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treatment of schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318898/distribution-and-levels-of-5-ht1b-receptors-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-of-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-major-depressive-disorder-and-schizophrenia-an-autoradiography-study
#1
Emma R Veldman, Marie M Svedberg, Per Svenningsson, Johan Lundberg
The serotonin 1B receptor has recently received more interest as a possible new target for pharmacological treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, the exact mechanisms of action remain unclear. This study aimed to examine the binding distribution and levels of the serotonin 1B receptor in-depth in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and provide more insight in its functional role in bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Serotonin 1B receptor binding distribution was visualized with high resolution autoradiography (ARG), using the radioligand [(3)H]AZ10419369, in postmortem ACC tissue from patients diagnosed with BD (n=14), MDD (n=12), SZ (n=13) and healthy subjects (n=13)...
March 15, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318841/acquisition-of-nicotine-self-administration-in-amphetamine-and-phencyclidine-models-of-schizophrenia-a-role-for-stress
#2
Paul J Fletcher, Zhaoxia Li, Kathleen M Coen, Anh D Lê
Nicotine use and dependence is very high in patients with schizophrenia. One possible reason is that altered dopamine or glutamate activity in schizophrenia enhances the reinforcing effectiveness of nicotine. We used animal models to test the hypothesis that a hyperdopaminergic state (induced by repeated intermittent injections of amphetamine) or altered glutamate function (subchronic injection of phencyclidine, PCP) facilitates spontaneous acquisition of nicotine self-administration in rats. In Experiment 1 animals in an amphetamine-induced sensitized state (AISS) did not differ from saline-injected controls in their acquisition and maintenance of nicotine self-administration...
March 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318835/improvement-in-mismatch-negativity-generation-during-d-serine-treatment-in-schizophrenia-correlation-with-symptoms
#3
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Michael L Epstein, Migyung Lee, Nayla Lehrfeld, Karen A Nolan, Constance Shope, Eva Petkova, Gail Silipo, Daniel C Javitt
BACKGROUND: Deficits in N-methyl-d-aspartate-type (NMDAR) function contribute to symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. The efficacy of NMDAR agonists in the treatment of persistent symptoms of schizophrenia has been variable, potentially reflecting limitations in functional target engagement. We recently demonstrated significant improvement in auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) with once-weekly treatment with d-serine, a naturally occurring NMDAR glycine-site agonist. This study investigates effects of continuous (daily) NMDAR agonists in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315932/body-and-liver-fat-content-and-adipokines-in-schizophrenia-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy-study
#4
Jong-Hoon Kim, Jung-Hyun Kim, Pil-Whan Park, Jürgen Machann, Michael Roden, Sheen-Woo Lee, Jong-Hee Hwang
RATIONALE: Although antipsychotic treatment often causes weight gain and lipid abnormalities, quantitative analyses of tissue-specific body fat content and its distribution along with adipokines have not been reported for antipsychotic-treated patients. OBJECTIVES: The purposes of the present study were to quantitatively assess abdominal and liver fat in patients with schizophrenia on antipsychotic treatment and age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls and to evaluate their associations with plasma leptin and adiponectin levels...
March 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314733/genetics-implicate-common-mechanisms-in-autism-and-schizophrenia-synaptic-activity-and-immunity
#5
REVIEW
Xiaoming Liu, Zhengwei Li, Conghai Fan, Dongli Zhang, Jiao Chen
The diagnosis of debilitating psychiatric disorders like autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCHZ) is on the rise. These are severe conditions that lead to social isolation and require lifelong professional care. Improved diagnosis of ASD and SCHZ provides early access to medication and therapy, but the reality is that the mechanisms and the cellular pathology underlying these conditions are mostly unknown at this time. Although both ASD and SCHZ have strong inherited components, genetic risk seems to be distributed in hundreds of variants, each conferring low risk...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314680/a-novel-approach-to-measuring-response-and-remission-in-schizophrenia-in-clinical-trials
#6
Ahmed Aboraya, Stefan Leucht, Henry H Nasrallah, Myrto Samara, Josep Maria Haro, Ahmed Elshazly, Masood Zangeneh
BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical companies conduct clinical trials to show the efficacy and safety of new medications for the treatment of schizophrenia. After the new medications are marketed, clinicians treating patients with schizophrenia discover that a considerable number of patients do not respond to these new medications. The goals of the review are to examine the methodology and design of recent antipsychotic clinical trials, identify common flaws, and propose guidelines to fix the flaws and improve the quality of future clinical trials of antipsychotic medications...
