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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823142/oncogenes-mitochondrial-metabolism-and-quality-control-in-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#1
Hyon-Seung Yi, Joon Young Chang, Koon Soon Kim, Minho Shong
Thyroid cancer is one of the most common malignancies of endocrine organs, and its incidence rate has increased steadily over the past several decades. Most differentiated thyroid tumors derived from thyroid epithelial cells exhibit slow-growing cancers, and patients with these tumors can achieve a good prognosis with surgical removal and radioiodine treatment. However, a small proportion of patients present with advanced thyroid cancer and are unusually resistant to current drug treatment modalities. Thyroid tumorigenesis is a complex process that is regulated by the activation of oncogenes, inactivation of tumor suppressors, and alterations in programmed cell death...
August 22, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822679/spatial-and-temporal-control-of-senescence
#2
REVIEW
Yoko Ito, Matthew Hoare, Masashi Narita
Cellular senescence is an autonomous tumor suppressor mechanism leading to stable cell cycle arrest. Senescent cells are highly secretory, driving a range of different functions through the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Recent findings have suggested that the composition of the SASP is dynamically and spatially regulated and that the changing composition of the SASP can determine the beneficial and detrimental aspects of the senescence program, tipping the balance to either an immunosuppressive/profibrotic environment or proinflammatory/fibrolytic state...
August 16, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822593/decreased-expression-of-microrna-122-is-associated-with-an-unfavorable-prognosis-in-childhood-acute-myeloid-leukemia-and-function-analysis-indicates-a-therapeutic-potential
#3
Juan Yang, Yufang Yuan, Xiaochun Yang, Ze Hong, Lijuan Yang
MicroRNA (miR)-122 functions as a tumor suppressor in various human cancers. However, its involvement in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unknown. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR assay demonstrated that miR-122 expression in bone marrow specimens from AML children were significantly lower than that in non-malignant controls (P<0.001). Statistically, AML children with low miR-122 expression more frequently had large white blood cell count (P=0.022), French-American-British classification subtype M7 (P<0...
June 28, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821767/identification-of-candidate-genes-for-devil-facial-tumour-disease-tumourigenesis
#4
Robyn L Taylor, Yiru Zhang, Jennifer P Schöning, Janine E Deakin
Devil facial tumour (DFT) disease, a transmissible cancer where the infectious agent is the tumour itself, has caused a dramatic decrease in Tasmanian devil numbers in the wild. The purpose of this study was to take a candidate gene/pathway approach to identify potentially perturbed genes or pathways in DFT. A fusion of chromosome 1 and X is posited as the initial event leading to the development of DFT, with the rearranged chromosome 1 material now stably maintained as the tumour spreads through the population...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821631/6-methoxyethylamino-numonafide-inhibits-hepatocellular-carcinoma-xenograft-growth-as-a-single-agent-and-in-combination-with-sorafenib
#5
Yanning Liu, Guohua Lou, John T Norton, Chen Wang, Irawati Kandela, Shuai Tang, Nathaniel I Shank, Pankaj Gupta, Min Huang, Michael J Avram, Richard Green, Andrew Mazar, Daniel Appella, Zhi Chen, Sui Huang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading form of cancer worldwide, and its incidence is increasing rapidly in the United States, tripling over the past 3 decades. The current chemotherapeutic strategies against localized and metastatic HCC are ineffective. Here we report that 6-methoxyethylamino-numonafide (MEAN) is a potent growth inhibitor of murine xenografts of 2 human HCC cell lines. At the same dose and with the same treatment strategies, MEAN was more efficacious in inhibiting tumor growth in mice than sorafenib, the only approved drug for HCC...
