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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544029/learned-control-over-spinal-nociception-in-patients-with-chronic-back-pain
#1
S Krafft, H-D Göhmann, J Sommer, A Straube, R Ruscheweyh
BACKGROUND: Descending pain inhibition suppresses spinal nociception, reducing nociceptive input to the brain. It is modulated by cognitive and emotional processes. In subjects with chronic pain, it is impaired, possibly contributing to pain persistence. A previously developed feedback method trains subjects to activate their descending inhibition. Participants are trained to use cognitive-emotional strategies to reduce their spinal nociception, as quantified by the nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex), under visual feedback about their RIII reflex size...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538420/prediction-of-the-outcome-of-bladder-dysfunction-based-on-electrically-induced-reflex-findings-in-patients-with-cauda-equina-syndrome-a-retrospective-study
#2
Dong Gyu Lee, Sang Gyu Kwak, Min Cheol Chang
The evaluation of the electrically induced bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) using electromyography (EMG) is a useful tool for evaluating the integrity of sacral spinal segments 2 to 4, and that of their afferent and efferent connections in the urogenital region. In the current retrospective study, the value of this technique in predicting the outcome of bladder dysfunction was investigated in patients with cauda equina syndrome (CES). Electrically induced BCR (E-BCR) was evaluated in 40 patients with bladder dysfunction due to CES at the subacute stage (7-90 days)...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537464/multi-domain-assessment-of-autonomic-function-in-spinal-cord-injury-using-a-modified-autonomic-reflex-screen
#3
Michael James Berger, Kurt Kimpinski, Katharine Dianne Currie, Hirmand Nouraei, Mahsa Sadeghi, Andrei V Krassioukov
The purpose of this study was to characterize autonomic lesions in participants with spinal cord injury (SCI; n=10) using an autonomic reflex screen, incorporating sudomotor, cardiovagal and sympathetic adrenergic tests, as well as hemodynamic responses to head-up tilt (HUT). Hemodynamic responses were compared to healthy controls (n=20) and previously published normative cutoffs in order better identify autonomic impairments. Sympathetic skin responses (SSRs), heart rate response to deep breathing (HRDB) and heart rate and beat-to-beat blood pressure responses to Valsalva maneuver (VM) and HUT were measured...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528818/patellar-tendon-vibration-reduces-the-increased-facilitation-from-quadriceps-to-soleus-in-post-stroke-hemiparetic-individuals
#4
Eric Maupas, Joseph-Omer Dyer, Sibele de Andrade Melo, Robert Forget
BACKGROUND: Stimulation of the femoral nerve in healthy people can facilitate soleus H-reflex and electromyography (EMG) activity. In stroke patients, such facilitation of transmission in spinal pathways linking the quadriceps and soleus muscles is enhanced and related to co-activation of knee and ankle extensors while sitting and walking. Soleus H-reflex facilitation can be depressed by vibration of the quadriceps in healthy people, but the effects of such vibration have never been studied on the abnormal soleus facilitation observed in people after stroke...
May 18, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510605/the-role-of-attention-in-human-motor-resonance
#5
Guglielmo Puglisi, Antonella Leonetti, Ayelet Landau, Luca Fornia, Gabriella Cerri, Paola Borroni
Observation of others' actions evokes in primary motor cortex and spinal circuits of observers a subliminal motor resonance response, which reflects the motor program encoding observed actions. We investigated the role of attention in human motor resonance with four experimental conditions, explored in different subject groups: in the first explicit condition, subjects were asked to observe a rhythmic hand flexion-extension movement performed live in front of them. In two other conditions subjects had to monitor the activity of a LED light mounted on the oscillating hand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506502/autonomic-dysreflexia-after-spinal-cord-injury-systemic-pathophysiology-and-methods-of-management
#6
REVIEW
Khalid C Eldahan, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has widespread physiological effects beyond the disruption of sensory and motor function, notably the loss of normal autonomic and cardiovascular control. Injury at or above the sixth thoracic spinal cord segment segregates critical spinal sympathetic neurons from supraspinal modulation which can result in a syndrome known as autonomic dysreflexia (AD). AD is defined as episodic hypertension and concomitant baroreflex-mediated bradycardia initiated by unmodulated sympathetic reflexes in the decentralized cord...
