keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

spinal reflex

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326550/from-neuron-to-behavior-sensory-motor-coordination-of-zebrafish-turning-behavior
#1
REVIEW
Keiko Umeda, Wataru Shoji
Recent development of optogenetics brought non-invasive neural activation in living organisms. Transparent zebrafish larva is one of the suitable animal models for this technique, which enables us to investigate neural circuits for behaviors based on a whole individual nervous system. In this article we review our recent finding that suggests sensory-motor coordination in larval zebrafish escape behavior. When water vibration stimulates mechanosensory Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons, intra-spinal reflex circuit launches contralateral trunk muscle contraction that makes rapid body curvature for turning...
March 21, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324618/thermogelling-chitosan-lactate-hydrogel-improves-functional-recovery-after-a-c2-spinal-cord-hemisection-in-rat
#2
Katarzyna Nawrotek, Tanguy Marqueste, Zofia Modrzejewska, Roman Zarzycki, Agnieszka Rusak, Patrick Decherchi
The present study was designed to provide an appropriate micro-environment for regenerating axotomized neurons and proliferating/migrating cells. Because of its intrinsic permissive properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability, we chose to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of a chitosan-based biopolymer. The biomaterial toxicity was measured through in vitro test based on fibroblast cell survival on thermogelling chitosan lactate hydrogel substrate and then polymer was implanted into a C2 hemisection of the rat spinal cord...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315725/vibration-training-after-chronic-spinal-cord-injury-evidence-for-persistent-segmental-plasticity
#3
Chu-Ling Yen, Colleen L McHenry, Michael A Petrie, Shauna Dudley-Javoroski, Richard K Shields
H-reflex paired-pulse depression is gradually lost within the first year post-SCI, a process believed to reflect reorganization of segmental interneurons after the loss of normal descending (cortical) inhibition. This reorganization co-varies in time with the development of involuntary spasms and spasticity. The purpose of this study is to determine whether long-term vibration training may initiate the return of H-reflex paired-pulse depression in individuals with chronic, complete SCI. Five men with SCI received twice-weekly vibration training (30Hz, 0...
March 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306488/spinal-neurenteric-cyst-in-a-dog
#4
Daniela S Alder, Anna Oevermann, Stephan A Pfister, Frank Steffen
CASE DESCRIPTION An 11-year-old English Cocker Spaniel was evaluated because of chronic progressive ataxia of the hind limbs. CLINICAL FINDINGS The dog had no history of previous illness, and findings of physical examination and laboratory tests were unremarkable. Neurologic examination revealed that the dog was ambulatory with severe ataxia of the hind limbs. Proprioception was decreased in the right and left hind limbs (right affected more than left), and spinal reflexes were bilaterally unremarkable. Moderate signs of pain were detected during palpation of the lumbar portion of the vertebral column...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298835/the-stretch-reflex-and-the-contributions-of-c-david-marsden
#5
REVIEW
Kalyan B Bhattacharyya
The stretch reflex or myotatic reflex refers to the contraction of a muscle in response to its passive stretching by increasing its contractility as long as the stretch is within physiological limits. For ages, it was thought that the stretch reflex was of short latency and it was synonymous with the tendon reflex, subserving the same spinal reflex arc. However, disparities in the status of the two reflexes in certain clinical situations led Marsden and his collaborators to carry out a series of experiments that helped to establish that the two reflexes had different pathways...
