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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528380/the-rat-corticospinal-system-is-functionally-and-anatomically-segregated
#1
Rafael Olivares-Moreno, Yunuen Moreno-Lopez, Luis Concha, Guadalupe Martínez-Lorenzana, Miguel Condés-Lara, Matilde Cordero-Erausquin, Gerardo Rojas-Piloni
The descending corticospinal (CS) projection has been considered a key element for motor control, which results from direct and indirect modulation of spinal cord pre-motor interneurons in the intermediate gray matter of the spinal cord, which, in turn, influences motoneurons in the ventral horn. The CS tract (CST) is also involved in a selective and complex modulation of sensory information in the dorsal horn. However, little is known about the spinal network engaged by the CST and the organization of CS projections that may encode different cortical outputs to the spinal cord...
May 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524753/continuous-mapping-of-the-corticospinal-tracts-in-intramedullary-spinal-cord-tumor-surgery-using-an-electrified-ultrasonic-aspirator
#2
Ori Barzilai, Zvi Lidar, Shlomi Constantini, Khalil Salame, Yifat Bitan-Talmor, Akiva Korn
Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCTs) represent a rare entity, accounting for 4%-10% of all central nervous system tumors. Microsurgical resection of IMSCTs is currently considered the primary treatment modality. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) has been shown to aid in maximizing tumor resection and minimizing neurological morbidity, consequently improving patient outcome. The gold standard for IONM to date is multimodality monitoring, consisting of both somatosensory evoked potentials, as well as muscle-based transcranial electric motor evoked potentials (tcMEPs)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516034/synergistic-but-independent-the-role-of-corticospinal-and-alternate-motor-fibers-for-residual-motor-output-after-stroke
#3
Robert Schulz, Eunhee Park, Jungsoo Lee, Won Hyuk Chang, Ahee Lee, Yun-Hee Kim, Friedhelm C Hummel
BACKGROUND: Brain imaging has shown that not only the cortico-spinal tract (CST), but also alternate corticofugal motor fibers (aMF), such as the cortico-rubro-spinal and cortico-reticulo-spinal tract, influence residual motor output after stroke. So far, studies mainly have investigated each tract separately. A combined analysis of CST and aMF with assessment of their interactive role, i.e., that structural integrity of one tract influences the functional role of the structural integrity of the other, is pending...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515687/effects-of-passive-finger-movement-on-cortical-excitability
#4
Masaki Nakagawa, Ryoki Sasaki, Shota Tsuiki, Shota Miyaguchi, Sho Kojima, Kei Saito, Yasuto Inukai, Hideaki Onishi
This study examined the effects of joint angle and passive movement direction on corticospinal excitability. The subjects were 14 healthy adults from whom consent could be obtained. We performed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we measured motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, F-wave and M-wave at 0° and 20° adduction during adduction or abduction movement, in the range of movement from 10° abduction to 30° adduction. In Experiment 2, MEPs were measured at static 0° and 20° adduction during passive adduction from 10° adduction to 30° adduction and static 20° adduction...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514764/trim32-affects-the-recovery-of-motor-function-following-spinal-cord-injury-through-regulating-proliferation-of-glia
#5
Qiang Fu, Ming-Ming Zou, Jian-Wei Zhu, Yan Zhang, Wen-Jin Chen, Mei Cheng, Chun-Feng Liu, Quan-Hong Ma, Ru-Xiang Xu
Both the extrinsic environmental factors and intrinsic neuronal mechanisms limit the axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we identify tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which is barely detected in glial cells in the normal uninjured spinal cord, exhibits strong expression in both astrocytes and microglia following SCI. We further observe that deficiency of TRIM32 results in increased numbers of astrocytes and microglia, which is accompanied by enhanced proliferation of both cells and increased secretion of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-10...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514330/-mri-morphometry-of-neuroplastic-changes-in-the-brain-after-conservative-treatment-of-traumatic-brachial-plexopathy
#6
S A Zhivolupov, E N Gnevyshev, A G Trufanov, L V Voronkov, A A Jurin, N A Rashidov, I N Samartsev, I D Poltavsky
AIM: To identify neuroplastic changes in the brain structures during treatment of traumatic axonotomy of the brachial plexus (the pathology of peripheral nervous system). MATERIAL AND METHODS: MRI morphometry of white and grey matter was studied in 62 patients with traumatic axonotomy of the brachial plexus. RESULTS: There were correlations between the thickness of sensorimotor cortex, morphometric parameters (volume, diffusion, fractional anisotropy) of subcortical formations (corticospinal tracts, the forceps minor), severity of neurological deficit and dynamics of clinical course depending on the therapeutic strategy...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509386/descending-pathways-to-the-spinal-cord-in-teleosts-in-comparison-with-mammals-with-special-attention-to-rubrospinal-pathways
#7
REVIEW
Naoyuki Yamamoto, Tomoya Nakayama, Hanako Hagio
In this article we review descending neural pathways to the spinal cord in teleosts, compared with mammals. Descending pathways to the spinal cord are crucial in controlling various behaviors in vertebrates. The major difference between teleosts and mammals is the lack of corticospinal (or palliospinal) tracts. Other descending pathways, which originate from the brain stem, are basically identical in teleosts and mammals. This suggests the presence of common systems in the spinal motor control by higher order centers...
