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Mansour Sobeh, Mona F Mahmoud, Ganna Petruk, Samar Rezq, Mohamed L Ashour, Fadia S Youssef, Assem M El-Shazly, Daria M Monti, Ashraf B Abdel-Naim, Michael Wink
Syzygium aqueum is widely used in folk medicine. A polyphenol-rich extract from its leaves demonstrated a plethora of substantial pharmacological properties. The extract showed solid antioxidant properties in vitro and protected human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) against UVA damage. The extract also reduced the elevated levels of ALT, AST, total bilirubin (TB), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) in rats with acute CCl4 intoxication. In addition to reducing the high MDA level, the extract noticeably restored GSH and SOD to the normal control levels in liver tissue homogenates and counteracted the deleterious histopathologic changes in liver after CCl4 injection...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
M Patsikas, K Adamama-Moraitou, A Thomas, C Soultani, I Chrissogonidis, A Fotiadou, G Trikoupi, P Papadopoulou, G Ilia, P Kosmas, P Farmakis
A two-year-old, female intact, cross-breed dog presented with a two-month history of nasal discharge. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated obliteration of both nasal cavities by soft tissue density, destruction of the nasal and ethmoidal turbinates, and lysis of the frontal and palatine bones and maxilla. Frontal sinuses and maxillary recesses were obscured by soft tissue/fluid density. Histopathological examination of the mass was diagnostic of transmissible venereal tumor. The dog was clinically normal 3 months after treatment initiation with vincristine sulphate and amoxicillin/clavulanate...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Xian Luo, Mingrui An, Kyle C Cuneo, David M Lubman, Liang Li
Circulating exosomes in bodily fluids such as blood are being actively studied as a rich source of chemical biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and monitoring. While nucleic acid analysis is a primary tool for discovery of circulating biomarkers in exosomes, metabolomics holds the potential of expanding the chemical diversity of biomarkers that may be easy and rapid to detect. However, only trace amounts of exosomes can be isolated from a small volume of patient blood and thus a very sensitive technique is required to analyze the metabolome of exosomes...
June 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Markus A Grohme, Miquel Vila-Farré, Jochen C Rink
High-quality genomic DNA extraction is a starting point for many downstream applications in modern molecular biology. Here, we describe a simple method for isolating high molecular weight genomic DNA from planarians. The method is based on tissue lysis by a mixture of a chaotropic salt and detergent followed by organic extraction to remove proteins and lipids followed by a postpurification step to remove contaminating polysaccharides. The isolated DNA is of high molecular weight and compatible with polymerase chain reaction, cloning, or next-generation sequencing library preparation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mengyu Shen, Yuhui Yang, Wei Shen, Lujia Cen, Jeffrey S McLean, Wenyuan Shi, Shuai Le, Xuesong He
The human oral cavity is home to a large number of bacteria and bacteriophages (phages). However, the biology of oral phages as members of the human microbiome is not well understood. Recently, we isolated an Actinomyces odontolyticus subsp. Actinosynbacte r strain XH001 from human oral cavity, and genomic analysis revealed the presence of an intact prophage, named xhp1. Here we demonstrated that xhp1 is a linear plasmid-like prophage, which is a newly identified phage of A. odontolyticus Prophage xhp1 genome is 35 kb linear double-stranded DNA with 10 bp single-stranded cohesive ends at 3' of both ends...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Andrea L Grant, Hayley L Letson, Jodie L Morris, Peter McEwen, Kaushik Hazratwala, Matthew Wilkinson, Geoffrey P Dobson
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is commonly used in orthopedic surgery to reduce excessive bleeding and transfusion requirements. Our aim was to examine if TXA was required in all osteoarthritis patients undergoing TKA surgery, and its possible effects on systemic inflammation and coagulation properties. METHODS: Twenty-three patients (Oxford Score 22-29) were recruited consecutively; 12 patients received TXA before (IV, 1.2 g/90 kg) and immediately after surgery (intra-articular, 1...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Ladislav Bumba, Jiri Masin, Adriana Osickova, Radim Osicka, Peter Sebo
The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA, ACT, or AC-Hly) plays a crucial role in virulence and airway colonization capacity of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis . The toxin penetrates target cell membranes and exhibits three distinct biological activities. A population of CyaA conformers forms small cation-selective pores that permeabilize the cell membrane for potassium efflux, which can provoke colloid-osmotic (oncotic) cell lysis. The other two activities are due to CyaA conformers that transiently form calcium influx conduits in the target cell membrane and translocate the adenylate cyclase (AC) enzyme into cytosol of cells...
