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carbonic anhydrase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637277/measuring-co2-and-hco3-permeabilities-of-isolated-chloroplasts-using-a-mims-18o-approach
#1
Dimitri Tolleter, Vincent Chochois, Richard Poiré, G Dean Price, Murray R Badger
To support photosynthetic CO2 fixation by Rubisco, the chloroplast must be fed with inorganic carbon in the form of CO2 or bicarbonate. However, the mechanisms allowing the rapid passage of this gas and this charged molecule through the bounding membranes of the chloroplast envelope are not yet completely elucidated. We describe here a method allowing us to measure the permeability of these two molecules through the chloroplast envelope using a membrane inlet mass spectrometer and 18O-labelled inorganic carbon...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636938/the-ldb1-complex-co-opts-ctcf-for-erythroid-lineage-specific-long-range-enhancer-interactions
#2
Jongjoo Lee, Ivan Krivega, Ryan K Dale, Ann Dean
Lineage-specific transcription factors are critical for long-range enhancer interactions, but direct or indirect contributions of architectural proteins such as CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) to enhancer function remain less clear. The LDB1 complex mediates enhancer-gene interactions at the β-globin locus through LDB1 self-interaction. We find that an LDB1-bound enhancer upstream of carbonic anhydrase 2 (Car2) activates its expression by interacting directly with CTCF at the gene promoter. Both LDB1 and CTCF are required for enhancer-Car2 looping, and the domain of LDB1 contacted by CTCF is necessary to rescue Car2 transcription in LDB1-deficient cells...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633304/molecular-aspects-of-the-biophysical-co2-concentrating-mechanism-and-its-regulation-in-marine-diatoms
#3
Yoshinori Tsuji, Kensuke Nakajima, Yusuke Matsuda
Diatoms operate a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) that drives upwards of 20% of annual global primary production. Recent progress in CCM research in the marine pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum revealed that this diatom directly takes up HCO3- from seawater through low-CO2-inducible plasma membrane HCO3- transporters, which belong to the solute carrier (SLC) 4 family. Apart from this, studies of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) in diatoms have revealed considerable diversity in classes and localization among species...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633135/children-with-a-higher-activity-of-carbonic-anhydrase-vi-in-saliva-are-more-likely-to-develop-dental-caries
#4
Daniele de Cassia Rodrigues Picco, Lenita Marangoni Lopes, Marcelo Rocha Marques, Sergio Roberto Peres Line, Thaís Manzano Parisotto, Marinês Nobre Dos Santos
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the concentration and activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI in the saliva of school children. We investigated the relationship among caries, CA VI concentration/activity, flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-four school children were divided into a caries-free group and a caries group. Clinical examinations were conducted by one examiner according to World Health Organization criteria + early caries lesions...
June 21, 2017: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631600/inhibition-of-carbonic-anhydrase-ix-by-ureidosulfonamide-inhibitor-u104-reduces-prostate-cancer-cell-growth-but-does-not-modulate-daunorubicin-or-cisplatin-cytotoxicity
#5
Anne Riemann, Antje Güttler, Verena Haupt, Henri Wichmann, Sarah Reime, Matthias Bache, Dirk Vordermark, Oliver Thews
Carbonic anhydrase IX has emerged as a promising target for cancer therapy. It is highly up-regulated in hypoxic regions and mediates pH regulation critical for tumor cell survival as well as extracellular acidification of the tumor microenvironment which promotes tumor aggressiveness via various mechanisms, such as augmenting metastatic potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the complex interdependency between CA IX and the tumor microenvironment in prostate tumor cells in concern of potential therapeutic implications...
