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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926867/genomic-instability-is-induced-by-persistent-proliferation-of-cells-undergoing-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#1
Valentine Comaills, Lilian Kabeche, Robert Morris, Rémi Buisson, Min Yu, Marissa Wells Madden, Joseph A LiCausi, Myriam Boukhali, Ken Tajima, Shiwei Pan, Nicola Aceto, Srinjoy Sil, Yu Zheng, Tilak Sundaresan, Toshifumi Yae, Nicole Vincent Jordan, David T Miyamoto, David T Ting, Sridhar Ramaswamy, Wilhelm Haas, Lee Zou, Daniel A Haber, Shyamala Maheswaran
TGF-β secreted by tumor stroma induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells, a reversible phenotype linked to cancer progression and drug resistance. However, exposure to stromal signals may also lead to heritable changes in cancer cells, which are poorly understood. We show that epithelial cells failing to undergo proliferation arrest during TGF-β-induced EMT sustain mitotic abnormalities due to failed cytokinesis, resulting in aneuploidy. This genomic instability is associated with the suppression of multiple nuclear envelope proteins implicated in mitotic regulation and is phenocopied by modulating the expression of LaminB1...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926524/selective-hdac-inhibition-by-acy-241-enhances-the-activity-of-paclitaxel-in-solid-tumor-models
#2
Pengyu Huang, Ingrid Almeciga-Pinto, Matthew Jarpe, John H van Duzer, Ralph Mazitschek, Min Yang, Simon S Jones, Steven N Quayle
ACY-241 is a novel, orally available and selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) 6 inhibitor in Phase 1b clinical development in multiple myeloma (NCT 02400242). Like the structurally related drug ACY-1215 (ricolinostat), ACY-241 has the potential for a substantially reduced side effect profile versus current nonselective HDAC inhibitor drug candidates due to reduced potency against Class I HDACs while retaining the potential for anticancer effectiveness. We now show that combination treatment of xenograft models with paclitaxel and either ricolinostat or ACY-241 significantly suppresses solid tumor growth...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926508/microrna-497-inhibits-thyroid-cancer-tumor-growth-and-invasion-by-suppressing-bdnf
#3
Peisong Wang, Xianying Meng, Yan Huang, Zhi Lv, Jia Liu, Guimin Wang, Wei Meng, Shuai Xue, Qiang Zhang, Pengju Zhang, Guang Chen
miR-497 reportedly plays critical roles in tumor development and progression in many types of cancers. We therefore investigated the function and underlying mechanism of miR-497 in thyroid cancer. We found that miR-497 is downregulated in thyroid cancer tissues, and that miR-497 levels are negatively correlated with advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis. Overexpressed miR-497 suppressed thyroid cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion in vitro, and inhibited tumorigenesis in vivo...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926489/suppression-of-immune-regulatory-cells-with-combined-therapy-of-celecoxib-and-sunitinib-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#4
Qi Zhao, Jianming Guo, Guomin Wang, Yiwei Chu, Xiaoyi Hu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the the potential benefit of sunitinib in combination with cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) inhibitor in renal cell carcinoma therapy. METHODS: 769-p cell lines were treated with sunitinib, celecoxib, or in combination at different concentrations respectively. We investigated the expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in 769-p and cell proliferation in vitro. BALB/c mice implanted with Renca cells were divided into 4 groups and administered orally by gavage with sunitinib, COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) monotherapy or combination, and PBS respectively...
December 2, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924676/bacterial-xenophagy-and-its-possible-role-in-cancer-a-potential-antimicrobial-strategy-for-cancer-prevention-and-treatment
#5
Xinbing Sui, Xiao Liang, Liuxi Chen, Chunming Guo, Weidong Han, Hongming Pan, Xue Li
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a conserved catabolic process through which cellular excessive or dysfunctional proteins and organelles are transported to the lysosome for terminal degradation and recycling. Over the past few years increasing evidence has suggested that autophagy is not only a simple metabolite recycling mechanism, but also plays a critical role in the removal of intracellular pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. When autophagy engulfs intracellular pathogens, the pathway is called 'xenophagy' because it leads to the elimination of foreign microbes...
