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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343377/protein-kinase-c-mediates-the-corticosterone-induced-sensitization-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-innervating-the-rat-stomach
#1
Meng Li, Lu Xue, Hong-Yan Zhu, Hongjun Wang, Xue Xu, Geping Wu, Guang-Yin Xu
Background/Aims: Gastric hypersensitivity contributes to abdominal pain in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). Recent studies showed that hormones induced by stress are correlated with visceral hypersensitivity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying gastric hypersensitivity remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was designed to investigate the roles of corticosterone (CORT) on excitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating the stomach. Methods: DRG neurons innervating the stomach were labeled by DiI injection into the stomach wall...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343256/spatiotemporal-deep-imaging-of-syncytium-induced-by-the-soybean-cyst-nematode-heterodera-glycines
#2
Mina Ohtsu, Yoshikatsu Sato, Daisuke Kurihara, Takuya Suzaki, Masayoshi Kawaguchi, Daisuke Maruyama, Tetsuya Higashiyama
Parasite infections cause dramatic anatomical and ultrastructural changes in host plants. Cyst nematodes are parasites that invade host roots and induce a specific feeding structure called a syncytium. A syncytium is a large multinucleate cell formed by cell wall dissolution-mediated cell fusion. The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is a major soybean pathogen. To investigate SCN infection and the syncytium structure, we established an in planta deep imaging system using a clearing solution ClearSee and two-photon excitation microscopy (2PEM)...
March 25, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343167/the-unappreciated-roles-of-the-cholecystokinin-receptor-cck-1-in-brain-functioning
#3
Santiago Ballaz
The CCK(1) receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by the sulfated forms of cholecystokinin (CCK), a gastrin-like peptide released in the gastrointestinal tract and mammal brain. A substantial body of research supports the hypothesis that CCK(1)r stimulates gallbladder contraction and pancreatic secretion in the gut, as well as satiety in brain. However, this receptor may also fulfill relevant roles in behavior, thanks to its widespread distribution in the brain. The strategic location of CCK(1)r in mesolimbic structures and specific hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei lead to complex interactions with neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate, as well as hypothalamic hormones and neuropeptides...
March 25, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343140/sequence-encoded-material-properties-dictate-the-structure-and-function-of-nuclear-bodies
#4
REVIEW
Stephanie C Weber
Concomitant with packaging the genome, the cell nucleus must also spatially organize the nucleoplasm. This complex mixture of proteins and nucleic acids partitions into a variety of phase-separated, membraneless organelles called nuclear bodies. Significant progress has been made in understanding the relationship between the material properties of nuclear bodies and their structural and functional consequences. Furthermore, the molecular basis of these condensed phases is beginning to emerge. Here, I review the latest work in this exciting field, highlighting recent advances and new challenges...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343017/%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-an-efficient-nanocarrier-for-advanced-delivery-systems
#5
REVIEW
Zahra Shafaei, Behafarid Ghalandari, Akbar Vaseghi, Adeleh Divsalar, Thomas Haertlé, Ali Akbar Saboury, Lindsay Sawyer
Thanks to the progress of nanotechnology there are several agent-delivery systems that can be selected to achieve rapid and specific delivery of a wide variety of biologically active agents. Consequently, the manipulation and engineering of biopolymers has become one of the most exciting subjects for those who study delivery systems on the nano-scale. In this regard, both nanoparticle formation and a carrier role have been observed in the case of the globular milk whey protein, β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), setting it apart from many other proteins...
March 22, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342980/muscarinic-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways-in-hepatocytes-from-ccl4-induced-liver-fibrotic-rat
#6
Lin Luo, Chenghao Xi, Tingting Xu, Gaoshan Zhang, E Qun, Wei Zhang
The pathological changes of parasympathetic nerves are considered as an independent prognostic factor of the survival rate for patients with chronic liver disease. The non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchR) agonists and antagonists can affect the proliferation of hepatocytes, but little is known about the role of mAChR in hepatocytes and hepatic fibrosis and the signaling pathway of this receptor in regulation of hepatocytes remains elusive. Here, 3ml/kg 40% carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) was given to induce hepatic fibrosis in rats and the hepatocytes were isolated to investigate the expression of mAchR and the cell signaling pathways which were involved in...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342942/the-nature-of-early-astroglial-protection-fast-activation-and-signaling
#7
REVIEW
Julianna Kardos, László Héja, Katalin Jemnitz, Richárd Kovács, Miklós Palkovits
Our present review is focusing on the uniqueness of balanced astroglial signaling. The balance of excitatory and inhibitory signaling within the CNS is mainly determined by sharp synaptic transients of excitatory glutamate (Glu) and inhibitory γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) acting on the sub-second timescale. Astroglia is involved in excitatory chemical transmission by taking up i) Glu through neurotransmitter-sodium transporters, ii) K(+) released due to presynaptic action potential generation, and iii) water keeping osmotic pressure...
