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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213194/subcortical-mapping-using-an-electrified-cusa-in-pediatric-supratentorial-surgery
#1
Jonathan Roth, Akiva Korn, Yifat Bitan-Talmor, Rivka Kaufman, Margaret Ekstein, Shlomi Constantini
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative electrophysiology is increasingly used for various lesion resections, both in adult and pediatric brain surgery. Subcortical mapping is often used in adult surgery when lesions lie in proximity to the corticospinal tract (CST). We describe a novel technique of continuous subcortical mapping using an electrified Cavitron UltraSonic Aspirator (CUSA) in children with supratentorial lesions. METHODS: We evaluated the method of subcortical mapping using a CUSA as a stimulation probe...
February 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210051/effects-of-two-handed-task-training-on-upper-limb-function-of-chronic-hemiplegic-patients-after-stroke
#2
Byung Il Yang, Bo Kyoung Song, Sang Mi Joung
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether two-handed task training is effective on motor learning of injured cerebral cortex activation and upper extremity function recovery after stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Two hemiplegic subjects participated in this study: one patient was affected on the dominant side of the body and the other was affected on the non-dominant side of the body, and both scored in the range of 58-66 in the Fugl-Meyer assessment. The excitability of the corticospinal tract and Manual Function Test were examined...
January 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209580/white-matter-tract-pathology-in-pediatric-anoxic-brain-injury-from-drowning
#3
M Ishaque, J H Manning, M D Woolsey, C G Franklin, F S Salinas, P T Fox
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although drowning is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in young children, the neuropathologic consequences have not been fully determined. The purpose of this article was to quantitatively characterize white matter microstructural abnormalities in pediatric anoxic brain injury from nonfatal drowning and investigate the correlation with motor function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole-brain T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MR imaging datasets were acquired in 11 children with chronic anoxic brain injury and 11 age- and sex-matched neurotypical controls (4-12 years of age)...
February 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207658/association-between-paraspinal-muscle-morphology-clinical-symptoms-and-functional-status-in-patients-with-degenerative-cervical-myelopathy
#4
Maryse Fortin, Octavian Dobrescu, Matthew Courtemanche, Carolyn J Sparrey, Carlo Santaguida, Michael G Fehlings, Michael H Weber
STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess fatty infiltration and asymmetry of the multifidus (MF), semispinalis cervicis (SCer), semispinalis capitis (SCap), and splenius capitis (SPL) muscles in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM), and evaluate their correlations with clinical symptoms and functional scores. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Cervical muscle alterations have been reported in patients with chronic neck pain, but the assessment of cervical muscle morphology has been overlooked in patients with DCM...
February 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197197/fine-motor-skill-training-enhances-functional-plasticity-of-the-corticospinal-tract-after-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Jian Liu, Xiao-Yu Yang, Wei-Wei Xia, Jian Dong, Mao-Guang Yang, Jian-Hang Jiao
Following central nervous system injury, axonal sprouts form distal to the injury site and extend into the denervated area, reconstructing neural circuits through neural plasticity. How to facilitate this plasticity has become the key to the success of central nervous system repair. It remains controversial whether fine motor skill training contributes to the recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury. Therefore, we established a rat model of unilateral corticospinal tract injury using a pyramidal tract cutting method...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196519/erratum-to-sdf1-in-the-dorsal-corticospinal-tract-promotes-cxcr4-cell-migration-after-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Vicki M Tysseling, Divakar S Mithal, Vibhu Sahni, Derin Birch, Hosung Jung, Richard J Miller, John A Kessler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195350/overcoming-the-divide-between-ataxias-and-spastic-paraplegias-shared-phenotypes-genes-and-pathways
#7
REVIEW
Matthis Synofzik, Rebecca Schüle
Autosomal-dominant spinocerebellar ataxias, autosomal-recessive spinocerebellar ataxias, and hereditary spastic paraplegias have traditionally been designated in separate clinicogenetic disease classifications. This classification system still largely frames clinical thinking and genetic workup in clinical practice. Yet, with the advent of next-generation sequencing, phenotypically unbiased studies have revealed the limitations of this classification system. Various genes (eg, SPG7, SYNE1, PNPLA6) traditionally rooted in either the ataxia or hereditary spastic paraplegia classification system have now been shown to cause ataxia on the one end of the disease continuum and hereditary spastic paraplegia on the other...
