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Hypoxic ischemia encephalopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731475/histopathological-study-of-encephalomalacia-in-neonatal-calves-and-application-of-neuronal-and-axonal-degeneration-marker
#1
Kenji Koyama, Akihisa Kangawa, Natsuko Fukumoto, Ken-Ichi Watanabe, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Tomomi Ozawa, Hisashi Inokuma, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
Five calves that had shown neurological symptoms within 9 days after birth were histopathologically diagnosed as encephalomalacia. Two calves showed bilateral laminar cerebrocortical necrosis and neuronal necrosis in the corpus striatum and hippocampus. Since the distributional pattern of the lesions was consistent with that of global ischemia in other species, the lesions were probably hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy consistent with the history of dystocia and perinatal asphyxia. One calf also showed bilateral laminar cerebrocortical necrosis...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718007/upregulation-of-cholesterol-24-hydroxylase-following-hypoxia-ischemia-in-neonatal-mouse-brain
#2
Fuxin Lu, Jun Zhu, Selena Guo, Brandon J Wong, Farid F Chehab, Donna M Ferriero, Xiangning Jiang
BackgroundMaintenance of cholesterol homeostasis is crucial for brain development. Brain cholesterol relies on de novo synthesis and is cleared primarily by conversion to 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-HC) with brain-specific cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46A1). We aimed to investigate the impact of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) on brain cholesterol metabolism in the neonatal mice.MethodsPostnatal day 9 C57BL/6 pups were subjected to HI using the Vannucci model. CYP46A1 expression was assessed with western blotting and its cellular localization was determined using immunofluorescence staining...
May 2, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595192/blockade-of-the-swelling-induced-chloride-current-attenuates-the-mouse-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-vivo
#3
Raymond Wong, Ahmed Abussaud, Joseph Wh Leung, Bao-Feng Xu, Fei-Ya Li, Sammen Huang, Nai-Hong Chen, Guan-Lei Wang, Zhong-Ping Feng, Hong-Shuo Sun
Activation of swelling-induced Cl- current (ICl,swell ) during neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) may induce brain damage. Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury causes chronic neurological morbidity in neonates as well as acute mortality. In this study, we investigated the role of ICl,swell in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury using a selective blocker, 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB). In primary cultured cortical neurons perfusion of a 30% hypotonic solution activated ICl,swell , which was completely blocked by the application of DCPIB (10 μmol/L)...
March 29, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562785/extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-prevent-and-resolve-programmed-cell-death-mediated-by-perinatal-hypoxia-ischemia-in-neuronal-cells
#4
Marianne S Joerger-Messerli, Byron Oppliger, Marialuigia Spinelli, Gierin Thomi, Ivana di Salvo, Philipp Schneider, Andreina Schoeberlein
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insult in the perinatal phase harbors a high risk of encephalopathy in the neonate. Brain cells undergo apoptosis, initiating neurodegeneration. So far, therapeutic approaches such as cooling remain limited. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibits therapeutic success despite the short-time survival in the host brain, providing strong evidence that their beneficial effects are largely based on secreted factors, including extracellular vesicles (EVs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of human Wharton's jelly MSC (hWJ-MSC)-derived EVs on neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, using an in vitro model of oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) mimicking HI injury in the mouse neuroblastoma cell line neuro2a (N2a)...
