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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922314/temporal-indices-of-ankle-clonus-and-relationship-to-electrophysiologic-and-clinical-measures-in-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Kathleen J Manella, Kathryn E Roach, Edelle C Field-Fote
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clonus arising from plantar flexor hyperreflexia is a phenomenon that is commonly observed in persons with spastic hypertonia. We assessed the temporal components of a biomechanical measure to quantify ankle clonus, and validated these in persons with spasticity due to spinal cord injury. METHODS: In 40 individuals with chronic (>1 year) spinal cord injury, we elicited ankle clonus using a standardized mechanical perturbation (drop test)...
October 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920935/spinal-cord-injury-induced-immunodeficiency-is-mediated-by-a-sympathetic-neuroendocrine-adrenal-reflex
#2
Harald Prüss, Andrea Tedeschi, Aude Thiriot, Lydia Lynch, Scott M Loughhead, Susanne Stutte, Irina B Mazo, Marcel A Kopp, Benedikt Brommer, Christian Blex, Laura-Christin Geurtz, Thomas Liebscher, Andreas Niedeggen, Ulrich Dirnagl, Frank Bradke, Magdalena S Volz, Michael J DeVivo, Yuying Chen, Ulrich H von Andrian, Jan M Schwab
Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) causes systemic immunosuppression and life-threatening infections, thought to result from noradrenergic overactivation and excess glucocorticoid release via hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis stimulation. Instead of consecutive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, we report that acute SCI in mice induced suppression of serum norepinephrine and concomitant increase in cortisol, despite suppressed adrenocorticotropic hormone, indicating primary (adrenal) hypercortisolism...
September 18, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917979/plantar-reflex-excitability-is-increased-in-the-evening-in-restless-legs-syndrome-patients
#3
Chloe Dafkin, Andrew Green, Benita Olivier, Warrick McKinon, Samantha Kerr
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if diurnal changes in spinal excitability (plantar reflex) occur in restless legs syndrome (RLS) participants compared to healthy matched controls. METHODS: Thirteen RLS participants and 13 healthy control participants' plantar reflex responses were evaluated in the evening (PM) and the morning (AM). Plantar reflex responses were assessed electromyographically, using motion analysis (kinematically) and by subjective nociception (Visual Analogue Scale)...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915880/increasing-bladder-capacity-by-foot-stimulation-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injuries
#4
Guoqing Chen, Limin Liao, Zhaoxia Wang, Xing Li, Wenjuan Du
BACKGROUND: This study was to explore the possibility that foot stimulation increased bladder capacity(BC) in rats with neurogenic bladder secondary to T10 spinal cord injuries. METHODS: In 20 awake rats (stimulation group) with T10 spinal cord injuries, 5 repeat cystometrograms (CMGs) were recorded. The 1st and 2nd CMGs were performed without stimulation. The 3rd, 4th, and 5th CMGs were done separately with 1 T, 2 T, and 4 T stimulation, respectively, through a pair of pad electrodes on the skin of the hind foot...
September 15, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892581/direct-current-stimulation-modulates-the-excitability-of-the-sensory-and-motor-fibres-in-the-human-posterior-tibial-nerve-with-a-long-lasting-effect-on-the-h-reflex
#5
Francesco Bolzoni, Roberto Esposti, Carlo Bruttini, Giuseppe Zenoni, Elzbieta Jankowska, Paolo Cavallari
Several studies demonstrated that transcutaneous direct current stimulation (DCS) may modulate CNS excitability. However, much less is known about how DC affects peripheral nerve fibres. We investigated the action of DCS on motor and sensory fibres of the human posterior tibial nerve, with supplementary analysis in acute experiments on rats. In forty human subjects, electric pulses at the popliteal fossa were used to elicit either M-waves or H-reflexes in the Soleus, before (15 min), during (10 min) and after (30 min) DCS...
September 11, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891509/role-of-the-medullary-lateral-tegmental-field-in-sympathetic-control
#6
Michael George Zaki Ghali
The sympathetic nervous system maintains and regulates arterial pressure and tissue perfusion, via control of cardiac output and vasomotor tone. Sympatho-vascular-mediated increases in blood pressure are effected by arterioloconstriction, which causes an increase in afterload, and/or venoconstriction, which increases venous return, left ventricular preload, and consequently, the force of cardiac contraction via Frank-Starling mechanisms; withdrawal of sympathetic drive elicits reciprocal effects. Spinalization reduces mammalian arterial pressure to 40-50 mm Hg consequent to the elimination of descending medullary pre-sympathetic bulbospinal drive to preganglionic sympathetic fibers in the intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889335/morphological-and-functional-diversity-of-first-order-somatosensory-neurons
#7
REVIEW
Eder Ricardo de Moraes, Christopher Kushmerick, Lígia Araujo Naves
First-order somatosensory neurons transduce and convey information about the external or internal environment of the body to the central nervous system. They are pseudo unipolar neurons with cell bodies residing in one of several ganglia located near the central nervous system, with the short branch of the axon connecting to the spinal cord or the brain stem and the long branch extending towards the peripheral organ they innervate. Besides their sensory transducer and conductive role, somatosensory neurons also have trophic functions in the tissue they innervate and participate in local reflexes in the periphery...
