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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453737/dr-smart-talks-to-prof-pries-and-prof-dirnagl-on-animal-experimentation-in-biomedical-research
#1
Nicola Smart, Axel R Pries, Ulrich Dirnagl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449050/cardioscape-mapping-the-cardiovascular-funding-landscape-in-europe
#2
Axel Radlach Pries, Anastasia Naoum, Helmut Habazettl, Mathias Dunkel, Robert Preissner, Caroline J Coats, Ana Tornada, Francesco Orso, Frans Van de Werf, David A Wood
Aims: The burden of cardiovascular disease is increasing worldwide, which has to be reflected by cardiovascular (CV) research in Europe. CardioScape, a FP7 funded project initiated by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), identified where CV research is performed, how it is funded and by whom. It could be transformed into an on-line and up-to-date resource of great relevance for researchers, funding bodies and policymakers and could be a role model for mapping CV research funding in Europe and beyond...
April 25, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446371/beware-of-the-toilet-the-risk-for-a-deep-tissue-injury-during-toilet-sitting
#3
Maayan Lustig, Ayelet Levy, Kara Kopplin, Zehava Ovadia-Blechman, Amit Gefen
A pressure injury (PrI) compromises quality of life and can be life-threatening. The fundamental cause of PrIs is sustained deformations in weight-bearing soft tissues, e.g., during prolonged sitting on inadequate surfaces such as a toilet seat. In nursing homes and geriatric facilities, patients need assistance using the restroom, and patients being left on the toilet for tens-of-minutes is a real-world scenario, unfortunately. Nevertheless, there are no published studies regarding sustained tissue loads during toilet sitting and their effects on tissue physiology...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Tissue Viability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433598/mir-590-5p-a-density-sensitive-microrna-inhibits-tumorigenesis-by-targeting-yap1-in-colorectal-cancer
#4
Chunlin Ou, Zhenqiang Sun, Xiayu Li, Xiaoling Li, Weiguo Ren, Zailong Qin, Xuemei Zhang, Weitang Yuan, Jia Wang, Wentao Yu, Shiwen Zhang, Qiu Peng, Qun Yan, Wei Xiong, Guiyuan Li, Jian Ma
YAP1, a transcription co-activator, mediates the biological functions of the Hippo pathway. YAP1 inactivation is involved in cell-cell contact inhibition. In various tumors, YAP1 is upregulated through multiple mechanisms, and it functions as an oncogene. Here, we provided evidence that YAP1 influenced multiple signaling pathways in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We reported that miR-590-5p directly targets YAP1 and inhibits tumorigenesis in CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo xenograft model. We analyzed different cell densities and found that increased density caused increased expression of miR-590-5p, and decreased expression of its precursors (pri- and pre-miR-590)...
April 19, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431232/genome-wide-mapping-of-drosha-cleavage-sites-on-primary-micrornas-and-noncanonical-substrates
#5
Baekgyu Kim, Kyowon Jeong, V Narry Kim
MicroRNA (miRNA) maturation is initiated by DROSHA, a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-specific RNase III enzyme. By cleaving primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) at specific positions, DROSHA serves as a main determinant of miRNA sequences and a highly selective gatekeeper for the canonical miRNA pathway. However, the sites of DROSHA-mediated processing have not been annotated, and it remains unclear to what extent DROSHA functions outside the miRNA pathway. Here, we establish a protocol termed "formaldehyde crosslinking, immunoprecipitation, and sequencing (fCLIP-seq)," which allows identification of DROSHA cleavage sites at single-nucleotide resolution...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422760/cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-overactivity-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#6
Resat Cinar, Bernadette R Gochuico, Malliga R Iyer, Tony Jourdan, Tadafumi Yokoyama, Joshua K Park, Nathan J Coffey, Hadass Pri-Chen, Gergő Szanda, Ziyi Liu, Ken Mackie, William A Gahl, George Kunos
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a life-threatening disease without effective treatment, highlighting the need for identifying new targets and treatment modalities. The pathogenesis of IPF is complex, and engaging multiple targets simultaneously might improve therapeutic efficacy. To assess the role of the endocannabinoid/cannabinoid receptor 1 (endocannabinoid/CB1R) system in IPF and its interaction with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as dual therapeutic targets, we analyzed lung fibrosis and the status of the endocannabinoid/CB1R system and iNOS in mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with IPF, as well as controls...