January 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298765/obturator-nerve-block-in-transurethral-resection-of-bladder-tumor-a-comparative-study-by-two-techniques
#6
Deepak Sharma, V P Singh, Nidhi Agarwal, M K Malhotra
CONTEXT: Sparing of obturator nerve is a common problem encountered during transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) under spinal anesthesia. AIMS: To evaluate and compare obturator nerve block (ONB) by two different techniques during TURBT. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This is prospective observational study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty adult male patients from the American Society of Anesthesiologists Class I-IV planned to undergo TURBT under spinal anesthesia were divided into two groups of twenty each...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295313/peripheral-and-central-anatomical-organization-of-cutaneous-afferent-subtypes-in-a-rat-nociceptive-intersegmental-spinal-reflex
#7
Hyun Joon Lee, Jason M White, Jumi Chung, Keith E Tansey
Stimulation of rat segmental dorsal cutaneous nerves (DCNs) evokes the nociceptive intersegmental cutaneus trunci muscle (CTM) reflex. The reflex consists of early and late responses, mediated by Aδ and C fibers respectively based on required stimulation strengths, and shows segmental differences in terms of amplitude and duration. We have now investigated whether the peripheral or central anatomy of nociceptive afferent subtypes in different DCNs also vary in a segmental manner. The numbers of different axon subtypes, determined by axon diameter, were analyzed across peripheral DCNs from T6 to L1...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292829/non-linear-modulation-of-cutaneous-reflexes-with-increasing-speed-of-locomotion-in-spinal-cats
#8
Marie-France Hurteau, Yann Thibaudier, Charline Dambreville, Anass Chraibi, Etienne Desrochers, Alessandro Telonio, Alain Frigon
Cutaneous reflexes are important for rapidly responding to perturbations, correcting limb trajectory and strengthening support. During locomotion, they are modulated by phase to generate functionally appropriate responses. The goal of the present study was to determine if cutaneous reflexes and their phase-dependent modulation are altered with increasing speed and whether this is accomplished at a spinal level. Four adult cats that recovered stable hindlimb locomotion following spinal transection were implanted with electrodes to chronically record hindlimb muscle activity and to electrically stimulate the superficial peroneal nerve to evoke cutaneous reflexes...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291023/central-contribution-to-electrically-induced-fatigue-depends-on-stimulation-frequency
#9
Sidney Grosprêtre, Nicolas Gueugneau, Alain Martin, Romuald Lepers
PURPOSE: This study analyzed the impact of several protocols of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), matched with a similar total torque-time integral, on muscle activation pathways and neuromuscular fatigue. METHODS: Ten young healthy participants (age: 24.6 ± 4.2) performed 3 randomized NMES sessions on the triceps surae muscles with 20 Hz, 60 Hz or 100 Hz stimulation frequencies (pulse duration: 1 ms), with pulse amplitude (IES) set at 20 % of isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)...
March 13, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290507/inhibitory-interneuron-circuits-at-cortical-and-spinal-levels-are-associated-with-individual-differences-in-corticomuscular-coherence-during-isometric-voluntary-contraction
#10
Ryosuke Matsuya, Junichi Ushiyama, Junichi Ushiba
Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) is an oscillatory synchronization of 15-35 Hz (β-band) between electroencephalogram (EEG) of the sensorimotor cortex and electromyogram of contracting muscles. Although we reported that the magnitude of CMC varies among individuals, the physiological mechanisms underlying this variation are still unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate the associations between CMC and intracortical inhibition (ICI) in the primary motor cortex (M1)/recurrent inhibition (RI) in the spinal cord, which probably affect oscillatory neural activities...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277422/neuromuscular-adaptations-to-short-term-high-intensity-interval-training-in-female-ice-hockey-players
#11
Juho-Ville Kinnunen, Harri Piitulainen, Jarmo M Piirainen
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) related neuromuscular adaptations, changes in force production and on-ice performance were investigated in female ice-hockey players during pre-season. Fourteen Finnish championship level ice hockey players (average age 22 ± 3 years) participated in 2½-week HIIT. Both spinal (H-reflex) and supraspinal (V-wave) neuromuscular responses of the soleus muscle were recorded before and after the training period. Static jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) heights, plantar flexor maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) were measured...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277383/the-use-of-vasopressors-during-spinal-anaesthesia-for-caesarean-section
#12
Warwick D Ngan Kee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypotension remains one of the most researched subjects in obstetric anaesthesia. The purpose of this study is to review the most recent published articles on the use of vasopressors during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite continued research indicating advantages of phenylephrine over ephedrine, practitioners in some countries continue to favour ephedrine. Recent research has continued to compare the two drugs with some work emerging on high-risk patients...
March 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274815/electroacupuncture-improves-gait-locomotion-h-reflex-and-ventral-root-potentials-of-spinal-compression-injured-rats
#13
Carlos Escobar-Corona, Sergio Torres-Castillo, Erika Elizabeth Rodríguez-Torres, Bertha Segura-Alegría, Ismael Jiménez-Estrada, Salvador Quiroz-González
This study explored the effect of electroacupuncture stimulation (EA) on alterations in the Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) response and gait locomotion provoked by spinal cord injury (SCI) in the rat. A compression lesion of the spinal cord was evoked by insufflating a Fogarty balloon located in the epidural space at the T8-9 spinal level of adult Wistar male rats (200-250 gr; n=60). In different groups of SCI rats, EA (frequencies: 2, 50 and 100Hz) was applied simultaneously to Huantiao (GB30), Yinmen (BL37), Jizhong (GV6) and Zhiyang (GV9) acupoints from the third post-injury day until the experimental session...
