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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156423/under-pressure-evolutionary-engineering-of-yeast-strains-for-improved-performance-in-fuels-and-chemicals-production
#1
REVIEW
Robert Mans, Jean-Marc G Daran, Jack T Pronk
Evolutionary engineering, which uses laboratory evolution to select for industrially relevant traits, is a popular strategy in the development of high-performing yeast strains for industrial production of fuels and chemicals. By integrating whole-genome sequencing, bioinformatics, classical genetics and genome-editing techniques, evolutionary engineering has also become a powerful approach for identification and reverse engineering of molecular mechanisms that underlie industrially relevant traits. New techniques enable acceleration of in vivo mutation rates, both across yeast genomes and at specific loci...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156163/the-role-of-polyvinyl-alcohol-in-cartilage-repair-of-the-ankle-and-first-metatarsophalangeal-joint
#2
REVIEW
Thomas J Chang
The Cartiva implant (Cartiva, Alpharetta, GA) is an exciting option in dramatically diminishing patient symptoms in advanced stages of hallux rigidus as well as allowing continued joint motion. The procedure does not burn many bridges in case a future revision to an arthrodesis is necessary. This advantage is in contradistinction to other current implants whereby more bone resection is required for implant placement.
January 2018: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155822/heavy-atom-effect-on-optically-excited-triplet-state-kinetics
#3
Christian Hintze, Tobias O Morgen, Malte Drescher
In several fields of research, like e.g. photosensitization, photovoltaics, organic electroluminescent devices, dynamic nuclear polarization, or pulsed dipolar electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, triplet state kinetics play an important role. It is therefore desirable to tailor the kinetics of photoexcited triplet states, e.g. by exploiting the intramolecular heavy-atom effect, and to determine the respective kinetic parameters. In this work, we set out to systematically investigate the photoexcited triplet state kinetics of a series of haloanthracenes by time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with synchronized laser excitation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155814/optimal-synaptic-signaling-connectome-for-locomotory-behavior-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-design-minimizing-energy-cost
#4
Franciszek Rakowski, Jan Karbowski
The detailed knowledge of C. elegans connectome for 3 decades has not contributed dramatically to our understanding of worm's behavior. One of main reasons for this situation has been the lack of data on the type of synaptic signaling between particular neurons in the worm's connectome. The aim of this study was to determine synaptic polarities for each connection in a small pre-motor circuit controlling locomotion. Even in this compact network of just 7 neurons the space of all possible patterns of connection types (excitation vs...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155787/synthesis-of-core-shell-lanthanide-doped-upconversion-nanocrystals-for-cellular-applications
#5
Xiangzhao Ai, Linna Lyu, Jing Mu, Ming Hu, Zhimin Wang, Bengang Xing
Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals (UCNs) have attracted much attention in recent years based on their promising and controllable optical properties, which allow for the absorption of near-infrared (NIR) light and can subsequently convert it into multiplexed emissions that span over a broad range of regions from the UV to the visible to the NIR. This article presents detailed experimental procedures for high-temperature co-precipitation synthesis of core-shell UCNs that incorporate different lanthanide ions into nanocrystals for efficiently converting deep-tissue penetrable NIR excitation (808 nm) into a strong blue emission at 480 nm...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155756/transcranial-electrical-brain-stimulation-in-alert-rodents
#6
Brita Fritsch, Anne-Kathrin Gellner, Janine Reis
Transcranial electrical brain stimulation can modulate cortical excitability and plasticity in humans and rodents. The most common form of stimulation in humans is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Less frequently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) or transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a specific form of tACS using an electrical current applied randomly within a pre-defined frequency range, is used. The increase of noninvasive electrical brain stimulation research in humans, both for experimental and clinical purposes, has yielded an increased need for basic, mechanistic, safety studies in animals...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155621/science-to-practice-enhancing-photothermal-ablation-of-colorectal-liver-metastases-with-targeted-hybrid-nanoparticles
#7
Xiaoming Yang
Image-guided percutaneous thermal ablation has been one of the principal tools in management of unresectable liver malignancies, including colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) ( 1 ). Currently, however, this technique is suitable mainly for tumors less than 4-5 cm in diameter and also results in incomplete ablation at tumor margins ( 2 ). To solve these problems, efforts have been made to combine thermal ablation with other treatment options, such as systemic and intra-arterial administration of therapeutics ( 3 - 5 )...