August 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820389/hippo-pathway-brief-overview-of-its-relevance-in-cancer
#6
A L Zygulska, K Krzemieniecki, P Pierzchalski
The Hippo pathway is the major regulator of organ growth and proliferation. Described initially in Drosophila, it is now recognized as one of the most conserved molecular pathways in all metazoan. Recent studies have revealed the Hippo signalling pathway might contribute to tumorigenesis and cancer development. The core components of the Hippo pathway include the mammalian sterile 20-like kinases (MSTs), large tumour suppressor kinases (LATSs), the adaptor proteins Salvador homologue 1 (SAV1, also called WW45) and Mps One Binder kinase activator proteins...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820328/lps-induced-inflammatory-response-triggers-cell-cycle-reactivation-in-murine-neuronal-cells-through-retinoblastoma-proteins-induction
#7
Barbara D'Angelo, Carlo Astarita, Silvia Boffo, Mina Massaro-Giordano, Carmelina Iannuzzi, Antonella Caporaso, Marcella Macaluso, Antonio Giordano
Cell cycle reactivation in adult neurons is an early hallmark of neurodegeneration. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a well-known pro-inflammatory factor that provokes neuronal cell death via glial cells activation. The retinoblastoma (RB) family includes RB1/p105, retinoblastoma-like 1 (RBL1/p107), and retinoblastoma-like 2 (Rb2/p130). Several studies have indicated that RB proteins exhibit tumor suppressor activities, and play a central role in cell cycle regulation. In this study, we assessed LPS-mediated inflammatory effect on cell cycle reactivation and apoptosis of neuronally differentiated cells...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820292/p53-binding-sites-in-normal-and-cancer-cells-are-characterized-by-distinct-chromatin-context
#8
Feifei Bao, Peter R LoVerso, Jeffrey N Fisk, Victor B Zhurkin, Feng Cui
The tumor suppressor protein p53 interacts with DNA in a sequence-dependent manner. Thousands of p53 binding sites have been mapped genome-wide in normal and cancer cells. However, the way p53 selectively binds its cognate sites in different types of cells is not fully understood. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of 25 published p53 cistromes and identified 3,551 and 6,039 'high-confidence' binding sites in normal and cancer cells, respectively. Our analysis revealed two distinct epigenetic features underlying p53-DNA interactions in vivo...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819926/targeting-metabolic-pathways-for-head-and-neck-cancers-therapeutics
#9
Masashi Yamamoto, Hidenori Inohara, Takashi Nakagawa
Cancer cells have distinctive energy metabolism pathways that support their rapid cell division. The preference for anaerobic glycolysis under the normal oxygen condition is known as the Warburg effect and has been observed in head and neck cancers. These metabolic changes are controlled by cancer-related transcription factors, such as tumor suppressor gene and hypoxia inducible factor 1α. In addition, various metabolic enzymes also actively regulate cancer-specific metabolism including the switch between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819729/prognostic-significance-of-cdx2-immunoexpression-in-poorly-differentiated-clusters-of-colorectal-carcinoma
#10
Luca Reggiani Bonetti, Simona Lionti, Enrica Vitarelli, Valeria Barresi
CDX2 is a transcription factor that acts as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer (CRC). Its loss triggers metastatic process and tumor progression; however, its prognostic role in patients with CRC is still controversial. Poorly differentiated clusters (PDCs) are aggregates of neoplastic cells which likely have high metastatic potential in CRC. In this study, we analyzed and compared CDX2 expression in PDC (CDX2-PDC) and corresponding main tumor (CDX2 main tumor) in 42 CRCs showing at least 10 PDC (PDC G3)...
August 17, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819643/membrane-localization-of-acetylated-cnk1-mediates-a-positive-feedback-on-raf-erk-signaling
#11
Adrian Fischer, Wignand W D Mühlhäuser, Bettina Warscheid, Gerald Radziwill
Spatiotemporal control is a common mechanism that modulates activity and function of signal transducers in the signaling network. We identified acetylation of CNK1 (connector enhancer of kinase suppressor of Ras-1) as a late step in the activation of CNK1 signaling, accompanied with prolonged stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). We identified the acetyltransferase CREB (cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein)-binding protein and the deacetylase SIRT2 (sirtuin type 2) as novel binding partners of CNK1, modulating the acetylation state of CNK1...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819586/the-cardiac-glycoside-convallatoxin-inhibits-the-growth-of-colorectal-cancer-cells-in-a-p53-independent-manner
#12
Sarah E Anderson, Christopher E Barton
Cardiac glycosides are plant-derived molecules that have shown antiproliferative properties against cancer cells, though the mechanism of action is not completely understood. We show that one cardiac glycoside, convallatoxin, presents antiproliferative effects against colorectal cancer cells in culture and that the resulting cell death is independent of the p53 tumor suppressor. Our data suggest that convallatoxin may be useful in the treatment of cancers that harbor inactivating mutations in the p53 signaling pathway...
December 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819440/microrna-204-5p-inhibits-invasion-and-metastasis-of-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-by-suppressing-forkhead-box-c1
#13
Wei Gao, Yongyan Wu, Xiaoling He, Chunming Zhang, Meixia Zhu, Bo Chen, Qingqing Liu, Xukuan Qu, Weiyan Li, Shuxin Wen, Binquan Wang
Background and aim: Understanding the molecular biological mechanisms underlying laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) invasion and metastasis is crucial for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. We aimed to examine the expression of the tumor suppressor microRNA-204-5p (miR-204-5p) and its target gene, forkhead box C1 (FOXC1), in human LSCC and explore their roles in the malignant behaviors of LSCC Hep-2 and TU-177 cells. Methods: The regulatory effects of miR-204-5p on the 3' untranslated region of FOXC1 predicted by bioinformatics were tested by dual-luciferase reporter assay...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819415/szrd1-is-a-novel-protein-that-functions-as-a-potential-tumor-suppressor-in-cervical-cancer
