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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646336/nogo-a-antibodies-enhance-axonal-repair-and-remyelination-in-neuro-inflammatory-and-demyelinating-pathology
#1
Benjamin V Ineichen, Sandra Kapitza, Christiane Bleul, Nicolas Good, Patricia S Plattner, Maryam S Seyedsadr, Julia Kaiser, Marc P Schneider, Björn Zörner, Roland Martin, Michael Linnebank, Martin E Schwab
Two hallmarks of chronic multiple sclerosis lesions are the absence of significant spontaneous remyelination and primary as well as secondary neurodegeneration. Both characteristics may be influenced by the presence of inhibitory factors preventing myelin and neuronal repair. We investigated the potential of antibodies against Nogo-A, a well-known inhibitory protein for neuronal growth and plasticity, to enhance neuronal regeneration and remyelination in two animal models of multiple sclerosis. We induced a targeted experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) lesion in the dorsal funiculus of the cervical spinal cord of adult rats resulting in a large drop of skilled forelimb motor functions...
June 23, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642286/brain-regions-important-for-recovery-after-severe-post-stroke-upper-limb-paresis
#2
Jane M Rondina, Chang-Hyun Park, Nick S Ward
Background The ability to predict outcome after stroke is clinically important for planning treatment and for stratification in restorative clinical trials. In relation to the upper limbs, the main predictor of outcome is initial severity, with patients who present with mild to moderate impairment regaining about 70% of their initial impairment by 3 months post-stroke. However, in those with severe presentations, this proportional recovery applies in only about half, with the other half experiencing poor recovery...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632000/the-influence-of-intrapersonal-sensorimotor-experiences-on-the-corticospinal-responses-during-action-observation
#3
James W Roberts, Merryn D Constable, Raquel Burgess, James L Lyons, Timothy N Welsh
The coupling of perception and action has been strongly indicated by evidence that the observation of an action primes a response in the observer. It has been proposed that these primed responses may be inhibited when the observer is able to more closely distinguish between self- and other-generated actions - the greater the distinction, then the greater the inhibition of the primed response. This self-other distinction is shown to be enhanced following a period of visual feedback of self-generated action. The present study was designed to examine how sensorimotor experiences pertaining to self-generated action affect primed responses from observed actions...
February 13, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630233/motor-recovery-prediction-with-clinical-assessment-and-local-diffusion-homogeneity-after-acute-subcortical-infarction
#4
Gang Liu, Shuangquan Tan, Chao Dang, Kangqiang Peng, Chuanmiao Xie, Shihui Xing, Jinsheng Zeng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Initial clinical assessment or conventional diffusion tensor imaging parameters alone do not reliably predict poststroke recovery of motor function. Recently, local diffusion homogeneity (LDH) has been proposed to represent the local coherence of water molecule diffusion and can serve as a complementary marker for investigating white matter alterations of the brain. We aimed to determine whether a combination of initial clinical assessment and LDH could predict motor recovery after acute subcortical infarction...
June 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628592/genetic-variation-and-neuroplasticity-role-in-rehabilitation-after-stroke
#5
Jill Campbell Stewart, Steven C Cramer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In many neurologic diagnoses, significant interindividual variability exists in the outcomes of rehabilitation. One factor that may impact response to rehabilitation interventions is genetic variation. Genetic variation refers to the presence of differences in the DNA sequence among individuals in a population. Genetic polymorphisms are variations that occur relatively commonly and, while not disease-causing, can impact the function of biological systems. The purpose of this article is to describe genetic polymorphisms that may impact neuroplasticity, motor learning, and recovery after stroke...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627417/regulation-of-primary-motor-cortex-excitability-by-repetitive-passive-finger-movement-frequency
#6
Ryoki Sasaki, Masaki Nakagawa, Shota Tsuiki, Shota Miyaguchi, Sho Kojima, Kei Saito, Yasuto Inukai, Mitsuhiro Masaki, Naofumi Otsuru, Hideaki Onishi
Somatosensory input induced by passive movement activates primary motor cortex (M1). We applied repetitive passive movement (RPM) of different frequencies to test if modulation of M1 excitability depends on RPM frequency. Twenty-seven healthy subjects participated in this study. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to left M1 were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) to assess corticospinal excitability (experiment 1: n=15), and F-waves were measured from the right FDI as an index of spinal motoneuron excitability (experiment 2: n=15)...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626016/the-mtor-substrate-s6-kinase-1-s6k1-is-a-negative-regulator-of-axon-regeneration-and-a-potential-drug-target-for-central-nervous-system-injury
#7
Hassan Al-Ali, Ying Ding, Tatiana Slepak, Wei Wu, Yan Sun, Yania Martinez, Xiao-Ming Xu, V P Lemmon, J L Bixby
The mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) positively regulates axon growth in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Though axon regeneration and functional recovery from CNS injuries are typically limited, knockdown or deletion of PTEN, a negative regulator of mTOR, increases mTOR activity and induces robust axon growth and regeneration. It has been suggested that inhibition of S6 Kinase 1 (S6K1, gene symbol: RPS6KB1), a prominent mTOR target, would blunt mTOR's positive effect on axon growth. In contrast to this expectation, we demonstrate that inhibition of S6K1 in CNS neurons promotes neurite outgrowth in vitro by 2-3 fold...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624562/impact-of-gradient-number-and-voxel-size-on-dti-tractography-for-resective-brain-surgery
#8
Friso W A Hoefnagels, Philip C de Witt Hamer, Petra J W Pouwels, Frederik Barkhof, W Peter Vandertop
OBJECTIVE: To explore quantitatively and qualitatively how the number of gradient directions (NGD) and spatial resolution (SR) affect DTI-tractography in patients planned for brain tumor surgery, using routine clinical MR-imaging protocols. METHODS: Of 67 patients with intracerebral lesions who had two different DTI-scans, three DTI-series were reconstructed to compare the effects of NGD and SR. Tractographies for four clinically relevant tracts (corticospinal tract, superior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus) were constructed with a probabilistic tracking algorithm and automated ROI-placement and compared for three quantitative measurements: tract volume, median fiber density and mean FA, using linear mixed-effects models...