February 14, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194103/reassessment-of-non-monosynaptic-excitation-from-the-motor-cortex-to-motoneurons-in-single-motor-units-of-the-human-biceps-brachii
#8
Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Toshiki Tazoe, Masanori Sakamoto, Takashi Endoh, Satoshi Shibuya, Leonardo A Elias, Rinaldo A Mezzarane, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Yukari Ohki
Corticospinal excitation is mediated by polysynaptic pathways in several vertebrates, including dexterous monkeys. However, indirect non-monosynaptic excitation has not been clearly observed following transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) or cervicomedullary stimulation (CMS) in humans. The present study evaluated indirect motor pathways in normal human subjects by recording the activities of single motor units (MUs) in the biceps brachii (BB) muscle. The pyramidal tract was stimulated with weak TES, CMS, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) contralateral to the recording side...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188915/machine-learning-based-compartment-models-with-permeability-for-white-matter-microstructure-imaging
#9
Gemma L Nedjati-Gilani, Torben Schneider, Matt G Hall, Niamh Cawley, Ioana Hill, Olga Ciccarelli, Ivana Drobnjak, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Daniel C Alexander
Some microstructure parameters, such as permeability, remain elusive because mathematical models that express their relationship to the MR signal accurately are intractable. Here, we propose to use computational models learned from simulations to estimate these parameters. We demonstrate the approach in an example which estimates water residence time in brain white matter. The residence time τi of water inside axons is a potentially important biomarker for white matter pathologies of the human central nervous system, as myelin damage is hypothesised to affect axonal permeability, and thus τi...
February 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188330/unravelling-the-effect-of-experimental-pain-on-the-corticomotor-system-using-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-electroencephalography
#10
Marylie Martel, Marie-Philippe Harvey, Francis Houde, Frédéric Balg, Philippe Goffaux, Guillaume Léonard
The interaction between pain and the motor system is well-known, with past studies showing that pain can alter corticomotor excitability and have deleterious effects on motor learning. The aim of this study was to better understand the cortical mechanisms underlying the interaction between pain and the motor system. Experimental pain was induced on 19 young and healthy participants using capsaicin cream, applied on the middle volar part of the left forearm. The effect of pain on brain activity and on the corticomotor system was assessed with electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), respectively...
February 10, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180079/white-matter-tract-abnormalities-and-antisocial-behavior-a-systematic-review-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies-across-development
#11
REVIEW
Rebecca Waller, Hailey L Dotterer, Laura Murray, Andrea M Maxwell, Luke W Hyde
Antisocial behavior (AB), including aggression, violence, and theft, is thought be underpinned by abnormal functioning in networks of the brain critical to emotion processing, behavioral control, and reward-related learning. To better understand the abnormal functioning of these networks, research has begun to investigate the structural connections between brain regions implicated in AB using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which assesses white-matter tract microstructure. This systematic review integrates findings from 22 studies that examined the relationship between white-matter microstructure and AB across development...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179557/individual-differences-in-resting-cortico-spinal-excitability-are-correlated-with-reaction-time-and-gaba-content-in-motor-cortex
#12
Ian Greenhouse, Maedbh King, Sean Noah, Richard J Maddock, Richard B Ivry
Individuals differ in the intrinsic excitability of their corticospinal pathways, and perhaps more generally, their entire nervous system. At present, we have little understanding of the mechanisms underlying these differences and how variation in intrinsic excitability relates to behavior. Here, we examined the relationship between individual differences in intrinsic corticospinal excitability, local cortical γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels, and reaction time in a group of twenty healthy human adults. We measured corticospinal excitability at rest with transcranial magnetic stimulation, local concentrations of basal GABA with magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and RT with a behavioral task...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175893/evaluation-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-based-tractography-of-the-corticospinal-tract-a-correlative-study-with-intraoperative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-direct-electrical-subcortical-stimulation
#13
Seyed A Javadi, Arya Nabavi, Mario Giordano, Elham Faghihzadeh, Amir Samii
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167121/assessing-motor-imagery-in-brain-computer-interface-training-psychological-and-neurophysiological-correlates
#14
Anatoly Vasilyev, Sofya Liburkina, Lev Yakovlev, Olga Perepelkina, Alexander Kaplan
Motor imagery (MI) is considered to be a promising cognitive tool for improving motor skills as well as for rehabilitation therapy of movement disorders. It is believed that MI training efficiency could be improved by using the brain-computer interface (BCI) technology providing real-time feedback on person's mental attempts. While BCI is indeed a convenient and motivating tool for practicing MI, it is not clear whether it could be used for predicting or measuring potential positive impact of the training. In this study, we are trying to establish whether the proficiency in BCI control is associated with any of the neurophysiological or psychological correlates of motor imagery, as well as to determine possible interrelations among them...
