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Tumor suppression

Qingsheng Li, Nejat K Egilmez
The critical contribution of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells (Treg) to immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment is well-established. Whereas the mechanisms that drive the generation and accumulation of Treg in tumors have been an active area of study, the information on their origin and population dynamics remains limited. In this review, we discuss the ontogeny of tumor-associated Treg in light of the recently identified lineage markers.
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi, Fariba Jousheghany, Thomas Kieber-Emmons
Development of cancer vaccines targeting tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) is an alternative approach to chemotherapy with sustained anti-tumor effects. The success of active immunotherapy has been hampered by tumor-induced immune suppressors. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a population of immune suppressors with a proven role in regulating anti-tumor immune responses. Removing or subduing Tregs activity leads to more robust anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we used a cell-based vaccination strategy in the 4T1 murine mammary model to examine whether bulk removal of certain TAAs, using their glycan profile, can affect the immunogenicity of the vaccine...
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
Paula D Bos
A prerequisite for tumor evolution toward a malignant state is the establishment of cell intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of immune suppression (Hanahan and Weinberg, 2000, 2011; Schreiber, Old, and Smyth, 2011). Widespread recruitment of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (TREG) is a prevailing means to dampen antitumor immunity. Advances in the characterization of TREG cell heterogeneity and physiological function of tissue resident TREG cells unfold new possibilities for nontraditional tumor-promoting functions of intratumoral TREG cells...
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
Panfeng Zhao, Xiangshu Piao, Long Pan, Zhikai Zeng, Qingyun Li, Xiao Xu, Hongliang Wang
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to have a role in inflammation. We investigated whether Forsythia suspensa extract (FSE) could exert its antioxidant potential against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory liver injury in rats. Rats were orally fed FSE once daily for 7 consecutive days prior to LPS (Escherichia coli, serotype O55:B5) injection. LPS treatment caused liver dysfunction as evidenced by massive histopathological changes and increased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities which were ameliorated by FSE pretreatment...
October 17, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Qian Sun, Jing Bai, Renrong Lv
Since hedgehog (HH)/Gli1 that contributes to cancer proliferation and metastasis has been masked for decades, the signaling pathway was investigated about its exact role in proliferation and metastasis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Sonic hedgehog homolog (Shh), GLI family zinc finger 1 (Gli1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions in cutaneous SCC tissues were analyzed with immunohistochemistry, and their correlations with cutaneous SCC patients' prognosis were conducted with Kaplan-Meier curve...
October 17, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Yue Sun, Da-Wei Ye, Peng Zhang, Ying-Xing Wu, Bang-Yan Wang, Guang Peng, Shi-Ying Yu
Cytokines are believed to be involved in a "vicious circle" of progressive interactions in bone metastasis. Iguratimod is a novel anti-rheumatic drug which is reported to have the capability of anti-cytokines. In this study, a rat model was constructed to investigate the effect of iguratimod on bone metastasis and it was found that iguratimod alleviated cancer-induced bone destruction. To further explore whether an anti-tumor activity of iguratimod contributes to the effect of bone resorption suppression, two human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 were studied...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Xin Long, Jian Wang, Jian-Ping Zhao, Hui-Fang Liang, Peng Zhu, Qi Cheng, Qian Chen, Yan-Hui Wu, Zhan-Guo Zhang, Bi-Xiang Zhang, Xiao-Ping Chen
The function of the spleen in tumor development has been investigated for years. The relationship of the spleen with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a huge health burden worldwide, however, remains unknown. The present study aimed to examine the effect of splenectomy on the development of HCC and the possible mechanism. Mouse hepatic carcinoma lines H22 and Hepa1-6 as well as BALB/c and C57 mice were used to establish orthotopic and metastatic mouse models of liver cancer. Mice were divided into four groups, including control group, splenectomy control group (S group), tumor group (T group) and tumor plus splenectomy group (T+S group)...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Saeed Zavareh, Milad Mahdi, Soheyla Erfanian, Hamid Hashemi-Moghaddam
