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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348290/an-unusual-case-of-basilar-artery-aneurysm-presenting-with-spastic-quadriparesis
#1
Chandramohan Sharma, Banshi Lal Kumawat, Deepika Sagar, Maulik Panchal
Unruptured aneurysm usually presents with headache and neuro-ophthalmic features; when it ruptures, it presents with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Basilar artery aneurysm represents only 3-5% of cerebral aneurysms. Non-haemorrhagic symptoms and the signs of unruptured aneurysms are manifested as mass effect, thromboembolic phenomenon or epileptical attacks. Clinical presentation of unruptured aneurysm depends on structures which are involved. In our case, the patient had insidious onset headache and spastic quadriparesis with sixth cranial nerve palsy, which implicate involvement of corticospinal pathways at the level of pons...
January 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335430/transspinal-direct-current-stimulation-produces-persistent-plasticity-in-human-motor-pathways
#2
Lynda M Murray, Behdad Tahayori, Maria Knikou
The spinal cord is an integration center for descending, ascending, and segmental neural signals. Noninvasive transspinal stimulation may thus constitute an effective method for concomitant modulation of local and distal neural circuits. In this study, we established changes in cortical excitability and input/output function of corticospinal and spinal neural circuits before, at 0-15 and at 30-45 minutes after cathodal, anodal, and sham transspinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) to the thoracic region in healthy individuals...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335359/recruitment-of-additional-corticospinal-pathways-in-the-human-brain-with-state-dependent-paired-associative-stimulation
#3
Dominic Kraus, Georgios Naros, Robert Guggenberger, Maria Teresa Leão, Ulf Ziemann, Alireza Gharabaghi
Standard brain stimulation protocols modify human motor cortex excitability by modulating the gain of the activated corticospinal pathways. However, the restoration of motor function following lesions of the corticospinal tract requires also the recruitment of additional neurons to increase the net corticospinal output. For this purpose, we investigated a novel protocol based on brain state-dependent paired associative stimulation.Motor imagery (MI)-related electroencephalography was recorded in healthy males and females for brain state-dependent control of both cortical and peripheral stimulation in a brain-machine interface environment...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330136/white-matter-volume-loss-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-meta-analysis-of-voxel-based-morphometry-studies
#4
REVIEW
Guangxiang Chen, Baiwan Zhou, Hongyan Zhu, Weihong Kuang, Feng Bi, Hua Ai, Zhongwei Gu, Xiaoqi Huang, Su Lui, Qiyong Gong
Structural neuroimaging studies of white matter (WM) volume in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) have yielded inconsistent findings. This study aimed to perform a quantitative voxel-based meta-analysis using effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM) to establish a statistical consensus between published studies for WM volume alterations in ALS. The pooled meta-analysis revealed significant WM volume losses in the bilateral supplementary motor areas (SMAs), bilateral precentral gyri (PGs), left middle cerebellar peduncle and right cerebellum in patients with ALS, involving the corticospinal tract (CST), interhemispheric fibers, subcortical arcuate fibers, projection fibers to the striatum and cortico-ponto-cerebellar tract...
January 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327279/emotion-recognition-and-psychological-comorbidity-in-friedreich-s-ataxia
#5
Teresa Costabile, Veronica Capretti, Filomena Abate, Agnese Liguori, Francesca Paciello, Chiara Pane, Anna De Rosa, Silvio Peluso, Giuseppe De Michele, Alessandro Filla, Francesco Saccà
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disease presenting with ataxia, corticospinal signs, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiac abnormalities. Little effort has been made to understand the psychological and emotional burden of the disease. The aim of our study was to measure patients' ability to recognize emotions using visual and non-verbal auditory hints, and to correlate this ability with psychological, neuropsychological, and neurological variables. We included 20 patients with FRDA, and 20 age, sex, and education matched healthy controls (HC)...