January 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561203/n-acetylcysteine-rapidly-replenishes-central-nervous-system-glutathione-measured-via-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-human-neonates-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#5
Hunter G Moss, Truman R Brown, Donald B Wiest, Dorothea D Jenkins
Persistent oxidative stress depletes reduced glutathione (GSH), an intracellular antioxidant and an important determinant of CNS injury after hypoxia ischemia. We used standard, short echo time Stimulated Echo Acquisition Mode (STEAM) to detect GSH by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in 24 term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), on day of life 5-6, after rewarming from therapeutic hypothermia. MRS demonstrated reliable, consistent GSH of 1·64 ± 0·20 mM in the basal ganglia immediately before intravenous infusion of N-acetylcysteine...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551690/acute-and-long-term-ncx-activation-reduces-brain-injury-and-restores-behavioral-functions-in-mice-subjected-to-neonatal-brain-ischemia
#6
Pierpaolo Cerullo, Paola Brancaccio, Serenella Anzilotti, Antonio Vinciguerra, Ornella Cuomo, Ferdinando Fiorino, Beatrice Severino, Paola Di Vaio, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato, Giuseppe Pignataro
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HI) accounts for the majority of developmental, motor and cognitive deficits in children, leading to life-long neurological impairments. Since the plasmamembrane sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) plays a fundamental role in maintaining ionic homeostasis during adult brain ischemia, in the present work we aimed to demonstrate (1)the involvement of NCX in the pathophysiology of neonatal HI and (2)a possible NCX-based pharmacological intervention. HI was induced in neonatal mice at postnatal day 7(P7) by unilateral cut of the right common carotid artery, followed by 60 min exposure to 8%O2 ...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489062/embryonic-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs-have-a-superior-neuroprotective-capacity-over-fetal-mscs-in-the-hypoxic-ischemic-mouse-brain
#7
Kate E Hawkins, Michelangelo Corcelli, Kate Dowding, Anna M Ranzoni, Filipa Vlahova, Kwan-Leong Hau, Avina Hunjan, Donald Peebles, Pierre Gressens, Henrik Hagberg, Paolo de Coppi, Mariya Hristova, Pascale V Guillot
Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have huge potential for regenerative medicine. In particular, the use of pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PSC-MSCs) overcomes the hurdle of replicative senescence associated with the in vitro expansion of primary cells and has increased therapeutic benefits in comparison to the use of various adult sources of MSCs in a wide range of animal disease models. On the other hand, fetal MSCs exhibit faster growth kinetics and possess longer telomeres and a wider differentiation potential than adult MSCs...
May 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486166/adiponectin-attenuates-neuronal-apoptosis-induced-by-hypoxia-ischemia-via-the-activation-of-adipor1-appl1-lkb1-ampk-pathway-in-neonatal-rats
#8
Ningbo Xu, Yixin Zhang, Desislava Met Doycheva, Yan Ding, Yiting Zhang, Jiping Tang, Hongbo Guo, John H Zhang
Adiponectin is an important adipocyte-derived plasma protein that has beneficial effects on cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. A low level of plasma Adiponectin is associated with increased mortality post ischemic stroke; however, little is known about the causal role of Adiponectin as well as its molecular mechanisms in neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI). In the present study, ten-day-old rat pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5 h hypoxia. Recombinant human Adiponectin (rh-Adiponectin) was administered intranasally 1 h post HI...
May 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466799/exogenous-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-treatment-and-neuroprotection-in-a-suckling-rat-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#9
Byong Sop Lee, Dong-Cheol Woo, Chul-Woong Woo, Ki-Soo Kim
β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is a representative ketone body that may play a role in the mitigation of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy by altering energy metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective efficacy of exogenous BHB administration in a suckling rat model after hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Thirteen-day-old (P13) rat pups were subjected to 120 min of hypoxia according to the Rice-Vannucci model. BHB (5.0 mmol/kg, HI-BHB) or vehicle (0.9% saline, HI-Veh) was administered 0, 2, 4, and 6 h after HI induction...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451335/mesenchymal-stem-cells-protect-against-hypoxia-ischemia-brain-damage-by-enhancing-autophagy-through-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-mammalin-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-pathway
#10
Zhen Zheng, Li Zhang, Yi Qu, Guoguang Xiao, Shiping Li, Shan Bao, Q Richard Lu, Dezhi Mu
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious disease for neonates. However, present therapeutic strategies are not effective enough for treating HIE. Previous study showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can exert neuroprotective effects for brain damage, but its mechanism remains elusive. Using in vitro coculture of rat cortical primary neurons and MSCs in HI conditions, we demonstrated that MSCs help increase brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and autophagy markers (LC3II and Beclin1) in the cultures and decrease cells death (lactate dehydrogenase levels)...