June 19, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629306/%C3%AE-ca-specific-inhibitor-dithiocarbamate-fc14-584b-a-novel-antimycobacterial-agent-with-potential-to-treat-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#6
Ashok Aspatwar, Milka Hammarén, Sanni Koskinen, Bruno Luukinen, Harlan Barker, Fabrizio Carta, Claudiu T Supuran, Mataleena Parikka, Seppo Parkkila
Inhibition of novel biological pathways in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) creates the potential for alternative approaches for treating drug-resistant tuberculosis. In vitro studies have shown that dithiocarbamate-derived β-carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) inhibitors Fc14-594 A and Fc14-584B effectively inhibit the activity of Mtb β-CA enzymes. We screened the dithiocarbamates for toxicity, and studied the in vivo inhibitory effect of the least toxic inhibitor on M. marinum in a zebrafish model. In our toxicity screening, Fc14-584B emerged as the least toxic and showed minimal toxicity in 5-day-old larvae at 300 µM concentration...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629166/mechanistic-explanation-of-the-weak-carbonic-anhydrase-s-esterase-activity
#7
Paolo Piazzetta, Tiziana Marino, Nino Russo
In order to elucidate the elementary mechanism of the promiscuous esterase activity of human carbonic anhydrase (h-CA), we present an accurate theoretical investigation on the hydrolysis of fully-acetylated d-glucose functionalized as sulfamate. This h-CA's inhibitor is of potential relevance in cancer therapy. The study has been performed within the framework of three-layer ONIOM (QM-high:QM'-medium:MM-low) hybrid approach. The computations revealed that the hydrolysis process is not energetically favored, in agreement with the observed weak carbonic anhydrase's esterase activity...
June 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625714/proteomic-analysis-of-seminal-plasma-from-locally-adapted-curraleiro-p%C3%A3-duro-bulls-bos-taurus-identifying-biomarkers-involved-in-sperm-physiology-in-endangered-animals-for-conservation-of-biodiversity
#8
E B Menezes, R V de Oliveira, M F van Tilburg, E A Barbosa, N V Nascimento, A L M C S Velho, F B Moreno, R A Moreira, A C O Monteiro-Moreira, G M C Carvalho, A F Ramos, E Memili, A A Moura
The present study was aimed at evaluating the seminal plasma proteins and sperm parameters of Curraleiro Pé-Duro bulls. Semen was collected from 10 bulls by electroejaculation, and sperm parameters were evaluated in fresh and frozen-thawed semen. Seminal plasma proteins were analyzed by 2-D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrophotometry. Tools in computational biology were used to generate bioinformatic knowledge and evaluate gene ontology, protein-protein interactions, phylogenetic trees and multiple sequence alignments...
May 29, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623674/cathepsin-k-in-lymphangioleiomyomatosis-lam-cell-fibroblast-interactions-enhance-protease-activity-by-extracellular-acidification
#9
Arundhati Dongre, Debbie Clements, Andrew J Fisher, Simon R Johnson
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease in which clonal LAM cells infiltrate the lungs and lymphatics. In association with recruited fibroblasts, LAM cells form nodules adjacent to lung cysts. It is hypothesized that LAM nodule-derived proteases lead to cyst formation. On protease gene-expression profiling in whole-lung tissue, cathepsin K was 40-fold overexpressed in LAM compared with control lungs (P ≤ 0.0001). Immunohistochemistry confirmed cathepsin K protein in LAM nodules but not in control lungs...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622013/acetazolamide-usage-in-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-pros-and-cons
#10
Rosemary Adamson, Erik R Swenson
Acetazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor sometimes used as a respiratory stimulant for patients with COPD with the goal of improving oxygenation, reducing carbon dioxide retention and aiding liberation from mechanical ventilation and/or attempting to correct a metabolic alkalosis. However, the net effect of CA inhibition is multifactorial and complex since CA is inhibited in many tissues that may negatively affect the patient with lung disease. The full impact of acetazolamide and other CA inhibitors depends critically on dosing, age, and pulmonary, renal, hepatic, hematological, and respiratory muscle function and reserves...