#14
Ning Zhao, Guoying Zhang, Minwei He, He Huang, Lulu Cao, Ang Yin, Pingzhang Wang, Lu Wang
SZRD1 is a novel gene screened out by high-throughput platform, and so far there exists no systematic function reports. The purpose of our study is to discover the function and mechanism of this novel human gene. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that SZRD1 is a highly conserved intracellular protein. After overexpression of SZRD1, we found that SZRD1 could arrest the cell cycle in G2 phase and play a role in inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. In contrast, after knockdown of endogenous SZRD1, we concluded that it could promote cell proliferation...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819408/opposite-effects-of-set7-9-on-apoptosis-of-human-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells-and-lung-cancer-cells
#15
Ye Gu, Yuan Wang, Xinling Wang, Lili Gao, Weiping Yu, Wei-Feng Dong
SET7/9 is a protein lysine methyltransferases (PLMTs or PKMTs) which methylates both histone H3K4 and non-histone proteins including transcriptional factors, tumor suppressors, and membrane-associated receptors. Methylation of these proteins alters protein activity and leads to changes in cellular behavior and a series of biological processes. This study aims to investigate the role of SET7/9 in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We examined the expression of SET7/9 in AML cells and NSCLC cells and detected the methylation status of the SET7/9 promoter region...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819029/loss-of-the-tumor-suppressor-stag2-promotes-telomere-recombination-and-extends-the-replicative-lifespan-of-normal-human-cells
#16
Zharko Daniloski, Susan Smith
Sister chromatids are held together by cohesin, a tripartite ring with a peripheral SA1/2 subunit, where SA1 is required for telomere cohesion and SA2 for centromere cohesion. The STAG2 gene encoding SA2 is often inactivated in human cancer, but not in in a manner associated with aneuploidy. Thus, how these tumors maintain chromosomal cohesion and how STAG2 loss contributes to tumorigenesis remain open questions. Here we show that, despite a loss in centromere cohesion, sister chromatids in STAG2 mutant tumor cells maintain cohesion in mitosis at chromosome arms and telomeres...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819025/mre11-promotes-tumorigenesis-by-facilitating-resistance-to-oncogene-induced-replication-stress
#17
Elizabeth Spehalski, Kayla M Capper, Cheryl J Smith, Mary J Morgan, Maria Dinkelmann, Jeffrey Buis, JoAnn M Sekiguchi, David O Ferguson
Hypomorphic mutations in the genes encoding the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) DNA repair complex lead to cancer-prone syndromes. MRN binds DNA double strand breaks where it functions in repair and triggers cell cycle checkpoints via activation of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. To gain understanding of MRN in cancer, we engineered mice with B lymphocytes lacking MRN, or harboring MRN in which MRE11 lacks nuclease activities. Both forms of MRN deficiency led to hallmarks of cancer, including oncogenic translocations involving c-Myc and the immunoglobulin locus...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819023/therapeutic-effects-of-xpo1-inhibition-in-thymic-epithelial-tumors
#18
Fabio Conforti, Xu Zhang, Guanhua Rao, Tommaso De Pas, Yoko Yonemori, Jose A Rodriguez, Justine N McCutcheon, Raneen Rahhal, Anna T Alberobello, Yisong Wang, Yu-Wen Zhang, Udayan Guha, Giuseppe Giaccone
Exportin 1 (XPO1) mediates nuclear export of many cellular factors known to play critical roles in malignant processes, and selinexor (KPT-330) is the first XPO1-selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compound in advanced clinical development phase for cancer treatment. We demonstrated here that inhibition of XPO1 drives nuclear accumulation of important cargo tumor suppressor proteins (TSP) including transcription factor FOXO3a and p53 in thymic epithelial tumor (TET) cells and induces p53-dependent and -independent antitumor activity in vitro...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818997/ccr2-3-utr-functions-as-a-competing-endogenous-rna-to-inhibit-breast-cancer-metastasis
#19
Jinhang Hu, Xiaoman Li, Xinwei Guo, Qianqian Guo, Chenxi Xiang, Zhiting Zhang, Yingying Xing, Tao Xi, Lufeng Zheng
Diverse RNA transcripts acting as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) can co-regulate each other's expression by competing for shared microRNAs. CCR2 protein, the receptor of CCL2, is implicated in cancer progression. However, our results showed that higher CCR2 mRNA level was remarkably associated with prolonged survival of breast cancer patients. The conflicting results prompt us to study the non-coding function of CCR2 mRNA. We indicated that CCR2 3'UTR inhibited MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells metastasis by repressing EMT in vitro and suppressed breast cancer metastasis in vivo Mechanistically, CCR2 3'UTR modulated RhoGAP protein STARD13 expression via acting as a STARD13 ceRNA in a microRNA-dependent and protein coding-independent manner...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818686/methyleugenol-and-selected-oxidative-metabolites-affect-dna-damage-signalling-pathways-and-induce-apoptosis-in-human-colon-tumour-ht29-cells
#20
Isabel Anna Maria Groh, Melanie Esselen
Previously the food carcinogen methyleugenol was found to be cytotoxic and genotoxic in multiple cell lines and in primary hepatocytes. In this study, the question addressed was whether methyleugenol and the selected oxidative metabolites, 1'-hydroxymethyleugenol, methyleugenol-2',3'-epoxide, and 3'-oxomethylisoeugenol trigger a DNA damage response in the human colon carcinoma HT29 cell line. Most notably investigations by flow cytometry revealed that the metabolites induce an accumulation of HT29 cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle...
August 14, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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