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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914246/tract-based-analysis-of-white-matter-integrity-in-psychotic-and-nonpsychotic-bipolar-disorder
#1
Andrew Ji, Douglass Godwin, Jerrel Rutlin, Sridhar Kandala, Joshua S Shimony, Daniel Mamah
BACKGROUND: At least 50% of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) present with psychosis during their lifetime. Psychotic symptoms have sometimes been linked to specific genetic and phenotypic markers. This study aims to explore potential differences between bipolar disorder subtypes by measuring white matter integrity of the brain and relationships with clinical measures. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging and clinical measures were acquired from 102 participants, grouped as psychotic bipolar disorder (PBD) (n=48), non-psychotic bipolar disorder (NBD) (n=24), and healthy controls (n=30)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909072/the-mirror-illusion-increases-motor-cortex-excitability-in-children-with-and-without-hemiparesis
#2
Sebastian Grunt, Christopher J Newman, Stefanie Saxer, Maja Steinlin, Christian Weisstanner, Alain Kaelin-Lang
Background Mirror therapy provides a visual illusion of a normal moving limb by using the mirror reflection of the unaffected arm instead of viewing the paretic limb and is used in rehabilitation to improve hand function. Little is known about the mechanism underlying its effect in children with hemiparesis. Objective To investigate the effect of the mirror illusion (MI) on the excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1) in children and adolescents. Methods Twelve patients with hemiparesis (10-20 years) and 8 typically developing subjects (8-17 years) participated...
November 30, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907080/development-of-an-automated-mri-based-diagnostic-protocol-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-using-disease-specific-pathognomonic-features-a-quantitative-disease-state-classification-study
#3
Christina Schuster, Orla Hardiman, Peter Bede
BACKGROUND: Despite significant advances in quantitative neuroimaging, the diagnosis of ALS remains clinical and MRI-based biomarkers are not currently used to aid the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to develop a robust, disease-specific, multimodal classification protocol and validate its diagnostic accuracy in independent, early-stage and follow-up data sets. METHODS: 147 participants (81 ALS patients and 66 healthy controls) were divided into a training sample and a validation sample...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905041/new-xymedon-analogues-for-stimulation-of-posttraumatic-regeneration-of-the-spinal-cord-in-rats
#4
T V Povysheva, V E Semenov, I V Galyametdinova, V S Reznik, K S Knni, P E Kolesnikov, Yu A Chelyshev
Effect of systemic administration of synthetic pyrimidine derivatives, xymedon and compounds 29D and 34D, was studied in rats with experimental dosed contusion spinal cord injury. Xymedon promoted recovery of motor function after injury. Compounds 29D and 34D more effectively restored the parameters of open-field and Rotarod tests in comparison with xymedon. Compound 29D more effectively than xymedon maintained the number of Olig2(+) oligodendrocytes in the corticospinal tract and NG2 cells in all investigated areas of the white matter...
December 1, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903814/blink-associated-contralateral-eccentric-saccades-as-a-rare-sign-of-unilateral-brain-injury
#5
Ilaria Zivi, Eugenio Bertelli, Giacinta Bilotti, Ignazio Alessandro Clemente, Leopold Saltuari, Giuseppe Frazzitta
OBJECTIVE: To describe a rare sign of unilateral brain injury as a form of unwanted blink-associated contralateral eccentric saccades. METHODS: A 62-year-old patient who underwent an ischemic stroke affecting the entire right middle cerebral artery territory came to our attention 1 year after stroke, manifesting with transient contralateral conjugate gaze deviations associated with spontaneous blinking. We complemented the regular neurologic evaluation with brain MRI, study of evoked potentials, electroneurography of the facial nerve, and infrared video-oculoscopy...
November 30, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903187/stereotactic-diffusion-tensor-imaging-tractography-for-gamma-knife-radiosurgery
#6
Cormac G Gavin, H Ian Sabin
OBJECTIVE The integration of modern neuroimaging into treatment planning has increased the therapeutic potential and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery. The authors report their method of integrating stereotactic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography into conventional treatment planning for Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique and to address some of the technical limitations of previously reported techniques. METHODS Twenty patients who underwent GKRS composed the study cohort...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902527/white-matter-alterations-in-adults-with-probable-developmental-coordination-disorder-an-mri-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#7
Jacqueline Williams, Saman R Kashuk, Peter H Wilson, Graham Thorpe, Gary F Egan
Movement skill difficulties in children [or developmental coordination disorder (DCD)] often persist into adulthood (in up to 70% of cases). The suggestion of white matter microstructure alterations in children with DCD raises the question of whether similar alterations are present in adults with probable DCD (pDCD). Twelve adults with pDCD and 11 adults without pDCD underwent diffusion tensor imaging. The results showed that the pDCD group had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the corticospinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus and lower mean diffusivity in the internal capsule and inferior longitudinal fasciculus...
