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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942748/nutritional-psychiatry-the-present-state-of-the-evidence
#1
Wolfgang Marx, Genevieve Moseley, Michael Berk, Felice Jacka
Mental illness, including depression, anxiety and bipolar disorder, accounts for a significant proportion of global disability and poses a substantial social, economic and heath burden. Treatment is presently dominated by pharmacotherapy, such as antidepressants, and psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioural therapy; however, such treatments avert less than half of the disease burden, suggesting that additional strategies are needed to prevent and treat mental disorders. There are now consistent mechanistic, observational and interventional data to suggest diet quality may be a modifiable risk factor for mental illness...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942615/do-biogenetic-causal-beliefs-reduce-mental-illness-stigma-in-people-with-mental-illness-and-in-mental-health-professionals-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Josephine S Larkings, Patricia M Brown
Viewing mental illness as an 'illness like any other' and promoting biogenetic causes have been explored as a stigma-reduction strategy. The relationship between causal beliefs and mental illness stigma has been researched extensively in the general public, but has gained less attention in more clinically-relevant populations (i.e. people with mental illness and mental health professionals). A systematic review examining whether endorsing biogenetic causes decreases mental illness stigma in people with mental illness and mental health professionals was undertaken using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines...
September 24, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942410/when-all-else-fails-supervised-treatment-in-outpatient-for-schizophrenia-stops
#3
Huey Jing Renee Tan
This was about a case of a patient requiring admission to psychiatry ward twice a year for relapse schizophrenia due to medication non-compliance. Medication adherence was previously monitored by her husband. However, following the death of her husband, she stopped treatment. The lack of insight and poor family support further contributed to her relapse. She presented with positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia during her relapse, neglecting her hygiene and oral intake. She was also found to have anaemia as a result of poor diet when she was in relapse...
September 23, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942217/risperidone-versus-olanzapine-among-patients-with-schizophrenia-participating-in-supported-employment-eighteen-month-outcomes
#4
Douglas L Noordsy, Shirley M Glynn, Catherine A Sugar, Christopher D O'Keefe, Stephen R Marder
This study compares the efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine versus risperidone among patients with schizophrenia who are established in outpatient psychiatric care and entering supported employment. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted among 107 outpatients with schizophrenia, who were cross-titrated to flexible dose risperidone or olanzapine over 2 weeks. Clinical endpoints included time to hospitalization and persistence on assigned medication. Weight, laboratory tests, psychopathology, neurologic side effects, social adjustment and role functioning were assessed at 3-6 month intervals...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942195/short-overview-on-metabolomic-approach-and-redox-changes-in-psychiatric-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Gordana Nedic Erjavec, Marcela Konjevod, Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Dubravka Svob Strac, Lucija Tudor, Coral Barbas, Tilman Grune, Neven Zarkovic, Nela Pivac
Schizophrenia, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are severe mental disorders and complicated diagnostic entities, due to their phenotypic, biological and genetic heterogeneity, unknown etiology, and poorly understood alterations in biological pathways and biological mechanisms. Disturbed homeostasis between overproduction of oxidant species, overcoming redox regulation and a lack of cellular antioxidant defenses, resulting in free radical-mediated pathology and subsequent neurotoxicity contributes to development of depression, schizophrenia and PTSD, their heterogeneous clinical presentation and resistance to treatment...
September 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942099/clinical-characteristics-of-breast-cancer-patients-with-mental-disorders
#6
Yoshiaki Shinden, Yuko Kijima, Munetsugu Hirata, Akihiro Nakajo, Kiyonori Tanoue, Takaaki Arigami, Hiroshi Kurahara, Kosei Maemura, Shoji Natsugoe
BACKGROUND: Severe mental disorders are thought to affect the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer because of their lower awareness and understanding of the disease and their reduced ability to cooperate with medical staff. We analyzed the clinical features of patients with breast cancer and pre-existing mental disorders such as schizophrenia, dementia, and intellectual disability. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of 46 patients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, dementia, or intellectual disability, before being diagnosed with breast cancer...
September 20, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941299/considering-the-role-of-adolescent-sex-steroids-in-schizophrenia
#7
REVIEW
Samantha J Owens, Caitlin E Murphy, Tertia D Purves-Tyson, Thomas W Weickert, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
Schizophrenia is a disabling illness that is typically first diagnosed during late adolescence to early adulthood, has an unremitting course, and is often treatment resistance. Many clinical aspects of the illness suggest that sex steroid-nervous system interactions may contribute to the onset and course of symptoms and the cognitive impairment displayed by men and women with schizophrenia. Here, we discuss the actions of estrogen and testosterone on the brain during adolescent development and in schizophrenia from the perspective of experimental studies in animals, human post-mortem studies, magnetic resonance imaging studies in living humans, and clinical trials of sex steroid based treatments...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940256/chlorpromazine-versus-penfluridol-for-schizophrenia
#8
REVIEW
Naemeh Nikvarz, Mostafa Vahedian, Navid Khalili
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of chlorpromazine, a benchmark antipsychotic, has not been fully assessed in direct comparison with different individual antipsychotics. Penfluridol is another old antipsychotic with a long half-life so one oral dose may last up to one week. This could confer advantage. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical effects of chlorpromazine compared with penfluridol for adults with schizophrenia. SEARCH METHODS: On 31 March 2017, we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, Embase, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials...