January 11, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327170/the-effects-of-a-single-session-of-spinal-manipulation-on-strength-and-cortical-drive-in-athletes
#6
Thomas Lykke Christiansen, Imran Khan Niazi, Kelly Holt, Rasmus Wiberg Nedergaard, Jens Duehr, Kathryn Allen, Paul Marshall, Kemal S Türker, Jan Hartvigsen, Heidi Haavik
PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether a single session of spinal manipulation (SM) increases strength and cortical drive in the lower limb (soleus muscle) of elite Taekwondo athletes. METHODS: Soleus-evoked V-waves, H-reflex and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the plantar flexors were recorded from 11 elite Taekwondo athletes using a randomized controlled crossover design. Interventions were either SM or passive movement control...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323043/neural-computational-modeling-reveals-a-major-role-of-corticospinal-gating-of-central-oscillations-in-the-generation-of-essential-tremor
#7
Hong-En Qu, Chuanxin M Niu, Si Li, Man-Zhao Hao, Zi-Xiang Hu, Qing Xie, Ning Lan
Essential tremor, also referred to as familial tremor, is an autosomal dominant genetic disease and the most common movement disorder. It typically involves a postural and motor tremor of the hands, head or other part of the body. Essential tremor is driven by a central oscillation signal in the brain. However, the corticospinal mechanisms involved in the generation of essential tremor are unclear. Therefore, in this study, we used a neural computational model that includes both monosynaptic and multisynaptic corticospinal pathways interacting with a propriospinal neuronal network...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323025/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-to-promote-motor-and-functional-recovery-following-spinal-cord-injury
#8
REVIEW
Aysegul Gunduz, John Rothwell, Joan Vidal, Hatice Kumru
We conducted a systematic review of studies using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS: repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)) as a research and clinical tool aimed at improving motor and functional recovery or spasticity in patients following spinal cord injury (SCI) under the assumption that if the residual corticospinal circuits could be stimulated appropriately, the changes might be accompanied by functional recovery or an improvement in spasticity...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322201/characterization-of-corticospinal-activation-of-finger-motor-neurons-during-precision-and-power-grip-in-humans
#9
Christian Svane, Christian Riis Forman, Jens Bo Nielsen, Svend Sparre Geertsen
Direct and indirect corticospinal pathways to finger muscles may play a different role in control of the upper extremity. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and coherence analysis to characterize the corticospinal drive to the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor pollicis brevis (APB) when active during a precision and power grip task. In experiment 1, single motor units were recorded during precision grip and power grip in 20 adults (25.2 ± 7.1 years). Post-stimulus time histograms (PSTH) were obtained following TMS...
January 10, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321336/neuroimaging-identifies-patients-most-likely-to-respond-to-a-restorative-stroke-therapy
#10
Jessica M Cassidy, George Tran, Erin B Quinlan, Steven C Cramer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patient heterogeneity reduces statistical power in clinical trials of restorative therapies. Valid predictors of treatment responsiveness are needed, and several have been studied with a focus on corticospinal tract (CST) injury. We studied performance of 4 such measures for predicting behavioral gains in response to motor training therapy. METHODS: Patients with subacute-chronic hemiparetic stroke (n=47) received standardized arm motor therapy, and change in arm Fugl-Meyer score was calculated from baseline to 1 month post-therapy...
January 10, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319405/does-stroke-rehabilitation-really-matter-part-a-proportional-stroke-recovery-in-the-rat
#11
Matthew Strider Jeffers, Sudhir Karthikeyan, Dale Corbett
BACKGROUND: In human upper-limb stroke, initial level of functional impairment or corticospinal tract injury can accurately predict the degree of poststroke recovery, independent of rehabilitation practices. This proportional recovery rule implies that current rehabilitation practices may play little or no role in brain repair, with recovery largely a result of spontaneous biological recovery processes. OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to determine if similar biomarkers predict recovery of poststroke function in rats, indicating that an endogenous biological recovery process might be preserved across mammalian species...
January 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319208/image-registration-to-compensate-for-epi-distortion-in-patients-with-brain-tumors-an-evaluation-of-tract-specific-effects
#12
Angela Albi, Antonio Meola, Fan Zhang, Pegah Kahali, Laura Rigolo, Chantal M W Tax, Pelin Aksit Ciris, Walid I Essayed, Prashin Unadkat, Isaiah Norton, Yogesh Rathi, Olutayo Olubiyi, Alexandra J Golby, Lauren J O'Donnell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) provides preoperative maps of neurosurgical patients' white matter tracts, but these maps suffer from echo-planar imaging (EPI) distortions caused by magnetic field inhomogeneities. In clinical neurosurgical planning, these distortions are generally not corrected and thus contribute to the uncertainty of fiber tracking. Multiple image processing pipelines have been proposed for image-registration-based EPI distortion correction in healthy subjects...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316271/fingolimod-improved-axonal-and-myelin-integrity-of-white-matter-tracts-associated-with-multiple-sclerosis-related-functional-impairments
#13
Michael Gurevich, Roy Waknin, Evan Stone, Anat Achiron
AIMS: Fingolimod hydrochloride is an effective immunomodulatory drug in improving relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However, data on the neuroradiologic effects on white matter (WM) have not been demonstrated. In this study, we aimed elucidating the impact of 1-year fingolimod treatment on WM integrity in patients with RRMS. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was applied to assess axonal and myelin integrity in specific WM tracts of patients with RRMS prior to and 1 year postfingolimod treatment (n = 30)...
January 5, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315829/effects-of-acute-isometric-resistance-exercise-on-cervicomedullary-motor-evoked-potentials
#14
James L Nuzzo, Benjamin K Barry, Simon C Gandevia, Janet L Taylor
Cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (CMEPs) in relaxed biceps brachii have been reported to facilitate after acute isometric exercise of the elbow flexors. This facilitation, which reflects either enhanced corticospinal transmission or increased motoneurone excitability, has only been documented in the limb posture used during exercise. In Experiment 1, we tested if these spinal changes "transfer" to a second posture. Fourteen individuals completed 12 sets of high-force isometric contractions of the elbow flexors with the forearm pronated...
