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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647698/increased-expression-of-follistatin-in-breast-cancer-reduces-invasiveness-and-clinically-correlates-with-better-survival
#1
Catherine Zabkiewicz, Jeyna Resaul, Rachel Hargest, Wen Guo Jiang, Lin Ye
BACKGROUND/AIM: Activin and its antagonist follistatin (FST) have been implicated in several solid tumours. This study investigated the role of FST in breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FST expression was examined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry in a cohort of breast cancer samples. Expression was correlated to pathological and prognostic parameters in our patient cohort...
July 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647685/irtks-is-correlated-with-progression-and-survival-time-of-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#2
Li-Yu Huang, Xuefei Wang, Xiao-Fang Cui, He Li, Junjie Zhao, Chong-Chao Wu, Lingqiang Min, Zhicheng Zhou, Lixin Wan, Yu-Ping Wang, Chao Zhang, Wei-Qiang Gao, Yihong Sun, Ze-Guang Han
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: IRTKS functions as a novel regulator of tumour suppressor p53; however, the role of IRTKS in pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear. DESIGN: We used immunohistochemistry to detect IRTKS levels in 527 human gastric cancer specimens. We generated both IRTKS-deficient and p53-deficient mice to observe survival time of these mice and to isolate mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) for evaluating in vivo tumorigenicity. Co-immunoprecipitation was used to study the interaction among p53, MDM2 and IRTKS, as well as the ubiquitination of p53...
June 24, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647672/therapeutic-targeting-of-nuclear-export-inhibition-in-lung-cancer
#3
Arjun Gupta, Jessica M Saltarski, Michael A White, Pier P Scaglioni, David E Gerber
Intracellular compartmentalization and trafficking of molecules plays a critical role in complex and essential cellular processes. In lung cancer and other malignancies, aberrant nucleocytoplasmic transport of tumor suppressor proteins and cell cycle regulators results in tumorigenesis and inactivation of apoptosis. Pharmacologic targeting of this process, termed selective inhibition of nuclear export (SINE), has demonstrated anti-tumor efficacy in preclinical models and human clinical trials. Exportin-1 (XPO1)-which serves as the sole exporter of several tumor suppressor proteins and cell cycle regulators, including retinoblastoma (Rb), adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), p53, p73, p21, p27, FOXO, STAT3, IKB, topoisomerase II and PAR-4-is the principal focus of SINE drug development...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647344/oncogene-expressing-senescent-melanocytes-upregulate-mhc-class-ii-a-candidate-melanoma-suppressor-function
#4
John van Tuyn, Farah Jaber-Hijazi, Douglas MacKenzie, John J Cole, Elizabeth Mann, Jeff S Pawlikowski, Taranjit Singh Rai, David M Nelson, Tony McBryan, Andre Ivanov, Karen Blyth, Hong Wu, Simon Milling, Peter D Adams
On acquisition of an oncogenic mutation, primary human and mouse cells can enter oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). OIS is characterized by a stable proliferation arrest and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Proliferation arrest and the SASP collaborate to enact tumor suppression, the former by blocking cell proliferation and the latter by recruiting immune cells to clear damaged cells. However, the interactions of OIS cells with the immune system are still poorly defined...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646148/mir-15b-5p-resensitizes-colon-cancer-cells-to-5-fluorouracil-by-promoting-apoptosis-via-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-xiap-axis
#5
Ci Zhao, Qi Zhao, Chunhui Zhang, Guangyu Wang, Yuanfei Yao, Xiaoyi Huang, Fei Zhan, Yuanyuan Zhu, Jiaqi Shi, Jianan Chen, Feihu Yan, Yanqiao Zhang
Drug resistance, which is closely correlated with an imbalance in apoptosis, endows colorectal cancer (CRC) with enhanced progression capacity irrespective of the treatment with therapeutics. We report that miR-15b-5p is a tumor suppressor whose level is globally decreased in CRC cells and tissues. Over-expression of miR-15b-5p not only promoted 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced cellular apoptosis but also reversed the chemoresistance of 5-FU in vitro and in vivo. As a key mediator of inflammation-induced cancer, miR-15b-5p enhances these therapeutic effects are mainly attributed to targeting of the NF-κB signaling pathway through negative regulation of NF-κB1 and one of its kinase complexes IKK-α...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646022/nf1-hematopoietic-cells-accelerate-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumor-development-without-altering-chemotherapy-response
#6
Rebecca D Dodd, Chang-Lung Lee, Tess Overton, Wesley Huang, William C Eward, Lixia Luo, Yan Ma, Davis R Ingram, Keila E Torres, Diana M Cardona, Alexander Lazar, David G Kirsch
Haploinsufficiency in the tumor suppressor NF1 contributes to the pathobiology of type 1 neurofibromatosis, but a related role has not been established in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) where NF1 mutations also occur. Patients with NF1-associated MPNST appear to have worse outcomes than patients with sporadic MPNST, but the mechanism underlying this correlation is not understood. To define the impact of stromal genetics on the biology of this malignancy, we developed unique mouse models that reflect the genetics of patient-associated MPNST...