November 29, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899333/abnormalities-of-brain-neural-circuits-related-to-obesity-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#8
Ioannis Papageorgiou, Loukas G Astrakas, Vassileios Xydis, George Alexiou, Panagiotis Bargiotas, Loukia Tzarouchi, Anastasia K Zikou, Dimitrios N Kiortsis, Maria I Argyropoulou
PURPOSE: Increased Body-Mass-Index (BMI) has been associated with brain atrophy in both gray and white matter structures. However, little is known concerning the integrity of white matter tracts in obesity. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the pattern of changes in white matter microstructure in human adiposity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 268 participants (52 obese, 96 overweight and 120 normal-weight) that were retrospectively evaluated by Diffusion Tensor Imaging...
November 26, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895572/plastic-changes-in-human-motor-cortical-output-induced-by-random-but-not-closed-loop-peripheral-stimulation-the-curse-of-causality
#9
Kenneth I Brown, Elizabeth R Williams, Felipe de Carvalho, Stuart N Baker
Previous work showed that repetitive peripheral nerve stimulation can induce plastic changes in motor cortical output. Triggering electrical stimulation of central structures from natural activity can also generate plasticity. In this study, we tested whether triggering peripheral nerve stimulation from muscle activity would likewise induce changes in motor output. We developed a wearable electronic device capable of recording electromyogram (EMG) and delivering electrical stimulation under closed-loop control...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891607/cortical-and-reticular-contributions-to-human-precision-and-power-grip
#10
Toshiki Tazoe, Monica A Perez
It is well accepted that the corticospinal tract contributes to the control of finger muscles during precision and power grip in humans but the neural mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Here, we examined motor evoked potentials elicited by cortical and subcortical stimulation of corticospinal axons (MEPs and CMEPs, respectively) and the activity in intracortical circuits (suppression of voluntary electromyography) and spinal motoneurons (F-waves) in an intrinsic hand muscle during index finger abduction (control task), precision grip, and power grip...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888085/high-definition-fiber-tractography-in-evaluation-and-surgical-planning-of-thalamopeduncular-pilocytic-astrocytomas-in-pediatric-population-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#11
Emrah Celtikci, Pinar Celtikci, David Tiago Fernandes-Cabral, Murat Ucar, Juan Carlos Fernandez-Miranda, Alp Ozgun Borcek
OBJECTIVE: Thalamopeduncular tumors (TPTs) of the childhood present a challenge for neurosurgeons due to their eloquent location. Preoperative fiber tracking provides total or near-total resection, without additional neurological deficit. High-definition fiber tractography (HDFT) is an advanced white matter imaging technique derived from magnetic resonance imaging diffusion data, shown to overcome limitation of diffusion tensor imaging. We aimed to investigate alterations of corticospinal tract (CST) and medial lemniscus (ML) caused by TPTs and to demonstrate the application of HDFT in preoperative planning...
November 22, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888026/priming-theta-burst-stimulation-enhances-motor-cortex-plasticity-in-young-but-not-old-adults
#12
George M Opie, Eleni Vosnakis, Michael C Ridding, Ulf Ziemann, John G Semmler
BACKGROUND: Primary motor cortex (M1) neuroplasticity is reduced in old adults, which may contribute to the motor deficits commonly observed in the elderly. Previous research in young subjects suggests that the neuroplastic response can be enhanced using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), with a larger plastic response observed following priming with both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD)-like protocols. However, it is not known if priming stimulation can also modulate plasticity in older adults...
