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spinal reflex

Claudia Kathe, Thomas Haynes Hutson, Stephen Brendan McMahon, Lawrence David Falcon Moon
Brain and spinal injury reduce mobility and often impair sensorimotor processing in the spinal cord leading to spasticity. Here, we establish that complete transection of corticospinal pathways in the pyramids impairs locomotion and leads to increased spasms and excessive mono- and polysynaptic low threshold spinal reflexes in rats. Treatment of affected forelimb muscles with an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) encoding human Neurotrophin-3 at a clinically-feasible time-point after injury reduced spasticity...
October 19, 2016: ELife
Saul Wilson, Kingsley O Abode-Iyamah, John W Miller, Chandan G Reddy, Sina Safayi, Douglas C Fredericks, Nicholas D Jeffery, Nicole A DeVries-Watson, Sara K Shivapour, Stephanus Viljoen, Brian D Dalm, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Michael D Johnson, George T Gillies, Matthew A Howard
OBJECTIVE: To develop a large animal model of spinal cord injury (SCI), for use in translational studies of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in the treatment of spasticity. We seek to establish thresholds for the SCS parameters associated with reduction of post-SCI spasticity in the pelvic limbs, with implications for patients. STUDY DESIGN: The weight-drop method was used to create a moderate SCI in adult sheep, leading to mild spasticity in the pelvic limbs. Electrodes for electromyography (EMG) and an epidural spinal cord stimulator were then implanted...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
D Lelic, I W D Fischer, A E Olesen, C D Mørch, F G Arguissain, J A B Manresa, A Dahan, A M Drewes
Severe pain is often treated with opioids. Antidepressants that inhibit serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake (SNRI) have also shown a pain relieving effect, but for both SNRI and opioids the specific mode of action in humans remains vague. This study investigated how oxycodone and venlafaxine affect spinal and supraspinal pain processing. Twenty volunteers were included in this randomized cross-over study comparing five-day treatment with venlafaxine, oxycodone and placebo. As a proxy of the spinal pain transmission, the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) to electrical stimulation on the sole of the foot was recorded at the tibialis anterior muscle before and after five days of treatment...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Pinar Akpinar, Arzu Atici, Feyza U Ozkan, Ilknur Aktas, Duygu G Kulcu, Kubra Neslihan Kurt
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of the Spinal Cord Assessment Tool for Spastic Reflexes (SCATS). DESIGN: Observational reliability study of the SCATS . SETTING: Inpatient rehabilitation unit at an education and research hospital. PARTICIPANTS: This study included 47 subjects between the ages of 18 and 88 years with spinal cord injury, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale grades from A to D with spasticity, and at least 6 months post injury...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Ognjen Visnjevac, Shrif Costandi, Bimal A Patel, Girgis Azer, Priya Agarwal, Robert Bolash, Nagy A Mekhail
BACKGROUND: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful, debilitating affliction that is often difficult to treat. It has become common international practice to use spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for the treatment of CRPS as other therapies fail to provide adequate relief, quality of life, or improvement in function. This comprehensive outcome-specific systematic review of the use of SCS for CRPS was performed to elucidate the available evidence with focus on clinically relevant patient-specific outcomes...
October 14, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Preeti D Oza, Shauna Dudley-Javoroski, Richard K Shields
H-reflex depression (diminution of amplitude after a conditioning stimulus) is mediated presynaptically and therefore can help distinguish central versus peripheral mechanisms of fatigue. We examined the effects of a dynamic exercise protocol on H-reflex depression using two conditioning methods: homonymous conditioning (paired-pulse tibial nerve stimulation); and heteronymous conditioning (common peroneal nerve stimulation). Ten subjects performed dynamic contractions of the soleus muscle through 30° ankle range of motion...