December 7, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924503/mir-206-inhibits-renal-cell-cancer-growth-by-targeting-gak
#6
Chao Wei, Shen Wang, Zhang-Qun Ye, Zhi-Qiang Chen
Renal cell cancer (RCC) remains one of the most lethal types of cancer in adults. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in the pathogenesis of RCC. The role of miR-206 in RCC has not been fully understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of miR-206 in the regulation of proliferation and metastasis of RCC and the possible mechanism. miR-206 expression was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in RCC cell lines (786-O and OS-RC-2 cells) and clinical samples...
December 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924057/pazopanib-a-novel-multi-kinase-inhibitor-shows-potent-antitumor-activity-in-colon-cancer-through-puma-mediated-apoptosis
#7
Lingling Zhang, Huanan Wang, Wei Li, Juchang Zhong, Rongcheng Yu, Xinfeng Huang, Honghui Wang, Zhikai Tan, Jiangang Wang, Yingjie Zhang
Colon cancer is still the third most common cancer which has a high mortality but low five-year survival rate. Novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as pazopanib become effective antineoplastic agents that show promising clinical activity in a variety of carcinoma, including colon cancer. However, the precise underlying mechanism against tumor is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that pazopanib promoted colon cancer cell apoptosis through inducing PUMA expression. Pazopanib induced p53-independent PUMA activation by inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, thereby activating Foxo3a, which subsequently bound to the promoter of PUMA to activate its transcription...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923995/homologous-recombination-in-budding-yeast-expressing-the-human-rad52-gene-reveals-a-rad51-independent-mechanism-of-conservative-double-strand-break-repair
#8
Glenn M Manthey, Alissa D Clear, Lauren C Liddell, Maria C Negritto, Adam M Bailis
RAD52 is a homologous recombination (HR) protein that is conserved from bacteriophage to humans. Simultaneously attenuating expression of both the RAD52 gene, and the HR and tumor suppressor gene, BRCA2, in human cells synergistically reduces HR - indicating that RAD52 and BRCA2 control independent mechanisms of HR. We have expressed the human RAD52 gene (HsRAD52) in budding yeast strains lacking the endogenous RAD52 gene and found that HsRAD52 supports repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) by a mechanism of HR that conserves genome structure...
December 6, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923904/augmentation-of-cytolytic-activity-in-murine-natural-killer-cells-and-inhibition-of-tumor-growth-by-the-ethanol-fraction-of-oyster-extract
#9
Kaito Sakaguchi, Ming Zhong, Saeko Kawai, Yoshio Shimizu, Eiichi Gohda
A reduced number and/or reduced activity of natural killer (NK) cells, which are important for defense against a variety of cancers and viral infections, occur under various stress conditions and in patients with various diseases. In this article, we report that the 30% to 50% ethanol precipitate of oyster extract (EPOE50) dose-dependently enhanced the activity of mouse spleen NK cells in vitro and in vivo. The activity of EPOE50 was eluted with a molecular weight of about 2000 by gel filtration and was inactivated by periodate but not by proteinase K...
December 5, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923836/the-swi-snf-complex-protein-snr1-is-a-tumor-suppressor-in-drosophila-imaginal-tissues
#10
Gengqiang Xie, Hanqing Chen, Dongyu Jia, Zhiqiang Shu, William Hunt Palmer, Yi-Chun Huang, Xiankun Zeng, Steven X Hou, Renjie Jiao, Wu-Min Deng
Components of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex are among the most frequently mutated genes in various human cancers, yet only SMARCB1/hSNF5, a core member of the SWI/SNF complex, is mutated in malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT). How SMARCB1/hSNF5 functions differently from other members of the SWI/SNF complex remains unclear. Here we use Drosophila imaginal epithelial tissues to demonstrate that Snr1, the conserved homolog of human SMARCB1/hSNF5, prevents tumorigenesis by maintaining normal endosomal trafficking-mediated signaling cascades...