February 16, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432237/hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-and-other-neonatal-encephalopathies
#11
Hannah C Glass
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neonatal encephalopathy is the most common condition in neonates encountered by child neurologists. The etiology is most often global hypoxia-ischemia due to failure of cerebral perfusion to the fetus caused by uterine, placental, or umbilical cord compromise prior to or during delivery. Other etiologies of neonatal encephalopathy include ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage, infection, developmental anomalies, and inborn errors of metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: Therapeutic hypothermia is standard of care for the treatment of neonatal encephalopathy presumed to be caused by hypoxia-ischemia...
February 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385398/pilose-antler-polypeptides-ameliorates-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-by-activated-neurotrophic-factors-and-sdf1-cxcr4-axis-in-rats
#12
Tao Wu, Luna Yang, Yan Chen, Yinhua Ni, Jianguo Jiang, Wanjing Zhang, Qianchen Zhou, Xiaojun Zheng, Qi Wang, Zhengwei Fu, Haifeng Li
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a complex condition which is associated with high mortality and morbidity. However, few promising treatments for HIE exist. In the present study, the central objective was to identify the therapeutic effect of pilose antler polypeptides (PAP) on HIE in rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (14 days old) were used and divided into three groups, including control group, hypoxic-ischemia (HI) group and PAP group. After 21 days of treatment, locomotor activity was improved in PAP-treated rats, brain atrophy was decreased and cerebral edema was mitigated to some extent...
March 1, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363039/effects-of-progesterone-on-the-neonatal-brain-following-hypoxia-ischemia
#13
Rafael Bandeira Fabres, Luciana Abreu da Rosa, Samir Khal de Souza, Ana Lucia Cecconello, Amanda Stapenhorst Azambuja, Eduardo Farias Sanches, Maria Flavia Marques Ribeiro, Luciano Stürmer de Fraga
Progesterone displays a strong potential for the treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy since it has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of the central nervous system injuries in adult animals. Here, we evaluated the effects of the administration of progesterone (10 mg/kg) in seven-days-old male Wistar rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Progesterone was administered immediately before ischemia and/or 6 and 24 h after the onset of hypoxia. The body weight of the animals, the volume of brain lesion and the expression of p-Akt and procaspase-3 in the hippocampus were evaluated...
January 23, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355822/mild-prenatal-hypoxia-ischemia-leads-to-social-deficits-and-central-and-peripheral-inflammation-in-exposed-offspring
#14
David J O ' Driscoll, Valeria D Felice, Louise C Kenny, Geraldine B Boylan, Gerard W O'Keeffe
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) resulting from intrauterine or perinatal hypoxic-ischemia (HI) is a leading cause of long-term neonatal neurodisability. While most studies of long-term outcome have focused on moderate and severe HIE in term infants, recent work has shown that those with mild HIE may have subtle neurological impairments. However, the impact of mild HI on pre-term infants is much less clear given that pre-term birth is itself a risk factor for neurodisability. Here we show that mild HI insult alters behaviour, inflammation and the corticosterone stress response in a rat model of pre-term HIE...