March 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314460/schizophrenia-and-psychosis-diagnosis-current-research-trends-and-model-treatment-approaches-with-implications-for-transitional-age-youth
#7
REVIEW
Vivien Chan
This article reviews the current state of diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia, describing the recent proliferation of research in high-risk psychosis spectrum conditions, which are different from childhood-onset and early onset schizophrenia, and findings of psychotic-like experiences in the normal population. Taken from adult and childhood literature, clinical quandaries in accurate diagnosis, and treatment gaps in co-occurring, or sometimes confounding, conditions are discussed. Thoughts on the impact of schizophrenia on an emerging adulthood trajectory are offered...
April 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306616/optimal-dosing-of-risperidone-and-olanzapine-in-the-maintenance-treatment-for-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-related-psychotic-disorders-a-retrospective-multicenter-study
#8
Yusaku Yoshimura, Toshihiko Takeda, Yoshiki Kishi, Toshiki Harada, Akira Nomura, Kenji Washida, Bunta Yoshimura, Kojiro Sato, Yuji Yada, Shozo Aoki
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the optimal tolerability dose ranges of risperidone (RIS) and olanzapine (OLZ) administered during schizophrenia maintenance phase. METHODS: Two-year continuation rates of prescription at discharge were examined using a retrospective cohort study method. Adult patients with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, receiving antipsychotic monotherapy with RIS or OLZ at discharge, were included. The primary outcome measures were the time to treatment discontinuation and 2-year continuation rates at 4 modal dose ranges of each drug...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306564/psychopharmacological-treatment-of-schizophrenia-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#9
Alexandra B Whitworth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is necessary, in every-day clinical life when treating pregnant women with mental diseases, to reach quick decisions derived from recent comprehensive information. The knowledge of the use of antipsychotics in pregnancy has increased considerably in the last years. This review tries to summarize important considerations and facilitate clinical decisions. RECENT FINDINGS: This review will cover not only the effects of exposure during pregnancy on outcomes, postnatal adaption syndrome and lactation, but also pharmacokinetic considerations on the use of antipsychotics during pregnancy...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306157/psychiatric-diagnoses-among-older-recipients-of-publicly-funded-mental-health-services
#10
Sarah T Stahl, Charles F Reynolds, Ellen M Whyte, Steven M Albert
OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses among older recipients of publicly funded mental health services (county safety-net base services and Medicaid) to psychiatric diagnoses in an insured population of older adults from the same county. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of county human services claims data and claims from an insured population in the same county. SETTING: Inpatient and outpatient clinics in Allegheny County, PA...
March 17, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303578/compulsory-community-and-involuntary-outpatient-treatment-for-people-with-severe-mental-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Steve R Kisely, Leslie A Campbell, Richard O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: It is controversial whether compulsory community treatment (CCT) for people with severe mental illness (SMI) reduces health service use, or improves clinical outcome and social functioning. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of compulsory community treatment (CCT) for people with severe mental illness (SMI). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (2003, 2008, 2012, 8 November 2013, 3 June 2016)...
March 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303200/atypical-neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-associated-with-use-of-clozapine
#12
Quevedo-Florez Leonardo, Granada-Romero Juliana, Camargo-Arenas Juan Fernando
The Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) is a medical emergency of infrequent presentation in the emergency department, which is associated with the use of psychiatric drugs, such as typical and atypical antipsychotics. Our case addresses a 55-year-old patient diagnosed with undifferentiated schizophrenia for 10 years, who had been receiving clozapine and clonazepam as part of their treatment. This patient presents the symptoms of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome without fever, which improves with treatment especially with the withdrawal of clozapine...
