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Guan Wang, Kai Zhang, Yindian Wang, Changwen Zhao, Bin He, Yuhong Ma, Wantai Yang
Surface engineering of individual living cells is a promising field for cell-based applications. However, engineering individual cells with controllable thickness by chemical methods has been rarely studied. This article describes the development of a new cytocompatible chemical strategy to decorate individual living cells. The thicknesses of the crosslinked shells could be conveniently controlled by the irradiation time, visible light intensity, or monomer concentration. Moreover, the lag phase of the yeast cell division was extended and their stability against lysis was improved, which could also be tuned by controlling the shell thickness...
April 20, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Jagroop Pandhal, Anggun Siswanto, Dmitriy Kuvshinov, William B Zimmerman, Linda Lawton, Christine Edwards
There has been a steady rise in the incidences of algal blooms globally, and worryingly, there is increasing evidence that changes in the global climate are leading to a shift toward cyanobacterial blooms. Many cyanobacterial genera are harmful, producing several potent toxins, including microcystins, for which there are over 90 described analogues. There are a wide range of negative effects associated with these toxins including gastroenteritis, cytotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Although a variety of oxidation based treatment methods have been described, ozonation and advanced oxidation are acknowledged as most effective as they readily oxidise microcystins to non-toxic degradation products...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Magdalena Celinska-Löwenhoff, Michal Zabczyk, Teresa Iwaniec, Krzysztof Plens, Jacek Musial, Anetta Undas
Objectives: APS is associated with arterial and venous thrombosis. The unfavourable fibrin clot phenotype, including formation of dense and poorly lysable clots, has been reported in thrombotic APS. We investigated whether abnormal plasma clot properties are predictive of recurrent thromboembolism in APS. Methods: We followed 126 consecutive patients with thrombotic APS and 105 control subjects, without APS, matched for thrombotic events. Plasma fibrin clot permeability (Ks), turbidity measurements and clot lysis time were evaluated ⩾5 months after a thrombotic event...
April 17, 2018: Rheumatology
Anusha Aditya, Sabyasachi Chattopadhyay, Diksha Jha, Hemant K Gautam, Souvik Maiti, Munia Ganguli
Zinc oxide nanoparticles of 60 nm were dispersed in PBS and 2 different ionic liquids- choline acetate, 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. These formulations were tested in 4 different strains- Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Out of these combinations, maximum efficiency was obtained for ZnO nanoparticle dispersed in imidazolium based ionic liquid against skin specific S. epidermidis. Through a series of experiments, it has been established that the mechanism of killing this skin-specific bacteria is through ROS production leading to bacterial cell lysis...
April 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhuoran Han, Jingfeng Sun, Aijun Lv, Anli Wang
This study examined the technical bias associated with different DNA extraction methods used in microbiome research. Three methods were used to extract genomic DNA from the same intestinal microbiota sample that was taken from the koi carp Cyprinus carpio var. koi, after which their microbial diversity and community structure were investigated on the basis of a 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing analysis. Biased results were observed in relation to the number of reads, alpha diversity indexes and taxonomic composition among the three DNA extraction protocols...
April 17, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Francesco Boschetto, Nami Toyama, Satoshi Horiguchi, Ryan M Bock, Bryan J McEntire, Tetsuya Adachi, Elia Marin, Wenliang Zhu, Osam Mazda, B Sonny Bal, Giuseppe Pezzotti
The metabolic response of Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) bacteria to bioceramic substrates was probed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Oxide zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) and non-oxide silicon nitride (Si3N4) substrates were tested. Bacteria exposed to silica glass substrates were used as a control. S. epidermidis, a major cause of periprosthetic infections, was screened to obtain a precise time-lapse knowledge of its molecular composition and to mechanistically understand its interaction with different substrates...