March 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271408/moving-or-being-moved-that-makes-a-difference
#14
Hans Straka, Boris P Chagnaud
During head/body movements, gaze stability is ensured by transformation of motion-related sensory signals into respective motor commands. Passively induced motion in all vertebrates including amphibians evokes a robust vestibulo-ocular reflex, suggesting an equally important role of this motor reaction during actively induced motion. However, during self-induced movements including locomotion, motor efference copies offer a convenient additional substrate for counteracting retinal image displacements. During such locomotor activity in Xenopus laevis tadpoles, spinal central pattern generator-derived efference copies elicit spatio-temporally specific eye movements, which are functionally appropriate to offset swimming-related retinal image displacements...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268269/physiological-mechanisms-for-stabilizing-the-limb-when-acting-against-physical-constraints
#15
P Senot, L Damm, M Tagliabue, J McIntyre
Smooth physical interaction with our environment, such as when working with tools, requires adaptability to unpredictable perturbations that can be achieved through impedance control of multi-joint limbs. Modulation of arm stiffness can be achieved either increasing co-contraction of antagonistic muscles or by increasing the gain of spinal reflex loops. According to the "automatic gain scaling" principle, the spinal reflex gain, as measured via the H-reflex, scales with muscle activation. A previous experiment from our labs suggested, however, that reflex gains might instead be scaled to the force exerted by the limb, perhaps as a means to counteract destabilizing external forces...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258435/convergence-of-ipsi-and-contralateral-muscle-afferents-on-common-interneurons-mediating-reciprocal-inhibition-of-ankle-plantarflexors-in-humans
#16
Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting, S S Geertsen, A J T Stevenson, J B Nielsen
Recent studies have shown that afferents arising from muscle receptors located on one side can affect the activity of muscles on the contralateral side. In animal preparations, evidence supports that afferent pathways originating from one limb converge onto interneurons mediating disynaptic reciprocal Ia inhibition of the opposite limb. This study was designed to investigate whether this pathway is similar in humans to that described in animals. Thirteen healthy volunteers participated in one of two experiments...
March 3, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250407/mechanical-stimulus-induced-wthdrawal-behavior-increases-subsequent-pre-stimulus-local-field-potential-power-in-the-rostral-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-unanesthetized-rats
#17
Zui Shen, Jing Sun, Boyi Liu, Yongliang Jiang, Yuanyuan Wu, Jialing Wang, Xiaomei Shao, Jianqiao Fang
BACKGROUND The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is important in pain expectation. Previous studies demonstrated that mechanical stimulus-induced withdrawal behaviors are spinally-mediated nocifensive reflexes in rats, but it is not known whether pain expectation is influenced by withdrawal behaviors. MATERIAL AND METHODS We reanalyzed previous mechanosensitivity measurements of 244 rats measured 5 times in succession. To study neural oscillation in the rACC, 1 recording microwire array was surgically implanted...
March 2, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250155/reflex-wind-up-in-early-chronic-spinal-injury-plasticity-of-motor-outputs
#18
Michael D Johnson, Alain Frigon, Marie-France Hurteau, Charlette Cain, Charles J Heckman
In this study we evaluate temporal summation (wind-up) of reflexes in select distal and proximal hindlimb muscles in response to repeated stimuli of the distal tibial or superficial peroneal nerves in cats 1 month following complete spinal transection. This report is a continuation of our companion paper on reflex wind-up in the intact and acutely spinalized cat. To evaluate reflex wind-up in both studies we recorded EMG signals from the following left hindlimb muscles: lateral gastrocnemius (LG), tibialis anterior (TA), semitendinosus (ST) and sartorius (Srt) in response to 10 electrical pulses to the tibial or superficial peroneal nerves...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237919/the-relation-between-the-frequency-of-short-pulse-electrical-stimulation-of-afferent-nerve-fibers-and-evoked-muscle-force
#19
Jakob L Dideriksen, Kasper Leerskov, Magdalena Czyzewska, Rune Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is conventionally performed by the stimulation of motor axons causing the muscle fibers innervated by these axons to contract. An alternative strategy that may evoke contractions with more natural motor unit behavior is to stimulate afferent fibers (primarily type Ia) to excite the motor neurons at the spinal level. The aim of the study was to investigate the range of forces that can be evoked in this way and the degree to which the torque can be controlled...
February 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226426/physiological-mechanisms-for-stabilizing-the-limb-when-acting-against-physical-constraints
#20
P Senot, L Damm, M Tagliabue, J McIntyre, P Senot, L Damm, M Tagliabue, J McIntyre, P Senot, L Damm, M Tagliabue, J McIntyre
Smooth physical interaction with our environment, such as when working with tools, requires adaptability to unpredictable perturbations that can be achieved through impedance control of multi-joint limbs. Modulation of arm stiffness can be achieved either increasing co-contraction of antagonistic muscles or by increasing the gain of spinal reflex loops. According to the "automatic gain scaling" principle, the spinal reflex gain, as measured via the H-reflex, scales with muscle activation. A previous experiment from our labs suggested, however, that reflex gains might instead be scaled to the force exerted by the limb, perhaps as a means to counteract destabilizing external forces...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
keyword
keyword
50227
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"