May 8, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489755/kennedy-disease-with-difficulty-in-differential-diagnosis-a-case-report
#7
Yating Chen, Peng Luo, Zhongli Li, Hengping Hu, Duobin Wu, Tingting Xu, Xingzuo Wang, Haiting Xie
RATIONALE: Kennedy disease (KD) is also known as spinal bulbar muscular dystrophy. As KD has similar symptoms with most neuromuscular diseases, so it is difficult to make a rapid diagnosis clinically. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 43-year-old male with progressive limb proximal weakness without family history. Physical examination showed gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction, bilateral tendon reflex and quadriceps weakness, and tongue muscle atrophy. DIAGNOSES: Laboratory examination found increased creatine kinase, impaired glucose tolerance, and abnormal lactic acid values...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487221/neurophysiological-insights-on-flexibility-improvements-through-motor-imagery
#8
Thiago Ferreira Dias Kanthack, Aymeric Guillot, Charalambos Papaxanthis, Théophile Guizard, Christian Collet, Franck Di Rienzo
The efficacy of motor imagery (MI) practice to facilitate muscle stretching remains controversial and the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms unexplored. We evaluated the effects of MI practice during a sit-and-reach task. Healthy participants were randomly assigned to a MI practice (n=15) or Control (n=15) group and completed 2 blocks of 5 sit-and-reach trials. During the first block (B1), participants performed 5 maximal stretching trials of 10s. During the second block (B2), trials were divided into two consecutive parts: i) reproducing the maximum performance of B1 (10s, B2 part 1), and ii) attempting to outperform the maximum performance of B1 (10s, B2 part 2)...
May 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485493/regionalization-of-the-stretch-reflex-in-the-human-vastus-medialis
#9
Alessio Gallina, Jean-Sébastien Blouin, Tanya D Ivanova, S Jayne Garland
The localization of motor unit territories provides an anatomical basis to suggest that the CNS may have more independence in motor unit recruitment and control strategies than what was previously thought. In this study, we investigated whether the human spinal cord has the neuromuscular circuitry to independently activate motor units located in different regions of the vastus medialis. Mechanical taps were applied to multiple locations in the vastus medialis (VM) in nine healthy individuals. Regional responses within the muscle were observed using a grid of 5 × 13 surface EMG electrodes...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483706/clinical-classification-criteria-for-radicular-pain-caused-by-lumbar-disc-herniation-the-rapidh-criteria-radicular-pain-caused-by-disc-herniation
#10
Stéphane Genevay, Delphine S Courvoisier, Kika Konstantinou, Francisco M Kovacs, Marc Marty, James Rainville, Michael Norberg, Jean-François Kaux, Thomas D Cha, Jeffrey N Katz, Steven J Atlas
CONTEXT: Classification criteria are recommended for diseases that lack specific biomarkers in order to improve homogeneity in clinical research studies. Since imaging evidence of lumbar disc herniations (LDH) may not be associated with symptoms, clinical classification criteria based upon patient symptoms and physical examination findings are required. PURPOSE: This study aimed to produce clinical classification criteria to identify patients with radicular pain caused by LDH...
May 5, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476907/congenital-talipes-equinovarus-and-congenital-vertical-talus-secondary-to-sacral-agenesis
#11
Jonathan James Hyett Bray, Sebastien Crosswell, Rick Brown
Sacral agenesis is a rare congenital defect which is associated with foot deformities such as congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) and less commonly congenital vertical talus (CVT). We report a 3-year-old Caucasian girl who was born with right CTEV and left CVT secondary to sacral agenesis. Her right foot was managed with a Ponseti casting method at 2 weeks, followed by an Achilles tenotomy at 4 months. The left foot was initially managed with a nocturnal dorsi-flexion splint. Both feet remained resistant and received open foot surgery at 10 months producing plantigrade feet with neutral hindfeet...
May 5, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475100/defensive-reflexes-in-people-with-pain-a-biomarker-of-the-need-to-protect-a-meta-analytical-systematic-review
#12
Sarah B Wallwork, Luzia Grabherr, Neil E O'Connell, Mark J Catley, G Lorimer Moseley
Upregulation of defensive reflexes such as the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) has been attributed to sensitisation of peripheral and spinal nociceptors and is often considered biomarkers of pain. Experimental modulation of defensive reflexes raises the possibility that they might be better conceptualised as markers of descending cognitive control. Despite strongly held views on both sides and several narrative reviews, there has been no attempt to evaluate the evidence in a systematic manner. We undertook a meta-analytical systematic review of the extant English-language literature from inception...
February 11, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468849/musculotendon-adaptations-and-preservation-of-spinal-reflex-pathways-following-agonist-to-antagonist-tendon-transfer
#13
Mark A Lyle, T Richard Nichols, Elma Kajtaz, Huub Maas
Tendon transfer surgeries are performed to restore lost motor function, but outcomes are variable, particularly those involving agonist-to-antagonist muscles. Here, we evaluated the possibility that lack of proprioceptive feedback reorganization and musculotendon adaptations could influence outcomes. Plantaris-to-tibialis anterior tendon transfer along with resection of the distal third of the tibialis anterior muscle belly was performed in eight cats. Four cats had concurrent transection of the deep peroneal nerve...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467566/-spinal-cord-stimulation-in-62-patients-retrospective-evaluation
#14
İrem Özdemir, Mert Akbaş, Arif Yeğin, Gözde Dağıstan, Deniz Özel Erkan
OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is used for various indications such as Failed Back Surgey Syndrome, peripheral causalgia, neuropathic pain, complex regional pain syndrome, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, peripheral vascular disease, ischemic heart disease and cancer pain. METHODS: This is a retrospective study. 62 patients applied SCS were included in retrospective study from february 2011-january 2015 in Akdeniz University medicine faculty algology department...