March 22, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342367/optimization-of-surface-electrodes-location-for-h-reflex-recordings-in-soleus-muscle
#8
Alberto Botter, Taian M Vieira
The Hoffmann reflex (H reflex) is extensively used to investigate the spinal motor neuron excitability in healthy and pathological subjects. Obtaining a representative and robust amplitude estimation of the H reflex is of marked relevance in clinical as well as in research applications. As for the motor responses, this issue is strictly related to the electrode positioning, especially for large, pinnate muscles such as the triceps surae. In this study we investigated the effect of electrode position on soleus H-reflex amplitude...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340524/controlled-hydrothermal-synthesis-and-photoluminescence-of-nanocrystalline-znga2o4-cr-3-monospheres
#9
Tian Luan, Jinhan Liu, Xiaoxue Yuan, Ji-Guang Li
The hydrothermal synthesis of nanocrystalline ZnGa2O4:Cr(3+) (ZGC) red phosphor monospheres was accomplished in this work, and the effects of system pH, reactant content, reaction time, and citrate anions (Cit(3-)) on the phase and morphology evolution of the product were systematically studied. Under the optimized conditions of Cit(3-)/M = 1.0 molar ratio (M = total cations), pH = 5.0, and 0.2 mmol of Zn(2+), well-dispersed ZGC monospheres with an average diameter of ~454 ± 56 nm (average crystallite size ~15 nm) were successfully obtained via hydrothermal reaction at 180 °C for 18 h...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340510/the-diverse-family-of-mmpl-transporters-in-mycobacteria-from-regulation-to-antimicrobial-developments
#10
REVIEW
Albertus Viljoen, Violaine Dubois, Fabienne Girard-Misguich, Mickael Blaise, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterial genomes contain large sets of loci encoding membrane proteins that belong to a family of multidrug resistance pumps designated Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division (RND) permeases. Mycobacterial membrane protein Large (MmpL) transporters represent a subclass of RND transporters known to participate in the export of lipid components across the cell envelope. These surface-exposed lipids with unusual structures play key roles in the physiology of mycobacteria and/or can act as virulence factors and immunomodulators...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340419/photolytic-degradation-of-the-%C3%AE-blocker-nebivolol-in-aqueous-solution
#11
Alaa Salma, Holger V Lutze, Torsten C Schmidt, Jochen Tuerk
Nebivolol (NEB) is one of the top-sold prescription drugs belonging to the third generation of beta-blockers. However, so far, occurrence data in the environment are lacking. Within this study NEB has been found for the first time in effluent samples of wastewater treatment plants in Germany with an average concentration of 13 ng L(-1). Its photodegradation behavior in the environment and in technical processes is largely unknown. To fill this gap, three different UV treatment procedures (UV-C at 254 nm, UV-B at 312 nm and UV-A at 365 nm) were investigated in three different matrices: pure water, pure water in presence of the hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger tert...
March 13, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340177/the-significance-of-internode-length-for-saltatory-conduction-looking-back-at-the-age-of-90
#12
Reinhard L Friede
The development of peripheral nerve fibers involves interdependence between the timing of Schwann cell recruitment during myelination and elongation of the nerve. This adjusts the number and the length of internodes to the length of the fiber. Saltatory conduction in longer nerves involves longer saltations; this makes internode length the factor that determines conduction velocity, thereby adjusting impulse transmission in circuits of different lengths. Myelination increases conduction velocity by means of saltatory conduction but what determines the saltatory conduction is not so much the indispensable insulating adjunct of myelin as the length of the internodes that separate the excitable membrane segments...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339266/spin-wave-excitations-evidencing-the-kitaev-interaction-in-single-crystalline-%C3%AE-rucl_-3
#13
Kejing Ran, Jinghui Wang, Wei Wang, Zhao-Yang Dong, Xiao Ren, Song Bao, Shichao Li, Zhen Ma, Yuan Gan, Youtian Zhang, J T Park, Guochu Deng, S Danilkin, Shun-Li Yu, Jian-Xin Li, Jinsheng Wen
Kitaev interactions underlying a quantum spin liquid have long been sought, but experimental data from which their strengths can be determined directly, are still lacking. Here, by carrying out inelastic neutron scattering measurements on high-quality single crystals of α-RuCl_{3}, we observe spin-wave spectra with a gap of ∼2  meV around the M point of the two-dimensional Brillouin zone. We derive an effective-spin model in the strong-coupling limit based on energy bands obtained from first-principles calculations, and find that the anisotropic Kitaev interaction K term and the isotropic antiferromagnetic off-diagonal exchange interaction Γ term are significantly larger than the Heisenberg exchange coupling J term...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339262/revealing-extremely-low-energy-amplitude-modes-in-the-charge-density-wave-compound-laagsb_-2
#14
R Y Chen, S J Zhang, M Y Zhang, T Dong, N L Wang