October 13, 2016: Motor Control
Xuewen Jiang, Thomas W Fuller, Jathin Bandari, Utsav Bansal, Zhaocun Zhang, Bing Shen, Jicheng Wang, James R Roppolo, William C de Groat, Changfeng Tai
In α-chloralose anesthetized cats, we examined the role GABAA, glycine, and opioid receptors in sacral neuromodulation-induced inhibition of bladder overactivity elicited by intravesical infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA). AA irritation significantly (p<0.01) reduced bladder capacity to 59.5±4.8% of saline control. S1 or S2 dorsal root stimulation at threshold intensity for inducing reflex twitching of the anal sphincter or toe significantly (p<0.01) increased bladder capacity to 105.3±9.0% and 134...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Christopher J Forgaard, Ian M Franks, Dana Maslovat, Romeo Chua
Perturbations applied to the upper limbs elicit short (M1: 25-50 ms) and long-latency (M2: 50-100 ms) responses in the stretched muscle. M1 is produced by a spinal reflex loop, and M2 receives contribution from multiple spinal and supra-spinal pathways. While M1 is relatively immutable to voluntary intention, the remarkable feature of M2 is that its size can change based on intention or goal of the participant (e.g., increasing when resisting the perturbation and decreasing when asked to let-go or relax following the perturbation)...
2016: PloS One
Atif S Khan, Susan K Patrick, Francois D Roy, Monica A Gorassini, Jaynie F Yang
The neural plasticity of spinal reflexes after two contrasting forms of walking training was determined in individuals with chronic, motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Endurance Training involved treadmill walking for as long as possible, and Precision Training involved walking precisely over obstacles and onto targets overground. Twenty participants started either Endurance or Precision Training for 2 months and then crossed over after a 2-month rest period to the other form of training for 2 months...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Rafael Salas, Karla Ramirez, Horacio Vanegas, Enrique Vazquez
Considerable evidence supports the notion that on- and off-cells of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) facilitate and depress, respectively, spinal nociceptive transmission. This notion stems from a covariation of on- or off-cell activities and spinal nocifensive reflexes. Such covariation could theoretically be due to their independently responding to a common source, or to an RVM-derived modulation of ventral horn neurons. Here, we tested whether on- and off-cells indeed modulate spinal nociceptive neurons...
October 5, 2016: Brain Research
Emmanuel Lilitsis, Alexia Papaioannou, Aikaterini Hatzimichali, Konstantinos Spyridakis, Sofia Xenaki, George Chalkiadakis, Emmanuel Chrysos
BACKGROUND: We present a case of a patient with multinodular goiter disease who suffered asystole during head hyperextension for surgical positioning on the operational table. CASE PRESENTATION: Manipulation of carotid sinus may trigger bradycardia or even asystole even in patients without prior history of carotid sinus hypersensitivity. The time proximity between patient positioning and asystole, the late responsiveness to atropine, the immediate increase of heart rate after head elevation and the lack of any other trigger factor or prior history support the hypothesis of carotid sinus syndrome...
October 6, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Valerio Vitale, Ferdinando Caranci, Chiara Pisciotta, Fiore Manganelli, Francesco Briganti, Lucio Santoro, Arturo Brunetti
BACKGROUND: Hirayama's disease (HD), is a benign, self-limited, motor neuron disease, characterized by asymmetric weakness and atrophy of one or both distal upper extremities. In the present study we report the clinical, electrophysiological and MRI features of a group of Italian patients, with review of the literature. Moreover we propose an optimized MRI protocol for patients with suspected or diagnosed HD in order to make an early diagnosis and a standardized follow up. METHODS: Eight patients with clinical suspicion of Hirayama disease underwent evaluation between January 2007 and November 2013...
