 1, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Luqing Zhao, Yitao Mao, Yuelong Zhao, Yanong He
DDX3X, located on the X-chromosome, belongs to the DEAD-box RNA helicase family and acts as a key RNA-binding protein to exert its regulatory functions in various biological processes. In this paper, knock-down the expression of DDX3X can affect a subset of miRNA expression levels, especially for miR-1, miR-141, miR-145, miR-19b, miR-20a and miR-34a. Through adopting the immunoprecipitation (IP), RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), dual luciferase reporter assays, we illustrate that DDX3X could interact with Drosha/DGCR8 complex, elevate the processing activity of Drosha/DGCR8 complex on pri-miRNAs, and increase mature miRNA expression levels...
2016: Scientific Reports
Tomohito Yamasaki, Masayuki Onishi, Eun-Jeong Kim, Heriberto Cerutti, Takeshi Ohama
Canonical microRNAs (miRNAs) are embedded in duplexed stem-loops in long precursor transcripts and are excised by sequential cleavage by DICER nuclease(s). In this miRNA biogenesis pathway, dsRNA-binding proteins play important roles in animals and plants by assisting DICER. However, these RNA-binding proteins are poorly characterized in unicellular organisms. Here we report that a unique RNA-binding protein, Dull slicer-16 (DUS16), plays an essential role in processing of primary-miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcripts in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii In animals and plants, dsRNA-binding proteins involved in miRNA biogenesis harbor two or three dsRNA-binding domains (dsRBDs), whereas DUS16 contains one dsRBD and also an ssRNA-binding domain (RRM)...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
I Garcia-Martínez, C Sánchez-Mora, M Pagerols, V Richarte, M Corrales, C Fadeuilhe, B Cormand, M Casas, J A Ramos-Quiroga, M Ribasés
Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairment to sustain attention and inability to control impulses and activity level. The etiology of ADHD is complex, with an estimated heritability of 70-80%. Under the hypothesis that alterations in the processing or target binding of microRNAs (miRNAs) may result in functional alterations predisposing to ADHD, we explored whether common polymorphisms potentially affecting miRNA-mediated regulation are involved in this psychiatric disorder...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Wanhui Kim, Hee-Eun Kim, Ae-Ree Lee, A Rim Jun, Myeong Gyo Jung, Ji Hoon Ahn, Joon-Hwa Lee
MicroRNAs originate from primary transcripts containing hairpin structures. The levels of mature miR156 influence the leaf number prior to flowering in the life cycle of plants. To understand the molecular mechanism of biogenesis of primary miR156a (pri-miR156a) to mature miR156, a base-pair opening dynamics study was performed using model RNAs mimicking the cleavage site of wild type and B5 bulge-stabilizing mutant pri-miR156a constructs. We also determined the mature miR156 levels and measured leaf numbers at flowering of plants overexpressing the wild type and mutant constructs...
August 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
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