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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922741/genomic-and-biochemical-characterization-of-sialic-acid-acetylesterase-siae-in-zebrafish
#1
Viola Ravasio, Eufemia Damiati, Daniela Zizioli, Flavia Orizio, Edoardo Giacopuzzi, Marta Manzoni, Roberto Bresciani, Giuseppe Borsani, Eugenio Monti
Sialic acid acetylesterase (SIAE) removes acetyl moieties from the carbon 9 and 4 hydroxyl groups of sialic acid and recently a debate has been opened on its association to autoimmunity. Trying to get new insights on this intriguing enzyme we have studied siae in zebrafish (Danio rerio). In this teleost siae encodes for a polypeptide with a high degree of sequence identity to human and mouse counterparts. Zebrafish Siae behavior upon transient expression in COS7 cells is comparable to human enzyme concerning pH optimum of enzyme activity, subcellular localization and glycosylation...
October 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922049/magnitudes-of-muscle-activation-of-spine-stabilizers-in-healthy-adults-during-prone-on-elbow-planking-exercises-with-and-without-a-fitness-ball
#2
James W Youdas, Kendra C Coleman, Erin E Holstad, Stephanie D Long, Nicole L Veldkamp, John H Hollman
Prone planking exercises have been used by rehabilitation professionals to activate torso muscles in healthy persons and those with low back pain. The aim of this study was to compare the magnitude of electromyographic (EMG) muscle activation from 10 right-sided muscles as demonstrated by the percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) during four planking procedures. Surface EMG activity was acquired from the following muscles: (1) iliocostalis lumborum (IL), (2) longissimus thoracis (LT), (3) lumbar multifidus (LM), (4) rectus abdominis (RA), (5) external oblique (EO), (6) internal oblique (IO), (7) serratus anterior (SA), (8) latissimus dorsi (LD), (9) hamstrings (HS), and (10) gluteus maximus (GM)...
September 18, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921633/spontaneous-mechanical-and-electrical-activities-of-human-calf-musculature-at-rest-assessed-by-repetitive-single-shot-diffusion-weighted-mri-and-simultaneous-surface-electromyography
#3
Martin Schwartz, Günter Steidle, Petros Martirosian, Ander Ramos-Murguialday, Hubert Preißl, Alto Stemmer, Bin Yang, Fritz Schick
PURPOSE: Assessment of temporal and spatial relations between spontaneous mechanical activities in musculature (SMAM) at rest as revealed by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and electrical muscular activities in surface EMG (sEMG). Potential influences of static and radiofrequency magnetic fields on muscular activity on sEMG measurements at rest were examined systematically. METHODS: Series of diffusion-weighted stimulated echo planar imaging were recorded with concurrent sEMG measurements...
September 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921504/g%C3%AE-12-facilitates-carbachol-induced-shortening-in-human-airway-smooth-muscle-by-modulating-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-mediated-activation-in-a-rhoa-dependent-manner
#4
Edwin J Yoo, Gaoyuan Cao, Cynthia J Koziol-White, Christie A Ojiaku, Krishna Sunder, Joseph A Jude, James V Michael, Hong Lam, Ivan Pushkarsky, Robert Damoiseaux, Dino Di Carlo, Kwangmi Ahn, Steven S An, Raymond B Penn, Reynold A Panettieri
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent activation of Rho kinase (ROCK) is necessary for agonist-induced human airway smooth muscle cell (HASMC) contraction, and inhibition of PI3K promotes bronchodilation of human small airways. The upstream mechanisms driving agonist-mediated PI3K/ROCK axis activation, however, remain unclear. Given the capacity of G12 family proteins to activate ROCK pathways in other cell types (Riobo and Manning, 2005), the role of G12 proteins in modulating M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R)-stimulated PI3K/ROCK activation and HASMC contraction was examined...