June 23, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645112/tap63%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-np63%C3%AE-are-regulated-by-rbm38-via-mrna-stability-and-have-an-opposing-function-in-growth-suppression
#7
Wensheng Yan, Yanhong Zhang, Xinbin Chen
The p63 gene is expressed as TAp63 from the P1 promoter and as ΔNp63 from the P2 promoter. Through alternative splicing, five TA and five ΔN isoforms (α-ε) are expressed. Isoforms α-β and δ share an identical 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) whereas isoform γ has a unique 3'UTR. Recently, we found that RBM38 RNA-binding protein is a target of p63 and RBM38 in turn regulates p63α/β expression via mRNA stability. However, it is uncertain whether p63γ has a unique biological activity and whether p63γ is regulated by RBM38...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644436/the-lats1-and-lats2-tumor-suppressors-beyond-the-hippo-pathway
#8
REVIEW
Noa Furth, Yael Aylon
Proper cellular functionality and homeostasis are maintained by the convergent integration of various signaling cascades, which enable cells to respond to internal and external changes. The Dbf2-related kinases LATS1 and LATS2 (LATS) have emerged as central regulators of cell fate, by modulating the functions of numerous oncogenic or tumor suppressive effectors, including the canonical Hippo effectors YAP/TAZ, the Aurora mitotic kinase family, estrogen signaling and the tumor suppressive transcription factor p53...
June 23, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644435/p53-amyloid-formation-leading-to-its-loss-of-function-implications-in-cancer-pathogenesis
#9
Saikat Ghosh, Shimul Salot, Shinjinee Sengupta, Ambuja Navalkar, Dhiman Ghosh, Reeba Jacob, Subhadeep Das, Rakesh Kumar, Narendra Nath Jha, Shruti Sahay, Surabhi Mehra, Ganesh M Mohite, Santanu K Ghosh, Mamata Kombrabail, Guruswamy Krishnamoorthy, Pradip Chaudhari, Samir K Maji
The transcriptional regulator p53 has an essential role in tumor suppression. Almost 50% of human cancers are associated with the loss of p53 functions, where p53 often accumulates in the nucleus as well as in cytoplasm. Although it has been previously suggested that amyloid formation could be a cause of p53 loss-of-function in subset of tumors, the characterization of these amyloids and its structure-function relationship is not yet established. In the current study, we provide several evidences for the presence of p53 amyloid formation (in human and animal cancer tissues); along with its isolation from human cancer tissues and the biophysical characterization of these tissue-derived fibrils...
June 23, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643902/modulation-of-antitumor-immunity-contributes-to-the-enhanced-therapeutic-efficacy-of-liposomal-oxaliplatin-in-mouse-model
#10
Taro Shimizu, Amr S Abu Lila, Miho Nishio, Yusuke Doi, Hidenori Ando, Masami Ukawa, Yu Ishima, Tatsuhiro Ishida
Immune modulation of the tumor microenvironment has been reported to participate to the therapeutic efficacy of many chemotherapeutic agents. Recently, we reported that liposomal encapsulation of oxaliplatin (l-OHP) within PEGylated liposomes conferred a superior antitumor efficacy to free l-OHP in murine colorectal carcinoma-bearing mice via permitting preferential accumulation of the encapsulated drug within tumor tissue. However, the contribution of the immune-modulatory properties of liposomal l-OHP and/or free l-OHP to the overall antitumor efficacy was not elucidated...
June 23, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643757/significance-of-expression-of-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-proteins-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-1-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-2-and-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-3-in-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#11
Toral Pundrik Kobawala, Trupti I Trivedi, Kinjal Kevin Gajjar, Girish H Patel, Nandita R Ghosh
PURPOSE: Uncontrolled cytokine signal transduction largely associated with oncogene activation, can have disastrous biological consequences. The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins represent one of the mechanisms by which this rampant signaling can be dissipated. Thus, we aimed to study the expression of SOCS-1, SOCS-2, and SOCS-3 in patients having benign thyroid disease and papillary thyroid cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SOCS protein expression was studied in 45 patients with benign thyroid disease and in 83 papillary thyroid cancer patients by immunohistochemistry and their association with clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival in cancer patients were analyzed using SPSS software...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643604/long-non-coding-rnas-new-biomarkers-for-prognosis-and-diagnosis-of-colon-cancer
#12
Heng Deng, Jian Min Wang, Ming Li, Ran Tang, Kun Tang, Yingzi Su, Yong Hou, Jun Zhang
Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs has been found in many human cancers, including colorectal cancer that is still the third most prevalent cancer worldwide and related to poor prognosis; along with this, robust testimony has identified that long non-coding RNAs can take charge of tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. This review summarizes nowadays research achievements on the character of long non-coding RNAs in the prognosis and diagnosis of colorectal cancer. On the basis of the results acquired in the last decade, some long non-coding RNAs are rising as biomarkers of colorectal cancer for prognosis, diagnosis, even prediction of therapeutic result, and have crucial effects in the regulation of colorectal cancer cell functions such as proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, metastasis, and drug resistant ability...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643165/molecularly-targeted-therapies-for-p53-mutant-cancers
#13
REVIEW
Dekuang Zhao, William M Tahaney, Abhijit Mazumdar, Michelle I Savage, Powel H Brown
The tumor suppressor p53 is lost or mutated in approximately half of human cancers. Mutant p53 not only loses its anti-tumor transcriptional activity, but also often acquires oncogenic functions to promote tumor proliferation, invasion, and drug resistance. Traditional strategies have been taken to directly target p53 mutants through identifying small molecular compounds to deplete mutant p53, or to restore its tumor suppressive function. Accumulating evidence suggest that cancer cells with mutated p53 often exhibit specific functional dependencies on secondary genes or pathways to survive, providing alternative targets to indirectly treat p53-mutant cancers...
