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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780311/characteristics-of-rest-and-postural-tremors-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-analysis-of-motor-unit-firing-synchrony-and-patterns
#1
Orsalia M Agapaki, Constantinos N Christakos, Dimitrios Anastasopoulos
The neural mechanisms responsible for resting and postural tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been the object of considerable study, much of it focusing on supraspinal sites. Here, we adopted an alternative approach that emphasizes motor unit (MU) firing synchrony and patterns of discharge. To explore if these could account for known features of PD tremor, we recorded the instantaneous acceleration of the upper limb of 23 PD patients at rest or while they tried to hold a stable posture together with surface EMG and single MU discharges of upper limb muscles...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770521/nicotine-mediated-neuroprotection-of-rat-spinal-networks-against-excitotoxicity
#2
Jaspreet Kaur, Rossana Rauti, Andrea Nistri
Activation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by nicotine is reported to protect brain neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity. We inquired whether a similar phenomenon can occur in the rat isolated spinal cord (or spinal slice culture) challenged by a transient (1 h) application of kainate (a powerful glutamate receptor agonist) to induce excitotoxicity mimicking spinal injury in vitro. We recorded spinal reflexes and fictive locomotion generated by the locomotor central pattern generator before and 24 h after applying kainate...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765188/influence-of-peripheral-magnetic-stimulation-of-soleus-muscle-on-h-and-m-waves
#3
Tadamitsu Matsuda, Taichi Kurayama, Miki Tagami, Yuji Fujino, Atsushi Manji, Yasuaki Kusumoto, Kazu Amimoto
[Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation of the soleus muscle on spinal cord and peripheral motor nerve excitability. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy adults (mean age 22 years) who provided written informed consent were administered repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation for 10 min. Pre-and post-stimulation latencies and amplitudes of H- and M-waves of the soleus muscle were measured using electromyography and compared using paired t-tests. [Results] Pre- and post-stimulation latencies (28...
May 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758356/the-influence-of-placebo-analgesia-manipulations-on-pain-report-the-nociceptive-flexion-reflex-and-autonomic-responses-to-pain
#4
Jamie L Rhudy, Yvette M Güereca, Bethany L Kuhn, Shreela Palit, Magne Arve Flaten
Expectations for pain relief and experience/conditioning are psychological factors that contribute to placebo analgesia, yet few studies have studied the physiological mechanisms underlying their effects. This study randomized 133 participants to 4 groups: an expectation only (E-only) group, a conditioning only (C-only) group, an expectation plus conditioning (E+C) group, and a natural history (NH) control group. Painful electric stimulations were delivered before and after an inert cream was applied to the site of stimulation...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756383/a-novel-affective-motivational-based-overground-system-for-detecting-spinal-cord-injury-associated-thermal-and-mechanical-hypersensitivity-in-rats
#5
Elizabeth A Dugan, Jacqueline Sagen
BACKGROUND: Preclinical research for neuropathic pain has depended primarily on the use of behavioral nociceptive testing that is sensory-discriminatory based and reflexive in nature. This can be particularly problematic in spinal cord injury (SCI) associated neuropathic pain research where hyperreflexia may develop thus confounding interpretation of reflexive responses as pain symptoms. To address this, we have designed an affective-motivational based Overground System that has interchangeable floors to allow examination of nociceptive behaviors in response to mechanical and cold stimuli prior to and following spinal cord injury...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754196/painful-stimulation-of-a-sensitized-site-in-the-forearm-inhibits-ipsilateral-trigeminal-nociceptive-blink-reflexes
#6
Peter D Drummond, Ashlea Bell, Lechi Vo
Exposure to moderate levels of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) is painless but nevertheless induces an inflammatory response that sensitizes primary afferent nociceptors. Subsequently, heating the UVB-treated site can sensitize spinal nociceptors. We used a repeated-measures design to determine whether heating the UVB-treated site also triggers ipsilateral inhibitory controls. Specifically, a 2-cm diameter site on the forearm of 20 participants was exposed to UVB at twice the minimum erythema dose. 48 h later mechanical and thermal sensitivity had increased at the UVB-treated site, indicating primary hyperalgesia...
May 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753900/dorsal-longitudinal-t-myelotomy-bischof-ii-technique-a-useful-antiquated-procedure-for-treatment-of-intractable-spastic-paraplegia
#7
Bunpot Sitthinamsuwan, Inthira Khampalikit, Luckchai Phonwijit, Akkapong Nitising, Sarun Nunta-Aree, Sirilak Suksompong
OBJECTIVE: Dorsal longitudinal T-myelotomy is a long-established operation to treat severe spastic paraplegia. The present study aimed to report this surgical technique and investigate the efficacy of T-myelotomy for spasticity relief. METHODS: All cases undergoing T-myelotomy for treatment of intractable spastic paraplegia during 2009-2017 were included. The spasticity severity was evaluated using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Penn Spasm Frequency Scale (PSFS), Adductor Tone Rating Scale (ATRS), degree of passive range of motion (PROM), and occurrence of abdominal muscle spasms...
