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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342166/effects-of-vitamin-d-on-insulin-resistance-and-myosteatosis-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#1
Elisa Benetti, Raffaella Mastrocola, Fausto Chiazza, Debora Nigro, Giuseppe D'Antona, Valentina Bordano, Roberto Fantozzi, Manuela Aragno, Massimo Collino, Marco Alessandro Minetto
Epidemiological studies pointed out to a strong association between vitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes prevalence. However, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the skeletal muscle, a tissue that play a crucial role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, has been scarcely investigated so far. On this basis, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in a murine model of diet-induced insulin resistance with particular attention to the effects evoked on the skeletal muscle...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342124/the-root-of-atractylodes-macrocephala-koidzumi-prevents-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance-and-increases-energy-metabolism-in-mice
#2
Mi Young Song, Soo-Kyoung Lim, Jing-Hua Wang, Hojun Kim
Targeting energy expenditure offers a strategy for treating obesity more effectively and safely. In previous studies, we found that the root of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidzumi (Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba, ARA) increased energy metabolism in C2C12 cells. Here, we investigated the effects of ARA on obesity and glucose intolerance by examining energy metabolism in skeletal muscle and brown fat in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice. ARA decreased body weight gain, hepatic lipid levels and serum total cholesterol levels, but did not modify food intake...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341830/pregnancy-related-hormones-progesterone-and-human-chorionic-gonadotrophin-upregulate-expression-of-maternal-plasma-gelsolin
#3
Renu Garg, Nagesh Peddada, Kunzes Dolma, Neeraj Khatri, Ashish Ashish
Plasma gelsolin (pGSN), a protein primarily involved in clearance of circulating actin filaments, is an upcoming novel biomarker. Its level changes in multiple disease and injury conditions, attributable mainly to its consumption during actin clearance, the endogenous regulation of its expression, however, remains elusive as well as unexplored. Here, we are reporting first isolation of the promoter region of pGSN gene and investigation of its transcriptional regulation during pregnancy (a natural process associated with a well programmed injury course of parturition)...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341829/climatic-modulation-of-neurotransmitter-release-in-amphibian-neuromuscular-junctions-role-of-dynorphin-a
#4
Dengyun Ge, Nickolas Anastasios Lavidis
Amphibian neuromuscular junctions become relatively more silent during the dry-winter season in Australia. Endogenous opioid peptides play an important role in the regulation of the physiological functions of active and dormant vertebrates. Previous findings suggest that dynorphin-A is more potent than other opiates in decreasing evoked neurotransmission in amphibian neuromuscular junctions. Dynorphin-A has been shown not to alter the amplitude or the frequency of spontaneous quantal neurotransmitter release...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341826/mu-opioid-receptors-inhibit-the-exercise-pressor-reflex-by-closing-n-type-calcium-channels-but-not-by-opening-girk-channels-in-rats
#5
Juan A Estrada, Marc P Kaufman
Mu opioid G-protein coupled receptors (MOR) interact with ion channels to decrease neuronal excitability. In humans, intrathecal administration of the MOR agonist, fentanyl, inhibits the exercise pressor reflex, an effect that can be attributed to either the opening of inward rectifying potassium channels (GIRK) or the closing of N-type calcium channels. The purpose of this study was to determine if the highly selective MOR agonist DAMGO attenuates the exercise pressor reflex, and which of these two channels are responsible for this effect...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341350/the-effects-of-wireless-electromagnetic-fields-on-the-activities-of-carbonic-anhydrase-and-acetylcholinesterase-enzymes-in-various-tissues-of-rats
#6
Umit Muhammet Kocyigit, Parham Taslimi, Fatih Gurses, Sinan Soylu, Sevgi Durna Dastan, İlhami Gulcin
The purpose of our study is to assist in understanding the effects of wireless electromagnetic waves on carbonic anhydrase (CA) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes activities in the different tissues of the rats. For this purpose, two different groups each of which contains eight rats (n = 8) were formed as being control group and wireless electromagnetic wave-administered group. The rats were necropsied after 60 min from the injection of chemicals into the rats intraperitoneally. The different tissues of the rats were extracted...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340496/effects-of-simple-long-term-respiratory-care-strategies-in-older-men-with-copd
#7
Fabrício Zambom-Ferraresi, Pilar Cebollero, Javier Hueto, María Hernández, José Cascante, María Milagros Antón
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a 24-month supervised, community-based maintenance exercise program after 3 months of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in comparison with a 27-month physical activity counseling program, in terms of the effects on maximal muscle strength, muscle power output, and exercise capacity, in individuals with COPD. METHODS: Sixty-three men with moderate-to-severe COPD were recruited from two previous studies. Of those 63 participants, 31 were offered 3 months of PR followed by a 24-month supervised maintenance exercise program (24MME group) and 32 were offered a 27-month physical activity counseling program (27MPAC group)...
