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Hypoxic ischemia encephalopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062175/intranasal-c3a-treatment-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#1
Javier Morán, Anna Stokowska, Frederik R Walker, Carina Mallard, Henrik Hagberg, Marcela Pekna
Perinatal asphyxia-induced brain injury is often associated with irreversible neurological complications such as intellectual disability and cerebral palsy but available therapies are limited. Novel neuroprotective therapies as well as approaches stimulating neural plasticity mechanism that can compensate for cell death after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are urgently needed. We previously reported that single i.c.v. injection of complement-derived peptide C3a 1h after HI induction prevented HI-induced cognitive impairment when mice were tested as adults...
January 3, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011948/molecular-hydrogen-affords-neuroprotection-in-a-translational-piglet-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#2
J Nemeth, V Toth-Szuki, V Varga, V Kovacs, G Remzso, F Domoki
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the major consequence of perinatal asphyxia (PA) in term neonates. Although the newborn piglet is an accepted large animal PA/HIE model, there is no consensus on PA-induction methodology to produce clinically relevant HIE. We aimed to create and to characterize a novel PA model faithfully reproducing all features of asphyxiation including severe hypercapnia resulting in HIE, and to test whether H2 is neuroprotective in this model. Piglets were anaesthetised, artificially ventilated, and intensively monitored (electroencephalography, core temperature, O2 saturation, arterial blood pressure and blood gases)...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002390/therapeutic-hypothermia-modulates-complement-factor-c3a-and-c5a-levels-in-a-rat-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#3
Tushar A Shah, Jasmine E Nejad, Haree K Pallera, Frank A Lattanzio, Rawad Farhat, Parvathi S Kumar, Pamela S Hair, W Thomas Bass, Neel K Krishna
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia (HT) is the only intervention that improves outcomes in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). However, the multifactorial mechanisms by which HT impacts HIE are incompletely understood. The complement system plays a major role in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion injuries such as HIE. We have previously demonstrated that HT modulates complement activity in vitro. METHODS: Term equivalent rat pups were subjected to unilateral carotid ligation followed by hypoxia (8% O2) for 45 minutes to simulate HIE...
December 21, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988510/in-the-era-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-how-well-do-studies-of-perinatal-neuroprotection-control-temperature
#4
Robert Galinsky, Justin M Dean, Christopher A Lear, Joanne O Davidson, Simerdeep Dhillon, Guido Wassink, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
In the era of therapeutic hypothermia, reliable preclinical studies are integral to successfully identify neuroprotective strategies to further improve outcomes of encephalopathy at term. We reviewed preclinical neuroprotection studies reported between January 2014 and June 2016 to assess the use of effective temperature monitoring and control. As a secondary measure, we examined whether studies addressed other methodological issues such as stage of brain development, sex differences, the timing of the treatment relative to the insult, and the histological and functional endpoints used after hypoxia-ischemia...
December 17, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973415/oxidative-stress-in-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-molecular-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-strategies
#5
REVIEW
Mingyi Zhao, Ping Zhu, Masayuki Fujino, Jian Zhuang, Huiming Guo, IdrisAhmed Sheikh, Lingling Zhao, Xiao-Kang Li
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Because of high concentrations of sensitive immature cells, metal-catalyzed free radicals, non-saturated fatty acids, and low concentrations of antioxidant enzymes, the brain requires high levels of oxygen supply and is, thus, extremely sensitive to hypoxia. Strong evidence indicates that oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis and progression. Following hypoxia and ischemia, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rapidly increases and overwhelms antioxidant defenses...
December 10, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812521/preterm-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#6
REVIEW
Krishna Revanna Gopagondanahalli, Jingang Li, Michael C Fahey, Rod W Hunt, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller, Atul Malhotra
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a recognizable and defined clinical syndrome in term infants that results from a severe or prolonged hypoxic-ischemic episode before or during birth. However, in the preterm infant, defining hypoxic-ischemic injury (HII), its clinical course, monitoring, and outcomes remains complex. Few studies examine preterm HIE, and these are heterogeneous, with variable inclusion criteria and outcomes reported. We examine the available evidence that implies that the incidence of hypoxic-ischemic insult in preterm infants is probably higher than recognized and follows a more complex clinical course, with higher rates of adverse neurological outcomes, compared to term infants...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750254/temporal-profile-of-circulating-micrornas-after-global-hypoxia-ischemia-in-newborn-piglets
#7
Håvard Tetlie Garberg, Marianne U Huun, Lars O Baumbusch, Monica Åsegg-Atneosen, Rønnaug Solberg, Ola Didrik Saugstad
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of reliable biomarkers that can identify and grade acute hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in newborns. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short, non-coding strands of RNA that are released into the circulation in response to tissue stress and injury. Some miRNAs are highly tissue specific and thus may potentially be non-invasive biomarkers of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the temporal expression of selected circulating miRNAs in a clinically relevant piglet model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI)...
