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Tianxiang Lei, Huan Wang, Songling Li, Jianwei Shen, Shilong Chen, Xiaojian Cai, Dangwei Zhou
To achieve a high yield of tropane alkaloids (TA) and exploit the alpine plant sustainably, an optimized protocol for induction and establishment of hairy roots culture of Prezwalskia tangutica Maxim was developed through selection of appropriate Agrobacterium strain and the explant type. The hypocotyl is more readily facile to induce the HR than the cotyledon is when infected with the three different agrobacterium strains. MUS440 has an efficiency (of up to 20%), whereas the ATCC10060 (A4) can induce HR on both types of explants with the highest frequency (33...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Julianne Teresa Djordjevic, Sophie Lev
Invasive fungal diseases pose a serious threat, and new drugs are urgently needed. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Pries et al. (2018) identified benzamide- and picolinamide-based small-molecule inhibitors with antifungal properties, including some active against pathogenic Candida species. These compounds target an essential component of the fungal secretion machinery, suggesting a new approach to antifungal development.
March 15, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
Karen E Hayes, Jamie A Barr, Mingyi Xie, Joan A Steitz, Ivan Martinez
Cellular quiescence (also known as G0 arrest) is characterized by reduced DNA replication, increased autophagy, and increased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase p27Kip1 . Quiescence is essential for wound healing, organ regeneration, and preventing neoplasia. Previous findings indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating cellular quiescence. Our recent publication demonstrated the existence of an alternative miRNA biogenesis pathway in primary human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells during quiescence...
February 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
Tong Yu, Yao Wang, Xi-Wen Zhang, Zhen-De Jiang, Xiu-Jie Zhu, Qi-Yao Jiang, Jian-Wu Zhao
This study aims to evaluate the application of multimodal intraoperative monitoring (MIOM) in surgical treatment for spine burst fracture and dislocation (SBFD) patients.Eleven patients who underwent posterior reduction and instrumentation (PRI) for SBFD from June 2014 to July 2016 were included into the study. The function of the spinal cord was monitored by MIOM. The muscle strength of the lower extremities and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scores were, respectively, evaluated (before surgery, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery)...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kejuan Song, Teng Lv, Yulong Chen, Yuchao Diao, Qin Yao, Yankui Wang
Ovarian cancer is a highly metastatic malignancy and a leading cause of cancer-related death in postmenopausal women. Emodin is a natural anthraquinone isolated from several traditional Chinese medicines including Rhubarb and Polygonum cuspidatum. Recently, emodin was demonstrated to reduce the growth of human ovarian carcinoma cells. However, the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we identified that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 was significantly affected by emodin treatment in A2780 cells using microarray analysis...
March 6, 2018: Oncology Reports
M Koennecke, R Pries, B Wollenberg
Chronic rhinosinusitis is a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases with significant annual costs for the health care system. To date, there is no distinct signaling pathway known that explains the entire process from the beginning to tissue transformation. Due to the diversity of chronic rhinosinusitis, no uniform treatment has yet been developed. With a focus on chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), molecular biologic gene expression studies have been performed to identify specific characteristics of nasal polyps that might allow the development of new therapeutic procedures...
March 6, 2018: HNO
Lian-Zi Wei, Yan-Qing Wang, Yun-Li Chang, Na An, Xiao Wang, Pei-Jie Zhou, Helen He Zhu, Yu-Xiang Fang, Wei-Qiang Gao
The microRNA-transcription factor auto-regulatory feedback loop is a pivotal mechanism for homeostatic regulation of gene expression, and dysregulation of the feedback loop is tightly associated with tumorigenesis and progression. However, the mechanism underlying such dysregulation is still not well-understood. Here we reported that Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), a stemness-associated transcription factor, promotes the transcription of miR-7 to repress its own translation so that a KLF4-miR-7 auto-regulatory feedback loop is established for mutual regulation of their expression...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
Ritu Mishra, Houda Benlhabib, Wei Guo, Connie B Lerma Cervantes, Carole R Mendelson
The major surfactant protein, SP-A (product of SFTPA gene), serves as a marker of type II pneumocyte differentiation and surfactant synthesis. SFTPA expression in cultured human fetal lung (HFL) epithelial cells is upregulated by hormones that increase cAMP and activate TTF-1/NKX2.1 and NF-κB. To further define mechanisms for type II cell differentiation and induction of SP-A, we investigated roles of miRNAs. Using microarray to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in HFL epithelial cells during type II cell differentiation in culture, we observed that members of the miR-199a/-214 cluster were significantly downregulated during differentiation...