June 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622692/motor-deficits-are-independent-of-axonopathy-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model-of-tgcrnd8-mice
#9
Qiuju Yuan, Jian Yang, Wutian Wu, Zhi-Xiu Lin
There have been an increasing number of reports of non-cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some symptoms are associated with the loss of motor functions, e.g. gait disturbances, disturbed activity level and balance. Consistent with clinical findings, several AD mouse models harboring amyloid pathology develop motor impairment. Although the factors that contribute to the motor deficits have not yet been determined, it has been suggested that axonopathy is one of the key factors that may contribute to this particular feature of the disease...
June 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620349/localization-of-deep-brain-stimulation-contacts-using-corticospinal-corticobulbar-tracts-stimulation
#10
Julien F Bally, Maria-Isabel Vargas, Judit Horvath, Vanessa Fleury, Pierre Burkhard, Shahan Momjian, Pierre Pollak, Colette Boex
BACKGROUND: Successful deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) requires optimal electrode placement. One technique of intraoperative electrode testing is determination of stimulation thresholds inducing corticospinal/corticobulbar tracts (CSBT) motor contractions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze correlations between DBS electrode distance to CSBT and contraction thresholds, with either visual or electromyography (EMG) detection, to establish an intraoperative tool devoted to ensure safe distance of the electrode to the CSBT...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616385/neurophysiological-evidence-of-preserved-connectivity-in-tuber-tissue
#11
H L Kaye, J M Peters, R Gersner, M Chamberland, A Sansevere, A Rotenberg
We present a case of preserved corticospinal connectivity in a cortical tuber, in a 10 year-old boy with intractable epilepsy and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The patient had multiple subcortical tubers, one of which was located in the right central sulcus. In preparation for epilepsy surgery, motor mapping, by neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) coupled with surface electromyography (EMG) was performed to locate the primary motor cortical areas. The resulting functional motor map revealed expected corticospinal connectivity in the left precentral gyrus...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616036/correlation-between-white-matter-damage-and-gray-matter-lesions-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#12
Xue-Mei Han, Hong-Ji Tian, Zheng Han, Ce Zhang, Ying Liu, Jie-Bing Gu, Rohit Bakshi, Xia Cao
We observed the characteristics of white matter fibers and gray matter in multiple sclerosis patients, to identify changes in diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy values following white matter fiber injury. We analyzed the correlation between fractional anisotropy values and changes in whole-brain gray matter volume. The participants included 20 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All subjects underwent head magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612374/measuring-mimicry-general-corticospinal-facilitation-during-observation-of-naturalistic-behaviour
#13
J E van Schaik, L M Sacheli, H Bekkering, I Toni, S M Aglioti
Mimicry of others' postures and behaviours forms an implicit yet indispensable component of social interactions. However, whereas numerous behavioural studies have investigated the occurrence of mimicry and its social sensitivity, the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure corticospinal facilitation during a naturalistic behaviour observation task adapted from the behavioural mimicry literature. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in participants' right hands were measured as they observed stimulus videos of a confederate describing photographs...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609669/sex-differences-in-associations-between-white-matter-microstructure-and-gonadal-hormones-in-children-and-adolescents-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#14
K A Uban, M M Herting, J R Wozniak, E R Sowell
Despite accumulating evidence from animal models demonstrating that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) results in life-long neuroendocrine dysregulation, very little is known on this topic among humans with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We expected that alterations in gonadal hormones might interfere with the typical development of white matter (WM) myelination, and in a sex-dependent manner, in human adolescents with FASD. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess: 1) whether or not sex moderates the impact of PAE on WM microstructure; and 2) how gonadal hormones relate to alterations in WM microstructure in children and adolescents affected by PAE...
