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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655168/bmp4-uses-several-different-effector-pathways-to-regulate-proliferation-and-differentiation-in-the-epithelial-and-mesenchymal-tissue-compartments-of-the-developing-mouse-ureter
#1
Tamrat M Mamo, Anna B Wittern, Marc-Jens Kleppa, Tobias Bohnenpoll, Anna-Carina Weiss, Andreas Kispert
Heterozygous loss of Bmp4 results both in humans and mice in severe malformation of the urinary tract. These defects have at least partially been attributed to loss of expression of Bmp4 in the ureteric mesenchyme, yet the cellular and molecular function of this signal as well as its effector pathways in this tissue have remained incompletely resolved. Here, we show that mice with a conditional deletion of Bmp4 in the ureteric mesenchyme exhibited hydroureter and hydronephrosis at newborn stages due to functional and physical ureter obstruction...
June 26, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655126/peroneus-longus-activity-according-to-various-angles-of-a-ramp-during-cross-ramp-walking-and-one-legged-standing
#2
Sang-Yeol Lee, Seung-Min Lee, Jae-Min Jung
BACKGROUND: Ankle sprain are one of the most common injuries in sports and public health in general. Cross-slope may creat a risk for ankle sprain and are commonly found in both urban and rural environment. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of study was to clarify the environmental risk factor that can be easily occurred ankle sprain during walking (stance phase) and one leg standing at various ramp environment. METHODS: Participants was measured muscle activation on peroneus longus during both conditions (walk across the ramp and one leg stand in the transverse direction) of seven different angle (0∘, 2∘, 5∘, 10∘, 15∘, 20∘, 25∘)...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654888/mek-inhibition-enhances-efficacy-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-on-bladder-cancer-cells-by-reducing-release-of-toll-like-receptor-2-activated-antimicrobial-peptides
#3
Young Mi Whang, Su Bin Jin, Serk In Park, In Ho Chang
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is one of the standard treatment options for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The details of the biological defense mechanisms against BCG remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether BCG-induced release of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs; e.g., human β-defensin-2, -3, and cathelicidin) is involved with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, and investigated the enhanced anticancer effect of BCG through the down-regulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and MAPK pathways in bladder cancer cells...
May 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654810/metal-and-metalloid-distribution-in-different-environmental-compartments-of-the-middle-xingu-river-in-the-amazon-brazil
#4
Danielle Regina Gomes Ribeiro, Henrique Faccin, Thaís Ramos Dal Molin, Leandro Machado de Carvalho, Lílian Lund Amado
Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Ni were analyzed during rainy and dry seasons in water, sediment, soil, and two fish species. The analysis took place at four points in the Xingu River, one point in the Fresco River, and two mining pits in the southeastern area of the Eastern Amazon, Brazil. In the water, the total concentration of As (>0.14μg/L) was higher than the local reference values at all sampling points and in both seasons. Ordination analysis (PCA) highlighted As and Cu elements in the water...
June 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654751/substrate-recognition-mechanism-of-the-putative-yeast-carnosine-n-methyltransferase
#5
Xiwen Liu, Jialiang Wu, Yujie Sun, Wei Xie
Anserine (β-alanyl-N(Pi) -methyl-L-histidine) is a natural metabolite present in skeletal muscle and the central nervous system of vertebrates, and plays important physiological roles in living organisms. The production of anserine is catalyzed by carnosine N-methyltransferases, which transfer a methyl group to carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine). However, the structural basis of the substrate recognition for the enzymes is unknown. We present the crystal structure of the putative carnosine N-methyltransferase from yeast named YNL092W in complex with SAH, solved by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method...
June 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654683/a-data-analysis-framework-for-biomedical-big-data-application-on-mesoderm-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#6
Benjamin Ulfenborg, Alexander Karlsson, Maria Riveiro, Caroline Améen, Karolina Åkesson, Christian X Andersson, Peter Sartipy, Jane Synnergren
The development of high-throughput biomolecular technologies has resulted in generation of vast omics data at an unprecedented rate. This is transforming biomedical research into a big data discipline, where the main challenges relate to the analysis and interpretation of data into new biological knowledge. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for biomedical big data analytics, and apply it for analyzing transcriptomics time series data from early differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells towards the mesoderm and cardiac lineages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654476/coupling-timing-of-interventions-with-dose-to-optimize-plasticity-and-participation-in-pediatric-neurologic-populations
#7
Mary E Gannotti
The purpose of this article is to propose that coupling of timing of interventions with dosing of interventions optimizes plasticity and participation in pediatric neurologic conditions, specifically cerebral palsy. Dosing includes frequency, intensity, time per session, and type of intervention. Interventions focus on body structures and function and activity and participation, and both are explored. Known parameters for promoting bone, muscle, and brain plasticity and evidence supporting critical periods of growth during development are reviewed...