May 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752984/antinociceptive-effects-of-the-antidepressant-phenelzine-are-mediated-by-context-dependent-inhibition-of-neuronal-responses-in-the-dorsal-horn
#8
Liam E Potter, Suzanne Doolen, Katherine Mifflin, Gustavo Tenorio, Glen Baker, Bradley K Taylor, Bradley J Kerr
The putative strong anti-nociceptive properties of the antidepressant phenelzine (PLZ) have not been widely explored as a treatment for pain. Antinociceptive effects of PLZ were identified in the formalin model of tonic pain (Mifflin et al. 2016) and in allodynia associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, (EAE) a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (Potter et al. 2016). Here, we further clarify the specific types of stimuli and contexts in which PLZ modulates nociceptive sensitivity. Our findings indicate that PLZ selectively inhibits ongoing inflammatory pain while sparing transient reflexive and acute nociception...
May 9, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752515/epidemiology-and-pathophysiology-of-neurogenic-bladder-after-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Rizwan Hamid, Marcio Augusto Averbeck, Humberto Chiang, Arturo Garcia, Riyad T Al Mousa, Seung-June Oh, Anita Patel, Mauricio Plata, Giulio Del Popolo
Spinal cord injury (SCI) usually affects younger age groups with male preponderance. The most common traumatic cause is road traffic accident followed by sports accidents and gun-shot injuries. Infections and vascular events make up non-traumatic causes. There is regional variance in incidence and prevalence of SCI. Most systematic reviews have been undertaken from USA, Canada, and Australia with only few from Asia with resultant difficulty in estimation of worldwide figures. Overall, the incidence varies from 12 to more than 65 cases/million per year...
May 11, 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751028/role-of-c1-neurons-in-anti-inflammatory-reflex-mediation-between-afferents-and-efferents
#10
REVIEW
Chikara Abe, Tsuyoshi Inoue
Neuroimmune communication, the connection between the autonomic regulatory pathway and immune cells, has been implicated in the regulation of immune function and inflammation. The role of afferents (vagal afferent and somatic sensory nerves) and efferents (autonomic nervous and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal systems) in the inflammatory reflex has been well studied; however, the central pathway remains unknown. C1 neurons include both catecholaminergic and glutamatergic neurons, which are located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742719/cauda-equina-syndrome-following-an-uneventful-spinal-anesthesia-in-a-patient-undergoing-drainage-of-the-bartholin-abscess-a-case-report
#11
Waldo Merino-Urrutia, Milca Villagrán-Schmidt, Priscilla Ulloa-Vásquez, Rubén Carrasco-Moyano, Alberto Uribe, Nicoleta Stoicea, Sergio D Bergese
RATIONALE: Neuraxial anesthesia is a commonly used type of regional anesthesia. Cauda equina syndrome is an unusual and severe complication of neuraxial anesthesia, and is caused by damage to the sacral roots of the neural canal. We present a case of cauda equina syndrome following spinal anesthesia in a patient who underwent Bartholin abscess drainage. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 23-year old female scheduled to undergo surgical drainage of Bartholin abscess. Spinal anesthesia was performed with bupivacaine and fentanyl...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740093/differential-contributions-of-peripheral-and-central-mechanisms-to-pain-in-a-rodent-model-of-osteoarthritis
#12
Adrian R Haywood, Gareth J Hathway, Victoria Chapman
The mechanisms underlying the transition from acute nociceptive pain to centrally maintained chronic pain are not clear. We have studied the contributions of the peripheral and central nervous systems during the development of osteoarthritis (OA) pain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received unilateral intra-articular injections of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA 1 mg) or saline, and weight-bearing (WB) asymmetry and distal allodynia measured. Subgroups of rats received intra-articular injections of, QX-314 (membrane impermeable local anaesthetic) + capsaicin, QX-314, capsaicin or vehicle on days 7, 14 or 28 post-MIA and WB and PWT remeasured...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739451/reflex-erection-in-the-rat-reciprocal-interplay-between-hemodynamic-and-somatic-events
#13
Alexander Andreev-Andrievskiy, Evgeniia Lagereva, Anfisa Popova
BACKGROUND: Penile erection is a complex reflex under spinal control and modulated by the brain. The hemodynamic events under autonomic control and the perineal muscles somatic activity are interconnected during the reflex erection at the spinal level, however if the afferent feedback on the corpus cavernosum pressure during an erection affects the somatic activity (perineal muscles contractions) and vice versa is not known. This study was aimed to test this hypothesis using a rat model...
