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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817806/specialized-mechanosensory-nociceptors-mediating-rapid-responses-to-hair-pull
#1
Nima Ghitani, Arnab Barik, Marcin Szczot, James H Thompson, Chia Li, Claire E Le Pichon, Michael J Krashes, Alexander T Chesler
The somatosensory system provides animals with the ability to detect, distinguish, and respond to diverse thermal, mechanical, and irritating stimuli. While there has been progress in defining classes of neurons underlying temperature sensation and gentle touch, less is known about the neurons specific for mechanical pain. Here, we use in vivo functional imaging to identify a class of cutaneous sensory neurons that are selectively activated by high-threshold mechanical stimulation (HTMRs). We show that their optogenetic excitation evokes rapid protective and avoidance behaviors...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817805/ltp-at-hilar-mossy-cell-dentate-granule-cell-synapses-modulates-dentate-gyrus-output-by-increasing-excitation-inhibition-balance
#2
Yuki Hashimotodani, Kaoutsar Nasrallah, Kyle R Jensen, Andrés E Chávez, Daniel Carrera, Pablo E Castillo
Excitatory hilar mossy cells (MCs) in the dentate gyrus receive inputs from dentate granule cells (GCs) and project back to GCs locally, contralaterally, and along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus, thereby establishing an associative positive-feedback loop and connecting functionally diverse hippocampal areas. MCs also synapse with GABAergic interneurons that mediate feed-forward inhibition onto GCs. Surprisingly, although these circuits have been implicated in both memory formation (e.g., pattern separation) and temporal lobe epilepsy, little is known about activity-dependent plasticity of their synaptic connections...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817775/departure-from-a-spherically-symmetric-ground-state-in-a-system-with-a-half-filled-shell-the-case-example-of-berkelium-iv-iodate
#3
Mark A Silver, Samantha K Cary, Alejandro J Garza, Ryan E Baumbach, Alexandra A Arico, Gregory A Galmin, Kuan-Wen Chen, Jason A Johnson, Jamie C Wang, Ronald J Clark, Alexander Chemey, Teresa M Eaton, Matthew L Marsh, Kevin Seidler, Shane S Galley, Lambertus van de Burgt, Ashley L Gray, David E Hobart, Kenneth Hanson, Shelley M van Cleve, Frédéric Gendron, Jochen Autschbach, Gustavo E Scuseria, Laurent Maron, Manfred Speldrich, Paul Kögerler, Cristian Celis-Barros, Dayán Paéz-Hernandéz, Ramiro Arratia-Perez, Michael Ruf, Thomas E Albrecht-Schmitt
The reaction of 249Bk(OH)4 with iodate under hydrothermal conditions results in the formation of Bk(IO3)3 as the major product with trace amounts of Bk(IO3)4 also crystallizing from the reaction mixture. The structure of Bk(IO3)3 consists of nine-coordinate BkIII cations that are bridged by iodate anions to yield layers that are isomorphous with those found for AmIII, CfIII, and with lanthanides that possess similar ionic radii. Bk(IO3)4 was expected to adopt the same structure as M(IO3)4 (M = Ce, Np, Pu), but instead parallels the structural chemistry of the smaller ZrIV cation...
August 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817770/photoinduced-copper-catalyzed-alkylation-of-amines-a-mechanistic-study-of-the-cross-coupling-of-carbazole-with-alkyl-bromides
#4
Jun Myun Ahn, Tanvi S Ratani, Kareem Hannoun, Gregory C Fu, Jonas C Peters
We have recently reported that a variety of couplings of nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and carbon nucleophiles with organic halides can be achieved under mild conditions (-40 to 30 °C) through the use of light and a copper catalyst. Insight into the various mechanisms by which these reactions proceed may enhance our understanding of chemical reactivity and facilitate the development of new methods. In this report, we apply an array of tools (EPR, NMR, transient absorption, and UV-vis spectroscopy; ESI-MS; X-ray crystallography; DFT calculations; reactivity, stereochemical, and product studies) to investigate the photoinduced, copper-catalyzed coupling of carbazole with alkyl bromides...