June 16, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620964/does-gene-expression-in-laryngeal-sub-sites-differ-between-patients-with-laryngopharyngeal-reflux-and-controls
#11
John M Wood, Damian J Hussey, Charmaine M Woods, David Astill, David I Watson, Bernard Lee, A Simon Carney
OBJECTIVE: to identify laryngeal mRNA gene changes in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). METHOD: Laryngeal biopsies from non-smoking LPR patients (n=10; Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) >12 and a Reflux Finding Score (RFS) >6) and controls (n=9; RSI <12 and RFS <6) were collected from 4 sub-sites (true vocal cord, false vocal cord, medial arytenoid, posterior commissure) of the larynx. qRT-PCR analyses were conducted on 20 reflux and inflammation related genes, including interleukin 6 and 8, cytokeratin 8 and 14, mucin genes MUC 1, 2, 3B, 4, 5B, 6 & 7, and carbonic anhydrase III...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616951/direct-characterization-of-the-native-structure-and-mechanics-of-cyanobacterial-carboxysomes
#12
Matthew Faulkner, Jorge Rodriguez-Ramos, Gregory F Dykes, Siân V Owen, Selene Casella, Deborah M Simpson, Robert J Beynon, Lu-Ning Liu
Carboxysomes are proteinaceous organelles that play essential roles in enhancing carbon fixation in cyanobacteria and some proteobacteria. These self-assembling organelles encapsulate Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and carbonic anhydrase using a protein shell structurally resembling an icosahedral viral capsid. The protein shell serves as a physical barrier to protect enzymes from the cytosol and a selectively permeable membrane to mediate transport of enzyme substrates and products...
June 15, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613823/inhibition-of-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-by-esterase-triggered-cos-h2s-donors
#13
Andrea K Steiger, Michela Marcatti, Csaba Szabo, Bartosz Szczesny, Michael D Pluth
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important biological mediator, and synthetic H2S donating molecules provide an important class of investigative tools for H2S research. Here we report esterase-activated H2S donors that function by first releasing carbonyl sulfide (COS), which is rapidly converted to H2S by the ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA). We report the synthesis, self-immolative decomposition, and H2S release profiles of the developed scaffolds. In addition, the developed esterase-triggered COS/H2S donors exhibit higher levels of cytotoxicity than equivalent levels of Na2S or the common H2S donors GYY4137 and AP39...
June 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613396/evaluation-of-acetylcholinesterase-and-carbonic-anhydrase-inhibition-profiles-of-1-2-3-4-6-pentasubstituted-4-hydroxy-cyclohexanes
#14
Umit M Kocyigit, Parham Taslimi, Hayreddin Gezegen, İlhami Gulçin, Mustafa Ceylan
Carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) is used for remedial purposes for several years, as there is significant focus on expanding more new activators (CAAs) and high affinity inhibitors. Alzheimer's disease and other similar ailments such as dementia and vascular dementia with Lewy bodies reduce cholinergic activity in the important areas involved in cognition and memory. Prevalent drugs for the symptomatic therapy of dementia are significant in increasing the associated cholinergic deficiency by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604622/the-understanding-of-the-metazoan-skeletal-system-based-on-the-initial-discoveries-with-siliceous-and-calcareous-sponges
#15
REVIEW
Werner E G Müller, Heinz C Schröder, Xiaohong Wang
Initiated by studies on the mechanism of formation of the skeletons of the evolutionary oldest still extant multicellular animals, the sponges (phylum Porifera) have provided new insights into the mechanism of formation of the Ca-phosphate/hydroxyapatite skeleton of vertebrate bone. Studies on the formation of the biomineral skeleton of sponges revealed that both the formation of the inorganic siliceous skeletons (sponges of the class of Hexactinellida and Demospongiae) and of the calcareous skeletons (class of Calcarea) is mediated by enzymes (silicatein: polymerization of biosilica; and carbonic anhydrase: deposition of Ca-carbonate)...