January 2017: Aǧrı: Ağrı (Algoloji) Derneği'nin Yayın Organıdır, the Journal of the Turkish Society of Algology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464800/effect-of-tendon-vibration-during-wide-pulse-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-nmes-on-the-decline-and-recovery-of-muscle-force
#15
Vanesa Bochkezanian, Robert U Newton, Gabriel S Trajano, Amilton Vieira, Timothy S Pulverenti, Anthony J Blazevich
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used to activate skeletal muscles and reverse muscle atrophy in clinical populations. Clinical recommendations for NMES suggest the use of short pulse widths (100-200 μs) and low-to-moderate pulse frequencies (30-50 Hz). However, this type of NMES causes rapid muscle fatigue due to the (non-physiological) high stimulation intensities and non-orderly recruitment of motor units. The use of both wide pulse widths (1000 μs) and tendon vibration might optimize motor unit activation through spinal reflex pathways and thus delay the onset of muscle fatigue, increasing muscle force and mass...
May 2, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462632/the-relationship-between-trans-lesional-conduction-motor-neuron-pool-excitability-and-motor-function-in-dogs-with-incomplete-recovery-from-severe-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Melissa Lewis, James Howard, Natasha Olby
Spontaneous, acute, complete thoracolumbar spinal cord injury (TL-SCI) in dogs frequently results in permanent deficits modelling chronic paralysis in people. Recovery of walking without recovery of sensation has been interpreted in dogs as reflexive spinal walking. To evaluate this assumption, this study characterized the electrophysiologic status of motor and sensory long tracts and local reflex circuitry in dogs with absent recovery of sensation following acute TL-SCI and correlated findings to gait scores...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436247/effects-of-peripheral-vestibular-dysfunction-on-dynamic-postural-stability-measured-by-the-functional-reach-test-and-timed-up-and-go-test
#17
Toshiko Nishi, Teru Kamogashira, Chisato Fujimoto, Makoto Kinoshita, Naoya Egami, Keiko Sugasawa, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Shinichi Iwasaki
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of vestibular function on dynamic postural stability assessed by the functional reach test (FRT) and the timed up and go test (TUG). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The FRT and TUG were performed in 399 patients with dizziness. The effects of peripheral vestibular dysfunction assessed by the caloric test and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) to air-conducted sound (500 Hz, tone burst) on the results of FRT and TUG were analyzed...
June 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430048/a-spinal-epidural-abscess-due-to-streptobacillus-moniliformis-infection-following-a-rat-bite-case-report
#18
Alexander Hammer, Dorit Wolff, Walter Geißdörfer, Michael Schrey, Renate Ziegler, Hans-Herbert Steiner, Christian Bogdan
The authors describe the case of a 40-year-old man suffering from an epidural abscess in the thoracic spine due to a rarely isolated pathogen, Streptobacillus moniliformis, the causative agent of rat bite fever. Besides diffuse abdominal pain, ataxia, paresthesia, hypesthesia, and enhanced reflexes of the lower extremities, the patient suffered from a decreased sensation of bladder filling. His history was also positive for a rat bite 6 weeks earlier. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an epidural, space-occupying lesion compressing the spinal cord at the vertebral levels of T6-8...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427710/clinical-outcomes-and-predictive-factors-related-to-good-outcomes-in-plasma-exchange-in-severe-attack-of-nmosd-and-long-extensive-transverse-myelitis-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Saharat Aungsumart, Metha Apiwattanakul
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive factors associated with good outcomes of plasma exchange in severe attacks through neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and long extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). In addition, to review the literature of predictive factors associated with the good outcomes of plasma exchange in central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating diseases (CNS IDDs). METHODS: Retrospective study in 27 episodes of severe acute attacks myelitis and optic neuritis in 24 patients, including 20 patients with NMOSD seropositive, 1 patient with NMOSD seronegative and 3 patients with LETM...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421392/combination-of-sacral-nerve-and-tibial-nerve-stimulation-for-treatment-of-bladder-overactivity-in-pigs
#20
Xing Li, Limin Liao, Guoqing Chen, Zhaoxia Wang, Han Deng
PURPOSE: Sacral nerve and tibial nerve stimulation have been singly used to treat overactive bladder (OAB). This study evaluated the effects of both combined stimulation on treating bladder overactivity in pigs and explored a novel treatment modality for OAB. METHODS: An implant-driven stimulator of the S3 spinal nerve was implanted in 5 pigs. The contralateral tibial nerve was stimulated by an external stimulator. Multiple cystometrograms were performed to determine the effects of single nerve stimulation and combination sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) and tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) on the micturition reflex by infusing normal saline (NS) or acetic acid (AA)...
April 18, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
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