December 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155584/correction-to-real-time-quantum-dynamics-of-long-range-electronic-excitation-transfer-in-plasmonic-nanoantennas
#8
Niranjan V Ilawe, M Belén Oviedo, Bryan M Wong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155567/ratiometric-fluorescent-detection-of-pb-2-by-fret-based-phthalocyanine-porphyrin-dyads
#9
Dongli Zhang, Mengliang Zhu, Luyang Zhao, Jinghui Zhang, Kang Wang, Dongdong Qi, Yang Zhou, Yongzhong Bian, Jianzhuang Jiang
Sensitive and selective detection of Pb(2+) is a very worthwhile endeavor in terms of both human health and environmental protection, as the heavy metal is fairly ubiquitous and highly toxic. In this study, we designed phthalocyanine-porphyrin (Pc-Por) heterodyads, namely, H2Pc-α-ZnPor (1) and H2Pc-β-ZnPor (2), by connecting a zinc(II) porphyrin moiety to the nonperipheral (α) or peripheral (β) position of a metal-free phthalocyanine moiety. Upon excitation at the porphyrin Soret region (420 nm), both of the dyads exhibited not only a porphyrin emission (605 nm) but also a phthalocyanine emission (ca...
November 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155558/correlated-absorption-and-scattering-spectroscopy-of-individual-pt-decorated-au-nanorods-reveals-strong-excitation-enhancement-in-the-non-plasmonic-metal
#10
Anneli Joplin, Seyyed Ali Hosseini Jebeli, Eric Sung, Nathan Diemler, Patrick J Straney, Mustafa Yorulmaz, Wei-Shun Chang, Jill E Millstone, Stephan Link
Bimetallic nanocatalysts have the potential to surmount current limitations in industrial catalysis if their electronic and optical properties can be effectively controlled. However, improving the performance of bimetallic photocatalysts requires a functional understanding of how the intricacies of their morphology and composition dictate every element of their optical response. In this work, we examine Au and Pt-decorated Au nanorods on a single particle level to ascertain how Pt influences the plasmon resonance of the bimetallic nanostructure...
November 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155414/quasiparticles-in-condensed-matter-systems
#11
Peter Woelfle
Quasiparticles are a powerful concept of condensed matter quantum theory. In this review the appearence and the properties of quasiparticles are presented in a unifying perspective. The principles behind the existence of quasiparticle excitations in both quantum disordered and ordered phases of fermionic and bosonic systems are discussed . The lifetime of quasiparticles is considered in particular near a continuous classical or quantum phase transition, when the nature of quasiparticles on both sides of a transition into an ordered state changes...
November 20, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155350/the-pmca-pumps-in-genetically-determined-neuronal-pathologies
#12
REVIEW
Tito Calì, Marisa Brini, Ernesto Carafoli
Ca(2+) signals regulate most aspects of animal cell life. They are of particular importance to the nervous system, in which they regulate specific functions, from neuronal development to synaptic plasticity. The homeostasis of cell Ca(2+) must thus be very precisely regulated: in all cells Ca(2+) pumps transport it from the cytosol to the extracellular medium (the Plasma Membrane Ca(2+) ATPases, hereafter referred to as PMCA pumps) or to the lumen of intracellular organelles (the Sarco/Endoplasmatic Reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase and the Secretory Pathway Ca(2+) ATPase, hereafter referred to as SERCA and SPCA pumps, respectively)...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155337/photodynamic-therapy-in-fibrosarcoma-balb-c-animal-model-observation-of-the-rebound-effect
#13
Etcheverry María Eugenia, Pasquale Miguel Ángel, Gutiérrez Anabella, Bibé Solange, Ponzinibbio Carlos, Poteca Horacio, Garavaglia Mario
In vivo spectrofluorometric analysis during photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a fundamental tool to obtain information about the drug bleaching kinetics. Using a portable spectrofluorometer with an excitation source emitting at 400nm wavelength and a spectral analyzer ranging from 500nm to 800nm, the evolution of the meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl) chlorin (m-THPC) photosensitizer fluorescence spectrum at the tumoral tissue of BALB/c murines with fibrosarcoma located at their flank was followed up. Ex vivo fluorescence measurements of the tumor and skin were also performed with the aim of better characterizing the in vivo signal at different parts of the tumor...
November 16, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155308/play-and-optimal-welfare-does-play-behaviour-indicate-the-presence-of-positive-affective-states
#14
Jamie Ahloy-Dallaire, Julia Espinosa, Georgia Mason
Play is commonly used to assess affective states in both humans and non-human animals. Play appears to be most common when animals are well-fed and not under any direct threats to fitness. Could play and playfulness therefore indicate pre-existing positive emotions, and thence optimal animal welfare? We examine this question by surveying the internal and external conditions that promote or suppress play in a variety of species, starting with humans. We find that negative affective states and poor welfare usually do suppress play (although there are notable exceptions where the opposite occurs)...