November 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340119/mef2-signaling-and-human-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Xiao Chen, Bing Gao, Murugavel Ponnusamy, Zhijuan Lin, Jia Liu
The members of myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 (MEF2) protein family was previously believed to function in the development of heart and muscle. Recent reports indicate that they are also closely associated with development and progression of many human diseases. Although their role in cancer biology is well established, the molecular mechanisms underlying their action is yet largely unknown. MEF2 family is closely associated with various signaling pathways, including Ca2+ signaling, MAP kinase signaling, Wnt signaling, PI3K/Akt signaling, etc...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340001/neuromuscular-control-during-the-bench-press-movement-in-an-elite-disabled-and-able-bodied-athlete
#9
Artur Gołaś, Anna Zwierzchowska, Adam Maszczyk, Michał Wilk, Petr Stastny, Adam Zając
The disabled population varies significantly in regard to physical fitness, what is conditioned by the damage to the locomotor system. Recently there has been an increased emphasis on the role of competitive sport in enhancing health and the quality of life of individuals with disability. One of the sport disciplines of Paralympics is the flat bench press. The bench press is one of the most popular resistance exercises used for the upper body in healthy individuals. It is used not only by powerlifters, but also by athletes in most strength-speed oriented sport disciplines...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339989/association-between-match-activity-variables-measures-of-fatigue-and-neuromuscular-performance-capacity-following-elite-competitive-soccer-matches
#10
Ian Varley, Ryan Lewin, Robert Needham, Robin T Thorpe, Ross Burbeary
The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between match activity variables, subsequent fatigue and neuromuscular performance capacity in elite soccer players. Subjects (n = 10) were professional soccer players participating in the English Championships. Match activity variables and markers of fatigue status were measured before and following two matches. Creatine kinase (CK) and muscle soreness were measured at baseline, immediately following, as well as 40 and 64 h post-match. Countermovement jump performance and perceived ratings of wellness were measured at baseline, then 40 and 64 h post-match...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339983/analysis-of-the-hamstring-muscle-activation-during-two-injury-prevention-exercises
#11
Alireza Monajati, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Mark Goss-Sampson, Fernando Naclerio
The aim of this study was to perform an electromyographic and kinetic comparison of two commonly used hamstring eccentric strengthening exercises: Nordic Curl and Ball Leg Curl. After determining the maximum isometric voluntary contraction of the knee flexors, ten female athletes performed 3 repetitions of both the Nordic Curl and Ball Leg Curl, while knee angular displacement and electromyografic activity of the biceps femoris and semitendinosus were monitored. No significant differences were found between biceps femoris and semitendinosus activation in both the Nordic Curl and Ball Leg Curl...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339778/a-novel-human-muscle-cell-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-created-by-crispr-cas9-and-evaluation-of-antisense-mediated-exon-skipping
#12
Takenori Shimo, Kana Hosoki, Yusuke Nakatsuji, Toshifumi Yokota, Satoshi Obika
Oligonucleotide-mediated splicing modulation is a promising therapeutic approach for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Recently, eteplirsen, a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer-based splice-switching oligonucleotide (SSO) targeting DMD exon 51, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as the first antisense-based drug for DMD patients. For further exploring SSOs targeting other exons in the DMD gene, the efficacy of exon skipping and protein rescue with each SSO sequence needs evaluations in vitro...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339776/the-experience-of-spasticity-after-spinal-cord-injury-perceived-characteristics-and-impact-on-daily-life
#13
William Barry McKay, William Mark Sweatman, Edelle C Field-Fote
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. OBJECTIVES: Determine the impact of motor control characteristics attributed to spasticity, such as spasms, stiffness, and clonus on the daily life of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Nationwide, United States. METHODS: Internet-administered questionnaire, the Patient Reported Impact of Spasticity Measure (PRISM) and items describing characteristics of spasticity including stiffness, spasms, clonus, and pain...