March 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346139/blood-biomarkers-for-evaluation-of-perinatal-encephalopathy-state-of-the-art
#15
Ernest M Graham, Allen D Everett, Jean-Christophe Delpech, Frances J Northington
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rapid progress in biomarker science is on the threshold of significantly changing clinical care for infants in the neonatal ICU. Infants with neonatal brain injuries will likely be the first group whose management is dramatically altered with point-of-care, rapidly available brain biomarker analysis. Providing an interim update on progress in this area is the purpose of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Highlighted findings from the past 18 months of publications on biomarkers in neonatal brain injury include; Specific nonbrain markers of cardiac health and global asphyxia continue to provide information on brain injury after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341045/approach-to-infants-born-through-meconium-stained-amniotic-fluid-evolution-based-on-evidence
#16
Munmun Rawat, Sushma Nangia, Praveen Chandrasekharan, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
Meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) during delivery is a marker of fetal stress. Neonates born through MSAF often need resuscitation and are at risk of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), air leaks, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and death. The neonatal resuscitation approach to MSAF has evolved over the last three decades. Previously, nonvigorous neonates soon after delivery were suctioned under the vocal cords with direct visualization technique using a meconium aspirator...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155093/histone-acetylation-of-oligodendrocytes-protects-against-white-matter-injury-induced-by-inflammation-and-hypoxia-ischemia-through-activation-of-bdnf-trkb-signaling-pathway-in-neonatal-rats
#17
Jichong Huang, Li Zhang, Yi Qu, Yan Zhou, Jianghu Zhu, Yafei Li, Tingting Zhu, Fengyan Zhao, Jun Tang, Dezhi Mu
The major pathological damage in encephalopathy of prematurity is white matter injury (WMI). Perinatal hypoxic-ischemia (HI) and inflammation are two major risk factors in the development of WMI. To study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of WMI, we set up a WMI model using lipopolysaccharide-sensitized HI injury in 2-day postnatal rats. Immunofluorescence staining was used to measure the expression of acetylated histone H3 (AH3) in oligodendrocytes, the target cells of WMI; the oligodendrocyte protein markers, NG2, O4, MBP, PLP, and MAG, were detected at different developmental stages...
November 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125039/astrocyte-autophagy-flux-protects-neurons-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-ischemic-reperfusion-injury
#18
Xue Liu, Fengfeng Tian, Shiquan Wang, Feng Wang, Lize Xiong
The role of autophagy varies with the type of acute brain injury. In general, autophagy mediates a clear neuroprotective effect in intoxication caused by various psychoactive agents, subarachnoid hemorrhage and spinal cord injury. In contrast, autophagic cell death has also been reported to actively contribute to neuronal loss in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. However, it still remains to be determined whether autophagy pays a cytoprotective or a cytotoxic role in stroke. Previous studies focused primarily on the role of neurons rather than the role of astrocytes in brain injury...
December 22, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112164/effect-of-intranasally-delivered-rh-vegf165-on-angiogenesis-following-cerebral-hypoxia-ischemia-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-newborn-piglets
#19
Amit Jain, Panagiotis Kratimenos, Ioannis Koutroulis, Amishi Jain, Amulya Buddhavarapu, Jahan Ara
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates vascular genesis and angiogenesis. Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia (HI) leads to the reduction of vasculature in the cerebral cortex of newborn piglets. OBJECTIVE: The present study tests the hypothesis that post-hypoxia intranasal administration of recombinant human VEGF165 (rh-VEGF165) for 3 days increases the vascular density in the cerebral cortex of newborn piglets without promoting neovascularization...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046881/nmnat3-is-protective-against-the-effects-of-neonatal-cerebral-hypoxia-ischemia
#20
Rafael Galindo, Marianne Banks Greenberg, Toshiyuki Araki, Yo Sasaki, Nehali Mehta, Jeffrey Milbrandt, David M Holtzman
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the NAD+ biosynthetic protein, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase-3 (NMNAT3), is a neuroprotective inducible enzyme capable of decreasing cerebral injury after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) and reducing glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxic neurodegeneration of immature neurons. METHODS: Using NMNAT3-overexpressing mice we investigated whether increases in brain NMNAT3 reduced cerebral tissue loss following H-I. We then employed biochemical methods from injured neonatal brains to examine the inducibility of NMNAT3 and the mechanism of NMNAT3-dependent neuroprotection...
October 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
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