September 17, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921447/structure-pharmacology-and-roles-in-physiology-of-the-p2y12-receptor
#5
Ivar von Kügelgen
P2Y receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for extracellular nucleotides. The platelet ADP-receptor which has been denominated P2Y12 receptor is an important target in pharmacotherapy. The receptor couples to Gαi2 mediating an inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation and additional downstream events including the activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Rap1b proteins. The nucleoside analogue ticagrelor and active metabolites of the thienopyridine compounds ticlopidine, clopidogrel and prasugrel block P2Y12 receptors and, thereby, inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation...
September 12, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920924/impaired-angiopoietin-tie2-signaling-compromises-schlemm-s-canal-integrity-and-induces-glaucoma
#6
Jaeryung Kim, Dae-Young Park, Hosung Bae, Do Young Park, Dongkyu Kim, Choong-Kun Lee, Sukhyun Song, Tae-Young Chung, Dong Hui Lim, Yoshiaki Kubota, Young-Kwon Hong, Yulong He, Hellmut G Augustin, Guillermo Oliver, Gou Young Koh
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is often caused by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which arises due to increased resistance to aqueous humor outflow (AHO). Aqueous humor flows through Schlemm's canal (SC), a lymphatic-like vessel encircling the cornea, and via intercellular spaces of ciliary muscle cells. However, the mechanisms underlying increased AHO resistance are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that signaling between angiopoietin (Angpt) and the Angpt receptor Tie2, which is critical for SC formation, is also indispensable for maintaining SC integrity during adulthood...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920922/g%C3%AE-13-ablation-reprograms-myofibers-to-oxidative-phenotype-and-enhances-whole-body-metabolism
#7
Ja Hyun Koo, Tae Hyun Kim, Shi-Young Park, Min Sung Joo, Chang Yeob Han, Cheol Soo Choi, Sang Geon Kim
Skeletal muscle is a key organ in energy homeostasis owing to its high requirement for nutrients. Heterotrimeric G proteins converge signals from cell-surface receptors to potentiate or blunt responses against environmental changes. Here, we show that muscle-specific ablation of Gα13 in mice promotes reprogramming of myofibers to the oxidative type, with resultant increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular respiration. Mechanistically, Gα13 and its downstream effector RhoA suppressed nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1), a chief regulator of myofiber conversion, by increasing Rho-associated kinase 2-mediated (Rock2-mediated) phosphorylation at Ser243...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920904/modeling-the-nonlinear-cortical-response-in-eeg-evoked-by-wrist-joint-manipulation
#8
Martijn P Vlaar, Georgios Birpoutsoukis, John Lataire, Maarten Schoukens, Alfred C Schouten, Johan Schoukens, Frans C T van der Helm
Joint manipulation elicits a response from the sensors in the periphery which, via the spinal cord, arrives in the cortex. The average evoked cortical response recorded using electroencephalography was shown to be highly nonlinear; a linear model can only explain 10% of the variance of the evoked response, and over 80% of the response is generated by nonlinear behavior. The goal of this study is to obtain a nonparametric nonlinear dynamic model, which can consistently explain the recorded cortical response requiring little a priori assumptions about model structure...
September 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920098/the-il-1ri-co-receptor-tilrr-frem1%C3%A2-isoform-2-controls-aberrant-inflammatory-responses-and-development-of-vascular-disease
#9
Sarah A Smith, Andriy O Samokhin, Mabruka Alfadi, Emer C Murphy, David Rhodes, W Mike L Holcombe, Endre Kiss-Toth, Robert F Storey, Siu-Pok Yee, Sheila E Francis, Eva E Qwarnstrom
Expression of the interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) co-receptor Toll-like and interleukin-1 receptor regulator (TILRR) is significantly increased in blood monocytes following myocardial infarction and in the atherosclerotic plaque, whereas levels in healthy tissue are low. TILRR association with IL-1RI at these sites causes aberrant activation of inflammatory genes, which underlie progression of cardiovascular disease. The authors show that genetic deletion of TILRR or antibody blocking of TILRR function reduces development of atherosclerotic plaques...