August 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
P V Zelenin, V F Lyalka, G N Orlovsky, T G Deliagina
In quadrupeds, acute lateral hemisection of the spinal cord (LHS) severely impairs postural functions, which recover over time. Postural limb reflexes (PLRs) represent a substantial component of postural corrections in intact animals. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of acute LHS on two populations of spinal neurons (F and E) mediating PLRs. For this purpose, in decerebrate rabbits, responses of individual neurons from L5 to stimulation causing PLRs were recorded before and during reversible (Rev) LHS (caused by temporal cold block of signal transmission in lateral spinal pathways at L1), as well as after acute surgical (Sur) LHS at L1...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Liubov E Amirova, Nastassia M Navasiolava, Marie-Pierre Bareille, Arnaud Beck, Elena S Tomilovskaya, Inessa B Kozlovzkaya, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Claude Gharib, Marc-Antoine Custaud
PURPOSE: Walking is a complex locomotor process that involves both spinal cord reflexes and cortical integration of peripheral nerve input. Maintaining an upright body position requires not only neuromuscular activity but also cardiovascular regulation. We postulated that plantar mechanical stimulation might modulate autonomic nervous system activity and, thereby, impact blood pressure adaptation during standing. METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects underwent three randomly ordered 45-min 70°-saddle tilt tests while the plantar surfaces of the feet were stimulated using specially engineered Korvit boots in the following modes: (1) no stimulation, (2) disrupted stimulation, and (3) walking mode...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Marjorie Kerzoncuf, Laurent Bensoussan, Jean Michel Viton, Alain Delarque, Christiane Rossi Durand
OBJECTIVE: The therapeutic effects of intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin-type A on spasticity can be largely explained by its blocking action at the neuromuscular junction. BTx-A is assumed also to have a central action by affecting the functional organization of the CNS. The objective was to assess its action on spinal motor networks by investigating the post-activation depression (post-AD) of the soleus H-reflex in post-stroke patients. Post-AD that is a presynaptic mechanism controlling the synaptic efficacy of Ia-motoneuron transmission is involved in the pathophysiology of spasticity...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
K E Cullen
The relative simplicity of the neural circuits that mediate vestibular reflexes is well suited for linking systems and cellular levels of analyses. Notably, a distinctive feature of the vestibular system is that neurons at the first central stage of sensory processing in the vestibular nuclei are premotor neurons; the same neurons that receive vestibular-nerve input also send direct projections to motor pathways. For example, the simplicity of the three-neuron pathway that mediates the vestibulo-ocular reflex leads to the generation of compensatory eye movements within ~5ms of a head movement...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Kun-Ze Lee, Hsiang-Chun Kuo
The present study was designed to establish a midcervical contusion model that can simulate long-term respiratory deficits, and investigate the breathing pattern during vagal-mediated respiratory reflexes following midcervical contusion. Moderate and severe (impactor height: 6.25 or 12.5 mm) contusion was induced at midline C3-4 spinal cord in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The ventilatory behaviors of unanesthetized were evaluated by whole body plethysmography at 1 day and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-injury. The tidal volume was decreased and frequency was increased in contused animals compared with uninjured animals at the acute injury state...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
John L K Kramer, Nikita K Minhas, Catherine R Jutzeler, Erin L K S Erskine, Lisa J W Liu, Matt S Ramer
Neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury (SCI) is notoriously difficult to treat and is a high priority for many in the SCI population. Resolving this issue requires animal models fidelic to the clinical situation in terms of injury mechanism and pain phenotype. This Review discusses the means by which neuropathic pain has been induced and measured in experimental SCI and compares these with human outcomes, showing that there is a substantial disconnection between experimental investigations and clinical findings in a number of features...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Alessandra Del Felice, Verena Daloli, Stefano Masiero, Paolo Manganotti
BACKGROUND: Different transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) paradigms have been implemented to treat poststroke spasticity, but discordant results have been reported. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the efficacy and persistence of dual tDCS (anode over affected motor cortex [M1] and cathode over contralateral M1) compared with cathodal tDCS (cathode over contralateral M1) on upper limb (UL) functional, behavioral, and neurophysiological measures in chronic poststroke individuals...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Thomas Carlstedt
Further progress in the treatment of the longitudinal spinal cord injury has been made. In an inverted translational study, it has been demonstrated that return of sensory function can be achieved by bypassing the avulsed dorsal root ganglion neurons. Dendritic growth from spinal cord sensory neurons could replace dorsal root ganglion axons and re-establish a reflex arch. Another research avenue has led to the development of adjuvant therapy for regeneration following dorsal root to spinal cord implantation in root avulsion injury...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
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