PURPOSE: Carrier-mediated drug delivery systems can be used to increase the intracellular concentration of drugs in cancerous cells, thereby improving drug biodistribution and minimizing unwanted side effects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of synthesized magnetic molecularly imprinted polydopamine for controlled doxorubicin (DOX) delivery in a breast adenocarcinoma model of BALB/c mice with an external magnetic field. METHODS: The synthesized DOX-imprinted polydopamine (DOX-IP) was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Ching-Hao Li, Chen-Wei Liu, Chi-Hao Tsai, Yi-Jen Peng, Yu-Hsuan Yang, Po-Lin Liao, Chen-Chen Lee, Yu-Wen Cheng, Jaw-Jou Kang
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, has been studied extensively in carcinogenesis through the genomic pathway. In recent years, AHR has also been reported to exert positive or negative effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the crucial step in tumor malignant progression. However, the detailed mechanism remains controversial. Analysis of AHR-expression levels in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and lung cancer tissues revealed an inverse correlation between AHR protein levels and tumor cell invasion and metastasis...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Minghui Chen, Xueshi Wang, Daolong Zha, Fangfang Cai, Wenjing Zhang, Yan He, Qilai Huang, Hongqin Zhuang, Zi-Chun Hua
Apigenin (APG) is an edible plant-derived flavonoid that shows modest antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo. APG treatment results in cell growth arrest and apoptosis in various types of tumors by modulating several signaling pathways. In the present study, we evaluated interactions between APG and TRAIL in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We observed a synergistic effect between APG and TRAIL on apoptosis of NSCLC cells. A549 cells and H1299 cells were resistant to TRAIL treatment alone. The presence of APG sensitized NSCLC cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by upregulating the levels of death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5) in a p53-dependent manner...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Juan Bai, Ying Zhu, Ying Dong
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is rich in a variety of biologically active ingredients, and has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat various diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to investigate how bitter melon powder (BMP) could affect obesity-associated inflammatory responses to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance, and investigated whether its anti-inflammatory properties were effected by modulating the gut microbiota...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Alireza Bolourian, Zahra Mojtahedi
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are strong anti-tumor drugs; however, they have adverse immunosuppressive side effects in some cancer patients. Animal studies have provided evidence that mTOR inhibitors improved tumor-specific T-cells adoptive transfer in which the quality of CD8+ T-cells is a major factor for predicting success. Interestingly, mTOR inhibitors are capable of stimulating cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell if their dose/duration is adjusted. Rapamycin-induced CD8+ T-cells have also been associated with tumor immunity in animal models...
July 2016: Archives of Medical Research
Jing Hu, Jie Liu, Aozheng Chen, Jia Lyu, Guihai Ai, Qiongjing Zeng, Yi Sun, Chunxia Chen, Jinbo Wang, Jin Qiu, Yi Wu, Jiajing Cheng, Xiujuan Shi, Liwen Song
Ino80 ATPase is an integral component of the INO80 ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex, which regulates transcription, DNA repair and replication. We found that Ino80 was highly expressed in cervical cancer cell lines and tumor samples. Ino80 knockdown inhibited cervical cancer cell proliferation, induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. However, Ino80 knockdown did not affect cell apoptosis, migration or invasion in vitro. Ino80 overexpression promoted proliferation in the H8 immortalized cervical epithelial cell line, which has low endogenous Ino80 expression as compared to cervical cancer cell lines...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Young-Lan Park, Sun-Young Park, Seung-Hyun Lee, Rul-Bin Kim, Joong-Keun Kim, Sung-Yoon Rew, Dae-Seong Myung, Sung-Bum Cho, Wan-Sik Lee, Hyun-Soo Kim, Young-Eun Joo