September 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938151/elucidation-of-shared-and-specific-white-matter-findings-underlying-psychopathology-clusters-in-schizophrenia
#9
Jeanette Lim, Rowena Chin, New Fei Ho, Max Lam, Min Yi Sum, Simon Collinson, Lisa Phillips, Tih-Shih Lee, Balázs Zoltán Gulyás, Juan Zhou, Kang Sim
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with diverse white matter (WM) brain abnormalities. In this study, we sought to examine the WM microstructural findings which underlie clinical psychopathology clusters in schizophrenia and hypothesized that these symptom clusters are associated with common and unique WM tracts. METHODS: Overall, 76 healthy controls (HC), and 148 patients with schizophrenia (SZ) were recruited and severity of symptomatology in schizophrenia was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale...
September 1, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937973/oral-and-dental-health-issues-in-people-with-mental-disorders
#10
Julio Torales, Iván Barrios, Israel González
Patients with mental disorders are subject to a greater number of risk factors for oral and dental disease than the general population. This is mostly caused by the side effects of the medications that they receive, lack of self-care, difficulty to access health services, a negative attitude towards healthcare providers, and patients’ lack of cooperation in dental treatments. The most common psychiatric disorders in our population are depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and dementia...
September 21, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937706/durability-of-therapeutic-response-with-long-term-aripiprazole-lauroxil-treatment-following-successful-resolution-of-an-acute-episode-of-schizophrenia
#11
Joseph P McEvoy, Robert Risinger, Serhiy Mykhnyak, Yangchun Du, Chih-Chin Liu, Arielle D Stanford, Peter J Weiden
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate durability of therapeutic effect of long-term treatment with aripiprazole lauroxil in patients with schizophrenia following successful treatment of an acute psychotic episode. METHODS: This post hoc analysis assessed long-term outcomes for a subgroup of patients who entered a 52-week extension study after being successfully stabilized with one of 2 doses of aripiprazole lauroxil (441 or 882 mg) in a pivotal 12-week, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937546/a-randomized-nonblind-naturalistic-comparison-of-efficacy-and-cognitive-outcomes-with-right-unilateral-bifrontal-and-bitemporal-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-schizophrenia
#12
Aniket Bansod, Sushma S Sonavane, Nilesh B Shah, Avinash A De Sousa, Chittaranjan Andrade
BACKGROUND: There is little literature on the relative efficacy and cognitive safety of right unilateral (RUL), bifrontal (BF), and bitemporal (BT) electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in schizophrenia. METHODS: We present a randomized, nonblind, naturalist comparison of a fixed course of 8 moderately high-dose RUL (n = 24), threshold BF (n = 27), and threshold BT (n = 31) ECT in patients with schizophrenia. Assessments included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, and an autobiographical memory interview...
September 20, 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936820/-efficacy-of-low-dose-aripiprazole-to-treat-clozapine-associated-tardive-dystonia-in-a-patient-with-schizophrenia
#13
Lyang Huh, Bong Ju Lee
Tardive dystonia (TDt) is a debilitating side effect of long-term antipsychotic treatment. Even though TDt is associated with increased psychiatric morbidity, mortality, and severely decreased quality of life, there are no treatment modalities for TDt. Clozapine has been used as a treatment option for TDt in patients with schizophrenia. Interestingly, several recent case reports have indicated that it can enhance or induce TDt. We report a case of clozapine-associated TDt that was treated with low-dose aripiprazole (0...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936815/-current-clinical-variables-in-schizophrenia-cases-with-suicide-attempt-history
#14
Demet Sağlam Aykut, Filiz Civil Arslan, Evrim Özkorumak Karagüzel, Serdar Karakullukçu, Ahmet Tiryaki
OBJECTIVE: High suicide risk was shown to be related with depression and low quality of life in studies investigating clinical variables related to suicidal behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a suicide attempt on clinical presentation by comparing sociodemographic variables, clinical signs, symptoms of depression, quality of life, social functionality, and reported adverse drug reactions in schizophrenic patients with and without suicide. METHOD: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Calgary Depression Scale (CDS), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Social Functioning Scale (SFS), and Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale (UKU) were administered to 115 patients with schizophrenia...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933314/effectiveness-of-a-low-support-remotely-accessible-cognitive-remediation-training-programme-for-chronic-psychosis-cognitive-functional-and-cortical-outcomes-from-a-single-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
G Donohoe, R Dillon, A Hargreaves, O Mothersill, M Castorina, E Furey, A J Fagan, J F Meaney, B Fitzmaurice, B Hallahan, C McDonald, T Wykes, A Corvin, I H Robertson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive remediation (CR) training has emerged as a promising approach to improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and related psychosis. The limited availability of psychological services for psychosis is a major barrier to accessing this intervention however. This study investigated the effectiveness of a low support, remotely accessible, computerised working memory (WM) training programme in patients with psychosis. METHODS: Ninety patients were enrolled into a single blind randomised controlled trial of CR...
