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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749169/effects-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-on-serum-uric-acid-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Hala Ahmadieh, Sami Azar
Hyperuricemia has been linked to metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Hyperuricemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus were inter-related, type 2 diabetes mellitus was more at risk of having a higher serum uric acid level, and also individuals with higher serum uric acid had higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future. Insulin resistance seems to play an important role in the causal relationship between metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and hyperuricemia. Oral diabetic drugs that would have additional beneficial effects on reducing serum uric acid levels are of importance...
July 27, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748985/brief-update-on-diabetes-for-general-practitioners
#2
A Barquilla García
Diabetes includes a group of metabolic disorders in which there is hyperglycemia. This can be due to impaired insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with serious long-term complications in several organs, especially in the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels. In our country this disorder affects 13.8% of the population. There are several types of diabetes although most patients suffer type 2 diabetes. We set out to review the diagnostic process, screening recommendations, prevention strategies, initial assessment upon diagnosis, therapeutic targets regarding both blood glucose levels and the other vascular risk factors while also considering healthy lifestyles and brief references to medications recommended in each section...
December 2017: Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748892/clinical-profile-of-geriatric-acute-kidney-injury-in-a-tertiary-care-center-from-south-india
#3
Eshwarappa Mahesh, Praveen Nallamuthu, Mahesh Kumar, Parampalli Rakesh Madhyastha, Gurudev Konanna
The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is high in the elderly, who comprise an ever-growing segment of the population. Elderly patients pose a different set of diagnostic and therapeutic challenge owing to their associated comorbidities. AKI in the elderly is associated with an increased risk of mortality, morbidity, prolonged length of stay, and progression to chronic kidney disease. Data regarding the clinical profile of AKI in the elderly from the South Indian population are limited. Hence, we present this analysis of the etiological and prognostic factors associated with AKI in elderly population from South India...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748889/spectrum-of-kidney-diseases-in-patients-presented-for-acute-hemodialysis-in-kasr-al-aini-school-of-medicine
#4
Khaled M Sadek, Bahaa M Zayed, Manal M Eldeeb, Dinna H Ahmed, Ahmed A Aly, Dawlat M Belal
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in hospitalized patients with mortality varying from 10% to 80%. It is crucial to know the incidence and etiology of AKI to promote prevention strategies. Our study aimed at obtaining a comprehensive review of the pattern and spectrum of patients who presented for emergency hemodialysis to Kasr Al-Aini Hospital between October 2012 and October 2014. We analyzed clinical and laboratory factors in all such patients. Two thousand twenty three patients were included of which patients with AKI were 728 patients (36%)...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748887/nondiabetic-renal-disease-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#5
Ikram Mami, Amel Harzallah, Hayet Kaaroud, Raja Aoudia, Fethi Ben Hamida, Rim Goucha, Taieb Ben Abdallah
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The diagnosis of DN is mostly clinical. Kidney biopsy is indicated only if nondiabetic renal disease (NDRD) is suspected. This study is aimed to assess the prevalence of NDRD and to determine predictor and prognostic factors of DN, NDRD. It was a retrospective analytic study including T2DM patients in whom renal biopsies were performed at our department from 1988 to 2014. Seventy-five patients were included. Mean age was 52...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748886/clinical-and-histological-correlation-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#6
Tameem Afroz, Radha Sagar, Sandeep Reddy, Sridhar Gandhe, K G Rajaram
Renal failure in diabetes is a common cause of renal replacement therapy. The affected kidney goes through various changes in all compartments progressively. The classification of diabetic nephropathy is based on glomerular lesions and displays a heterogeneous morphology. Abnormalities in tubulointerstitial and vascular compartments are important in assessing the outcome of these patients. We applied the new pathologic classification of diabetic nephropathy by Tervaert et al to classify the renal damage in diabetes...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748581/coronary-artery-calcium-may-stabilize-following-islet-cell-transplantation-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#7
J M Madrigal, R S Monson, B Hatipoglu, J Oberholzer, G T Kondos, K A Varady, K K Danielson
Islet cell transplantation can functionally cure type 1 diabetes, and also improve carotid-intima media thickness. This study provides a preliminary description of changes in coronary artery calcium following islet transplantation, and associated factors. Coronary artery calcium was measured in 14 patients with type 1 diabetes (11 had measures both pre- and post-transplant [mean 2.3 years]) in the University of Illinois at Chicago's clinical trial. Multivariable mixed-effects linear regression of repeated measures was used to quantify calcium change, and determine if this change was longitudinally associated with risk/protective factors...