June 12, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596233/adaptable-interaction-between-aquaporin-1-and-band-3-reveals-a-potential-role-of-water-channel-in-blood-co2-transport
#16
Kate Hsu, Ting-Ying Lee, Ammasi Periasamy, Fu-Jen Kao, Li-Tzu Li, Chuang-Yu Lin, Hui-Ju Lin, Marie Lin
Human CO2 respiration requires rapid conversion between CO2 and HCO3(-) Carbonic anhydrase II facilitates this reversible reaction inside red blood cells, and band 3 [anion exchange (AE)-1] provides a passage for HCO3(-) flux across the cell membrane. These 2 proteins are core components of the CO2 transport metabolon. Intracellular H2O is necessary for CO2/HCO3(-) conversion. However, abundantly expressed aquaporin (AQP)-1 in erythrocytes is thought not to be part of band 3 complexes or the CO2 transport metabolon...
June 8, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591238/salivary-protein-polymorphisms-and-risk-of-dental-caries-a-systematic-review
#17
Andrea Lips, Leonardo Santos Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Antunes, Andrea Vaz Braga Pintor, Diana Amado Baptista Dos Santos, Rober Bachinski, Erika Calvano Küchler, Gutemberg Gomes Alves
Dental caries is an oral pathology associated with both lifestyle and genetic factors. The caries process can be influenced by salivary composition, which includes ions and proteins. Studies have described associations between salivary protein polymorphisms and dental caries experience, while others have shown no association with salivary proteins genetic variability. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of salivary protein polymorphisms on the risk of dental caries by means of a systematic review of the current literature...
June 5, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574836/hpv-associated-differential-regulation-of-tumor-metabolism-in-oropharyngeal-head-and-neck-cancer
#18
Young-Suk Jung, Abdo J Najy, Wei Huang, Seema Sethi, Michael Snyder, Wael Sakr, Gregory Dyson, Maik Hüttemann, Icksoo Lee, Rouba Ali-Fehmi, Silvia Franceschi, Linda Struijk, Harold E Kim, Ikuko Kato, Hyeong-Reh Choi Kim
HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer patients experience significantly lower locoregional recurrence and higher overall survival in comparison with HPV-negative patients, especially among those who received radiation therapy. The goal of the present study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the differential radiation sensitivity between HPV-negative and HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Here, we show that HPV-negative HNSCC cells exhibit increased glucose metabolism as evidenced by increased production of lactate, while HPV-positive HNSCC cells effectively utilize mitochondrial respiration as evidenced by increased oxygen consumption...
May 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574264/synergetic-determination-of-thermodynamic-and-kinetic-signatures-using-isothermal-titration-calorimetry-a-full-curve-fitting-approach
#19
Dexing Li, Lan Chen, Ruimin Wang, Renxiao Liu, Guanglu Ge
Thermodynamic and kinetic signatures are pivotal information for revealing the binding mechanisms of biomolecules, and they play an indispensable role in drug discovery and optimization. While noncalorimetric methods measure only a part of these signatures, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is considered to have the potential to acquire full signatures in an experiment. However, kinetic parameters are generally difficult to extract from ITC curves, as they are inevitably affected by the instrument-response function and the collateral heat of associated process during titrations...
June 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569564/inhibition-of-the-%C3%AE-carbonic-anhydrase-from-vibrio-cholerae-with-amides-and-sulfonamides-incorporating-imidazole-moieties
#20
Daniela De Vita, Andrea Angeli, Fabiana Pandolfi, Martina Bortolami, Roberta Costi, Roberto Di Santo, Elisabetta Suffredini, Mariangela Ceruso, Sonia Del Prete, Clemente Capasso, Luigi Scipione, Claudiu T Supuran
We discovered novel and selective sulfonamides/amides acting as inhibitors of the α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae (VchCA). This Gram-negative bacterium is the causative agent of cholera and colonises the upper small intestine where sodium bicarbonate is present at a high concentration. The secondary sulfonamides and amides investigated here were potent, low nanomolar VchCA inhibitors whereas their inhibition of the human cytosolic isoforms CA I and II was in the micromolar range or higher...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
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