May 26, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606752/how-does-the-interaction-of-presumed-timing-location-and-extent-of-the-underlying-brain-lesion-relate-to-upper-limb-function-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy
#15
Lisa Mailleux, Katrijn Klingels, Simona Fiori, Cristina Simon-Martinez, Philippe Demaerel, Marlies Locus, Eva Fosseprez, Roslyn N Boyd, Andrea Guzzetta, Els Ortibus, Hilde Feys
BACKGROUND: Upper limb (UL) function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) vary largely depending on presumed timing, location and extent of brain lesions. These factors might exhibit a complex interaction and the combined prognostic value warrants further investigation. This study aimed to map lesion location and extent and assessed whether these differ according to presumed lesion timing and to determine the impact of structural brain damage on UL function within different lesion timing groups...
May 29, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602815/evaluating-fibre-orientation-dispersion-in-white-matter-comparison-of-diffusion-mri-histology-and-polarized-light-imaging
#16
Jeroen Mollink, Michiel Kleinnijenhuis, Anne-Marie van Cappellen van Walsum, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Michiel Cottaar, Christopher Mirfin, Mattias P Heinrich, Mark Jenkinson, Menuka Pallebage-Gamarallage, Olaf Ansorge, Saad Jbabdi, Karla L Miller
Diffusion MRI is an exquisitely sensitive probe of tissue microstructure, and is currently the only non-invasive measure of the brain's fibre architecture. As this technique becomes more sophisticated and microstructurally informative, there is increasing value in comparing diffusion MRI with microscopic imaging in the same tissue samples. This study compared estimates of fibre orientation dispersion in white matter derived from diffusion MRI to reference measures of dispersion obtained from polarized light imaging and histology...
June 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597693/the-effects-of-mental-practice-combined-with-modified-constraint-induced-therapy-on-corticospinal-excitability-movement-quality-function-and-activities-of-daily-living-in-persons-with-stroke
#17
Hee Kim, Eun-Young Yoo, Min-Ye Jung, Jongbae Kim, Ji-Hyuk Park, Dae-Hyuk Kang
PURPOSE: Studies on to what extent the combined therapy of modified constraint-induced movement therapy and mental practice is more effective than modified constraint-induced movement therapy alone are lacking. This study aims to compare the effects of the combined therapy with modified constraint-induced movement therapy alone on corticospinal excitability, quality of the movement of the affected upper extremity, upper motor functions, and performance of the affected arm in daily life of hemiplegic stroke patients...
June 9, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597318/the-relationship-between-progressive-motor-deficits-and-lesion-location-in-patients-with-single-infarction-in-the-lenticulostriate-artery-territory
#18
Yasumasa Yamamoto, Yoshinari Nagakane, Yasuhiro Tomii, Shintaro Toda, Ichiro Akiguchi
As the corticospinal tracts cross the lenticulostriate artery (LSA) territory at the posterior segment, we hypothesized that posteriorly located infarctions of the LSA may be associated with progressive motor deficits. We prospectively studied 519 consecutive patients with LSA infarctions who entered our hospital within 24 h after onset. We categorized patients into two groups in terms of progress: no progress and progress. Progress was defined as worsening by 1 point or more in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), some of which recovered afterward or thoroughly progressed...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594428/compromised-integrity-of-central-visual-pathways-in-patients-with-macular-degeneration
#19
Maka Malania, Julia Konrad, Herbert Jägle, John S Werner, Mark W Greenlee
Purpose: Macular degeneration (MD) affects the central retina and leads to gradual loss of foveal vision. Although, photoreceptors are primarily affected in MD, the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and central visual pathways may also be altered subsequent to photoreceptor degeneration. Here we investigate whether retinal damage caused by MD alters microstructural properties of visual pathways using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Six MD patients and six healthy control subjects participated in the study...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590584/free-water-and-free-water-corrected-fractional-anisotropy-in-primary-and-premotor-corticospinal-tracts-in-chronic-stroke
#20
Derek B Archer, Carolynn Patten, Stephen A Coombes
Measures from diffusion MRI have been used to characterize the corticospinal tract in chronic stroke. However, diffusivity can be influenced by partial volume effects from free-water, region of interest placement, and lesion masking. We collected diffusion MRI from a cohort of chronic stroke patients and controls and used a bitensor model to calculate free-water corrected fractional anisotropy (FAT ) and free water (FW) in the primary motor corticospinal tract (M1-CST) and the dorsal premotor corticospinal tract (PMd-CST)...
June 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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