2017: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297593/clinical-effectiveness-and-cognitive-impact-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-for-schizophrenia-a-large-retrospective-study
#13
Tyler S Kaster, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical effectiveness and cognitive impact of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a large clinical sample of patients with schizophrenia and explore factors associated with treatment response and transient cognitive impairment. METHODS: We examined the clinical records of 144 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were treated at an academic mental health hospital from October 2009 to August 2014...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297592/a-systematized-review-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-pregnant-women-balancing-between-risks-of-untreated-illness-and-risks-of-drug-related-adverse-effects
#14
Sarah Tosato, Umberto Albert, Simona Tomassi, Felice Iasevoli, Claudia Carmassi, Silvia Ferrari, Maria Giulia Nanni, Alessandra Nivoli, Umberto Volpe, Anna Rita Atti, Andrea Fiorillo
OBJECTIVE: To summarize risks related to (1) illness and (2) second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) treatment in pregnant women and their offspring. Concerning illness-related risks, we focused on bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, psychiatric disorders for which SGAs are preferentially prescribed. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Ovid, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library were searched from the date of the first available article to October 2015 using the following key terms: pregnancy OR gestation OR bipolar disorder OR schizophrenia...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296627/predictors-of-early-relapse-among-adolescent-crack-users
#15
Ronaldo Lopes-Rosa, Félix P Kessler, Thiago G Pianca, Luciano Guimarães, Pedro Ferronato, Esequiel Pagnussat, Helena Moura, Flavio Pechansky, Lisia von Diemen
Relapse is associated with a poor prognosis among drug users. Crack cocaine users are more prone to severe dependence because of the intensity of use. Additionally, initiating drug use during adolescence worsens users' prognosis due to the increased rates of impulsivity and other risk behaviors. This study aimed to identify the predictors of early relapse among adolescent crack users discharged from inpatient treatment. A cohort study was conducted with 89 psychiatric inpatients aged 12-17 years from two different hospitals in southern Brazil who met the criteria for crack abuse or dependence...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294137/relationship-between-duration-of-untreated-psychosis-and-intrinsic-corticostriatal-connectivity-in-patients-with-early-phase-schizophrenia
#16
Deepak K Sarpal, Delbert G Robinson, Christina Fales, Todd Lencz, Miklos Argyelan, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Juan A Gallego, Majnu John, John M Kane, Philip R Szeszko, Anil K Malhotra
Patients with first-episode psychosis experience psychotic symptoms for a mean of up to two years prior to initiation of treatment, and long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Meanwhile, evidence compiled from numerous studies suggests that longer DUP is not associated with structural brain abnormalities. To date, few studies have examined the relationship between DUP and functional neuroimaging measures. In the present study, we used seed-based resting-state functional connectivity to examine the impact of DUP on corticostriatal circuitry...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293778/evaluating-the-quality-of-rural-intensive-case-management-services-using-administrative-data-an-exploratory-study
#17
Somaia Mohamed
Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) for people with severe mental illness is an effective approach that is increasingly implemented in rural areas. Low-cost methods of evaluating fidelity to program models are needed to assure services are delivered as intended. In 2007, the Veterans Health Administration implemented an ACT-like Mental Health Intensive Case Management (ACT/ICM) program for SMI veterans in rural areas. This study demonstrates the use of administrative data, reflecting patient characteristics and intensity of service delivery, to characterize services delivered by these programs, to compare them to general mental health programs at the same VA medical centers, and to each other...
March 15, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293729/altered-cortico-striatal-crosstalk-underlies-object-recognition-memory-deficits-in-the-sub-chronic-phencyclidine-model-of-schizophrenia
#18
Aman Asif-Malik, Daniel Dautan, Andrew M J Young, Todor V Gerdjikov
The neural mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are poorly understood. Sub-chronic treatment with the NMDA antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) produces cognitive abnormalities in rodents that reliably model aspects of the neurocognitive alterations observed in schizophrenia. Given that network activity across regions encompassing medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a significant role in motivational and cognitive tasks, we measured activity across cortico-striatal pathways in PCP-treated rats to characterize neural enabling and encoding of task performance in a novel object recognition task...
March 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293046/efficacy-of-risperidone-augmentation-with-ondansetron-in-the-treatment-of-negative-and-depressive-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Roya Samadi, Susan Soluti, Reza Daneshmand, Shervin Assari, Ali Akhoundpour Manteghi
BACKGROUND: Given the potential role of the 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, this study was performed to determine whether ondansetron plus risperidone could reduce the negative and depressive symptoms in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. METHODS: In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial (IRCT registration # 201112125280N7), in 2012-2013 in Mashhad, Iran, 38 patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia received risperidone either combined with a fixed dose (4-8 mg/d) of ondansetron (n=18) or with a placebo (n=20) for 12 weeks...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292624/differential-neuropsychological-functioning-between-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-with-and-without-conduct-disorder
#20
Yu-Ju Lin, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate neuropsychological functioning of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without comorbidities of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and/or conduct disorder (CD) and the mediation effects of the neuropsychological functions in the relationship between ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms to increase our understanding about these frequently co-occurring disorders. METHODS: Adolescents aged 11-18 years were interviewed by the Kiddie epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to confirm their previous and current ADHD status and other psychiatric diagnoses...
March 11, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
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