May 8, 2018: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738612/evidence-for-a-subcortical-contribution-to-intracortical-facilitation
#14
Patrick Wiegel, Niclas Niemann, John C Rothwell, Christian Leukel
Intracortical facilitation (ICF) describes the facilitation of an EMG response (motor evoked potential) to a suprathreshold pulse (S2) of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) by a preceding subthreshold pulse (S1) given 10 to 15 ms earlier. ICF is widely assumed to originate from intracortical mechanisms. In the present study, we used spinal H-reflexes to test whether subcortical mechanisms can also contribute to the facilitation. Measurements were performed in the upper limb muscle flexor carpi radialis (FCR) in 17 healthy volunteers, and in the lower limb muscle soleus (SOL) in 16 healthy volunteers...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736857/neuropathic-pain-after-spinal-cord-injury-challenges-and-research-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Rani Shiao, Corinne A Lee-Kubli
Neuropathic pain is a debilitating consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) that remains difficult to treat because underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In part, this is due to limitations of evaluating neuropathic pain in animal models in general, and SCI rodents in particular. Though pain in patients is primarily spontaneous, with relatively few patients experiencing evoked pains, animal models of SCI pain have primarily relied upon evoked withdrawals. Greater use of operant tasks for evaluation of the affective dimension of pain in rodents is needed, but these tests have their own limitations such that additional studies of the relationship between evoked withdrawals and operant outcomes are recommended...
May 7, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736264/clinical-management-of-friedreich-s-ataxia-a-report-of-two-cases
#16
Yannis Dionyssiotis, Athina Kapsokoulou, Anna Danopoulou, Maria Kokolaki, Athina Vadalouka
Introduction: Friedreich's ataxia (FDRA) is the most common autosomal recessive, early-onset ataxia. FDRA is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that mainly affects the posterior (dorsal) columns of the spinal cord resulting in sensory ataxia. It manifests in initial symptoms of poor coordination and gait disturbance. Case presentation: We present two cases, a brother (54 years old) and sister (56 years old), with FDRA that are chronically institutionalized for incomplete quadriplegia without spasticity...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732943/do-changes-in-spinal-reflex-excitability-elicited-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-differ-based-on-the-site-of-cerebellar-stimulation
#17
Akiyoshi Matsugi
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate whether spinal reflex excitability is influenced by the site of cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (C-TMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen healthy volunteers (mean age: 24.6 ± 6.6 years [11 men]) participated. Participants lay on a bed in the prone position, with both ankle joints fixed to prevent unwanted movement. Right tibial nerve stimulation was provided to elicit the H-reflex in the right soleus muscle...
May 6, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730752/unilateral-wrist-extension-training-after-stroke-improves-strength-and-neural-plasticity-in-both-arms
#18
Yao Sun, Noah M H Ledwell, Lara A Boyd, E Paul Zehr
Stroke induces bilateral neurological impairment and muscle weakness yielding neurologically more (MA; paretic) and less affected (LA; non-paretic) sides. "Cross-education" refers to training one side of the body to increase strength in the same muscles on the untrained side. Past work showed dorsiflexion training of the LA side produced bilateral strength increases after stroke. The current study explored the presence and extent of cross-education after arm strength training in chronic stroke. Twenty-four chronic stroke participants completed 5 weeks of maximal wrist extension training using their LA arm...
May 5, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729209/gaze-stability-dynamic-balance-and-participation-deficits-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-at-fall-risk
#19
Hina Garg, Leland E Dibble, Michael C Schubert, Jim Sibthorp, K Bo Foreman, Eduard Gappmaier
Despite the common complaints of dizziness and demyelination of afferent or efferent pathways to and from the vestibular nuclei which may adversely affect the angular Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (aVOR) and vestibulo-spinal function in persons with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS), few studies have examined gaze and dynamic balance function in PwMS. OBJECTIVES: 1) Determine the differences in gaze stability, dynamic balance and participation measures between PwMS and controls, 2) Examine the relationships between gaze stability, dynamic balance and participation...
May 5, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719504/descending-inputs-to-spinal-circuits-facilitating-and-inhibiting-human-wrist-flexors
#20
Stefane A Aguiar, Stuart N Baker
Recently we reported in humans that electrical stimulation of the wrist extensor muscle extensor carpi radialis (ECR) could facilitate or suppress the H reflex elicited in flexor carpi radialis (FCR), for inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 30 ms or 70 ms, respectively. The facilitation at 30 ms may be produced by both flexor afferents and extensor Ib afferents acting on a spinal circuit; the origin of the suppression at 70 ms is less certain. In this study, we investigated possible descending inputs to these systems...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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