April 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408760/fungal-volatile-compounds-induce-production-of-the-secondary-metabolite-sodorifen-in-serratia-plymuthica-pri-2c
#7
Ruth Schmidt, Victor de Jager, Daniela Zühlke, Christian Wolff, Jörg Bernhardt, Katarina Cankar, Jules Beekwilder, Wilfred van Ijcken, Frank Sleutels, Wietse de Boer, Katharina Riedel, Paolina Garbeva
The ability of bacteria and fungi to communicate with each other is a remarkable aspect of the microbial world. It is recognized that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) act as communication signals, however the molecular responses by bacteria to fungal VOCs remain unknown. Here we perform transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of Serratia plymuthica PRI-2C exposed to VOCs emitted by the fungal pathogen Fusarium culmorum. We find that the bacterium responds to fungal VOCs with changes in gene and protein expression related to motility, signal transduction, energy metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, and secondary metabolite production...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397898/nmr-probing-and-visualization-of-correlated-structural-fluctuations-in-intrinsically-disordered-proteins
#8
Dennis Kurzbach, Andreas Beier, Agathe Vanas, Andrea G Flamm, Gerald Platzer, Thomas C Schwarz, Robert Konrat
A novel statistical analysis of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) and paramagnetic relaxation interference (PRI) based nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data is proposed based on the computation of correlation matrices. The technique is demonstrated with an example of the intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) osteopontin (OPN) and brain acid soluble protein 1 (BASP1). The correlation analysis visualizes in detail the subtleties of conformational averaging in IDPs and highlights the presence of correlated structural fluctuations of individual sub-domains in IDPs...
April 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394424/intrauterine-transfusions-for-severe-fetal-anemia-and-hydrops-due-to-de-novo-%C3%AE%C2%B5%C3%AE-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-thalassemia
#9
Ruchika Goel, Justin Snow, Shai M Pri-Paz, Melissa Cushing, Ljiljana V Vasovic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390063/psychological-profiles-in-patients-with-symptomatic-reticular-forms-of-oral-lichen-planus-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Daniela Adamo, Marco Cascone, Antonio Celentano, E Ruoppo, Stefania Leuci, Massimo Aria, Michele D Mignogna
OBJECTIVES: To analyze intra, extra-oral symptoms and psychological profiles in symptomatic patients with reticular (R) forms of oral lichen planus (OLP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty symptomatic R-OLP (sR-OLP) patients were compared with an equal number of non-symptomatic R-OLP (nsR-OLP) patients, burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients and healthy subjects (HS). The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the Total Pain Rating Index (T-PRI) and the Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression (HAM-D) and Anxiety (HAM-A) were administered...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390033/a-novel-way-to-measure-and-predict-development-a-heuristic-approach-to-facilitate-the-early-detection-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Peter B Marschik, Florian B Pokorny, Robert Peharz, Dajie Zhang, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, Herbert Roeyers, Sven Bölte, Alicia J Spittle, Berndt Urlesberger, Björn Schuller, Luise Poustka, Sally Ozonoff, Franz Pernkopf, Thomas Pock, Kristiina Tammimies, Christian Enzinger, Magdalena Krieber, Iris Tomantschger, Katrin D Bartl-Pokorny, Jeff Sigafoos, Laura Roche, Gianluca Esposito, Markus Gugatschka, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Christa Einspieler, Walter E Kaufmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Substantial research exists focusing on the various aspects and domains of early human development. However, there is a clear blind spot in early postnatal development when dealing with neurodevelopmental disorders, especially those that manifest themselves clinically only in late infancy or even in childhood. RECENT FINDINGS: This early developmental period may represent an important timeframe to study these disorders but has historically received far less research attention...