July 27, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748185/novel-actions-of-growth-hormone-in-podocytes-implications-for-diabetic-nephropathy
#8
REVIEW
Dhanunjay Mukhi, Rajkishor Nishad, Ram K Menon, Anil Kumar Pasupulati
The kidney regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance and thus maintains body homeostasis. The kidney's potential to ensure ultrafiltered and almost protein-free urine is compromised in various metabolic and hormonal disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Diabetic nephropathy (DN) accounts for ~20-40% of mortality in DM. Proteinuria, a hallmark of renal glomerular diseases, indicates injury to the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). The GFB is composed of glomerular endothelium, basement membrane, and podocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748119/uric-acid-in-the-pathogenesis-of-metabolic-renal-and-cardiovascular-diseases-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Usama A A Sharaf El Din, Mona M Salem, Dina O Abdulazim
The association between uric acid (UA) on one side and systemic hypertension (Htn), dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, overweight, fatty liver, renal disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the other side is well recognized. However, the causal relationship between UA and these different clinical problems is still debatable. The recent years have witnessed hundreds of experimental and clinical trials that favored the opinion that UA is a probable player in the pathogenesis of these disease entities. These studies disclosed the strong association between hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity, Htn, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertriglyceridemia, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease (CKD), coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure and increased mortality among cardiac and CKD patients...
September 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747964/effect-of-preadmission-metformin-use-on-clinical-outcome-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-among-critically-ill-patients-with-diabetes
#10
Yong Suk Jo, Sun Mi Choi, Jinwoo Lee, Young Sik Park, Chang-Hoon Lee, Jae-Joon Yim, Chul-Gyu Yoo, Young Whan Kim, Sung Koo Han, Sang-Min Lee
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is related to high mortality and morbidity. There are no proven therapeutic measures however, to improve the clinical course of ARDS, except using low tidal volume ventilation. Metformin is known to have pleiotropic effects including anti-inflammatory activity. We hypothesized that pre-admission metformin might alter the progress of ARDS among intensive care unit (ICU) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study from January 1, 2005, to April 30, 2005 of patients who were admitted to the medical ICU at Seoul National University Hospital because of ARDS, and reviewed ARDS patients with DM...
July 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747725/echinomycin-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-cells-in-a-hif-independent-manner
#11
Junna Yamaguchi, Tetsuhiro Tanaka, Hisako Saito, Seitaro Nomura, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Hironori Waki, Takashi Kadowaki, Masaomi Nangaku
Obesity is a risk factor for many diseases including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Obesity is characterized by the expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT). Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes cause tissue hypoxia followed by inflammation and fibrosis. Its trigger, preadipocyte differentiation into mature adipocytes, is finely regulated by transcription factors, signal molecules, and cofactors. We found that echinomycin, a potent HIF-1 inhibitor, completely inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 WAT preadipocytes by affecting the early phase of mitotic clonal expansion...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747378/nadph-oxidase-nox5-accelerates-renal-injury-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#12
Jay C Jha, Claudine Banal, Jun Okabe, Stephen P Gray, Thushan Hettige, Bryna S M Chow, Vicki Thallas-Bonke, Lisanne De Vos, Chet E Holterman, Melinda T Coughlan, David A Power, Alison Skene, Elif I Ekinci, Mark E Cooper, Rhian M Touyz, Chris R Kennedy, Karin Jandeleit-Dahm
NADPH-oxidase derived excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the kidney plays a key role in mediating renal injury in diabetes. Pathological changes in diabetes include mesangial expansion and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) leading to glomerulosclerosis. There is a paucity of data about the role of the Nox5 isoform of NADPH oxidase in animal models of diabetic nephropathy since Nox5 is absent in the mouse genome. Thus, we examined the role of Nox5 in human diabetic nephropathy, in human mesangial cells and in an inducible human Nox5 transgenic mouse exposed to STZ-induced diabetes...
July 26, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747155/indole-3-acetic-acid-indoxyl-sulfate-and-paracresyl-sulfate-do-not-influence-anemia-parameters-in-hemodialysis-patients
#13
Stanislas Bataille, Marion Pelletier, Marion Sallée, Yvon Berland, Nathalie McKay, Ariane Duval, Stéphanie Gentile, Yosra Mouelhi, Philippe Brunet, Stéphane Burtey
BACKGROUND: The main reason for anemia in renal failure patients is the insufficient erythropoietin production by the kidneys. Beside erythropoietin deficiency, in vitro studies have incriminated uremic toxins in the pathophysiology of anemia but clinical data are sparse. In order to assess if indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), indoxyl sulfate (IS), and paracresyl sulfate (PCS) -three protein bound uremic toxins- are clinically implicated in end-stage renal disease anemia we studied the correlation between IAA, IS and PCS plasmatic concentrations with hemoglobin and Erythropoietin Stimulating Agents (ESA) use in hemodialysis patients...