August 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817581/population-activity-structure-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neurons
#5
Sean R Bittner, Ryan C Williamson, Adam C Snyder, Ashok Litwin-Kumar, Brent Doiron, Steven M Chase, Matthew A Smith, Byron M Yu
Many studies use population analysis approaches, such as dimensionality reduction, to characterize the activity of large groups of neurons. To date, these methods have treated each neuron equally, without taking into account whether neurons are excitatory or inhibitory. We studied population activity structure as a function of neuron type by applying factor analysis to spontaneous activity from spiking networks with balanced excitation and inhibition. Throughout the study, we characterized population activity structure by measuring its dimensionality and the percentage of overall activity variance that is shared among neurons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817580/criticality-predicts-maximum-irregularity-in-recurrent-networks-of-excitatory-nodes
#6
Yahya Karimipanah, Zhengyu Ma, Ralf Wessel
A rigorous understanding of brain dynamics and function requires a conceptual bridge between multiple levels of organization, including neural spiking and network-level population activity. Mounting evidence suggests that neural networks of cerebral cortex operate at a critical regime, which is defined as a transition point between two phases of short lasting and chaotic activity. However, despite the fact that criticality brings about certain functional advantages for information processing, its supporting evidence is still far from conclusive, as it has been mostly based on power law scaling of size and durations of cascades of activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817416/nicotinic-modulation-of-descending-pain-control-circuitry
#7
Iboro C Umana, Claire A Daniele, Brooke A Miller, Keith Gallagher, Meghan A Brown, Chandrika Abburi, Peggy Mason, Daniel S McGehee
Along with the well-known rewarding effects, activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) can also relieve pain, and some nicotinic agonists have analgesic efficacy similar to opioids. A major target of analgesic drugs is the descending pain modulatory pathway, including the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) and the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). Although activating nAChRs within this circuitry can be analgesic, little is known about the subunit composition and cellular effects of these receptors, particularly within the vlPAG...
July 3, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817251/dual-core-shell-structured-s-c-mno2-nanocomposite-for-highly-stable-lithium-sulfur-batteries
#8
Lubin Ni, Gangjin Zhao, Guang Yang, Guosheng Niu, Ming Chen, Guowang Diao
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have currently excited worldwide academic and industrial interest as a next-generation high-power energy storage system (EES) because of their high energy density and low cost of sulfur. However, the commercialization application is being hindered by capacity decay, mainly attributed to the polysulfide shuttle and poor conductivity of sulfur. Here, we have designed a novel dual core-shell nanostructure of S@C@MnO2 nanosphere hybrid as the sulfur host. The S@C@MnO2 nanosphere is successfully prepared using mesoporous hollow carbon spheres (MHCS) as the template and then in situ MnO2 growth on the surface of MHCS...
August 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817237/dysregulation-of-wound-healing-mechanisms-in-diabetes-and-the-importance-of-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-npwt
#9
Mogher Khamaisi, Sarit Balanson
Diabetes is a serious disease with severe side effects and comorbidities. Diabetic foot with its chronic non-healing ulcers, or diabetic food ulcers (DFU) as they are commonly called, can be devastating, even leading to amputation. Many therapies exist to assist and improve wound healing. One exciting discovery is the use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) as an adjunct to standard treatment. Few studies have substantively explored the molecular mechanisms of NPWT and why we see improved wound healing, a concept that demands more research...