March 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Kaori Kohzuma, Kouki Hikosaka
Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is the most important photoprotective system in higher plants. NPQ can be divided into several steps according to the timescale of relaxation of chlorophyll fluorescence after reaching a steady state (i.e., the fast phase, qE; middle phase, qZ or qT; and slow phase, qI). The dissipation of excess energy as heat during the xanthophyll cycle, a large component of NPQ, is detectable during the fast to middle phase (sec to min). Although thermal dissipation is primarily investigated using indirect methods such as chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements, such analyses require dark adaptation or the application of a saturating pulse during measurement, making it difficult to continuously monitor this process...
February 28, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Tomasz Powrózek, Radosław Mlak, Marcin Dziedzic, Teresa Małecka-Massalska, Dariusz Sagan
INTRODUCTION: MicroRNA (miRNA) are attractive markers of lung cancer, due to their regulatory role in cell cycle. However, we know more about function of miRNA in cancer development, there is still little known about role of their precursors (primary miRNA; pri-miRNA) in tumorgenesis. In present study we investigated potential role of miRNA-944 and its precursor pri-miRNA-944 in development of squamous-cell lung cancer (SCC) and explored interdependence between miRNA precursor and its mature form...
January 10, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Hoang Chinh Nguyen, Kuan-Hung Lin, Tung-Chuan Hsiung, Meng-Yuan Huang, Chi-Ming Yang, Jen-Hsien Weng, Ming-Huang Hsu, Po-Yen Chen, Kai-Chieh Chang
Plants of the genus Calathea possess many leaf colors, and they are economically important because they are widely used as ornamentals for interior landscaping. Physiological performances and photosynthetic capacities of C. insignis and C. makoyana were investigated. The photosynthetic efficiencies of C. insignis and C. makoyana were significantly increased when the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) increased from 0 to 600 μmol photons·m-2 ·s-1 and became saturated with a further increase in the PPFD...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yao Song, Wei Feng, Guo-Min Shi, Chao Chen, You-Yi Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that control diverse cellular and developmental events through repression of large sets of target mRNAs. miRNAs expressions were mainly regulated at two levels: transcriptional and post-transcriptional. Transcriptional regulation of miRNA-encoding genes produce specific expression patterns of individual miRNA. However, the mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation of miRNAs remains largely unknown. The present study was aimed to clarify whether HuR, an evolutionary conserved AU-rich binding protein, could regulate miRNAs expressions...
February 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Qi Tang, Lipeng Qiu, Guohui Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs with ∼22 nucleotides, which are able to regulate various biological processes, including the viral life cycle and host-pathogen interactions. Long primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) are initially transcribed in nucleus, and subsequently processed by Dicer in cytoplasm to generate mature miRNAs. Baculoviruses consist of large, enveloped, insect-pathogenic viruses with a double-stranded circular DNA genome. Recent studies suggest that baculoviruses encode some miRNAs to manipulate expression regulation of host genes, whereas host modulate viral gene expression via miRNAs to limit viral infection...
February 27, 2018: Current Microbiology
Caitlin E Hicks Pries, C Castanha, R Porras, Claire Phillips, M S Torn
Temperature records and model predictions demonstrate that deep soils warm at the same rate as surface soils, contrary to Xiao et al 's assertions. In response to Xiao et al 's critique of our Q10 analysis, we present the results with all data points included, which show Q10 values of >2 throughout the soil profile, indicating that all soil depths responded to warming.