November 16, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154951/regulation-of-neural-ion-channels-by-muscarinic-receptors
#15
REVIEW
David A Brown
The excitable behaviour of neurons is determined by the activity of their endogenous membrane ion channels. Since muscarinic receptors are not themselves ion channels, the acute effects of muscarinic receptor stimulation on neuronal function are governed by the effects of the receptors on these endogenous neuronal ion channels. This review considers some principles and factors determining the interaction between subtypes and classes of muscarinic receptors with neuronal ion channels, and summarizes the effects of muscarinic receptor stimulation on a number of different channels, the mechanisms of receptor - channel transduction and their direct consequences for neuronal activity...
November 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154914/how-to-make-usage-of-the-standardized-euroflow-8-color-protocols-possible-for-instruments-of-different-manufacturers
#16
Michaela Nováková, Hana Glier, Naděžda Brdičková, Marcela Vlková, Ana Helena Santos, Margarida Lima, Mikael Roussel, Juan Flores-Montero, Tomasz Szczepanski, Sebastian Böttcher, Vincent H J van der Velden, Paula Fernandez, Ester Mejstříková, Leire Burgos, Bruno Paiva, Jacques J M van Dongen, Alberto Orfao, Tomáš Kalina
A critical component of the EuroFlow standardization of leukemia/lymphoma immunophenotyping is instrument setup. Initially, the EuroFlow consortium developed a step-by-step standard operating protocol for instrument setup of ≥8-color flow cytometers that were available in 2006, when the EuroFlow activities started. Currently, there are 14 instruments from 9 manufacturers capable of 3-laser excitation and ≥8 color measurements. The specific adaptations required in the instrument set-up to enable them to acquire the standardized 8-color EuroFlow protocols are described here...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154893/an-interleaved-sequence-for-simultaneous-magnetic-resonance-angiography-mra-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-swi-and-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-qsm
#17
Yongsheng Chen, Saifeng Liu, Sagar Buch, Jiani Hu, Yan Kang, E Mark Haacke
PURPOSE: To image the entire vasculature of the brain with complete suppression of signal from background tissue using a single 3D excitation interleaved rephased/dephased multi-echo gradient echo sequence. This ensures no loss of signal from fast flow and provides co-registered susceptibility weighted images (SWI) and quantitative susceptibility maps (QSM) from the same scan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The suppression of background tissue was accomplished by subtracting the flow-dephased images from the flow-rephased images with the same echo time of 12...
November 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154805/the-effects-of-imaginary-voluntary-muscle-contraction-and-relaxation-on-cerebellar-brain-inhibition
#18
Hiroaki Tanaka, Akiyoshi Matsugi, Yohei Okada
The purpose of this study was to investigate cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI) of the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) during imaginary muscle contraction (Contract-I) and relaxation (Relax-I) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Twenty-nine healthy adults completed two experiments. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle were induced by TMS over the left M1 and measured with or without TMS over the right cerebellum during Contract-I (first experiment) and Relax-I (second experiment) of the right FDI, and these were compared to the findings in a no-imagery (No-I) condition...
November 14, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154756/cocaine-induced-adaptation-of-dopamine-d2s-but-not-d2l-autoreceptors
#19
Brooks G Robinson, Alec F Condon, Daniela Radl, Emiliana Borrelli, John T Williams, Kim A Neve
The dopamine D2 receptor has two splice variants, D2S (Short) and D2L (Long). In dopamine neurons, both variants can act as autoreceptors to regulate neuronal excitability and dopamine release, but the roles of each variant are incompletely characterized. In a previous study we used viral receptor expression in D2 receptor knockout mice to show distinct effects of calcium signaling on D2S and D2L autoreceptor function (Gantz et al., 2015). However, the cocaine-induced plasticity of D2 receptor desensitization observed in wild type mice was not recapitulated with this method of receptor expression...
November 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154577/confounding-in-statistical-mediation-analysis-what-it-is-and-how-to-address-it
#20
Matthew J Valente, William E Pelham, Heather Smyth, David P MacKinnon
Psychology researchers are often interested in mechanisms underlying how randomized interventions affect outcomes such as substance use and mental health. Mediation analysis is a common statistical method for investigating psychological mechanisms that has benefited from exciting new methodological improvements over the last 2 decades. One of the most important new developments is methodology for estimating causal mediated effects using the potential outcomes framework for causal inference. Potential outcomes-based methods developed in epidemiology and statistics have important implications for understanding psychological mechanisms...
November 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
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