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spinal reflex

Ewa Z Gieysztor, Ludwika Sadowska, Anna M Choińska, Małgorzata Paprocka-Borowicz
BACKGROUND: The angle of trunk rotation (ATR) is a measurement that allows an objective assessment of a growing child's spine. Early detection of trunk rotation prevents the progression of scoliosis. One of the factors that predispose children to the formation of faulty posture may be primitive reflexes, which should be integrated in the central nervous system (CNS) by the age of one year. If retained, primitive reflexes affect children's physical development as well as their development at school...
March 14, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Katja Sauerstein, Jan Liebelt, Barbara Namer, Roland Schmidt, Roman Rukwied, Jürgen Sandkühler, Martin Schmelz
Secondary mechanical hyperalgesia to punctate mechanical stimuli and light touch (allodynia) are prominent symptoms in neuropathic pain states. In a combined microneurographic and psychophysical study, we investigated the role of mechano-insensitive (silent) nociceptors regarding induction. Electrical thresholds of mechano-sensitive and silent nociceptors were assessed by microneurography with two closely spaced intracutaneous electrodes (i.c.) and a transcutaneous configuration (t.c.) in the foot dorsum. For t...
March 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Huiyi H Chang, Jih-Chao Yeh, Ronaldo M Ichiyama, Larissa V Rodriguez, Leif A Havton
Spinal cord epidural stimulation (SCS) represents a form of neuromodulation for the management of spasticity and pain. This technology has recently emerged as a new approach for potentially augmenting locomotion and voiding function in humans and rodents after spinal cord injury. However, the effect of SCS on micturition has not been studied extensively. Here, SCS was first applied as a direct stimulus onto individual segmental levels of the lumbar spinal cord in rats to map evoked external urethral sphincter (EUS) electromyography activity and SCS-induced voiding contractions...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Patrick M Sonner, David R Ladle
Reciprocal inhibition of motor neurons via Ia inhibitory interneurons recruited by stimulation of proprioceptive afferents supplying antagonist muscles has been well described. Changes in the efficacy of inhibition, and sometimes even a switch from inhibition to facilitation, have been reported in the literature after disruption of descending pathways. We sought to test whether such facilitation could be expressed in normal animals by evaluating the presence of facilitation in acute preparations from uninjured animals...
March 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Zachariah J Sperry, Kyounghwan Na, Saman S Parizi, Hillel J Chiel, John Seymour, Euisik Yoon, Tim M Bruns
The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are promising nerve structures for sensory neural interfaces because they provide centralized access to primary afferent cell bodies and spinal reflex circuitry. In order to harness this potential, new electrode technologies are needed which take advantage of the unique properties of DRG, specifically the high density of neural cell bodies at the dorsal surface. Here we report initial <i>in vivo</i> results from the development of a flexible non-penetrating polyimide electrode array interfacing with the surface of ganglia...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Melissa R Mandarakas, Kristy J Rose, Oranee Sanmaneechai, Manoj P Menezes, Kathryn M Refshauge, Joshua Burns
A functional outcome measure for infants (aged 0-3 years) with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is needed for upcoming disease-modifying trials. A systematic review of outcome measures for infants with neuromuscular disorders was completed to determine if validated measures were available for the CMT infant population. We assessed 20,375 papers and identified seven functional outcome measures for infants with neuromuscular disorders. Six were developed and validated for Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). There were no CMT-specific outcome measures identified, however one (Motor Function Measure) assessed a range of neuromuscular disorders including 13 infants and children with CMT...
March 9, 2018: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
J Zhang, M Liu, L Zhou, Z B Zhang, J M Wang, Y W Jiang, Y Wu
Objective: To analyze the clinical and imaging features of hypomyelination with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity (HBSL) due to mutations in DARS, and to identify DARS mutations responsible for HBSL. Methods: Data on 2 HBSL patients who were admitted to the pediatric department of Peking University First Hospital from January 2009 through December 2016 were reviewed and the 2 patients were followed up. Targeted next generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were employed to identify potential genetic variations of the children and their parents...