July 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654435/myasthenia-gravis-new-developments-in-research-and-treatment
#8
Amelia Evoli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myasthenia gravis, a rare disorder of the neuromuscular transmission, is increasingly acknowledged as a syndrome more than as a single disease. This review summarizes recent advances in pathophysiology which confirm the disease heterogeneity, and may help find disease-targeted and patient-targeted therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor, the muscle-specific tyrosine kinase and the lipoprotein receptor protein 4, characterize disease subtypes with distinct clinical traits and immune-pathogenic mechanisms...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654264/phytol-promotes-the-formation-of-slow-twitch-muscle-fibers-through-pgc-1%C3%AE-mirna-but-not-mitochondria-oxidation
#9
Kelin Yang, Lina Wang, Gan Zhou, Xiajing Lin, Jianlong Peng, Leshan Wang, Lv Luo, Jianbing Wang, Gang Shu, Songbo Wang, Ping Gao, Xiaotong Zhu, Qian-Yun Xi, Yongliang Zhang, Qingyan Jiang
Phytol is a side-chain of chlorophyll belonging to the side-chain double terpenoid. When animals consume food rich in chlorophyll, phytol can be broken down to phytanic acid after digestion. It was reported that, feeding animals with different varieties and levels of forage could significant improve pH and marbling score of steer and lamb carcass, but the internal mechanism for this is still not reported. Marbling score and pH of muscle was mainly determined by skeletal muscle fiber type, which is due to expression of different myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654079/in-situ-immunofluorescent-staining-of-autophagy-in-muscle-stem-cells
#10
Francesco Castagnetti, Elisabetta Fiacco, Carol Imbriano, Lucia Latella
Increasing evidence points to autophagy as a crucial regulatory process to preserve tissue homeostasis. It is known that autophagy is involved in skeletal muscle development and regeneration, and the autophagic process has been described in several muscular pathologies and age-related muscle disorders. A recently described block of the autophagic process that correlates with the functional exhaustion of satellite cells during muscle repair supports the notion that active autophagy is coupled with productive muscle regeneration...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654057/murine-aortic-crush-injury-an-efficient-in-vivo-model-of-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-endothelial-function
#11
Dan Yu, George Makkar, Rajabrata Sarkar, Dudley K Strickland, Thomas S Monahan
Arterial reconstruction, whether angioplasty or bypass surgery, involves iatrogenic trauma causing endothelial disruption and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Common murine models study small vessels such as the carotid and femoral arteries. Herein we describe an in vivo system in which both VSMC proliferation and endothelial barrier function can be simultaneously assessed in a large vessel. We studied the infrarenal aortic response to injury in C57BL/6 mice. The aorta was injured from the left renal vein to the aortic bifurcation by 30 transmural crushes of 5-seconds duration with a cotton-tipped applicator...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653925/nsaids-ameliorate-cognitive-and-motor-impairment-in-a-model-of-parkinsonism-induced-by-chlorpromazine
#12
Sadaf Naeem, Rahila Ikram, Saira Saeed Khan, Sadia Saleem Rao
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-lasting neurodegenerative brain disease. It is characterized by a gradual decline in motor and non motor symptoms especially postural instability, tremors and memory impairment with localized loss of neurons mainly in the Substantia nigra. In the current research we evaluated the effects of Non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on motor coordination and memory in chlorpromazine (CPZ) induced Parkinson's experimental model. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of CPZ (3 mg/kg) was given to all rats for 21 days to induce Parkinson like symptoms; ibuprofen (40mg/kg/day) and celecoxib (20mg/kg) were administered 30 minutes after CPZ injection...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653780/gait-training-for-chronic-ankle-instability-improves-neuromechanics-during-walking
#13
Mark A Feger, Joseph M Hart, Susan Saliba, Mark F Abel, Jay Hertel
A novel gait-training device has been shown to improve gait patterns while patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI) are using the device and our current objective was to analyze the effect of structured gait training with the device on plantar pressure and surface electromyography (sEMG) following repeated gait training sessions. Sixteen CAI patients participated. Plantar pressure and sEMG were collected simultaneously during walking pre- and post-gait training. Plantar pressure (pressure time integral, peak pressure, time to peak pressure, contact area, contact time and center of pressure trajectory) of the entire foot and 9 specific regions of the foot were recorded concurrently with sEMG root mean square amplitudes from the anterior tibialis, peroneus longus, medial gastrocnemius, and gluteus medius...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653652/obesity-and-age-related-alterations-in-fat-cd36-translocation-and-lipin-1-subcellular-localization-in-skeletal-muscle-of-the-zucker-rats
#14
Snjezana Romic, Katarina Krskova, Rafal Olszanecki, Lucia Balazova, Viktoria Lory, Goran Koricanac, Miroslava Slamkova, Stefan Zorad
Fatty acid (FA) uptake and/or intramuscular triglyceride (TG) accumulation in skeletal muscle are increased in obesity, type 2 diabetes and aging. FA translocase (FAT/CD36) translocation, lipin-1 subcellular localization and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 protein content in quadriceps muscle of young and old obese Zucker fa/fa rats and their lean controls were analyzed by immunoblot to define obesity- and aging-related alterations in FA uptake, their subsequent metabolic fate and potential to activate pro-inflammatory signaling...