December 6, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923833/an-essential-role-of-maspin-in-embryogenesis-and-tumor-suppression
#11
Sijana H Dzinic, M Margarida Bernardo, Xiaohua Li, Rodrigo Fernandez-Valdivia, Ye-Shih Ho, Qing-Sheng Mi, Sudeshna Bandyopadhyay, Fulvio Lonardo, Semir Vranic, Daniel Oliveira, R Daniel Bonfil, Gregory Dyson, Kang Chen, Almasa Omerovic, Xiujie Sheng, Xiang Han, Dinghong Wu, Xinling Bi, Dzenana Cabaravdic, Una Jakupovic, Marian Wahba, Aaron Pang, Deanna Harajli, Wael Sakr, Shijie Sheng
Maspin (SerpinB5) is an epithelial-specific tumor suppressor gene product that displays context-dependent cellular functions. Maspin-deficient mouse models created to date have not definitively established maspin functions critical for cancer suppression. In this study, we generated a mouse strain in which exon 4 of the Maspin gene was deleted, confirming its essential role in development but also enabling a breeding scheme to bypass embryonic lethality. Phenotypic characterization of this viable strain established that maspin deficiency was associated with a reduction in maximum body weight and a variety of context-dependent epithelial abnormalities...
December 6, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923823/bortezomib-relieves-immune-tolerance-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-via-stat1-suppression-and-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-downregulation
#12
Guan-Min Jiang, Jun Du, Wei-Feng Ma, Hui Wang, Yu Qiu, Qiu-Gui Zhang, Wei Xu, Hui-Fang Liu, Hong-Sheng Wang, Jian-Ping Liang
Radiotherapy is the primary treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients with intermediate and advanced stage NPC receiving only radiotherapy have limited survival, so newer immunotherapeutic approaches are sought. The major impediment to better clinical outcomes is tumor immune tolerance. Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), an interferon-γ (IFNγ)-inducible enzyme, is a major inducer of immune tolerance during tumor development; therefore, inhibition of the IDO pathway is an important modality for cancer treatment...
December 6, 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923712/regulation-of-microrna-1-mir-1-expression-in-human-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Chao Han, Jacson K Shen, Francis J Hornicek, Quancheng Kan, Zhenfeng Duan
MicroRNAs (miRs) have been found to play important roles in tumorigenesis, apoptosis, metastasis, and drug resistance in cancer. Among a number of miRs, miR-1 was shown to be predominantly downregulated in almost all examined human cancers. As a tumor suppressor miR involved in post-transcriptional regulation of crucial tumor associated gene expression, miR-1 represents a promising target for anticancer therapy. Re-expression of miR-1 can suppress cancer cell proliferation, promote apoptosis, and reverse drug resistance in cancers both in vitro and in vivo...
December 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923691/growth-inhibitory-effect-of-scrophularia-oxysepala-extract-on-mouse-mammary-carcinoma-4t1-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-systems
#14
Pooneh Chokhachi Baradaran, Ali Mohammadi, Behzad Mansoori, Sepideh Chokhachi Baradaran, Behzad Baradaran
INTRODUCTION: Medical plants have been intensively studied as a source of antitumor compounds. In the present study, we determine the effect of Scrophularia oxysepala on triggering apoptosis and diminishing growth, size and weight of the tumor in the allograft model of Balb/c mice. MATERIAL & METHODS: The cytotoxic effects of Scrophularia oxysepala extract on 4T1 cells were studied using MTT (3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay and Trypan blue staining...