March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Bingbo Bao, Kai Fu, Xianyou Zheng, Haifeng Wei, Pengbo Luo, Hongyi Zhu, Xiaozhong Zhu, Xingwei Li, Tao Gao
OBJECTIVES: Nerve transfer has been developed to restore partial function after serious nerve injuries, for example, restoring bladder control after spinal cord injury (SCI). Our aim here was to establish a preclinical proof-of-concept model using nerve transfer for restoring anorectal function after SCI. SETTING: We used laminectomy to model SCI, and bilateral spinal ventral and dorsal nerve root anastomosis to re-establish connectivity to the anorectal musculature...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Yan-Qin Wang, Han Chen, Wu-Ping Zhuang, Hong-Lei Li
BACKGROUND: Combined central and peripheral demyelination (CCPD) is rare and has never been reported as a spectrum disease in Han Chinese population. OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical features of CCPD in Han Chinese patients. METHODS: Twenty-two CCPD patients were selected from 788 demyelination cases. We reviewed and compared the clinical manifestation, laboratory data, electrophysiological examination, MRI and the prognosis. RESULTS: CCPD patients presented with sensory disturbance (86...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Kathia Cordero, Gemma G Coronel, Miguel Serrano-Illán, Jennifer Cruz-Bracero, Johnny D Figueroa, Marino De León
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in debilitating autonomic dysfunctions, paralysis and significant sensorimotor impairments. A key component of SCI is the generation of free radicals that contributes to the high levels of oxidative stress observed. This study investigates whether dietary supplementation with the antioxidant vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) improves functional recovery after SCI. Female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either with a normal diet or a dietary regiment supplemented with vitamin E (51 IU/g) for eight weeks...
February 26, 2018: Brain Sciences
A Taha, S L M Bakker
In patients with pre-existent cervical spinal canal stenosis, minimal trauma, leading to neck hyperextension, can cause a significant increase of spinal cord compression. However, spinal cord injury is generally associated with major trauma and is usually not expected in patients with minor trauma. The resulting symptoms are diverse, making it even more difficult to diagnose. To illustrate the variety in symptoms at presentation, we describe two male patients aged 66 and 69. Rapid diagnosis is important as acute neurosurgical intervention may be indicated...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Kentaro Maeda, Katsushige Iwai, Yosuke Kobayashi, Hirotake Tsuji, Tomokatsu Yoshida, Yasushi Kobayashi
A 51-year-old woman presented with progressive weakness of the neck extensor muscles and gait disturbances since the past 6 years. In addition, she presented with symptoms such as dysarthria, dysphagia, bladder, and rectal disturbances. Bilateral plantar reflex was positive. Her gait was short-stepped-spastic. Brain and cervical MRI showed atrophy of the medulla and spinal cord. As these imaging features were suggestive of Alexander disease (AxD), we sequenced the GFAP gene. We identified a heterozygous c.368T>C missense mutation of the GFAP gene in the patient...
February 28, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Chaoyang Jing, Zhuo Wang, Chaojia Chu, Ming Dong, Weihong Lin
RATIONALE: Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE) and Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) might be a pedigree disease. Herein, we report a rare case that fits the diagnoses of both MFS and BBE. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 48-year-old woman was hospitalized due to blurred vision and unsteady gait lasting for 9 days, and numbness of the limbs lasting for 6 days. Physical examination showed restricted eye movement without nystagmus, bilateral flattening of forehead and nasolabial folds, and positive eyelash sign...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kohei Watanabe
INTRODUCTION: We investigated regional differences in amplitude modulation of the spinal reflex along the human rectus femoris (RF) muscle to test the hypothesis that this muscle is regionally regulated at the spinal cord or a higher level. METHODS: Surface electromyography was conducted at six different sites along the RF muscle during the conditioned patellar tendon reflex in eight healthy young men. RESULTS: A significant difference in the reflex amplitude among the channels was observed during 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and there was a significant difference in normalized reflex amplitude between 10 and 20% of the MVC at most proximal channel (p < 0...