June 27, 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653367/significance-of-l-carnitine-for-human-health
#15
REVIEW
María M Adeva-Andany, Isabel Calvo-Castro, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, Cristóbal Donapetry-García, Ana María Pedre-Piñeiro
Carnitine acyltransferases catalyze the reversible transfer of acyl groups from acyl-coenzyme A esters to l-carnitine, forming acyl-carnitine esters that may be transported across cell membranes. l-Carnitine is a wáter-soluble compound that humans may obtain both by food ingestion and endogenous synthesis from trimethyl-lysine. Most l-carnitine is intracellular, being present predominantly in liver, skeletal muscle, heart and kidney. The organic cation transporter-2 facilitates l-carnitine uptake inside cells...
June 26, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653303/the-importance-of-body-mass-normalisation-for-ultrasound-measurements-of-the-morphology-of-oblique-abdominis-muscles-the-effect-of-age-gender-and-sport-practice
#16
Pawel Linek
Some studies have not considered body mass as a confounder in analysis of oblique abdominis muscles (OAM) (including the oblique externus [OE] and oblique internus [OI]), which may have led to improper interpretation of results. To assess the differences in the effect of age, gender, and physical activity between normalised for body mass and actual values of the OAM as well as to establish the effect of age, gender, and physical activity on normalised for body mass OAM thicknesses in adolescents. A real-time ultrasound was used to obtain images of the OAM...
June 27, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653193/effects-of-ripasudil-hydrochloride-hydrate-k-115-a-rho-kinase-inhibitor-on-ocular-blood-flow-and-ciliary-artery-smooth-muscle-contraction-in-rabbits
#17
Yusuke Ohta, Sanae Takaseki, Takeshi Yoshitomi
PURPOSE: Ripasudil, a Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, is a novel drug for glaucoma in Japan. ROCK inhibition not only reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) but also increases ocular blood flow. We investigated the effects of ripasudil on optic disc blood flow (ODBF) in rabbit eyes and in isolated rabbit ciliary arteries. METHODS: We measured IOP by tonometry and ODBF by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) in male Dutch rabbits. A single drop (20 μL) of 0...
June 26, 2017: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652653/serelaxin-increases-the-antifibrotic-action-of-rosiglitazone-in-a-model-of-hepatic-fibrosis
#18
Robert G Bennett, Ronda L Simpson, Frederick G Hamel
AIM: To determine the effect of combined serelaxin and rosiglitazone treatment on established hepatic fibrosis. METHODS: Hepatic fibrosis was induced in mice by carbon tetrachloride administration for 6 wk, or vehicle alone (nonfibrotic mice). For the final 2 wk, mice were treated with rosiglitazone, serelaxin, or both rosiglitazone and serelaxin. Serum liver enzymes and relaxin levels were determined by standard methods. The degree of liver collagen content was determined by histology and immunohistochemistry...
June 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652544/ghrelin-treatment-improves-physical-decline-in-sarcopenia-model-mice-through-muscular-enhancement-and-mitochondrial-activation
#19
Masanori Tamaki, Kazutoshi Miyashita, Aika Hagiwara, Shu Wakino, Hiroyuki Inoue, Kentaro Fujii, Chikako Fujii, Sho Endo, Asuka Uto, Masanori Mitsuishi, Masaaki Sato, Toshio Doi, Hiroshi Itoh
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) impairs physical performance in humans, which leads to a risk of all-cause mortality. In our previous study, we demonstrated that a reduction in muscle mitochondria rather than muscle mass was a major cause of physical decline in 5/6 nephrectomized CKD model mice. Because ghrelin administration has been reported to enhance oxygen utilization in skeletal muscle, we examined the usefulness of ghrelin for a recovery of physical decline in 5/6 nephrectomized C57Bl/6 mice, focusing on the epigenetic modification of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis...
2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652535/clinical-application-of-ghrelin-for-chronic-respiratory-failure
#20
Nobuhiro Matsumoto, Hironobu Tsubouchi, Yoshifumi Imazu, Yasuji Arimura, Shigehisa Yanagi, Hirotoshi Iiboshi, Masamitsu Nakazato
Chronic respiratory failure, which is often caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic lower respiratory tract infection, or interstitial pneumonia, often leads to cachexia with disease progression. Patients who have chronic respiratory failure with cachexia exhibit increased morbidity. Although cachectic status is an important clinical problem, there are no effective therapies for cachexia. Ghrelin has various effects, including increasing food intake, attenuating sympathetic nerve activity, inhibiting inflammation, increasing cardiac output, and controlling fat utilization...
2017: Endocrine Journal
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