June 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643150/epigenetically-controlled-six3-expression-regulates-glioblastoma-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-alongside-modulating-the-activation-levels-of-wnt-pathway-members
#14
Baoxin Zhang, Chenfu Shen, Fengyun Ge, Tingting Ma, Zuping Zhang
Glioma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. Six3 is a human homologue of the highly conserved sine oculis gene family and essential transcription regulatory factor in process of eye and fetal forebrain development. However, little is known about the role of Six3 in human tumorigenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate the methylation/expression of Six3 and reveal its function and action mechanism in glioma. Our results showed that Six3 was down-regulated in human glioma tissues and human glioma SHG-44, U251, SF126 and U373-MG cells compared with the normal tissues...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642882/tumor-related-exosomes-contribute-to-tumor-promoting-microenvironment-an-immunological-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Wuzhen Chen, Jingxin Jiang, Wenjie Xia, Jian Huang
Exosomes are a kind of cell-released membrane-form structures which contain proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. These vesicular organelles play a key role in intercellular communication. Numerous experiments demonstrated that tumor-related exosomes (TEXs) can induce immune surveillance in the microenvironment in vivo and in vitro. They can interfere with the maturation of DC cells, impair NK cell activation, induce myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and educate macrophages into protumor phenotype. They can also selectively induce effector T cell apoptosis via Fas/FasL interaction and enhance regulatory T cell proliferation and function by releasing TGF-β...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642719/commentary-lactb-is-a-tumour-suppressor-that-modulates-lipid-metabolism-and-cell-state
#16
COMMENT
Ove Eriksson, Maciej Lalowski, Dan Lindholm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642344/a-role-for-tet2-in-parathyroid-carcinoma
#17
Elham Barazeghi, Anthony J Gill, Stan Sidhu, Olov Norlén, Roberto Dina, F Fausto Palazzo, Per Hellman, Peter Stålberg, Gunnar Westin
Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is rarely caused by parathyroid carcinoma (PC, <1-5% of pHPT cases). The TET proteins oxidize the epigenetic mark 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and inactivation by mutation or epigenetic deregulation of TET1 and TET2 play important roles in various cancers. Recently, we found that 5hmC was severely reduced in all of the analyzed PCs and with deranged expression of TET1 for the majority of PCs. Here, we have examined the expression of the TET2 protein in 15 5hmC-negative PCs from patients who had local invasion or metastases...
July 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642131/mir-217-suppresses-proliferation-and-promotes-apoptosis-in-cardiac-myxoma-by-targeting-interleukin-6
#18
Jing Zhang, Cui Wang, Huimin Xu
Cardiac myxoma (CM) is a prevalent primary cardiac tumor. miR-217 plays a vital role in tumorigenesis of various cancers, however, its role and underlying molecular mechanism in human CM remain poorly understood. Here, we reported that the expression of miR-217 was downregulated in CM tissues and inversely correlated with the expression of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA. Gain-of-function analysis indicated that overexpression of miR-217 inhibited the proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of the primary CM cells...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641547/recent-advances-on-the-role-of-micrornas-in-both-insulin-resistance-and-cancer
#19
Adele Vivacqua, Paola De Marco, Antonino Belfiore, Marcello Maggiolini
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is a pathological condition characterized by the failure of target cells to uptake and metabolizes glucose in response to insulin. In particular, the elevated concentrations of glucose, insulin and free insulin growth factor-1, which result from insulin resistance, may generate a pro-inflammatory and pro-tumorigenic state. These alterations may underlie the increased risk to develop various types of cancer as well as the worse cancer prognosis observed in obese and diabetic patients...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641100/bruton-s-tyrosine-kinase-btk-as-a-promising-target-in-solid-tumors
#20
REVIEW
J Molina-Cerrillo, T Alonso-Gordoa, P Gajate, E Grande
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a non-receptor intracellular kinase that belongs to the TEC-family tyrosine kinases together with bone marrow-expressed kinase (BMX), redundant-resting lymphocyte kinase (RLK), and IL-2 inducible T-Cell kinase (ITK). All these proteins play a key role in the intracellular signaling of both B and T lymphocytes. Recently, some preclinical data have demonstrated that BTK is present in certain tumor subtypes and in other relevant cells that are contributing to the tumor microenvironment such as dendritic cells, macrophages, myeloid derived suppressor cells and endothelial cells...
June 9, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
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