February 4, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165363/effect-of-experimental-hand-pain-on-training-induced-changes-in-motor-performance-and-corticospinal-excitability
#15
Nicolas Mavromatis, Cécilia Neige, Martin Gagné, Karen T Reilly, Catherine Mercier
Pain influences plasticity within the sensorimotor system and the aim of this study was to assess the effect of pain on changes in motor performance and corticospinal excitability during training for a novel motor task. A total of 30 subjects were allocated to one of two groups (Pain, NoPain) and performed ten training blocks of a visually-guided isometric pinch task. Each block consisted of 15 force sequences, and subjects modulated the force applied to a transducer in order to reach one of five target forces...
February 4, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163512/t2-fluid-attenuation-inversion-recovery-hypointensity-of-corticospinal-tracts-due-to-subacute-stage-of-wallerian-degeneration
#16
Kamble Jayaprakash Harsha, K Parameswaran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162167/-change-of-white-matter-neuronal-integrity-associated-with-spatial-navigation-impairment-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#17
W P Li, F F Wang, J M Lu, S C Wu, W B Wu, R Y Liu, X Zhang, M Li, H Zhao, B Zhu, Y Xu, B Zhang
Objective: To analyze the correlation between white matter integrity and spatial navigation impairment in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: A total of 27 MCI subjects and 24 healthy controls were enrolled from the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School from May 2015 to February 2016, who underwent 3.0 T MRI scan and 2D-computer version spatial navigation test.DTI preprocessing and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were performed by PANDA.Two sample t-test and partial correlation coefficients were performed to investigate the correlation of white matter impairments and spatial navigation decline...
January 17, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152648/changes-in-apparent-fibre-density-and-track-weighted-imaging-metrics-in-white-matter-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
David Wright, Leigh Johnston, Jeff Kershaw, Roger Ordidge, Terence John O'Brien, Sandy Richard Shultz
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been assessed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a commonly used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker for white matter integrity. However, as the DTI model only fits a single fibre orientation, results can become confounded in regions of 'crossing' white matter fibres. In contrast, constrained spherical deconvolution estimates a fibre orientation distribution directly from high angular resolution diffusion weighted images. Consequently, constrained spherical deconvolution-based measures such as apparent fibre density and track-weighted imaging metrics (including tract density imaging, average pathlength mapping, and mean curvature), may be more sensitive than DTI metrics to white matter injury following TBI...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151889/early-white-matter-injuries-in-patients-with-acute-carbon-monoxide-intoxication-a-tract-specific-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-study-and-strobe-compliant-article
#19
Ping-Huei Tsai, Ming-Chung Chou, Shih-Wei Chiang, Hsiao-Wen Chung, Hua-Shan Liu, Hung-Wen Kao, Cheng-Yu Chen
Evaluation of acute white matter injuries caused by carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can be limited by conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We aim to evaluate the feasibility of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) for early detection of white matter alterations in patients with acute CO intoxication.A total of 30 subjects including 15 acute CO patients and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. MR examinations were performed on a 3T MR scanner within 8 days after CO intoxication...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150100/spontaneous-brain-activity-in-the-sensorimotor-cortex-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-can-be-negatively-regulated-by-corticospinal-fiber-integrity
#20
Wataru Sako, Takashi Abe, Yuishin Izumi, Hiroki Yamazaki, Naoko Matsui, Masafumi Harada, Ryuji Kaji
Previous studies failed to detect reduced value of the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) derived from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in the primary motor cortex in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) though primary motor cortex was mainly affected with ALS. We aimed to investigate the cause of masking the abnormality in the primary motor cortex in ALS and usefulness of ALFF for differential diagnosis among diseases showing muscle weakness. We enrolled ten patients with ALS and eleven disease controls showing muscle weakness...
February 1, 2017: Neurological Sciences
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