October 18, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689921/diagnosis-of-vein-of-galen-aneurysmal-malformation-using-fetal-mri
#8
Li-Xia Zhou, Su-Zhen Dong, Ming-Feng Zhang
PURPOSE: To present three fetal vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs), which were diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and highlight these cardiovascular findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed three fetuses with VGAM at 31, 32, and 33 weeks of gestation. Feeding arteries and draining veins were observed by MRI. Secondary changes in the brain and high-output heart failure caused by high blood flow in the lesion were evaluated...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659964/erythropoietin-improves-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-in-neonatal-rats-after-short-term-anoxia-by-enhancing-angiogenesis
#9
Fangfang Yan, Meimei Zhang, Yan Meng, Huijuan Li, Lie Yu, Xiaojie Fu, Youcai Tang, Chao Jiang
Erythropoietin (EPO) is important for angiogenesis after hypoxia/ischemia. In this study, we investigated whether recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) can enhance angiogenesis, and promote cognitive function through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling pathway in a rat model of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). RhEPO, selective VEGFR2 inhibitor (SU5416) or vehicle was administrated by intraperitoneal injection. The assessment for cognitive function begins on day 60 after anoxia...
November 15, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616300/neuroprotective-effects-of-hypothermia-in-inflammatory-sensitized-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#10
Mathilde Chevin, Clémence Guiraut, Caroline Maurice-Gelinas, Jessica Deslauriers, Sylvain Grignon, Guillaume Sébire
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent introduction of hypothermia as a mandatory standard of care, the incidence of neonatal encephalopathy in full-term newborns and its devastating neuro-behavioral outcomes continues to be a major individual, familial and social issue. Neonatal encephalopathy is mainly due to the compounding and interacting effects of hypoxia-ischemia and inflammation resulting from placental and other perinatal infections. It is unclear why hypothermia is effective in alleviating neonatal encephalopathy in some, but not all, full-term newborns...
December 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613478/amelioration-of-brain-damage-by-glycine-in-neonatal-rat-brain-following-hypoxia-ischemia
#11
Hiroko Mori, Ken Momosaki, Jun Kido, Tetsuo Naramura, Kenichi Tanaka, Shirou Matsumoto, Kimitoshi Nakamura, Hiroshi Mitsubuchi, Fumio Endo, Masanori Iwai
BACKGROUND: Glycine protected adult brains against injury in an experimental model of stroke. However, because the ischemic response of neonatal brains differs from that of adult brains, we examined the neuroprotective efficacy of glycine and associated mechanisms in an experimental model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy. METHODS: Neonatal (P7) Wister rats were randomly divided into an untreated group (non-HI) and two HI groups that were treated with left common carotid artery ligation and saline control or glycine...
September 10, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555552/sex-dependent-mitophagy-and-neuronal-death-following-rat-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#12
T G Demarest, E L Waite, T Kristian, A C Puche, J Waddell, M C McKenna, G Fiskum
Males are more susceptible than females to long-term cognitive deficits following neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the pathophysiology of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI), but the influence of sex on mitochondrial quality control (MQC) after HI is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that mitophagy is sexually dimorphic and neuroprotective 20-24h following the Rice-Vannucci model of rat neonatal HI at postnatal day 7 (PN7). Mitochondrial and lysosomal morphology and degree of co-localization were determined by immunofluorescence in the cerebral cortex...
October 29, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532878/protective-effects-of-transient-receptor-potential-canonical-channels-on-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-cell-injury-in-neurons-and-pc12-cells
#13
Yan Wang, Yingbo Li, Chen Di, Tu Liu, Qianlin Hou, Shali Wang
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious clinical problem, responsible for many cases of motor impairment, cognitive deficits, and mortality. Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels are nonselective cation channels that play a role in many disorders, including trauma, pulmonary hypertension, and excitotoxicity. However, the properties and underlying mechanisms of TRPC channels in HIE are still controversial. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are central signaling pathways that transmit signals from extracellular to intracellular agents and mediate prosurvival, proliferation, and motility proteins...