April 18, 2018: Analyst
Nathalia M de Vasconcelos, Nina Van Opdenbosch, Hanne Van Gorp, Eef Parthoens, Mohamed Lamkanfi
Pyroptosis is rapidly emerging as a mechanism of anti-microbial host defense, and of extracellular release of the inflammasome-dependent cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, which contributes to autoinflammatory pathology. Caspases 1, 4, 5 and 11 trigger this regulated form of necrosis by cleaving the pyroptosis effector gasdermin D (GSDMD), causing its pore-forming amino-terminal domain to oligomerize and perforate the plasma membrane. However, the subcellular events that precede pyroptotic cell lysis are ill defined...
April 17, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Jessica C Cardenas, Charles E Wade, Bryan A Cotton, Mitchell J George, John B Holcomb, Martin A Schreiber, Nathan J White
BACKGROUND: Thrombelastography (TEG) fibrinolysis shutdown after trauma is associated with increased mortality due to hypercoagulability-associated organ failure. However, a lack of mechanistic data has precluded the development of novel interventions to treat shutdown. OBJECTIVES: To define the pathophysiology of TEG shutdown in severely injured, bleeding patients through secondary analysis of the PROPPR trial. METHODS: Fibrinolysis was characterized in PROPPR subjects using admission TEG lysis at 30 minutes (LY30) or plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP) levels...
April 16, 2018: Shock
Naoki Tojo, Mitsuya Otsuka, Atsushi Hayashi
Purpose: To compare the postoperative interventions and outcomes between conventional trabeculectomy and trabeculectomy with the Ex-PRESS® mini-glaucoma shunt device (Ex-Press). Methods: This was a retrospective, comparative, single-facility study. We analyzed the cases of 108 glaucoma patients who underwent trabeculectomy and were followed for >1 year. Thirty-nine eyes underwent a conventional trabeculectomy (conventional group) and 69 eyes underwent a trabeculectomy with an Ex-Press (Ex-Press group)...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Jesús E Rodríguez Gamero, Lorenzo Favaro, Valentino Pizzocchero, Giovanna Lomolino, Marina Basaglia, Sergio Casella
Industrial manufacturing of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) requires purification of PHAs granules from high-cell-density cultures. Cells are broken by homogenization and PHAs granules are cleansed and treated to obtain PHAs latexes. However, cell lysis releases large amounts of DNA which results in an increasing viscosity of the medium, hampering the following downstream steps. Drop in viscosity is generally achieved by costly procedures such as heat treatment or the supplementation of hypochlorite and commercially available nucleases...
April 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Subbaiah Chalivendra, Catherine DeRobertis, Jorge Reyes Pineda, Jong Hyun Ham, Kenneth Damann
The emergence of super-toxigenic strains by recombination is a risk from an intensive use of intraspecific aflatoxin (AF) biocontrol agents (BCAs). Periodical alternation with interspecific-BCAs will be safer since they preclude recombination. We are developing an AF-biocontrol system using rice-associated Bacilli reported previously (RABs). More than 50% of RABs inhibited the growth of multiple A. flavus strains, with RAB4R being the most inhibitory and RAB1 among the least. The fungistatic activity of RAB4R is associated with the lysis of A...
April 16, 2018: Toxins
M Pieters, H Philippou, A Undas, Z de Lange, D C Rijken, N J Mutch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Huijun Cheng, Yuya Asakura, Kosuke Kanda, Ryo Fukui, Yoshihisa Kawano, Yuki Okugawa, Yukihiro Tashiro, Kenji Sakai
Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) is conducted for stabilization of sludge waste and is driven by the action of various microorganisms under aerobic conditions. However, the mechanism controlling bacterial community changes during ATAD via three (initial, middle and final) phases is currently unclear. To investigate this mechanism, activity analysis and a microcosm assay with shaking were performed on a bacterial community during the initial, middle, and final phases of incubation. Cell lysis activities toward gram-negative bacteria, but not gram-positive bacteria, were detected in the ATAD samples in the middle and final phases...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Kawaljit Kaur, Milica Perišić Nanut, Meng-Wei Ko, Tahmineh Safaie, Janko Kos, Anahid Jewett
Natural killer (NK) cells are known to select and differentiate cancer stem-like cells/undifferentiated tumors via lysis, and secreted/membrane bound IFN-γ and TNF-α respectively, resulting in the control of tumor growth. Several in vivo mouse models including humanized-BLT mice have been used to study the biology and significance of NK cells in selection/differentiation of stem-like tumors within the context of a reconstituted human immune system. In addition, we discuss the evidence and significance of NK cell loss at the pre-neoplastic stage...
