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Suppressor cells

Yingzhi Qin, Xiaoyun Zhou, Cheng Huang, Li Li, Hongsheng Liu, Naixin Liang, Yeye Chen, Dongjie Ma, Zhijun Han, Xiaohui Xu, Jia He, Shangqing Li
Aberrantly microRNAs (miRs) expression is reported to be involved in tumorigenesis and development in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MiR-340 had been identified to be downregulated in NSCLC in the previous study. However, the underlying mechanisms of miR-340 involved in NSCLC progression still needed to be well known. In the present study, we confirmed that miR-340 expression was notably down-regulated in NSCLC tissues compared to matched adjacent noncancerous lung tissues by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses...
June 20, 2018: Gene
Raphael Teipel, Uta Oelschlägel, Katrin Wetzko, Maria Schmiedgen, Michael Kramer, Elke Rücker-Braun, Kristina Hölig, Malte von Bonin, Katharina Heidrich, Anke Fuchs, Rainer Ordemann, Frank Kroschinsky, Martin Bornhäuser, Gero Hütter, Helmuth Schmidt, Gerhard Ehninger, Johannes Schetelig, Falk Heidenreich
This study was conducted to characterize and compare peripheral blood stem cell grafts from healthy donors, who underwent G-CSF-mobilization and subsequently received one dose of plerixafor, after insufficient stem cell yields were achieved at the first apheresis. Aliquots from 35 donors were collected from the first apheresis after mobilization with G-CSF alone, and from the second apheresis after additional plerixafor administration. Samples were freshly analyzed for cellular subsets by 8-color flow-cytometry...
June 20, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Tristen T Chun, Chun-Shiang Chung, Eleanor A Fallon, Noelle A Hutchins, Erlyana Clarke, Anne-Lise Rossi, William G Cioffi, Daithi S Heffernan, Alfred Ayala
Sepsis remains a major public health concern, characterized by marked immune dysfunction. Innate lymphoid cells develop from a common lymphoid precursor, but have a role in orchestrating inflammation during innate response to infection. Here we investigate the pathological contribution of the group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in a murine model of acute septic shock (cecal ligation and puncture). Flow cytometric data revealed that ILC2s increase in number and percentage in the small intestine and in the peritoneal cells, and inversely decline in the liver, at 24 hours following septic insult...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Gautam Sethi, Muthu K Shanmugam, Frank Arfuso, Alan Prem Kumar
Evolving strategies to counter cancer initiation and progression rely on the identification of novel therapeutic targets that exploit the aberrant genetic changes driving oncogenesis. Several chromatin associated enzymes have been shown to influence post-translational modification on DNA, histones, and non-histone proteins. Any deregulation of this core group of enzymes often leads to cancer development. Ubiquitylation of histone H2B in mammalian cells was identified over three decades ago. An exciting really interesting new gene (RING) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, known as RNF20 and RNF40, monoubiquitinates histone H2A at K119 or H2B at K120 and is known to function in transcription elongation, DNA double strand break repair processes, maintenance of chromatin differentiation, and exerting tumor suppressor activity...
June 22, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Paul L Feingold, Deborah R Surman, Kate Brown, Yuan Xu, Lucas A McDuffie, Vivek Shukla, Emily S Reardon, Daniel R Crooks, Jane B Trepel, Sunmin Lee, Min-Jung Lee, Shaojian Gao, Sichuan Xi, Kaitlin C McLoughlin, Laurence P Diggs, David G Beer, Derek J Nancarrow, Leonard M Neckers, Jeremy L Davis, Chuong D Hoang, Jonathan M Hernandez, David S Schrump, R Taylor Ripley
In 2017, an estimated 17,000 individuals were diagnosed with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and less than 20% will survive 5 years. PET-avidity is indicative of high glucose utilization and is nearly universal in EAC. TXNIP blocks glucose uptake and exhibits pro-apoptotic functions. Higher expression in EAC has been associated with improved disease-specific survival, lack of lymph node involvement, reduced perineural invasion, and increased tumor differentiation. We hypothesized that TXNIP may act as a tumor suppressor that sensitizes EAC cells to standard chemotherapeutics...