May 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381614/dynamic-rna-protein-interactions-underlie-the-zebrafish-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#12
Vladimir Despic, Mario Dejung, Mengting Gu, Jayanth Krishnan, Jing Zhang, Lydia Herzel, Korinna Straube, Mark B Gerstein, Falk Butter, Karla M Neugebauer
During the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), transcriptionally silent embryos rely on post-transcriptional regulation of maternal mRNAs until zygotic genome activation (ZGA). RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are important regulators of post-transcriptional RNA processing events, yet their identities and functions during developmental transitions in vertebrates remain largely unexplored. Using mRNA interactome capture, we identified 227 RBPs in zebrafish embryos before and during ZGA, hereby named the zebrafish MZT mRNA-bound proteome...
April 5, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378633/mir-138-a-promising-therapeutic-target-for-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Huan-Huan Sha, Dan-Dan Wang, Dan Chen, Si-Wen Liu, Zhen Wang, Da-Li Yan, Shu-Chen Dong, Ji-Feng Feng
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs which regulate gene expressions at post-transcriptional level by binding to the 3'-untranslated region of target messenger RNAs. Growing evidences highlight their pivotal roles in various biological processes of human cancers. Among them, miR-138, generating from two primary transcripts, pri-miR-138-1 and pri-miR-138-2, expresses aberrantly in different cancers and is extensively studied in cancer network. Importantly, studies have shown that miR-138 acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting many target genes, which are related to proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration...
April 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373667/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-bmscs-repair-acute-necrotized-pancreatitis-by-secreting-microrna-9-to-target-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb1-p50-gene-in-rats
#14
Daohai Qian, Ge Wei, Chenglei Xu, Zhigang He, Jie Hua, Jian Li, Qili Hu, Shengping Lin, Jian Gong, Hongbo Meng, Bo Zhou, Hongfei Teng, Zhenshun Song
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute abdominal disease, 10-20% of which can evolve into severe AP (SAP) causing significant morbidity and mortality. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have the potential of repairing SAP, but the detailed mechanism remains unknown. We demonstrate here that microRNA-9 (miR-9) modified BMSCs (pri-miR-9-BMSCs) can significantly reduce the pancreatic edema, infiltration, hemorrhage, necrosis, the release of amylase and lipase. Meanwhile, decreased local/systemic inflammatory response (TNF-α↓, IL-1β↓, IL-6↓, HMGB1↓, MPO↓, CD68↓, IL-4↑, IL-10↑, and TGF-β↑) and enhanced regeneration of damaged pancreas (Reg4↑, PTF1↑, and PDX1↑) are also promoted...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364549/deleterious-variants-in-trak1-disrupt-mitochondrial-movement-and-cause-fatal-encephalopathy
#15
Ortal Barel, May Christine V Malicdan, Bruria Ben-Zeev, Judith Kandel, Hadass Pri-Chen, Joshi Stephen, Inês G Castro, Jeremy Metz, Osama Atawa, Sharon Moshkovitz, Eti Ganelin, Iris Barshack, Sylvie Polak-Charcon, Dvora Nass, Dina Marek-Yagel, Ninette Amariglio, Nechama Shalva, Thierry Vilboux, Carlos Ferreira, Ben Pode-Shakked, Gali Heimer, Chen Hoffmann, Tal Yardeni, Andreea Nissenkorn, Camila Avivi, Eran Eyal, Nitzan Kol, Efrat Glick Saar, Douglas C Wallace, William A Gahl, Gideon Rechavi, Michael Schrader, David M Eckmann, Yair Anikster
Cellular distribution and dynamics of mitochondria are regulated by several motor proteins and a microtubule network. In neurons, mitochondrial trafficking is crucial because of high energy needs and calcium ion buffering along axons to synapses during neurotransmission. The trafficking kinesin proteins (TRAKs) are well characterized for their role in lysosomal and mitochondrial trafficking in cells, especially neurons. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified homozygous truncating variants in TRAK1 (NM_001042646:c...