August 17, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817148/effect-of-the-solvation-state-of-electron-in-dissociative-electron-attachment-reaction-in-aqueous-solutions
#10
Furong Wang, Pierre Archirel, Yusa Muroya, Shinichi Yamashita, Pascal Pernot, Chengying Yin, Abdel Karim El Omar, Uli Schmidhammer, Jean-Marie Teuler, Mehran Mostafavi
It is generally considered that the pre-solvated electron and the solvated electron reacting with a solute yield the same product. Silver cyanide complex, Ag(CN)2(-), is used as a simple probe to demonstrate unambiguously the existence of a different reduction mechanism for pre-hydrated electrons. Using systematic multichannel transient absorption measurements at different solute concentrations from millimolar to decimolar, global data analysis and theoretical calculations, we present the dissociative electron attachment on Ag(CN)2(-)...
August 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817145/coherent-electronic-and-nuclear-dynamics-in-a-rhodamine-heterodimer-dna-supramolecular-complex
#11
M Cipolloni, B Fresch, I Occhiuto, P Rukin, K G Komarova, A Cecconello, I Willner, R D Levine, F Remacle, E Collini
Elucidating the role of quantum coherences in energy migration within biological and artificial multichromophoric antenna systems is the subject of an intense debate. It is also a practical matter because of the decisive implications for understanding the biological processes and engineering artificial materials for solar energy harvesting. A supramolecular rhodamine heterodimer on a DNA scaffold was suitably engineered to mimic the basic donor-acceptor unit of light-harvesting antennas. Ultrafast 2D electronic spectroscopic measurements allowed identifying clear features attributable to a coherent superposition of dimer electronic and vibrational states contributing to the coherent electronic charge beating between the donor and the acceptor...
August 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816659/low-frequency-and-broadband-vibration-energy-harvesting-using-base-mounted-piezoelectric-transducers
#12
Robert Koven, Matthew Mills, Richard Gale, Burak Aksak
Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters often consist of a cantilevered beam composed of a support layer and one or two piezoelectric layers with a tip mass. While this configuration is advantageous for maximizing electromechanical coupling, the mechanical properties of the piezoelectric material can place limitations on harvester size and resonant frequency. Here, we present numerical and experimental results from a new type of piezoelectric energy harvester in which the mechanical properties and the resonant frequency of the cantilever beam resonator are effectively decoupled from the piezoelectric component...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816457/a-coupled-cluster-investigation-of-sno-radical-isomers-and-their-reactions-with-hydrogen-atom-insight-into-structures-conformers-barriers-and-energetics
#13
Manoj Kumar, Joseph S Francisco
High-level coupled cluster theory with single and double excitation, and including a perturbative triples correction (CCSD(T)) method and a series of Dunning's augmented correlation consistent basis sets, aug-cc-pVXZ (X=D, T, Q and 5) was applied to examine the conformational landscape of SNO radical system. The basis set has an important effect on the relative stability of SNO radical isomers, and the NSO radical is the most stable member of SNO radical family. This is in contrast to previous density functional theory prediction suggesting SNO radical is the most stable isomer...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816400/silica-modified-luminescent-lapo4-eu-lapo4-sio2-core-shell-nanorods-synthesis-structural-and-luminescent-properties
#14
Anees A Ansari
Monoclinic-type tetragonal LaPO4 :Eu (core) and LaPO4 :Eu@LaPO4 (core/shell) nanorods (NRs) were successfully prepared using a urea-based co-precipitation process under ambient conditions. An amorphous silica layer was coated around the luminescent core/shell NRs via the sol-gel process to improve their solubility and colloidal stability in aqueous and non-aqueous media. The prepared nano-products were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and FTIR, UV/Vis, and photoluminescence spectroscopy to examine their phase purity, crystal phase, surface chemistry, solubility and luminescence characteristics...
August 17, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816362/social-space-and-cultural-class-divisions-the-forms-of-capital-and-contemporary-lifestyle-differentiation
#15
Magne Flemmen, Vegard Jarness, Lennart Rosenlund
In this article, we address whether and how contemporary social classes are marked by distinct lifestyles. We assess the model of the social space, a novel approach to class analysis pioneered by Bourdieu's Distinction. Although pivotal in Bourdieu's work, this model is too often overlooked in later research, making its contemporary relevance difficult to assess. We redress this by using the social space as a framework through which to study the cultural manifestation of class divisions in lifestyle differences in contemporary Norwegian society...