September 9, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885782/evaluation-of-pulse-width-of-spinal-nerve-stimulation-in-a-rat-model-of-bladder-micturition-reflex
#8
Xin Su, Heather A Simenson, David A Dinsmoor, Heather D Orser
OBJECTIVES: The spinal nerve stimulation (SNS) evoked motor threshold (Tmot ) response across different pulse-widths (PWs) was first explored and a subset of selected stimulation PWs were further assessed with respect to bladder reflex contraction (BRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In anesthetized female rats, wire electrodes were placed under each of the L6 spinal nerves to produce bilateral SNS. The relationship of Tmot response with PW was analyzed using a monoexponential nonlinear regression...
September 8, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884476/probiotics-for-preventing-urinary-tract-infection-in-people-with-neuropathic-bladder
#9
REVIEW
Swee-Ling Toh, Claire L Boswell-Ruys, Bon San B Lee, Judy M Simpson, Kate R Clezy
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic or neurogenic bladder describes a process of dysfunctional voiding as the result of injury in the brain, spinal cord or nerves innervating the bladder. People with neuropathic bladder, such as from spinal cord injury (SCI), are at significant risk of morbidity from urinary tract infections (UTI). Effective methods to prevent UTI in people with SCI have been sought for many years. Probiotics (micro-organisms that exert beneficial health effects in the host) have been recommended for bacterial interference of the urological tract to reduce colonisation by uropathogen and to manage the dual problems of infection and antibiotic resistance...
September 8, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877964/constitutive-activity-of-5-ht2c-receptors-is-present-following-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-but-is-not-modified-after-chronic-ssri-or-baclofen-treatment
#10
Vicki Maria Tysseling, David A Klein, Rebecca Imhoff-Manuel, Marin Manuel, Charles J Heckman, Matthew C Tresch
Following spinal cord injury (SCI), reflexes become hyperexcitable, leading to debilitating muscle spasms and compromised motor function. Previous work has described adaptations in spinal systems that might underlie this hyperexcitability, including an increase in constitutively active 5-HT2C receptors in spinal motoneurons. That work, however, examined adaptations following complete transection SCI, whereas SCI in humans is usually anatomically and functionally incomplete. We therefore evaluated whether constitutive activity of 5-HT2C receptors contributes to reflex hyperexcitability in an incomplete compression model of SCI and to spasms in vitro and in vivo...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875740/smart-device-environmental-control-systems-experiences-of-people-with-cervical-spinal-cord-injuries
#11
Bethany Hooper, Michele Verdonck, Delena Amsters, Michelle Myburg, Emily Allan
BACKGROUND: Environmental control systems (ECS) are devices that enable people with severe physical limitations to independently control household appliances. Recent advancements in the area of environmental control technology have led to the development of ECS that can be controlled through mainstream smart-devices. There is limited research on ECS within Australia and no known research addressing smart-device ECS. The current study sought to explore users' experiences with smart-device ECS within Australia...
September 6, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872135/methods-and-tips-for-intravenous-administration-of-adeno-associated-virus-to-rats-and-evaluation-of-central-nervous-system-transduction
#12
Mychal S Grames, Kasey L Jackson, Robert D Dayton, John A Stanford, Ronald L Klein
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are a key reagent in the neurosciences for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), optogenetics, cre-lox targeting, etc. The purpose of this manuscript is to aid the investigator attempting expansive central nervous system (CNS) gene transfer in the rat via tail vein injection of AAV. Wide-scale expression is relevant for conditions with widespread pathology, and a rat model is significant due to its greater size and physiologic similarities to humans compared to mice...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870570/effects-of-naftopidil-on-inhibitory-transmission-in-substantia-gelatinosa-neurons-of-the-rat-spinal-dorsal-horn-in-vitro
#13
Daisuke Uta, Du-Jie Xie, Tsuyoshi Hattori, Ken-Ichi Kasahara, Megumu Yoshimura
OBJECTIVE: Naftopidil is used clinically for the treatment of voiding disorders in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Previous in vivo experiments in which naftopidil was applied intrathecally abolished rhythmic bladder contraction, suggesting that naftopidil might inhibit a voiding reflex through interaction with spinal dorsal horn neurons. Here we aimed to clarify the mechanism of action of naftopidil on dorsal horn neurons. METHODS: Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed using substantia gelatinosa neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861038/alleviation-of-motor-impairments-in-patients-with-cerebral-palsy-acute-effects-of-whole-body-vibration-on-stretch-reflex-response-voluntary-muscle-activation-and-mobility
#14
Anne Krause, Eckhard Schönau, Albert Gollhofer, Ibrahim Duran, Anja Ferrari-Malik, Kathrin Freyler, Ramona Ritzmann
INTRODUCTION: Individuals suffering from cerebral palsy (CP) often have involuntary, reflex-evoked muscle activity resulting in spastic hyperreflexia. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been demonstrated to reduce reflex activity in healthy subjects, but evidence in CP patients is still limited. Therefore, this study aimed to establish the acute neuromuscular and kinematic effects of WBV in subjects with spastic CP. METHODS: 44 children with spastic CP were tested on neuromuscular activation and kinematics before and immediately after a 1-min bout of WBV (16-25 Hz, 1...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859916/the-effect-of-type-of-afferent-feedback-timed-with-motor-imagery-on-the-induction-of-cortical-plasticity
#15
N Mrachacz-Kersting, M Voigt, Ajt Stevenson, S Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, N Jiang, K Dremstrup, D Farina
A peripherally generated afferent volley that arrives at the peak negative (PN) phase during the movement related cortical potential (MRCP) induces significant plasticity at the cortical level in healthy individuals and chronic stroke patients. Transferring this type of associative brain-computer interface (BCI) intervention into the clinical setting requires that the proprioceptive input is comparable to the techniques implemented during the rehabilitation process. These consist mainly of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and passive movement induced by an actuated orthosis...