June 16, 2018: Toxins
Yong-Xin Ru, Shu-Xu Dong, Yuan Li, Shi-Xuan Zhao, Hao-Yue Liang, Xiao-Fan Zhu, Yi-Zhou Zheng, Feng-Kui Zhang
Sixteen patients with mild anemia and hemolysis were difficult to be classified into any known category based on laboratory examinations and light microscopy. To make a definite diagnosis and investigate the pathomechanism, ultrastructural study was performed on erythroid cells from 16 patients. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated a series of alterations of cytoplasm, including cytoplasm sequestration, membranous transformation, and degeneration in erythroblasts and reticulocytes at different stages...
June 18, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Amir Shamloo, Saba Ahmad, Maede Momeni
Being the second cause of mortality across the globe, there is now a persistent effort to establish new cancer medication and therapies. Any accomplishment in treating cancers entails the existence of accurate identification systems empowering the early diagnosis. Recent studies indicate CTCs’ potential in cancer prognosis as well as therapy monitoring. The chief shortcoming with CTCs is that they are exceedingly rare cells in their clinically relevant concentration. Here, we simulated a microfluidic construct devised for immunomagnetic separation of the particles of interest from the background cells...
June 18, 2018: Biosensors
Tianyi Kang, Chenyang Li, Ting Du, Yujiao Wu, Yuping Yang, Xuan Liu, Qianqian Zhang, Xiaoping Xu, Maling Gou
Background: Melittin, the main active peptide ingredient of bee venom, can cause severe cell membrane lysis due to its robust interaction with negatively charged phospholipids. So far, no effective anti-melittin vaccine has been developed to protect people from undesired melittin intoxication. Methods: Herein, we prepared a polydiacetylene (PDA) nanoparticle with cell membrane-mimic surface to complex melittin, forming an anti-melittin vaccine (PDA-melittin). Results: PDA nanoparticles could effectively combine with melittin and neutralize its toxicity...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Páblo Eugênio da Costa E Silva, Rafaela Cavalcante de Barros, Wendell Wagner Campos Albuquerque, Romero Marcos Pedrosa Brandão, Raquel Pedrosa Bezerra, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo Porto
A fibrinolytic enzyme was produced by microalga Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions added corn steep liquor, purified by a single chromatographic step, then biochemical characterization and in vitro thrombolytic activity was performed. Maximum cell concentration (1637.45 ± 15 mg L-1 ) and productivity (181.93 mg L-1  day-1 ) was obtained in mixotrophic culture using 1% corn steep liquor. Enzyme-extracted microalgal biomass was purified by acetone precipitation and DEAE Sephadex anion exchange chromatography up to 2 fold with recovery of 4...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Grace M Tabatabai, Peter Karempelis, Jennifer C Hsia
Implantation rates of hypoglossal nerve stimulators, such as INSPIRE, are increasing. The device is still in its early stages of complication reporting, which to date includes implant related infection requiring device removal, and stimulation lead cuff dislodgement requiring replacement. Here we present a 48-year-old female who experienced generator migration and stimulator lead tension requiring an additional operation in order to resecure the generator device. This proved unsuccessful and a second surgery was performed with complete relocation of the device generator to inhibit device migration...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Lei Lei, Uria Alcolombri, Dan S Tawfik
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is released at rates of >107 tons annually and plays a key role in the oceanic sulfur cycle and ecology. Marine bacteria, algae, and possibly other organisms release DMS via cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). DMSP lyases have been identified in various organisms, including bacteria, coral, and algae, thus comprising a range of gene families putatively assigned as DMSP lyases. Metagenomics may therefore provide insight regarding the presence of DMSP lyases in various marine environments, thereby promoting a better understanding of global DMS emission...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Virág Bogdándi, Tomoaki Ida, Thomas R Sutton, Christopher Bianco, Tamás Ditrói, Grielof Koster, Hillary A Henthorn, Magda Minnion, John P Toscano, Albert van der Vliet, Michael D Pluth, Martin Feelisch, Jon M Fukuto, Takaaki Akaike, Péter Nagy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Posttranslational modifications of cysteine (Cys) residues represent a major aspect of redox biology, and their reliable detection is key in providing mechanistic insights. The metastable character of these modifications and cell lysis-induced artifactual oxidation render current state-of-the-art protocols to rely on alkylation-based stabilization of labile Cys derivatives before cell/tissue rupture. An untested assumption in these procedures is that for all Cys derivatives alkylation rates are faster than their dynamic interchange...