February 23, 2018: Science
Jing Xiao, Fangjian Yu, Wanying Zhu, Chenchao Xu, Kaihang Zhang, Yiqi Luo, James M Tiedje, Jizhong Zhou, Lei Cheng
In a compelling study, Hicks Pries et al (Reports, 31 March 2017, p. 1420) showed that 4°C warming enhanced soil CO2 production in the 1-meter soil profile, with all soil depths displaying similar temperature sensitivity (Q10 ). We argue that some caveats can be identified in their experimental approach and analysis, and that these critically undermine their conclusions and hence their claim that the strength of feedback between the whole-soil carbon and climate has been underestimated in terrestrial models...
February 23, 2018: Science
Beatrise Berzina, Robbyn K Anand
To improve the health of patients with end-stage renal disease, there is a clear need for slow, continuous hemodialysis, and the pri-mary barrier to a wearable device is the requirement of a large reservoir of dialysate. We describe an electrokinetic means of produc-ing dialysate from the excess fluid extent in the peripheral blood of patients undergoing therapy. A critical feature of this process is the retention of essential components of blood - especially serum albumin. In progress towards this goal, we demonstrate the sepa-ration of charged from neutral species in blood plasma at a branched microchannel junction by ion concentration polarization (ICP)...
February 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Xuejie Jiang, Po Yee Mak, Hong Mu, Duncan Mak, Steven Kornblau, Qi Zhang, Peter Ruvolo, Jared K Burks, Weiguo Zhang, Teresa McQueen, Rongqing Pan, Hongsheng Zhou, Marina Konopleva, Jorge E Cortes, Qifa Liu, Michael Andreeff, Bing Z Carter, Wenjing Tao
PURPOSE: Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for leukemic stem cell function. FLT3 mutations are frequently observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Anomalous FLT3 signaling increases β-catenin nuclear localization and transcriptional activity. FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are used clinically to treat FLT3-mutated AML patients, but with limited efficacy. We investigated the anti-leukemia activity of combined Wnt/β-catenin and FLT3 inhibition in FLT3-mutant AML. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Wnt/β-catenin signaling was inhibited by the b-catenin/CBP antagonist C-82/PRI-724 or siRNAs, and FLT3 signaling by sorafenib or quizartinib...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Peter M Rasmussen, Timothy W Secomb, Axel R Pries
OBJECTIVE: Theoretical models are essential tools for studying microcirculatory function. Recently, the validity of a well-established phase separation model was questioned and it was claimed that it produces problematically low hematocrit predictions and lack of red cells in small diameter vessels. We conducted a quantitative evaluation of this phase separation model to establish common ground for future research. METHODS: Model predictions were validated against a comprehensive data base with measurements from four mesenteric networks...
February 19, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Karl-Ludwig Bruchhage, Sabrina Heinrichs, Barbara Wollenberg, Ralph Pries
It has been shown that head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are infiltrated by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). The HNSCC TH2 biased microenvironment leads to strong alterations of the cellular functions of pDC and thus impairs the initiation and function of adequate immune responses. In this work we comprehensively analyzed the capacity of CpG-oligonucleotides to activate interferon (IFN)-α secretion of human pDC in the presence of HNSCC. IFN-α secretion was measured using the ELISA Technique...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Mia M Pries-Heje, Rasmus B Hasselbalch, Henriette Raaschou, Bijan Rezanavaz-Gheshlagh, Hanne Heebøll, Shazia Rehman, Mariana Kristensen, Erik Henning Andersen, Lisbet Ravn, Michel C Nèmery, Morten N Lind, Thomas Boel, Peter Sommer Ulriksen, Kasper K Iversen
BACKGROUND: Several large trials have evaluated the effect of CT screening based on specific symptoms, with varying outcomes. Screening of patients with CT based on their prognosis alone has not been examined before. For moderate-to-high risk patients presenting in the emergency department (ED), the potential gain from a CT scan might outweigh the risk of radiation exposure. We hypothesized that an accelerated "multiple rule out" CT screening of moderate-to-high risk patients will detect many clinically unrecognized diagnoses that affect change in treatment...
February 17, 2018: Emergency Radiology
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