June 22, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Scott R Frank, Clemens P Köllmann, Phi Luong, Giorgio G Galli, Lihua Zou, André Bernards, Gad Getz, Raffaele A Calogero, Morten Frödin, Steen H Hansen
ARHGAP35 encoding p190A RhoGAP is a cancer-associated gene with a mutation spectrum suggestive of a tumor-suppressor function. In this study, we demonstrate that loss of heterozygosity for ARHGAP35 occurs in human tumors. We sought to identify tumor-suppressor capacities for p190A RhoGAP (p190A) and its paralog p190B in epithelial cells. We reveal an essential role for p190A and p190B to promote contact inhibition of cell proliferation (CIP), a function that relies on RhoGAP activity. Unbiased mRNA sequencing analyses establish that p190A and p190B modulate expression of genes associated with the Hippo pathway...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Jianxin Yang, Jacqueline Anholts, Ulrike Kolbe, Janine A Stegehuis-Kamp, Frans H J Claas, Michael Eikmans
High expression levels of the calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 in myeloid cells in kidney transplant rejections are associated with a favorable outcome. Here we investigated the myeloid cell subset expressing these molecules, and their function in inflammatory reactions. Different monocyte subsets were sorted from buffy coats of healthy donors and investigated for S100A8 and S100A9 expression. To characterize S100A9high and S100A9low subsets within the CD14+ classical monocyte subset, intracellular S100A9 staining was combined with flow cytometry (FACS) and qPCR profiling...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maria Lina Tornesello, Clorinda Annunziata, Anna Lucia Tornesello, Luigi Buonaguro, Franco Maria Buonaguro
Viral oncogenesis is a multistep process largely depending on the complex interplay between viruses and host factors. The oncoviruses are capable of subverting the cell signaling machinery and metabolic pathways and exploit them for infection, replication, and persistence. Several viral oncoproteins are able to functionally inactivate the tumor suppressor p53, causing deregulated expression of many genes orchestrated by p53, such as those involved in apoptosis, DNA stability, and cell proliferation. The Epstein⁻Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1, the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6, and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5 proteins have shown to directly bind to and degrade p53...
June 22, 2018: Cancers
Dong Fang, Haiyun Gan, Liang Cheng, Jeong-Heon Lee, Hui Zhou, Jann N Sarkaria, David J Daniels, Zhiguo Zhang
Expression of histone H3.3K27M mutant proteins in human diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) results in a global reduction of tri-methylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3), and paradoxically, H3K27me3 peaks remain at hundreds of genomic loci, a dichotomous change that lacks mechanistic insights. Here we show that the PRC2 complex is sequestered at poised enhancers, but not at active promoters with high levels of H3.3K27M proteins, thereby contributing to the global reduction of H3K27me3. Moreover, the levels of H3...
June 22, 2018: ELife
Imelda Martínez-Ramírez, Adela Carrillo-García, Adriana Contreras-Paredes, Elizabeth Ortiz-Sánchez, Alfredo Cruz-Gregorio, Marcela Lizano
The alteration of glucose metabolism is one of the first biochemical characteristics associated with cancer cells since most of these cells increase glucose consumption and glycolytic rates even in the presence of oxygen, which has been called “aerobic glycolysis” or the Warburg effect. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with approximately 5% of all human cancers worldwide, principally to cervical cancer. E6 and E7 are the main viral oncoproteins which are required to preserve the malignant phenotype...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volker Nickeleit, Harsharan K Singh, Daniel J Kenan, Piotr A Mieczkowski
In immunocompromised patients, reactivation of latent BK-polyomavirus (BKPyV) can cause disease with lytic infections of kidneys and the lower urinary tract. Emerging evidence also links BKPyV to oncogenesis and high grade intra-renal and transitional cell carcinomas. These neoplasms strongly express polyomavirus large-T antigen as a defining feature, i.e. they are "large-T positive carcinomas". Such neoplasms arise in immunocompromised patients, typically in renal allograft recipients and preferentially in tissues harboring latent BKPyV...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Hiroaki Iwasa, Aradhan Sarkar, Takanobu Shimizu, Takeru Sawada, Shakhawoat Hossain, Xiaoyin Xu, Junichi Maruyama, Kyoko Arimoto-Matsuzaki, Kanchanamala Withanage, Kentaro Nakagawa, Hidetake Kurihara, Hidehito Kuroyanagi, Yutaka Hata
Ras-association domain family 6 (RASSF6) is a tumor suppressor that interacts with MDM2 and stabilizes p53. Caenorhabditis elegans unc-119 encodes a protein that is required for the normal development of the nervous system. Human has two unc-119 homologues, UNC119 and UNC119B. We have identified UNC119 as a RASSF6-interacting protein. UNC119 promotes the interaction between RASSF6 and MDM2 and stabilizes p53. Thus, UNC119 induces apoptosis via RASSF6 and p53. UNC119 depletion impairs DNA repair after DNA damage and results in polyploid cell generation...