August 17, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816324/the-generalized-maximum-hardness-principle-revisited-and-applied-to-atoms-and-molecules
#16
Wojciech Grochala
In this perspective contribution, we revisit the Maximum Hardness Principle (MHP), formulated by Pearson in 1987, and an equivalent Minimum Polarizability Principle (MPP) from Chattaraj and Parr, with particular emphasis on the cases where nuclear potential acting on electrons does not remain constant, and where substantial modifications of the nuclear geometry take place (Generalized MHP, GMHP). We first bring basic concepts related to electronic hardness, and then we present an overview of important manifestations of the GMHP for molecular systems such as (i) the tendency of two free radicals to couple, (ii) reduced reactivity of noble gases, (iii) symmetry-breaking distortions related to the Jahn-Teller effect, and/or these connected with (anti)aromatic character of certain organic molecules, (iv) enhanced reactivity of excited states, (v) high-low spin transitions, etc...
August 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816178/plasmon-modes-of-bilayer-molybdenum-disulfide-a-density-functional-study
#17
Zahra Torbatian, Reza Asgari
We explore the collective electronic excitations of bilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) using the density functional theory together with the random phase approximation. The many-body dielectric function and electron energy-loss spectra are calculated using an ab initio based model involving material-realistic physical properties. The electron energy-loss function of bilayer MoS2 system is found to be sensitive to either electron or hole doping and it is owing to the fact that the Kohn-Sham band dispersions are not symmetric for energies above and below the zero Fermi level...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815855/solid-state-step-scan-ftir-spectroscopy-of-binuclear-copper-i-complexes
#18
Manuel Zimmer, Fabian Dietrich, Daniel Volz, Stefan Bräse, Markus Gerhards
The electronic ground and excited state structure of two binuclear Cu(I)-NHETPHOS-complexes, which are promising to be implemented in OLEDs (organic light emitting diodes), is investigated by a combination of the time-resolved step-scan FTIR technique and quantum chemical calculations at the DFT level. In contrast to the usual application of step-scan FTIR spectroscopy in solution the herein presented analyses are performed in solid phase, i.e. the Cu(I) complexes are embedded in a KBr matrix (KBr pellet). Applying "solid state" time-resolved step-scan FTIR spectroscopy is of great importance for transition metal complexes, since oftentimes their photophysical properties change when moving from solid to dissolved samples...
August 16, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815774/excitonically-coupled-states-in-crystalline-coordination-networks
#19
Ritesh Haldar, Antoine Mazel, Reetu Joseph, Michael Adams, Ian Howard, Bryce Richards, Manuel Tsotsalas, Engelbert Redel, Stephane Diring, Fabrice Odobel, Christof Wöll
When chromophores are brought into close proximity, noncovalent interactions (π-π/CH-π) can lead to the formation of excitonically coupled states, which bestow new photophysical properties upon the aggregates. Since the properties of the new states not only depend on the strength of intermolecular interactions, but also on the relative orientation, supramolecular assemblies, where these parameters can be varied in a deliberate fashion, provide novel possibilities for the control of photophysical properties...
August 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815613/switching-off-photoprotection-of-photosystem-i-a-novel-tool-for-gradual-psi-photoinhibition
#20
Mikko Tikkanen, Steffen Grebe
Photosystem I (PSI) has evolved in anaerobic atmosphere conditions and until today remains susceptible to oxygen. To minimize the probability of damaging side reactions, plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to control electron transfer, and PSI becomes inhibited only when malfunctions of these regulatory mechanisms occur. Due to the complicated induction of PSI photoinhibition, a detailed investigation of the process and following reactions are still largely missing. Here we introduce the theoretical framework and a novel method for an easy and controlled induction of PSI photoinhibition in vivo...
August 16, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
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