August 2017: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919982/effective-management-of-spasticity-and-impacts-on-weight-change-and-resting-energy-expenditure-in-a-female-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-report
#10
Amy N Nevin, Khanh Nguyen, Sridhar Atresh, Angela Vivanti, Ingrid J Hickman
INTRODUCTION: The impact of muscle spasticity on weight change and energy expenditure after spinal cord injury (SCI) is not well understood. CASE PRESENTATION: This case study reports changes to body weight and resting energy expenditure (REE) in a 36-year-old female (T3 AIS A SCI; 80 kg; body mass index=28 kg m(-)(2) at injury) requiring escalating therapies to manage severe spasticity. Body weight, spasticity medications and fasted REE (measured using indirect calorimetry, canopy hood) were recorded at 4, 16, 17, 20 and 44 months post injury...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919865/coping-with-salt-water-habitats-metabolic-and-oxidative-responses-to-salt-intake-in-the-rufous-collared-sparrow
#11
Pablo Sabat, Cristóbal Narváez, Isaac Peña-Villalobos, Carolina Contreras, Karin Maldonado, Juan C Sanchez-Hernandez, Seth D Newsome, Roberto Nespolo, Francisco Bozinovic
Many physiological adjustments occur in response to salt intake in several marine taxa, which manifest at different scales from changes in the concentration of individual molecules to physical traits of whole organisms. Little is known about the influence of salinity on the distribution, physiological performance, and ecology of passerines; specifically, the impact of drinking water salinity on the oxidative status of birds has been largely ignored. In this study, we evaluated whether experimental variations in the salt intake of a widely-distributed passerine (Zontotrichia capensis) could generate differences in basal (BMR) and maximum metabolic rates (Msum), as well as affect metabolic enzyme activity and oxidative status...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919863/oxygen-uptake-kinetics-is-slower-in-swimming-than-arm-cranking-and-cycling-during-heavy-intensity
#12
Ana Sousa, Fabio Borrani, Ferran A Rodríguez, Grégoire P Millet
Oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) kinetics has been reported to be influenced by the activity mode. However, only few studies have compared [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics between activities in the same subjects in which they were equally trained. Therefore, this study compared the [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics response to swimming, arm cranking, and cycling within the same group of subjects within the heavy exercise intensity domain. Ten trained male triathletes (age 23.2 ± 4.5 years; height 180.8 ± 8...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919812/the-effect-of-local-topical-analgesics-on-incisional-pain-in-a-pig-model
#13
David Castel, Itai Sabbag, Sigal Meilin
Interest in the development of new topical/local drug administration for blocking pain at peripheral sites, with maximum drug activity and minimal systemic effects, is on the rise. In the review article by Kopsky and Stahl, four critical barriers in the process of research and development of topical analgesics were indicated. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the formulation are among the major challenges. The road to the development of such drugs passes through preclinical studies. These studies, if planned correctly, should serve as guidance for choosing the right API and formulation...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919185/epidemiology-of-cervical-spine-injuries-in-high-school-athletes-over-a-ten-year-period
#14
Adele Meron, Christopher McMullen, Scott R Laker, Dustin Currie, R Dawn Comstock
BACKGROUND: Over 7 million athletes participate in high school (HS) sports annually, with both the benefits of physical activity and risks of injury. While catastrophic cervical spine injuries have been studied, limited data are available characterizing less severe cervical spine injuries in HS athletes. OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare cervical spine injury rates and patterns among United States (US) HS athletes across 24 sports over a ten-year period. DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study SETTING: National sample of high schools participating in the High School Reporting Information Online (High School RIO) injury surveillance system...
September 12, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919168/contribution-of-interaction-torques-during-dart-throwing-differences-between-novices-and-experts
#15
Nasser Rezzoug, Clint Hansen, Philippe Gorce, Brice Isableu
We examined if experts and novices show different utilization of the torque components impulses during dart throwing. Participants threw darts continuously at a dartboard aiming for the centre (target bull's eye). The upper-limb joint torque impulses were obtained through inverse dynamics with anthropometric and motion capture data as input. Depending on the joint degree of freedom (DOF) and movement phase (acceleration and follow-through), three main strategies of net torque (NET) impulse generation through joint muscle (MUS) and interaction (INT) torque impulses were highlighted...