June 21, 2018: Cancer Science
Alexey Surov, Hans Jonas Meyer, Anne-Kathrin Höhn, Karsten Winter, Osama Sabri, Sandra Purz
PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of common cancers worldwide. Positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18 F]FDG) is increasingly used for diagnosing and staging, as well as for monitoring of treatment of HNSCC. PET parameters like maximum and mean standard uptake values (SUVmax , SUVmean ) can predict the behavior of HNSCC. The purpose of this study was to analyze possible associations between these PET parameters and clinically relevant histopathological features in patients with HNSCC...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Róbert Zach, Jarmila Tvaružková, Martin Schätz, Ondrej Tupa, Beáta Grallert, Martin Prevorovský
Fission yeast 'cut' mutants show defects in temporal coordination of nuclear division with cytokinesis, resulting in aberrant mitosis and lethality. Among other causes, the 'cut' phenotype can be triggered by genetic or chemical perturbation of lipid metabolism, supposedly resulting in shortage of membrane phospholipids and insufficient nuclear envelope expansion during anaphase. Interestingly, penetrance of the 'cut' phenotype in mutants of the transcription factor cbf11 and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase cut6, both related to lipid metabolism, is highly dependent on growth media, although the specific nutrient(s) affecting 'cut' occurrence is not known...
June 19, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Yoshiyuki Suehara, Keisuke Akaike, Kenta Mukaihara, Aiko Kurisaki-Arakawa, Daisuke Kubota, Taketo Okubo, Hiroyuki Mitomi, Keiko Mitani, Michiko Takahashi, Midori Toda-Ishii, Youngji Kim, Yu Tanabe, Tatsuya Takagi, Takuo Hayashi, Kaoru Mogushi, Kazuo Kaneko, Takashi Yao, Tsuyoshi Saito
Our group has previously demonstrated that pfetin, encoded by the KCTD12 gene, is a strong prognostic biomarker for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). However, the underlying mechanisms that control pfetin expression remain unknown. To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of KCTD12 in GIST, in addition to a possible association between KCTD12 alterations and protein expression, we examined 76 patients with GISTs for KCTD12 mutations by PCR-direct sequence, and compared these results with clinicopathologic data...
June 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Lu Meng, Hongyu Hu, Huifang Zhi, Yue Liu, Fangyu Shi, Laiguang Zhang, Yanjun Zhou, Aixing Lin
Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) is a transcription factor with a well-defined role in stem cell pluripotency. Two OCT4 isoforms, OCT4A and OCT4B, tend to be downregulated as normal cells differentiate. However, OCT4, particularly OCT4B, may become reactivated in cancer cells. Despite this observation, the exact function of OCT4B re-expression in cancer is unclear. In the present study, the role of OCT4 in breast cancer cells was determined. In particular, the ability of OCT4 to regulate key genes involved in cellular proliferation and apoptosis, two pathways that are frequently deregulated in cancer, was examined...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Minggang Peng, Jingjing Wang, Dongyun Zhang, Honglei Jin, Jingxia Li, Xue-Ru Wu, Chuanshu Huang
Pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 2 (PHLPP2) is a tumor suppressor that catalyzes the de-phosphorylation of the AGC kinases, while p27 acts as a tumor suppressor that regulates cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell motility. Our previous studies have identified that PHLPP2 participates in inhibition of transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells following lung carcinogen B[a]P/B[a]PDE exposure. However, nothing was known about the association of p27 with regulation of PHLPP2 expression and the role of PHLPP2 in bladder cancer (BC) invasion...
June 21, 2018: Oncogene
Rodrigo Siqueira Reis, Celso G Litholdo, Julia Bally, Thomas H Roberts, Peter M Waterhouse
RNA silencing is a powerful tool deployed by plants against viral infection and abnormal gene expression. Plant viruses have evolved a suite of silencing suppressors for counter-defense, which are also widely used to boost transcript and protein accumulation in transient assays. However, only wild type silencing suppressor proteins have been reported to date. Here we demonstrate that P0 of Potato leafroll virus (PLRV), PLP0, can be split into two proteins that only show silencing suppression activity upon co-expression...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yafei Ye, Shengnan Yang, Yanping Han, Jingjing Sun, Lijuan Xv, Lina Wu, Yongfeng Wang, Liang Ming
Long intergenic non-coding RNA Linc00472 has been considered as a tumor suppressor in some cancers. However, the function and mechanism of Linc00472 in colorectal cancer has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that Linc00472 was down-regulated in colorectal cancer tissues and cells. Elevated Linc00472 expression suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. Moreover, Linc00472 acted as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of miR-196a to release programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4)...
June 21, 2018: Aging
Akihiko Yuki, Satoru Shinkuma, Ryota Hayashi, Hiroki Fujikawa, Taisuke Kato, Erina Homma, Yohei Hamade, Osamu Onodera, Masao Matsuoka, Hiroshi Shimizu, Hiroaki Iwata, Riichiro Abe
BACKGROUND: Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Early-stage MF patches or plaques often resemble inflammatory skin disorders (ISDs), including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), initially identified as a tumor suppressor gene in human non-small-cell lung cancer, has been reported as a diagnostic marker for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). OBJECTIVE: We investigated CADM1 expression in MF neoplastic cells, especially during early stages, and evaluated its usefulness as a diagnostic marker for MF...
June 18, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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