May 16, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507510/enhanced-axonal-extension-of-subcortical-projection-neurons-isolated-from-murine-embryonic-cortex-using-neuropilin-1
#8
Noritaka Sano, Takafumi Shimogawa, Hideya Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko Ioroi, Yoshifumi Miyawaki, Asuka Morizane, Susumu Miyamoto, Jun Takahashi
The cerebral cortical tissue of murine embryo and pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived neurons can survive in the brain and extend axons to the spinal cord. For efficient cell integration to the corticospinal tract (CST) after transplantation, the induction or selection of cortical motor neurons is important. However, precise information about the appropriate cell population remains unclear. To address this issue, we isolated cells expressing Neuropilin-1 (NRP1), a major axon guidance molecule receptor during the early developmental stage, from E14...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506487/a-review-of-monopolar-motor-mapping-and-a-comprehensive-guide-to-continuous-dynamic-motor-mapping-for-resection-of-motor-eloquent-brain-tumors
#9
P Schucht, K Seidel, A Jilch, J Beck, A Raabe
Monopolar mapping of motor function differs from the most commonly used method of intraoperative mapping, i.e. bipolar direct electrical stimulation at 50-60Hz (Penfield technique mapping). Most importantly, the monopolar probe emits a radial, homogenous electrical field different to the more focused inter-tip bipolar electrical field. Most users combine monopolar stimulation with the short train technique, also called high frequency stimulation, or train-of-five techniques. It consists of trains of four to nine monopolar rectangular electrical pulses of 200-500μs pulse length with an inter stimulus interval of 2-4msec...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506486/preoperative-and-intraoperative-neurophysiological-investigations-for-surgical-resections-in-functional-areas
#10
G Huberfeld, A Trébuchon, L Capelle, J-M Badier, S Chen, J-P Lefaucheur, M Gavaret
Brain regions are removed to treat lesions, but great care must be taken not to disturb or remove functional areas in the lesion and in surrounding tissue where healthy and diseased cells may be intermingled, especially for infiltrating tumors. Cortical functional areas and fiber tracts can be localized preoperatively by probabilistic anatomical tools, but mapping of functional integrity by neurophysiology is essential. Identification of the primary motor cortex seems to be more effectively performed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) than functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504121/corticospinal-excitability-during-the-processing-of-handwritten-and-typed-words-and-non-words
#11
Chelsea L Gordon, Michael J Spivey, Ramesh Balasubramaniam
A number of studies have suggested that perception of actions is accompanied by motor simulation of those actions. To further explore this proposal, we applied Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the left primary motor cortex during the observation of handwritten and typed language stimuli, including words and non-word consonant clusters. We recorded motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle to measure cortico-spinal excitability during written text perception...
May 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503448/resting-state-metabolism-of-hand-knob-area-on-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-according-to-hand-function-and-tractography-of-corticospinal-tract-after-stroke
#12
Hae Won Kim, Dong Gyu Lee
OBJECTIVE: To correlate the resting metabolism of hand knob and hand function after stroke, diffuse tensor tractography (DTT) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) were used to evaluate constructible state of white matter tract and metabolic state of gray matter, respectively. METHODS: A total of 17 patients were included in the study, who had suffered a stroke with hand weakness, after a stroke. They underwent diffusion tensor analysis and FDG PET in the subacute period...