Using infrared spectroscopy and ultrafast pump probe measurement, we have studied the two charge-density-wave (CDW) instabilities in the layered compound LaAgSb_{2}. The development of CDW energy gaps was clearly observed by optical spectroscopy, which removed most of the free carrier spectral weight. More interestingly, our time-resolved measurements revealed two coherent oscillations that softened by approaching the two phase transition temperatures, respectively. We addressed that these two oscillations come from the amplitude modes of CDW collective excitations, the surprisingly low energies (0...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339254/efficient-vortex-generation-in-subwavelength-epsilon-near-zero-slabs
#15
Alessandro Ciattoni, Andrea Marini, Carlo Rizza
We show that a homogeneous and isotropic slab, illuminated by a circularly polarized beam with no topological charge, produces vortices of order 2 in the opposite circularly polarized components of the reflected and transmitted fields, as a consequence of the transverse magnetic and transverse electric asymmetric response of the rotationally invariant system. In addition, in the epsilon-near-zero regime, we find that vortex generation is remarkably efficient in subwavelength thick slabs up to the paraxial regime...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339247/thermodynamic-and-kinetic-fragility-of-freon-113-the-most-fragile-plastic-crystal
#16
A Vispa, M Romanini, M A Ramos, L C Pardo, F J Bermejo, M Hassaine, A I Krivchikov, J W Taylor, J Ll Tamarit
We present a dynamic and thermodynamic study of the orientational glass former Freon 113 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, CCl_{2}F-CClF_{2}) in order to analyze its kinetic and thermodynamic fragilities. Freon 113 displays internal molecular degrees of freedom that promote a complex energy landscape. Experimental specific heat and its microscopic origin, the vibrational density of states from inelastic neutron scattering, together with the orientational dynamics obtained by means of dielectric spectroscopy have revealed the highest fragility value, both thermodynamic and kinetic, found for this orientational glass former...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339241/disordered-route-to-the-coulomb-quantum-spin-liquid-random-transverse-fields-on-spin-ice-in-pr_-2-zr_-2-o_-7
#17
J-J Wen, S M Koohpayeh, K A Ross, B A Trump, T M McQueen, K Kimura, S Nakatsuji, Y Qiu, D M Pajerowski, J R D Copley, C L Broholm
Inelastic neutron scattering reveals a broad continuum of excitations in Pr_{2}Zr_{2}O_{7}, the temperature and magnetic field dependence of which indicate a continuous distribution of quenched transverse fields (Δ) acting on the non-Kramers Pr^{3+} crystal field ground state doublets. Spin-ice correlations are apparent within 0.2 meV of the Zeeman energy. A random phase approximation provides an excellent account of the data with a transverse field distribution ρ(Δ)∝(Δ^{2}+Γ^{2})^{-1}, where Γ=0.27(1)  meV...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339240/single-photon-thermal-ionization-of-c_-60
#18
Klavs Hansen, Robert Richter, Michele Alagia, Stefano Stranges, Luca Schio, Peter Salén, Vasyl Yatsyna, Raimund Feifel, Vitali Zhaunerchyk
We report on experiments which show that C_{60} can ionize in an indirect, quasithermal boiloff process after absorption of a single photon. The process involves a large number of incoherently excited valence electrons and yields electron spectra with a Boltzmann distribution with temperatures exceeding 10^{4}  K. It is expected to be present for other molecules and clusters with a comparatively large number of valence electrons. The astrophysical consequences are briefly discussed.
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339225/effects-of-quantum-spin-1-2-impurities-on-the-magnetic-properties-of-zigzag-spin-chains
#19
Koushik Karmakar, Markos Skoulatos, Giacomo Prando, Bertran Roessli, Uwe Stuhr, Franziska Hammerath, Christian Rüegg, Surjeet Singh
We investigate the effect of Co^{2+} (spin-1/2) impurities on the magnetic ground state and low-lying spin excitations of the quasione-dimensional spin-1/2 antiferromagnet SrCuO_{2} by means of neutron scattering, muon spin spectroscopy, and bulk (ac and dc) magnetic susceptibilities. We found that dilute Co doping induces an Ising-like anisotropy and enhances the magnetic ordering temperature rather significantly, but preserves the gapless nature of the spin excitations. These results are in apparent contradiction with the recent studies of Ni (spin-1) doped SrCuO_{2}...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339219/crystalline-electric-field-randomness-in-the-triangular-lattice-spin-liquid-ybmggao_-4
#20
Yuesheng Li, Devashibhai Adroja, Robert I Bewley, David Voneshen, Alexander A Tsirlin, Philipp Gegenwart, Qingming Zhang
We apply moderate-high-energy inelastic neutron scattering (INS) measurements to investigate Yb^{3+} crystalline electric field (CEF) levels in the triangular spin-liquid candidate YbMgGaO_{4}. Three CEF excitations from the ground-state Kramers doublet are centered at the energies ℏω=39, 61, and 97 meV in agreement with the effective spin-1/2 g factors and experimental heat capacity, but reveal sizable broadening. We argue that this broadening originates from the site mixing between Mg^{2+} and Ga^{3+} giving rise to a distribution of Yb-O distances and orientations and, thus, of CEF parameters that account for the peculiar energy profile of the CEF excitations...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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