July 26, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745401/trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-breathe-new-life
#14
REVIEW
Saravanan Subramaniam, Craig Fletcher
Associations between an elevated level of systemic trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and an increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events have been proposed in recent years. Increasing experimental studies suggest a possible impact of TMAO in cardiovascular diseases. TMAO, the oxygenated product of TMA, is belonging to the class of amine oxides. Most of TMA derived from the bacterial metabolism of choline and L-carnitine is absorbed into the bloodstream, and then TMA is rapidly oxidized to TMAO by flavin-containing monooxygenase-3 (FMO3), a hepatic enzyme...
July 26, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743977/the-association-of-serum-adiponectin-with-abdominal-aortic-calcification-in-japanese-male-hemodialysis-patients-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#15
Takeshi Sakura, Senji Okuno, Eriko Nishio, Kyoko Norimine, Eiji Ishimura, Tomoyuki Yamakawa, Shigeichi Shoji, Masaaki Inaba
The negative relation of serum adiponectin to atherosclerosis becomes a positive association in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We conducted a small-scale cross-sectional observational study, in 101 Japanese male hemodialysis patients, to examine the relationship of serum adiponectin and leptin to abdominal aortic calcification (AAC). The presence of AAC was evaluated from simple X-ray radiographs of the left lateral abdomen. Serum adiponectin was significantly higher in AAC-positive patients [18...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743845/-new-methods-for-the-evaluation-of-bone-quality-diseases-affecting-bone-quality
#16
Shinsuke Yamada, Masaaki Inaba
Impaired bone quality is associated with fragility bone fractures independently of bone mineral density. Lifestyle disease-induced osteoporosis, such as diabetes or chronic kidney disease, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis are listed as the diseases affecting bone quality. TBS(trabecular bone score)developed recently will be able to evaluate the trabecular microarchitecture quickly and easily. Various clinical studies evaluated bone quality by TBS has performed. I give an outline about the diseases affecting bone quality...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743130/sglt-2-inhibition-a-potential-new-treatment-for-diabetic-kidney-disease
#17
Robert D Toto
Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of kidney failure. Treatments with drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system have proven beneficial in slowing kidney disease progression among those with diabetes; their benefit is limited and they do not stop disease progression. Despite multiple clinical trials of various interventions including dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system over the past 15 years, no new therapies have emerged to slow kidney disease progression in diabetes. SGLT-2 inhibitors are a new class of antiglycemic drugs that have been shown to lower blood glucose by inhibition of the sodium-glucose transporter 2 in the proximal tubule of the kidney...
July 26, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740855/aldose-reductase-inhibitor-protects-against-hyperglycemic-stress-by-activating-nrf2-dependent-antioxidant-proteins
#18
Kirtikar Shukla, Pabitra Bikash Pal, Himangshu Sonowal, Satish K Srivastava, Kota V Ramana
We have shown earlier that pretreatment of cultured cells with aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors prevents hyperglycemia-induced mitogenic and proinflammatory responses. However, the effects of AR inhibitors on Nrf2-mediated anti-inflammatory responses have not been elucidated yet. We have investigated how AR inhibitor fidarestat protects high glucose- (HG-) induced cell viability changes by increasing the expression of Nrf2 and its dependent phase II antioxidant enzymes. Fidarestat pretreatment prevents HG (25 mM)-induced Thp1 monocyte viability...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739650/lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-antagonism-protects-against-diabetic-nephropathy-in-a-type-2-diabetic-model
#19
Ming-Zhi Zhang, Xin Wang, Haichun Yang, Agnes B Fogo, Brian J Murphy, Robert Kaltenbach, Peter Cheng, Bradley Zinker, Raymond C Harris
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) functions through activation of LPA receptors (LPARs). LPA-LPAR signaling has been implicated in development of fibrosis. However, the role of LPA-LPAR signaling in development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) has not been studied. We examined whether BMS002, a novel dual LPAR1 and LPAR3 antagonist, affects development of DN in endothelial nitric oxide synthase-knockout db/db mice. Treatment of these mice with BMS002 from 8 to 20 weeks of age led to a significant reduction in albuminuria, similar to that observed with renin-angiotensin system inhibition (losartan plus enalapril)...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739576/temporal-trends-and-factors-associated-with-home-hemodialysis-technique-survival-in-canada
#20
Jeffrey Perl, Yingbo Na, Karthik K Tennankore, Christopher T Chan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The last 15 years has seen growth in home hemodialysis (HD) utilization in Canada owing to reports of improved outcomes relative to patients on conventional in-center HD. What effect growth has had on home HD technique and patient survival during this period is not known. DESIGN, SETTINGS, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We compared the risk of home HD technique failure, mortality, and the composite outcome among three incident cohorts of patients on home HD in Canada: 1996-2002, 2003-2007, and 2008-2012...
July 24, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
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