September 21, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933260/older-and-newer-strategies-for-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-agitation-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#16
Giovanni Amodeo, Andrea Fagiolini, Gabriele Sachs, Andreas Erfurth
BACKGROUND: Treatment of acute agitation in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia is a multifaceted and dynamic task, which presents unique and complex challenges to healthcare providers. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain and describe which medications are best to use in agitated patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder Method: Selective review of current guidelines and of the literature pertaining to the treatment of agitation in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder Results: Pharmacologic treatment of agitation should be based on an assessment of the most likely cause of the agitation...
September 18, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931808/electroconvulsive-therapy-induced-brain-functional-connectivity-predicts-therapeutic-efficacy-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multivariate-pattern-recognition-study
#17
Peng Li, Ri-Xing Jing, Rong-Jiang Zhao, Zeng-Bo Ding, Le Shi, Hong-Qiang Sun, Xiao Lin, Teng-Teng Fan, Wen-Tian Dong, Yong Fan, Lin Lu
Previous studies suggested that electroconvulsive therapy can influence regional metabolism and dopamine signaling, thereby alleviating symptoms of schizophrenia. It remains unclear what patients may benefit more from the treatment. The present study sought to identify biomarkers that predict the electroconvulsive therapy response in individual patients. Thirty-four schizophrenia patients and 34 controls were included in this study. Patients were scanned prior to treatment and after 6 weeks of treatment with antipsychotics only (n = 16) or a combination of antipsychotics and electroconvulsive therapy (n = 13)...
May 11, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931411/topiramate-s-effectiveness-on-weight-reduction-in-overweight-obese-persons-with-schizophrenia-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Miyuru Chandradasa, Layani Champika, Silumini de Silva, K A L A Kuruppuarachchi
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with a higher mortality than that of the general population. Most of the deaths are due to cardiovascular causes and are related to metabolic risks. This risk is due not only to antipsychotics but also to inherent factors of the disorder. Studies in the West have shown topiramate to be effective in schizophrenia to reduce weight gain and for symptomatic control. Whether this is effective for South Asians is not known. It is important because South Asians have a higher risk of metabolic syndrome...
September 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930768/a-6-month-prospective-trial-of-a-personalized-behavioral-intervention-long-acting-injectable-antipsychotic-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-at-risk-of-treatment-nonadherence-and-homelessness
#19
Martha Sajatovic, Luis F Ramirez, Edna Fuentes-Casiano, Jamie Cage, Curtis Tatsuoka, Michelle E Aebi, Ashley Bukach, Kristin A Cassidy, Jennifer B Levin
PURPOSE: Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAI) can optimize adherence for high-risk serious mental illness (SMI). This customized adherence-enhancement approach delivered by social worker interventionists was combined with LAI (CAE-L) of paliperidone palmitate for homeless, poorly adherent individuals with SMI. METHODS: This 6-month prospective, uncontrolled trial of CAE-L in 30 recently homeless individuals with SMI assessed adherence using the Tablets Routine Questionnaire, injection frequency, and SMI symptoms measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and Clinical Global Impressions...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928440/gender-differences-measured-by-the-matrics-consensus-cognitive-battery-in-chronic-schizophrenia-patients
#20
Baohua Zhang, Mei Han, Shuping Tan, Fu De Yang, Yunlong Tan, Shurong Jiang, Xiangyang Zhang, Xu-Feng Huang
Using Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), previous study showed significant gender differences for cognitive deficits in immediate and delayed memory in schizophrenia patients. However, RBANS does not include reasoning and problem solving, and social cognition. These cognitive functions can significantly affect the outcomes and daily life in patients. This study examined the gender differences of cognition using the measurement and treatment research to improve cognition in schizophrenia (MATRICS) consensus cognitive battery (MCCB), especially focusing on reasoning and problem solving, and social cognition in schizophrenia patients...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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