December 3, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923595/vitamin-d-compounds-inhibit-cancer-stem-like-cells-and-induce-differentiation-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Naing Lin Shan, Joseph Wahler, Hong Jin Lee, Min Ji Bak, Soumyasri Das Gupta, Hubert Maehr, Nanjoo Suh
Triple-negative breast cancer is one of the least responsive breast cancer subtypes to available targeted therapies due to the absence of hormonal receptors, aggressive phenotypes, and the high rate of relapse. Early breast cancer prevention may therefore play an important role in delaying the progression of triple-negative breast cancer. Cancer stem cells are a subset of cancer cells that are thought to be responsible for tumor progression, treatment resistance, and metastasis. We have previously shown that vitamin D compounds, including a Gemini vitamin D analog BXL0124, suppress progression of ductal carcinoma in situ in vivo and inhibit cancer stem-like cells in MCF10DCIS mammosphere cultures...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923383/srgap1-mediates-the-migration-inhibition-effect-of-slit2-robo1-in-colorectal-cancer
#16
Yuyang Feng, Lei Feng, Di Yu, Jian Zou, Zhaohui Huang
BACKGROUND: The neuronal guidance molecule Slit2 plays suppressive role in tumorigenesis and progression. We previously showed that Slit2-Robo1 inhibit cell migration in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, little is known about its downstream effectors in CRC. This study tries to identify whether the Slit-Robo Rho GTPase activating protein 1 (srGAP1) could mediate the inhibitory effect of Slit2-Robo1 on CRC cell migration. METHODS: The protein expression of srGAP1 in clinical CRC tissues was tested by immunohistochemistry staining...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923325/a-gingiva-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-laden-porcine-small-intestinal-submucosa-extracellular-matrix-construct-promotes-myomucosal-regeneration-of-the-tongue
#17
Qilin Xu, Rabie M Shanti, Qunzhou Zhang, Steven B Cannady, Bert W O'Malley, Anh D Le
In the oral cavity, the tongue is the anatomic subsite most commonly involved by invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Current treatment protocols often require significant tissue resection to achieve adequate negative margins and optimal local tumor control. Reconstruction of the tongue while preserving and/or restoring its critical vocal, chewing, and swallowing functions remains one of the major challenges in head and neck oncologic surgery. We investigated the in vitro feasibility of fabricating a novel combinatorial construct using porcine small intestinal submucosa extracellular matrix (SIS-ECM) and human gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) as a GMSC/SIS-ECM tissue graft for the tongue reconstruction...
December 6, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922689/rb-knockdown-accelerates-bladder-cancer-progression-through-e2f3-activation
#18
Jiang-Ping Wang, Yong Jiao, Cheng-Yuan Wang, Zhi-Bin Xu, Bo Zhang
Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in the world and leads to significant mortality and morbidity among affected patients. The retinoblastoma (Rb) protein is a main tumor suppressor, controlling cellular responses to potentially oncogenic stimulation. E2F3 was invariably disrupted in different human cancers for its central role in the control of cellular proliferation. Here, we investigated how Rb is integrated to control bladder cancer progression through E2F3 and p53 regulation. The results exhibit that Rb expression is lower in patients with bladder tumor, while E2F3 level is high...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922687/immature-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-a-bridge-between-inflammation-and-cancer-review
#19
Caterina Musolino, Alessandro Allegra, Govanni Pioggia, Sebastiano Gangemi
Chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the hallmarks of tumor initiation and progression. Changes occurring in the microenvironment of progressing tumors resemble the process of chronic inflammation, which begins with ischemia followed by interstitial and cellular edema, appearance of immune cells, growth of blood vessels and tissue repair, and development of inflammatory infiltrates. Moreover, long‑term production and accumulation of inflammatory factors lead to local and systemic immunosuppression associated with cancer progression...
December 5, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922673/effects-of-mir-145-on-the-inhibition-of-chondrocyte-proliferation-and-fibrosis-by-targeting-tnfrsf11b-in-human-osteoarthritis
#20
Guo-Dong Wang, Xiao-Wei Zhao, Yu-Ge Zhang, Ying Kong, Shuai-Shuai Niu, Long-Fei Ma, Yuan-Min Zhang
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of functional deterioration in older adults, and altered chondrogenesis is the most common pathophysiological process involved in the development of OA. MicroRNA‑145 (miR‑145) has been shown to regulate chondrocyte homeostasis. However, the function of miR‑145 in OA remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the expression levels of miR‑145 were examined in cartilage specimens from 25 patients with knee OA using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
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