January 6, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315368/treatment-with-the-neutralizing-antibody-against-repulsive-guidance-molecule-a-promotes-recovery-from-impaired-manual-dexterity-in-a-primate-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Hiroshi Nakagawa, Taihei Ninomiya, Toshihide Yamashita, Masahiko Takada
Axons in the mature mammalian central nervous system have only a limited capacity to grow/regenerate after injury, and spontaneous recovery of motor functions is therefore not greatly expected in spinal cord injury (SCI). To promote functional recovery after SCI, it is critical that corticospinal tract (CST) fibers reconnect properly with target spinal neurons through enhanced axonal growth/regeneration. Here, we applied antibody treatment against repulsive guidance molecule-a (RGMa) to a monkey model of SCI...
January 5, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312877/diagnostic-contribution-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-an-atypical-presentation-of-motor-neuron-disease
#16
Lorenzo Ugga, Cinzia Coppola, Sirio Cocozza, Dario Saracino, Ferdinando Caranci, Francesco Tuccillo, Elisabetta Signoriello, Sara Casertano, Giuseppe Di Iorio, Enrico Tedeschi
Motor neuron disease (MND) is a neurodegenerative disease determining progressive and relentless motor deterioration involving both upper and lower motor neurons (UMN and LMN); several variants at onset are described. Here we describe a case of MND presenting as pure spastic monoparesis in which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gave a substantial contribution in confirming the diagnosis and assessing the severity of UMN involvement. An isolated pyramidal syndrome, with complete absence of LMN signs, is a rare phenotype in the context of MND (less than 4% of total cases), especially if restricted to only one limb...
December 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311559/injured-adult-motor-and-sensory-axons-regenerate-into-appropriate-organotypic-domains-of-neural-progenitor-grafts
#17
Jennifer N Dulin, Andrew F Adler, Hiromi Kumamaru, Gunnar H D Poplawski, Corinne Lee-Kubli, Hans Strobl, Daniel Gibbs, Ken Kadoya, James W Fawcett, Paul Lu, Mark H Tuszynski
Neural progenitor cell (NPC) transplantation has high therapeutic potential in neurological disorders. Functional restoration may depend on the formation of reciprocal connections between host and graft. While it has been reported that axons extending out of neural grafts in the brain form contacts onto phenotypically appropriate host target regions, it is not known whether adult, injured host axons regenerating into NPC grafts also form appropriate connections. We report that spinal cord NPCs grafted into the injured adult rat spinal cord self-assemble organotypic, dorsal horn-like domains...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310988/an-updated-diagnostic-approach-to-subtype-definition-of-vascular-parkinsonism-recommendations-from-an-expert-working-group
#18
REVIEW
Ivan Rektor, Nicolaas I Bohnen, Amos D Korczyn, Viktoria Gryb, Hrishikesh Kumar, Milica G Kramberger, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Zvezdan Pirtošek, Irena Rektorová, Ilana Schlesinger, Jaroslaw Slawek, Peter Valkovič, Branislav Veselý
This expert working group report proposes an updated approach to subtype definition of vascular parkinsonism (VaP) based on a review of the existing literature. The persistent lack of consensus on clear terminology and inconsistent conceptual definition of VaP formed the impetus for the current expert recommendation report. The updated diagnostic approach intends to provide a comprehensive tool for clinical practice. The preamble for this initiative is that VaP can be diagnosed in individual patients with possible prognostic and therapeutic consequences and therefore should be recognized as a clinical entity...
December 29, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305917/motor-imagery-of-voluntary-muscle-relaxation-of-the-foot-induces-a-temporal-reduction-of-corticospinal-excitability-in-the-hand
#19
Kouki Kato, Kazuyuki Kanosue
The object of this study was to clarify how the motor imagery of foot muscle relaxation influences corticospinal excitability for the ipsilateral hand. Twelve participants volitionally relaxed their right foot from a dorsiflexed position (actual relaxation), or imaged the same movement (imagery relaxation) in response to an auditory cue. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered to the hand area of the left primary motor cortex at different time intervals after an auditory cue. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR)...
January 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305060/does-ipsilateral-corticospinal-excitability-play-a-decisive-role-in-the-cross-education-effect-caused-by-unilateral-resistance-training-a-systematic-review
#20
D Colomer-Poveda, S Romero-Arenas, T Hortobagyi, G Márquez
INTRODUCTION: Unilateral resistance training has been shown to improve muscle strength in both the trained and the untrained limb. One of the most widely accepted theories is that this improved performance is due to nervous system adaptations, specifically in the primary motor cortex. According to this hypothesis, increased corticospinal excitability (CSE), measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation, is one of the main adaptations observed following prolonged periods of training...
January 2, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
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