November 17, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881040/a-single-dose-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-increases-the-functional-recovery-promoted-by-rehabilitation-following-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-in-the-rat
#13
Zhuo-Hao Liu, Ping Yip, John V Priestley, Adina T Michael-Titus
Task-specific rehabilitation has been shown to promote functional recovery after acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Recently, the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been shown to promote neuroplasticity after SCI. Here, we investigated whether the combination of a single bolus of DHA with rehabilitation can enhance the effect of DHA or rehabilitation therapy in adult injured spinal cord. We found enhanced functional improvement with DHA in combination with rehabilitation compared to either treatment alone in a rat cervical lateral hemisection SCI model...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878065/corticobulbar-tract-involvement-in-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-case-report
#14
Ho Kyun Kim, Mun Han, Hui Joong Lee
A 36-year-old woman, diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), showed bulbar symptoms including impaired memory, slurred speech and swallowing difficulty 7 days before admission. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed symmetric confluent hyperintensities in the bilateral cerebral white matter on T2 weighted imaging (T2-WI), extended into the genu of the internal capsule and the crus cerebri of the midbrain. MR spectroscopy showed increased choline and decreased N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) peak and positron emission computed tomography (PET CT) showed decreased fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on the lateral portion of the frontal lobe, suggesting demyelination of the white matter...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867023/the-role-of-white-matter-microstructure-in-inhibitory-deficits-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#15
Xiaoming Du, Peter Kochunov, Ann Summerfelt, Joshua Chiappelli, Fow-Sen Choa, L Elliot Hong
BACKGROUND: Inhibitory-excitatory (I-E) imbalance has increasingly been proposed as a fundamental mechanism giving rise to many schizophrenia-related pathophysiology. The integrity of I-E functions should require precise and rapid electrical signal transmission. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that part of the I-E abnormality in schizophrenia may originate from their known abnormal white matter connectivity that may interfere the I-E functions. METHODS: We test this using short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) vs...
November 12, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866119/group-iii-iv-locomotor-muscle-afferents-alter-motor-cortical-and-corticospinal-excitability-and-promote-central-fatigue-during-cycling-exercise
#16
Simranjit K Sidhu, Joshua C Weavil, Tyler S Mangum, Jacob E Jessop, Russell S Richardson, David E Morgan, Markus Amann
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of group III/IV muscle afferents on the development of central fatigue and corticospinal excitability during exercise. METHODS: Fourteen males performed cycling-exercise both under control-conditions (CTRL) and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl (FENT) impairing feedback from leg muscle afferents. Transcranial magnetic- and cervicomedullary stimulation was used to monitor cortical versus spinal excitability. RESULTS: While fentanyl-blockade during non-fatiguing cycling had no effect on motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), cervicomedullary-evoked motor potentials (CMEPs) were 13±3% higher (P<0...
October 26, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865881/modulation-of-quadriceps-corticospinal-excitability-by-femoral-nerve-stimulation
#17
Dan Río-Rodríguez, Eliseo Iglesias-Soler, Y Miguel Fernandez-Del-Olmo
INTRODUCTION: We explored the conditioning effect of a percutaneous electrical pulse of the femoral nerve on cortical motor evoked responses in the rectus femoris muscle. METHODS: Corticospinal excitability of rectus femoris muscle was measured in sixteen healthy subjects, when a single transcranial magnetic pulse was preceded by an electrical femoral nerve stimulus, using twelve inter-stimulus intervals (from 10 to 275ms). We also evaluated the effects of the intensities of the transcranial magnetic and of the electrical pulses...
November 16, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857761/recovery-of-corticospinal-tract-injured-by-traumatic-axonal-injury-at-the-subcortical-white-matter-a-case-report
#18
Sung Ho Jang, Seong Ho Kim, Woo Hyuk Jang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857728/harnessing-neural-activity-to-promote-repair-of-the-damaged-corticospinal-system-after-spinal-cord-injury
#19
REVIEW
John H Martin
As most spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are incomplete, an important target for promoting neural repair and recovery of lost motor function is to promote the connections of spared descending spinal pathways with spinal motor circuits. Among the pathways, the corticospinal tract (CST) is most associated with skilled voluntary functions in humans and many animals. CST loss, whether at its origin in the motor cortex or in the white matter tracts subcortically and in the spinal cord, leads to movement impairments and paralysis...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857457/multiparametric-3t-mri-evaluation-of-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia-a-case-report
#20
Sonam Priya, Naznin Siddique, Ruchira Das, Archana Singh
Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a rare heterogeneous group of familial neurodegenerative disorders characterized by degeneration of the corticospinal tracts and posterior column of the spinal cord. Previously described radiological findings included nonspecific brain abnormalities such as brain atrophy and white matter lesions, as well as atrophy of the corpus callosum and spinal cord. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy may reveal reduced concentrations of normal brain metabolites and elevated levels of myoinositol...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
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