September 14, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918950/power-transfer-to-a-human-during-an-electric-eel-s-shocking-leap
#16
Kenneth C Catania
Electric eels have been the subject of investigation and curiosity for centuries [1]. They use high voltage to track [2] and control [3] prey, as well as to exhaust prey by causing involuntary fatigue through remote activation of prey muscles [4]. But their most astonishing behavior is the leaping attack, during which eels emerge from the water to directly electrify a threat [5, 6]. This unique defense has reportedly been used against both horses [7] and humans [8]. Yet the dynamics of the circuit that develops when a living animal is contacted and the electrical power transmitted to the target have not been directly investigated...
September 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918749/effect-of-low-temperature-on-globin-expression-respiratory-metabolic-enzyme-activities-and-gill-structure-of-litopenaeus-vannamei
#17
Meng Wu, Nan Chen, Chun-Xiao Huang, Yan He, Yong-Zhen Zhao, Xiao-Han Chen, Xiu-Li Chen, Huan-Ling Wang
Low temperature frequently influences growth, development, and even survival of aquatic animals. In the present study, physiological and molecular responses to low temperature in Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated. The cDNA sequences of two oxygen-carrying proteins, cytoglobin (Cygb) and neuroglobin (Ngb), were isolated. Protein structure analysis revealed that both proteins share a globin superfamily domain. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that Cygb and Ngb mRNA levels gradually increased during decrease in temperatures from 25 to 15°C and then decreased at 10°C in muscle, brain, stomach, and heart, except for a continuing increase in gills, whereas they showed a different expression trend in the hepatopancreas...
July 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918606/kinetic-coupling-of-phosphate-release-force-generation-and-rate-limiting-steps-in-the-cross-bridge-cycle
#18
Robert Stehle, Chiara Tesi
A basic goal in muscle research is to understand how the cyclic ATPase activity of cross-bridges is converted into mechanical force. A direct approach to study the chemo-mechanical coupling between Pi release and the force-generating step is provided by the kinetics of force response induced by a rapid change in [Pi]. Classical studies on fibres using caged-Pi discovered that rapid increases in [Pi] induce fast force decays dependent on final [Pi] whose kinetics were interpreted to probe a fast force-generating step prior to Pi release...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918572/spot-light-on-skeletal-muscles-optogenetic-stimulation-to-understand-and-restore-skeletal-muscle-function
#19
Tobias van Bremen, Thorsten Send, Philipp Sasse, Tobias Bruegmann
Damage of peripheral nerves results in paralysis of skeletal muscle. Currently, the only treatment option to restore proper function is electrical stimulation of the innervating nerve or of the skeletal muscles directly. However this approach has low spatial and temporal precision leading to co-activation of antagonistic muscles and lacks cell-type selectivity resulting in pain or discomfort by stimulation of sensible nerves. In contrast to electrical stimulation, optogenetic methods enable spatially confined and cell-type selective stimulation of cells expressing the light sensitive channel Channelrhodopsin-2 with precise temporal control over the membrane potential...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918507/the-muscle-regulatory-transcription-factor-myod-participates-with-p53-to-directly-increase-the-expression-of-the-pro-apoptotic-bcl2-family-member-puma
#20
Terri J Harford, Greg Kliment, Girish C Shukla, Crystal M Weyman
The muscle regulatory transcription factor MyoD is a master regulator of skeletal myoblast differentiation. We have previously reported that MyoD is also necessary for the elevated expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA, and the ensuing apoptosis, that occurs in a subset of myoblasts induced to differentiate. Herein, we report the identification of a functional MyoD binding site within the extended PUMA promoter. In silico analysis of the murine PUMA extended promoter revealed three potential MyoD binding sites within 2 kb of the transcription start site...
September 16, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
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