April 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Anam Ansari, Abad Ali, Mohd Asif, Mohd Ahmar Rauf, Mohammad Owais, Shamsuzzaman
A series of steroidal oxazole and thiazole derivatives have been synthesized employing thiosemicarbazide/semicarbazide hydrochloride and ethyl 2-chloroacetoacetate with a simple and facile one-pot multicomponent reaction pathway. The antimicrobial activity of newly synthesized compounds were evaluated against four bacterial strains namely Gram-negative (Escherechia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) in addition to pathogenic fungi (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans)...
April 10, 2018: Steroids
Peng Huang, Jinlei Shi, Qingwen Sun, Xianping Dong, Ning Zhang
Lysozymes are known as ubiquitously distributed immune effectors with hydrolytic activity against peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall polymer, to trigger cell lysis. In the present study, the full-length cDNA sequence of a novel sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus invertebrate-type lysozyme (sp-iLys) was synthesized according to the codon usage bias of Pichia pastoris and was cloned into a constitutive expression plasmid pPIC9K. The resulting plasmid, pPIC9K-sp-iLys, was integrated into the genome of P...
April 13, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Nadin Shagaghi, Enzo A Palombo, Andrew H A Clayton, Mrinal Bhave
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been established over millennia as powerful components of the innate immune system of many organisms. Due to their broad spectrum of activity and the development of host resistance against them being unlikely, AMPs are strong candidates for controlling drug-resistant pathogenic microbial pathogens. AMPs cause cell death through several independent or cooperative mechanisms involving membrane lysis, non-lytic activity, and/or intracellular mechanisms. Biochemical determinants such as peptide length, primary sequence, charge, secondary structure, hydrophobicity, amphipathicity and host cell membrane composition together influence the biological activities of peptides...
April 12, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Manuel Pazos, Christian Otten, Waldemar Vollmer
Peptidoglycan encases the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane to protect the cell from lysis due to the turgor. The final steps of peptidoglycan synthesis require a membrane-anchored substrate called lipid II, in which the peptidoglycan subunit is linked to the carrier lipid undecaprenol via a pyrophosphate moiety. Lipid II is the target of glycopeptide antibiotics and several antimicrobial peptides, and is degraded by 'attacking' enzymes involved in bacterial competition to induce lysis. Here we describe two protocols using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively, to assay the digestion of lipid II by phosphatases such as Colicin M or the LXG toxin protein TelC from Streptococcus intermedius ...
March 20, 2018: Bio-protocol
Maxence Duchemin, Marwa Khamassi, Lin Xu, Daniela Tudor, Morgane Bomsel
The protective efficacy of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) antibodies (Abs) remains mostly correlated with their in vitro neutralizing activity engaging their Fab region. However, anti-HIV-1 Abs also mediate a broad array of Fc-mediated effector functions including Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), which depend primarily on the Ab isotype. While ADCC is commonly associated with HIV-1 gp120 envelope-specific IgGs, whether IgAs, especially those targeting the HIV-1 gp41 envelope, also mediate ADCC remains elusive...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
M H Abumaree, E Bahattab, A Alsadoun, A Al Dosaimani, F M Abomaray, T Khatlani, B Kalionis, M F El-Muzaini, A O Alawad, A S AlAskar
BACKGROUND: Human decidua parietalis mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells (DPMSCs) have unique phenotypic and functional properties that make them promising candidates for cell-based therapy. Here, we investigated DPMSC interaction with natural killer (NK) cells, and the effects of this interaction on NK cell phenotypic characteristics and functional activities. METHODS: DPMSCs isolated from the decidua parietalis of human fetal membranes were cultured with interleukin (IL)-2-activated and IL-2-unactivated NK cells isolated from healthy human peripheral blood...
April 12, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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