January 16, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339522/effect-of-beta-agonists-on-lam-progression-and-treatment
#14
Kang Le, Wendy K Steagall, Mario Stylianou, Gustavo Pacheco-Rodriguez, Thomas N Darling, Martha Vaughan, Joel Moss
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare disease of women, is associated with cystic lung destruction resulting from the proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like LAM cells with mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes TSC1 and/or TSC2 The mutant genes and encoded proteins are responsible for activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is inhibited by sirolimus (rapamycin), a drug used to treat LAM. Patients who have LAM may also be treated with bronchodilators for asthma-like symptoms due to LAM...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339325/induction-of-anti-agrin-antibodies-causes-myasthenia-gravis-in-mice
#15
Min Yan, Ziyang Liu, Erkang Fei, Wenbing Chen, Xinsheng Lai, Bin Luo, Peng Chen, Hongyang Jing, Jin-Xiu Pan, Michael H Rivner, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Lin Mei
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder ofthe neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Most cases of MG are caused by autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR),muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4). Recent studies have identified anti-agrin antibodies in MG patients lacking these three antibodies (i.e., triple negative MG). Agrin is a basal lamina protein that has two isoforms. Neural agrin (N-agrin) binds to LRP4 to activate MuSK to induce AChR clusters and is thus critical for NMJ formation...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339192/tissue-specific-differences-in-mitochondrial-dna-maintenance-and-expression
#16
Elena Herbers, Nina J Kekäläinen, Anu Hangas, Jaakko L Pohjoismäki, Steffi Goffart
The different cell types of multicellular organisms have specialized physiological requirements, affecting also their mitochondrial energy production and metabolism. The genome of mitochondria is essential for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXHPOS) and thus plays a central role in many human mitochondrial pathologies. Disorders affecting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance are typically resulting in a tissue-specific pattern of mtDNA deletions and rearrangements. Despite this role in disease as well as a biomarker of mitochondrial biogenesis, the tissue-specific parameters of mitochondrial DNA maintenance have been virtually unexplored...
January 12, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338979/dysregulated-autophagy-in-restrictive-cardiomyopathy-due-to-pro209leu-mutation-in-bag3
#17
A Schänzer, S Rupp, S Gräf, D Zengeler, C Jux, H Akintürk, L Gulatz, N Mazhari, T Acker, R Van Coster, B K Garvalov, A Hahn
Myofibrillary myopathies (MFM) are hereditary myopathies histologically characterized by degeneration of myofibrils and aggregation of proteins in striated muscle. Cardiomyopathy is common in MFM but the pathophysiological mechanisms are not well understood. The BAG3-Pro209Leu mutation is associated with early onset MFM and severe restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM), often necessitating heart transplantation during childhood. We report on a young male patient with a BAG3-Pro209Leu mutation who underwent heart transplantation at eight years of age...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338453/proteomic-serum-biomarkers-for-neuromuscular-diseases
#18
Sandra Murphy, Margit Zweyer, Rustam R Mundegar, Dieter Swandulla, Kay Ohlendieck
The clinical evaluation of neuromuscular symptoms often includes the assessment of altered blood proteins or changed enzyme activities. However, the blood concentration of many muscle-derived serum markers is not specific for different neuromuscular disorders and also shows alterations in the course of these diseases. Thus, the establishment of more reliable biomarker signatures for improved muscle diagnostics is required. Areas covered: To address the lack of muscle disease-specific marker molecules, mass spectrometry-based proteomics was applied to the systematic identification and biochemical characterization of new serum biomarker candidates...
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338005/inferring-cell-state-by-quantitative-motility-analysis-reveals-a-dynamic-state-system-and-broken-detailed-balance
#19
Jacob C Kimmel, Amy Y Chang, Andrew S Brack, Wallace F Marshall
Cell populations display heterogeneous and dynamic phenotypic states at multiple scales. Similar to molecular features commonly used to explore cell heterogeneity, cell behavior is a rich phenotypic space that may allow for identification of relevant cell states. Inference of cell state from cell behavior across a time course may enable the investigation of dynamics of transitions between heterogeneous cell states, a task difficult to perform with destructive molecular observations. Cell motility is one such easily observed cell behavior with known biomedical relevance...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337851/transcriptional-regulation-by-cpg-sites-methylation-in-the-core-promoter-region-of-the-bovine-six1-gene-roles-of-histone-h4-and-e2f2
#20
Dawei Wei, Anning Li, Chunping Zhao, Hongbao Wang, Chugang Mei, Rajwali Khan, Linsen Zan
DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification of the genome and has an essential role in muscle development. The SIX1 gene is thought to play a principal role in mediating skeletal muscle development. In the present study, we determined that bovine SIX1 expression levels were significantly higher in the fetal bovine group (FB) and in undifferentiated Qinchuan cattle muscle cells (QCMCs) than in the adult bovine group (AB) and in differentiated QCMCs. Moreover, a bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP) analysis of DNA methylation levels showed that three CpG sites in the core promoter region (-216/-28) of the bovine SIX1 gene exhibited significantly higher DNA methylation levels in the AB and differentiated QCMCs groups...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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