February 24, 2018: Human Movement Science
Jennifer J DeBerry, Vijay K Samineni, Bryan A Copits, Christopher J Sullivan, Sherri K Vogt, Kathryn M Albers, Brian M Davis, Robert W Gereau Iv
Bladder-innervating primary sensory neurons mediate reflex-driven bladder function under normal conditions, and contribute to debilitating bladder pain and/or overactivity in pathological states. The goal of this study was to examine the respective roles of defined subtypes of afferent neurons in bladder sensation and function in vivo via direct optogenetic activation. To accomplish this goal, we generated transgenic lines that express a Channelrhodopsin-2-eYFP fusion protein (ChR2-eYFP) in two distinct populations of sensory neurons: TRPV1-lineage neurons ( Trpv1 Cre ;Ai32, the majority of nociceptors) and Nav 1...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
James R F Hockley, Toni S Taylor, Gerard Callejo, Anna L Wilbrey, Alex Gutteridge, Karsten Bach, Wendy J Winchester, David C Bulmer, Gordon McMurray, Ewan St John Smith
OBJECTIVE: Integration of nutritional, microbial and inflammatory events along the gut-brain axis can alter bowel physiology and organism behaviour. Colonic sensory neurons activate reflex pathways and give rise to conscious sensation, but the diversity and division of function within these neurons is poorly understood. The identification of signalling pathways contributing to visceral sensation is constrained by a paucity of molecular markers. Here we address this by comprehensive transcriptomic profiling and unsupervised clustering of individual mouse colonic sensory neurons...
February 26, 2018: Gut
Rafael Salas, Karla Ramirez, Victor Tortorici, Horacio Vanegas, Enrique Vazquez
The so-called on- and off-cells of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) send their axons to the spinal dorsal horn. Activation of on-cells precedes and coincides with a facilitation, and activation of off-cells coincides with an inhibition, of withdrawal reflexes elicited by noxious agents. Considerable evidence supports the notion that on- and off-cells modulate nocifensive reflexes during opioid and non-opioid action and also during normal circumstances and during peripheral neuropathy and inflammation...
February 21, 2018: Brain Research
Heidi L Lujan, Anne Tonson, Robert W Wiseman, Stephen E DiCarlo
Spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting in tetraplegia is a devastating, life-changing insult causing paralysis and sensory impairment as well as distinct autonomic dysfunction that triggers compromised cardiovascular, bowel, bladder and sexual activity. Life becomes a battle for independence as even routine bodily functions and the smallest activity of daily living become a major challenge. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a chronic pre-clinical model of tetraplegia. This report addresses this critical need by comparing, for the first time, resting, reflex and stress-induced cardiovascular, autonomic and hormonal responses each week for 4 weeks in 12 sham-operated intact rats and 12 rats with chronic, complete C6-7 spinal cord transection...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
J Walter Tolentino-Castro, Andreas Mühlbeier, Luis Mochizuki, Heiko Wagner
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 < IQ < 79) show impaired motor and postural control, these impairments are highly related to falls and injuries. Recent studies demonstrated these impairments are related with fine and gross motor development, which are more strongly associated with cognition, and consequently language for individuals with ID than for without ID. Despite these studies, little is known about the structure and functioning of this population's spinal cord, which is highly involved in postural control...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
A S Kudryavtseva, A V Amelin
AIM: To study the parameters of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) in different types of vertigo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-seven patients, 35 men and 42 women, aged 43.7±12.5 years, with vestibular vertigo and unsteadiness were examined. The activity of the stemocleidomastoid muscle in response to auditory stimulation of the ipsilateral ear was recorded using surface electromyography. RESULTS: There were a trend towards the increase in the N2 latency, the significant reduction of the P1-N2 amplitude (p<0,005) on both sides and significant changes in the coefficient of asymmetry...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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