September 28, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468695/pml-regulates-neuroprotective-innate-immunity-and-neuroblast-commitment-in-a-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-model
#14
Vuk Palibrk, Rajikala Suganthan, Katja Scheffler, Wei Wang, Magnar Bjørås, Stig Ove Bøe
Regulation of innate immune responses and activation of tissue regenerative processes are key elements in the pathophysiology of brain injuries. The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene was originally identified on a breakpoint of chromosomal translocation t(15;17) associated with acute PML. We have studied the role of PML protein during acute and regenerative phases after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in brains of neonatal mice. We found that PML prevents tissue loss and apoptotic cell death selectively in subcortical regions of the brain at early stages after damage...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468268/blood-biomarkers-for-evaluation-of-perinatal-encephalopathy
#15
REVIEW
Ernest M Graham, Irina Burd, Allen D Everett, Frances J Northington
Recent research in identification of brain injury after trauma shows many possible blood biomarkers that may help identify the fetus and neonate with encephalopathy. Traumatic brain injury shares many common features with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Trauma has a hypoxic component, and one of the 1st physiologic consequences of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury is apnea. Trauma and hypoxia-ischemia initiate an excitotoxic cascade and free radical injury followed by the inflammatory cascade, producing injury in neurons, glial cells and white matter...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465493/upregulation-of-cystathione-%C3%AE-synthase-and-p70s6k-s6-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#16
Mirna Lechpammer, Yen P Tran, Pia Wintermark, Veronica Martínez-Cerdeño, Viswanathan V Krishnan, Waseem Ahmed, Robert F Berman, Frances E Jensen, Evgeny Nudler, David Zagzag
Encephalopathy of prematurity (EOP) is a complex form of cerebral injury that occurs in the setting of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in premature infants. Using a rat model of EOP, we investigated whether neonatal HI of the brain may alter the expression of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and the components of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. We performed unilateral carotid ligation and induced HI (UCL/HI) in Long-Evans rats at P6 and found increased CBS expression in white matter (i.e., corpus callosum, cingulum bundle and external capsule) as early as 24 hours (P7) post-procedure...
July 28, 2016: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462203/effects-of-cannabidiol-and-hypothermia-on-short-term-brain-damage-in-new-born-piglets-after-acute-hypoxia-ischemia
#17
Hector Lafuente, Maria R Pazos, Antonia Alvarez, Nagat Mohammed, Martín Santos, Maialen Arizti, Francisco J Alvarez, Jose A Martinez-Orgado
Hypothermia is a standard treatment for neonatal encephalopathy, but nearly 50% of treated infants have adverse outcomes. Pharmacological therapies can act through complementary mechanisms with hypothermia improving neuroprotection. Cannabidiol could be a good candidate. Our aim was to test whether immediate treatment with cannabidiol and hypothermia act through complementary brain pathways in hypoxic-ischemic newborn piglets. Hypoxic-ischemic animals were randomly divided into four groups receiving 30 min after the insult: (1) normothermia and vehicle administration; (2) normothermia and cannabidiol administration; (3) hypothermia and vehicle administration; and (4) hypothermia and cannabidiol administration...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378702/a-thermoregulation-model-for-hypothermic-treatment-of-neonates
#18
Ana Beatriz C G Silva, Joanna Laszczyk, Luiz C Wrobel, Fernando L B Ribeiro, Andrzej J Nowak
This paper presents a thermoregulation finite element model (FEM) to simulate hypothermia procedures for the treatment of encephalopathy hypoxic-ischemia (EHI) in neonates, a dangerous ischemic condition that can cause neurological damages and even death. Therapeutic hypothermia is the only recommended technique to reduce sequels caused by EHI in neonates; intervention with moderate cooling for neural rescue in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is the culmination of a series of clinical research studies spanning decades...
September 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356106/brain-caspase-3-and-intestinal-fabp-responses-in-preterm-and-term-rats-submitted-to-birth-asphyxia
#19
R L Figueira, F L Gonçalves, A L Simões, C A Bernardino, L S Lopes, O Castro E Silva, L Sbragia
Neonatal asphyxia can cause irreversible injury of multiple organs resulting in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This injury is dependent on time, severity, and gestational age, once the preterm babies need ventilator support. Our aim was to assess the different brain and intestinal effects of ischemia and reperfusion in neonate rats after birth anoxia and mechanical ventilation. Preterm and term neonates were divided into 8 subgroups (n=12/group): 1) preterm control (PTC), 2) preterm ventilated (PTV), 3) preterm asphyxiated (PTA), 4) preterm asphyxiated and ventilated (PTAV), 5) term control (TC), 6) term ventilated (TV), 7) term asphyxiated (TA), and 8) term asphyxiated and ventilated (TAV)...
June 23, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255954/endotracheal-suction-in-term-non-vigorous-meconium-stained-neonates-a-pilot-study
#20
Sushma Nangia, Shyam Sunder, Ratna Biswas, Arvind Saili
AIM: To evaluate the effect of 'No endotracheal suction' on occurrence of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) and/or all-cause mortality in non-vigorous neonates born through meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF). METHODS: This pilot randomized controlled trial enrolled term non-vigorous neonates (≥37 weeks) born through MSAF. Neonates randomized to 'No Endotracheal suction group' ('No ET' Group; n=88) did not undergo endotracheal suction before the definitive steps of resuscitation...
August 2016: Resuscitation
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