March 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364128/snps-in-bone-related-mirnas-are-associated-with-the-osteoporotic-phenotype
#16
Laura De-Ugarte, Enrique Caro-Molina, Maria Rodríguez-Sanz, Miguel Angel García-Pérez, José M Olmos, Manuel Sosa-Henríquez, Ramón Pérez-Cano, Carlos Gómez-Alonso, Luis Del Rio, Jesús Mateo-Agudo, José Antonio Blázquez-Cabrera, Jesús González-Macías, Javier Del Pino-Montes, Manuel Muñoz-Torres, Manuel Diaz-Curiel, Jorge Malouf, Antonio Cano, José Luis Pérez-Castrillon, Xavier Nogues, Natalia Garcia-Giralt, Adolfo Diez-Perez
Biogenesis and function of microRNAs can be influenced by genetic variants in the pri-miRNA sequences leading to phenotypic variability. This study aims to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting the expression levels of bone-related mature microRNAs and thus, triggering an osteoporotic phenotype. An association analysis of SNPs located in pri-miRNA sequences with bone mineral density (BMD) was performed in the OSTEOMED2 cohort (n = 2183). Functional studies were performed for assessing the role of BMD-associated miRNAs in bone cells...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361676/selecting-high-quality-negative-samples-for-effectively-predicting-protein-rna-interactions
#17
Zhanzhan Cheng, Kai Huang, Yang Wang, Hui Liu, Jihong Guan, Shuigeng Zhou
BACKGROUND: The identification of Protein-RNA Interactions (PRIs) is important to understanding cell activities. Recently, several machine learning-based methods have been developed for identifying PRIs. However, the performance of these methods is unsatisfactory. One major reason is that they usually use unreliable negative samples in the training process. METHODS: For boosting the performance of PRI prediction, we propose a novel method to generate reliable negative samples...
March 14, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358001/sgk1-affects-ran-ranbp1-rangap1-via-sp1-to-play-a-critical-role-in-pre-mirna-nuclear-export-a-new-route-of-epigenomic-regulation
#18
Vincenzo Dattilo, Lucia D'Antona, Cristina Talarico, Mjriam Capula, Giada Catalogna, Rodolfo Iuliano, Silvia Schenone, Sante Roperto, Cataldo Bianco, Nicola Perrotti, Rosario Amato
The serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK1) controls cell transformation and tumor progression. SGK1 affects mitotic stability by regulating the expression of RANBP1/RAN. Here, we demonstrate that SGK1 fluctuations indirectly modify the maturation of pre-miRNAs, by modulating the equilibrium of the RAN/RANBP1/RANGAP1 axis, the main regulator of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. The levels of pre-miRNAs and mature miRNAs were assessed by qRT-PCR, in total extracts and after differential nuclear/cytoplasmic extraction...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355539/opposing-intermolecular-tuning-of-ca-2-affinity-for-calmodulin-by-neurogranin-and-camkii-peptides
#19
Pengzhi Zhang, Swarnendu Tripathi, Hoa Trinh, Margaret S Cheung
We investigated the impact of bound calmodulin (CaM)-target compound structure on the affinity of calcium (Ca(2+)) by integrating coarse-grained models and all-atomistic simulations with nonequilibrium physics. We focused on binding between CaM and two specific targets, Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and neurogranin (Ng), as they both regulate CaM-dependent Ca(2+) signaling pathways in neurons. It was shown experimentally that Ca(2+)/CaM (holoCaM) binds to the CaMKII peptide with overwhelmingly higher affinity than Ca(2+)-free CaM (apoCaM); the binding of CaMKII peptide to CaM in return increases the Ca(2+) affinity for CaM...
March 28, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352274/spatial-variation-of-leaf-optical-properties-in-a-boreal-forest-is-influenced-by-species-and-light-environment
#20
Jon Atherton, Beñat Olascoaga, Luis Alonso, Albert Porcar-Castell
Leaf Optical Properties (LOPs) convey information relating to temporally dynamic photosynthetic activity and biochemistry. LOPs are also sensitive to variability in anatomically related traits such as Specific Leaf Area (SLA), via the interplay of intra-leaf light scattering and absorption processes. Therefore, variability in such traits, which may demonstrate little plasticity over time, potentially disrupts remote sensing estimates of photosynthesis or biochemistry across space. To help to disentangle the various factors that contribute to the variability of LOPs, we defined baseline variation as variation in LOPs that occurs across space, but not time...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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