August 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856708/degeneration-of-serotonin-neurons-triggers-spasticity-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#16
Hajer El Oussini, Jelena Scekic-Zahirovic, Pauline Vercruysse, Christine Marques, Sylvie Dirrig-Grosch, Stéphane Dieterlé, Gina Picchiarelli, Jérôme Sinniger, Caroline Rouaux, Luc Dupuis
OBJECTIVE: Spasticity occurs in a wide range of neurological diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, after trauma or after stroke and is characterized by increased reflexes leading to muscle hypertonia. Spasticity is a painful symptom and can severely restrict everyday life, but might also participate in maintaining a low level of motor function in severely impaired patients. Constitutive activity of the serotonin receptors 5-HT2B/C is required for the development of spasticity after spinal cord injury or during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
August 30, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855493/clinical-characteristics-of-17-adult-patients-with-epidemic-myalgia-associated-with-human-parechovirus-type-3-infection
#17
Tatsushi Yamakawa, Katsumi Mizuta, Katsurou Kurokawa, Hikaru Nagasawa, Takahiro Yamada, Emiko Suzuki, Manabu Wada
We investigated 17 adult cases (14 males and 3 females) of myalgia induced by human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) infection, treated during the summers of 2008, 2011, 2014, and 2016. The patients were aged between 21 and 50 years. The limbs and trunk of all patients were affected, and severe myalgia, muscle weakness, and decreased grip strength were observed. In addition to myalgia and muscle weakness, symptoms included fever in 14 (82%), upper respiratory inflammation in 8 (47%), gastroenteritis in 4 (24%), and scrotal pain in 4 (29% of males) patients...
August 31, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853161/jaw-sensorimotor-control-in-healthy-adults-and-effects-of-aging
#18
REVIEW
Limor Avivi-Arber, Barry J Sessle
The orofacial sensorimotor system is a unique system significantly distinguished from the spinal sensorimotor system. The jaw muscles are involved in mastication, swallowing and articulatory speech movements and their integration with respiration. These sensorimotor functions are vital for sustaining life and necessitate complex neuromuscular processing to provide for exquisite sensorimotor control of numerous orofacial muscles. The function of the jaw muscles in relation to sensorimotor control of these movements may be subject to aging-related declines...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843638/local-vibration-inhibits-h-reflex-but-does-not-compromise-manual-dexterity-and-does-not-increase-tremor
#19
Francesco Budini, Luca Laudani, Sergio Bernardini, Andrea Macaluso
The present work aimed at investigating the effects of local vibration on upper limb postural and kinetic tremor, on manual dexterity and on spinal reflex excitability. Previous studies have demonstrated a decrease in spinal reflex excitability and in force fluctuations in the lower limb but an increase in force fluctuation in the upper limbs. As hand steadiness is of vital importance in many daily-based tasks, and local vibration may also be applied in movement disorders, we decided to further explore this phenomenon...
August 24, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841667/the-effects-of-d-aspartic-acid-supplementation-in-resistance-trained-men-over-a-three-month-training-period-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Geoffrey W Melville, Jason C Siegler, Paul W M Marshall
CONTEXT: Research on d-aspartic acid (DAA) has demonstrated increases in total testosterone levels in untrained men, however research in resistance-trained men demonstrated no changes, and reductions in testosterone levels. The long-term consequences of DAA in a resistance trained population are currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of DAA to alter basal testosterone levels over 3 months of resistance training in resistance-trained men. DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial in healthy resistance-trained men, aged 18-36, had been performing regular resistance training exercise for at least 3 d...
2017: PloS One
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