June 17, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Constanza Navarro Moreno, Amaury Delestienne, Etienne Marbaix, Selda Aydin, Konstanze Hörtnagel, Sarah Lechner, Yves Sznajer, Véronique Beauloye, Dominique Maiter, Philippe A Lysy
Cushing syndrome (CS) is a rare disease in children, frequently associated with subtle or periodic symptoms that may delay its diagnosis. Weight gain and growth failure, the hallmarks of hypercortisolism in pediatrics, may be inconsistent, especially in ACTH-independent forms of CS. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is the rarest form of ACTH-independent CS, and can be associated with endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, forming the Carney complex (CNC). Recently, phenotype/genotype correlations have been described with particular forms of CNC where PPNAD is isolated or associated only with skin lesions...
June 15, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Jiongming Sun, Hangzhou Xu, Haiyan Pei, Yan Jin, Hongmin Li, Chunxia Ma
Benthic Oscillatoria sp. may form dense surface blooms especially under eutrophic and calm conditions, which poses a threat to drinking water safety because it can produce toxic and odorous metabolites. This is the first study to investigate the effect of the conventional coagulant polyaluminium ferric chloride (PAFC) on removal of Oscillatoria sp., and the behavior of Oscillatoria sp. cells in sludges formed from different dosages of PAFC (control, optimum, and overdose system) during storage was also studied...
June 9, 2018: Water Research
Hwa Sen Chua, Sarah L Whitehouse, Michelle Lorimer, Richard De Steiger, Linda Guo, Ross W Crawford
BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an effective procedure for relieving pain and restoring function in osteoarthritis, with a significant proportion of patients having severe disease bilaterally. However, although there are differences in patient selection criteria for bilateral procedures, there is no consensus regarding the optimal timing for bilateral TKA. The aim of this study was to compare rates and causes of revision and 30-day mortality between simultaneous and staged bilateral TKA using data from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Caroline Constant, Isabelle Masseau, Marie Babkine, Sylvain Nichols, David Francoz, Gilles Fecteau, Emma Marchionatti, Helene Larde, Andre Desrochers
OBJECTIVES:  (1) To develop an evaluation grid to provide a systematic interpretation of calves' articular radiographs, (2) to describe radiographic lesions of septic arthritis in dairy calves less than 6 months of age, (3) to investigate potential associations between demographic data or synovial bacteriological culture results and radiographic lesions (4) to determine whether an association is present between radiographic lesions, their severity and the long-term outcome. METHODS:  Medical records of 54 calves less than 180 days old treated for septic arthritis between 2009 and 2014 with radiographic images performed in the first 2 days after admission were reviewed...
June 16, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Hualong Xi, Jinfei Yu, Qing Sun, Jingcai Lu, Tiejun Gu, Xiaonan Guo, Bo Li, Xiaorui Chen, Kaixin Zhang, Wei Kong, Yongge Wu
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen that causes life-threatening diseases, such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia, and meningitis, worldwide and especially in young children and the elderly. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a widely studied candidate protein vaccine that represents a promising replacement for current polysaccharide and polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines. In this study, we describe a simple method to produce PspA of clade 4 from an Escherichia coli expression system using hydroxylapatite and ion-exchange chromatography...
June 13, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Gregory R Stettler, Ernest E Moore, Geoffrey R Nunns, Jim Chandler, Erik Peltz, Christopher C Silliman, Anirban Banerjee, Angela Sauaia
BACKGROUND: Goal-directed hemostatic resuscitation based on thrombelastography has a survival benefit compared to conventional coagulation assays. While thrombelastography transfusion thresholds for patients at risk for massive transfusion (MT) have been defined, similar cutoffs do not exist for the other commonly used viscoelastic assay, rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). The purpose of this study was to develop ROTEM blood product thresholds in patients at risk for MT. METHODS: ROTEM was assessed in trauma activation patients admitted from 2010 to 2016 (n = 222)...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
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