Filamin A interacting protein 1-like (FILIP1L) expression, which is decreased in various cancers, may inhibit carcinogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of FILIP1L on oncogenic behavior and prognosis in colorectal cancer. siRNA-mediated FILIP1L knockdown enhanced tumor cell migration and invasion and inhibited apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in COLO205 cells. pcDNA-myc vector-mediated FILIP1L overexpression suppressed tumor cell migration and invasion and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HCT116 cells...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Elissaveta Petrova, Arne Scholz, Juliane Paul, Andrea Sturz, Katja Haike, Franziska Siegel, Dominik Mumberg, Ningshu Liu
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo fatty acid synthesis, and its ACC1 isoform is overexpressed in pancreatic and various other cancers. The activity of many oncogenic signaling molecules, including WNT and Hedgehog (HH), is post-translationally modified by lipidation. Here, we report that inhibition of ACC by a small molecule inhibitor, BAY ACC002, blocked WNT3A lipidation, secretion, and signaling. In pancreatic cancer cells, where WNT and HH are key oncogenic drivers, ACC inhibition simultaneously suppressed WNT and HH signaling, and led to anti-proliferative effects...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Frederick A Jakobiec, Anna M Stagner, Natalie Homer, Michael K Yoon
PURPOSE: To further define the histopathologic features of breast carcinoma conducive to orbital metastasis. METHODS: Ten new female patients with orbital or eyelid breast cancer metastases encountered between 2011 and 2016 had their medical records reviewed for determining their clinical characteristics. Microscopic glass slides from biopsies and immunohistochemical test results were also analyzed. Biomarkers studied included cytokeratin 7, nuclear estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER2, and E-cadherin...
October 5, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Anliang Huang, Dan Yue, Danying Liao, Liuliu Cheng, Jinhu Ma, Yuquan Wei, Aiping Tong, Ping Cheng
Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has demonstrated clinical efficacy in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and in vitro activity in various solid tumors. As2O3 as single agent exhibits poor efficacy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in phase II trial, suggesting that new modalities of treatment with enhanced therapeutic effect and alleviated toxicity are needed for application of As2O3 on patients with HCC. Survivin is the strongest inhibitor of apoptosis protein over-expressed in tumors, which has been proposed as an attractive target for new anticancer interventions...
October 11, 2016: Oncology Reports
Lin Xu, Zhu Wang, Shan-Yang He, Su-Fen Zhang, Hong-Jiao Luo, Kai Zhou, Xiao-Fei Li, Shao-Peng Qiu, Kai-Yuan Cao
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignant tumors and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among males. Bax-interacting factor-1 (Bif-1) is a member of Endophilin family, which binds to and activates the BAX protein in response to the apoptosis signaling pathway. Loss of Bif-1 may suppress the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and promote tumorigenesis, but there is also converse evidence that Bif-1 could in part be responsible for the tumorigenesis and the role of Bif-1 in PCa development is not clear...
October 14, 2016: Oncology Reports
Xiu-Bo Sang, Kai-Xuan Sun, Li-Li Wang, Shuo Chen, Dan-Dan Wu, Zhi-Hong Zong, Yang Zhao
Cancer stem cells are considered to be the root cause of tumor initiation, metastasis, recurrence and therapeutic resistance. Recent studies have reported that RhoC plays a critical role in regulating cancer stem cells; however, its function in ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs) remains unknown. The ovarian cancer cell line A2780, and the paclitaxel-resistant A2780 cell line (A2780-PTX) were obtained. A2780 cells were used to isolate and identify the highly invasive A2780-PM cells, and A2780-PTX cells were used to isolate and identify the highly drug-resistant and highly invasive A2780-PTX-PM cells by Transwell assay...
October 11, 2016: Oncology Reports
Shuitu Feng, Zhigao Zheng, Lihua Feng, Lihong Yang, Zuhong Chen, Yubiao Lin, Yingqin Gao, Yide Chen
The cancer stem cell (CSC) model suggests that a small subset of cancer cells possess stem cell properties and plays a crucial role in tumor initiation, metastasis and resistance to anticancer therapy. Exploration of the specific therapies targeting at CSCs has been a crucial issue in antitumor research. Gastric cancer (GC) cells often exist in an ischemic microenvironment with acidic conditions in vivo, thus maintenance of cellular pH homeostasis is important for the survival and function of GC cells. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may prevent intracellular proton extrusions which consequently reduce cancer cell survival under acidic conditions...
October 7, 2016: Oncology Reports
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