April 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501822/structural-mri-correlates-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-progression
#13
Joe Senda, Naoki Atsuta, Hirohisa Watanabe, Epifanio Bagarinao, Kazunori Imai, Daichi Yokoi, Yuichi Riku, Michihito Masuda, Ryoichi Nakamura, Hazuki Watanabe, Mizuki Ito, Masahisa Katsuno, Shinji Naganawa, Gen Sobue
PURPOSE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) presents with varying degrees of brain degeneration that can extend beyond the corticospinal tract (CST). Furthermore, the clinical course and progression of ALS varies widely. Brain degeneration detected using structural MRI could reflect disease progression. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: On study registration, 3-Tesla volumetric MRI and diffusion tensor imaging scans were obtained at baseline in 38 healthy controls and 67 patients with sporadic ALS...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500983/night-sleep-influences-white-matter-microstructure-in-bipolar-depression
#14
Francesco Benedetti, Elisa M T Melloni, Sara Dallaspezia, Irene Bollettini, Clara Locatelli, Sara Poletti, Cristina Colombo
BACKGROUND: Alteration of circadian rhythms and sleep disruption are prominent trait-like features of bipolar disorder (BD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures suggest a widespread alteration of white matter (WM) microstructure in patients with BD. Sleep promotes myelination and oligodendrocyte precursor cells proliferation. We hypothesized a possible association between DTI measures of WM microstructure and sleep quantity measures in BD. METHODS: We studied 69 inpatients affected by a depressive episode in course of type I BD...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499876/mr-imaging-for-accurate-prediction-of-outcome-after-perinatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-sooner-not-necessarily-better
#15
Nienke Wagenaar, Niek E van der Aa, Floris Groenendaal, Cornelia H Verhage, Manon J N L Benders, Linda S de Vries
BACKGROUND: Involvement of the corticospinal tracts after perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS) is strongly correlated with adverse motor outcome. METHODS: Two full-term infants with PAIS, with two early MRI scans available, are reported. RESULTS: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)-MRI, performed within 24 h following onset of seizures and repeated 48 h later, clearly showed restricted diffusion within the middle cerebral artery territory on both MRIs, but clear patterns of signal intensity changes in the descending corticospinal tracts on the second MRI only...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495848/physical-activity-modulates-corticospinal-excitability-of-the-lower-limb-in-young-and-old-adults
#16
Hamidollah Hassanlouei, Christopher W Sundberg, Ashleigh Elizabeth Smith, Andrew Kuplic, Sandra K Hunter
Aging is associated with reduced neuromuscular function, which may be due in part to altered corticospinal excitability. Regular physical activity (PA) may ameliorate these age-related declines, but the influence of PA on corticospinal excitability is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of age, sex and PA on corticospinal excitability by comparing the stimulus-response curves of motor evoked potentials (MEP) in 28 young (22.4±2.2 yrs, 14 women, 14 men) and 50 old adults (70.2±6...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495829/association-between-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-genotype-and-upper-extremity-motor-outcome-after-stroke
#17
Won Hyuk Chang, Eunhee Park, Jungsoo Lee, Ahee Lee, Yun-Hee Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The identification of intrinsic factors for predicting upper extremity motor outcome could aid the design of individualized treatment plans in stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors, including intrinsic genetic factors, for upper extremity motor outcome in patients with subacute stroke. METHODS: A total of 97 patients with subacute stroke were enrolled. Upper limb motor impairment was scored according to the upper limb of Fugl-Meyer assessment score at 3 months after stroke...
May 11, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495799/studies-on-truncating-mutations-of-spast-associated-with-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia-indicate-greater-accumulation-and-toxicity-of-the-m1-isoform-of-spastin
#18
Joanna M Solowska, Anand N Rao, Peter W Baas
The SPAST gene, which produces two isoforms (M1 and M87) of the microtubule-severing protein called spastin, is the chief gene mutated in hereditary spastic paraplegia. Haploinsufficiency is a popular explanation for the disease, in part because most of the over 200 pathogenic mutations of the gene are truncating, and expected to produce only vanishingly small amounts of shortened proteins. Here we studied two such mutations, N184X and S245X, and our results suggest another possibility. We found that the truncated M1 proteins can accumulate to notably higher levels than their truncated M87 or wild-type counterparts...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487252/capecitabine-induced-acute-toxic-leukoencephalopathy
#19
M Obadia, D Leclercq, Johanna Wasserman, D Galanaud, D Dormont, M Sahli-Amor, Dimitri Psimaras, N Pyatigorskaya, B Law-Ye
A 45-year-old woman was treated by Capecitabine (Xeloda(®)) during 6days for breast cancer with metastatic bone lesions when she presented with nausea, headaches, muscle cramps, dysarthria and swallowing disorders. A stroke was first suspected. Brain CT was normal. MRI showed bilateral and symmetric high signal intensities of deep white matter, corpus callosum and corticospinal tracts on diffusion-weighted imaging and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence, similar to 5-FU acute leukoencephalopathy...
May 6, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487249/combining-tdcs-with-prismatic-adaptation-for-non-invasive-neuromodulation-of-the-motor-cortex
#20
Martina Bracco, Giuseppa Renata Mangano, Patrizia Turriziani, Daniela Smirni, Massimiliano Oliveri
BACKGROUND: Prismatic adaptation (PA) shifts visual field laterally and induces lateralized deviations of spatial attention. Recently, it has been suggested that prismatic goggles are also able to modulate brain excitability, with cognitive after-effects documented even in tasks not necessarily spatial in nature. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to test whether neuromodulatory effects obtained from tDCS and prismatic goggles could interact and induce homeostatic changes in corticospinal excitability...
May 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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