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Nesma Houmani, François Vialatte, Esteve Gallego-Jutglà, Gérard Dreyfus, Vi-Huong Nguyen-Michel, Jean Mariani, Kiyoka Kinugawa
This study addresses the problem of Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis with Electroencephalography (EEG). The use of EEG as a tool for AD diagnosis has been widely studied by comparing EEG signals of AD patients only to those of healthy subjects. By contrast, we perform automated EEG diagnosis in a differential diagnosis context using a new database, acquired in clinical conditions, which contains EEG data of 169 patients: subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) patients, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, possible Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and patients with other pathologies...
2018: PloS One
Deborah Toppenberg-Pejcic, Jane Noyes, Tomas Allen, Nyka Alexander, Marsha Vanderford, Gaya Gamhewage
A rapid review of gray literature from 2015 to 2016 was conducted to identify the lessons learned for emergency risk communication from recent outbreaks of Ebola, Zika, and yellow fever. Gray literature databases and key websites were searched and requests for documents were posted to expert networks. A total of 83 documents met inclusion criteria, 68 of which are cited in this report. This article focuses on the 3 questions, out of 12 posed by World Health Organization as part of a Guideline development process, dealing most directly with communicating risk during health emergencies: community engagement, trust building, and social media...
March 20, 2018: Health Communication
Yoshio Okiyama, Tatsuya Nakano, Chiduru Watanabe, Kaori Fukuzawa, Shigenori Tanaka
In this study, an ab initio fragment molecular orbital (FMO) methodology was developed to evaluate the solvent effects on electrostatic interactions, which make a significant contribution to the physical and chemical processes occurring in biological systems. Here, a fully polarizable solute consisting of the FMO electron density was electrostatically coupled with an implicit solvent based on the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation; in addition, the nonpolar contributions empirically obtained from the molecular surface area (SA) were added...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Salvador Martínez-Bartolomé, J Alberto Medina-Aunón, Miguel Ángel López-García, Carmen González-Tejedo, Gorka Prieto, Rosana Navajas, Emilio Salazar-Donate, Carolina Fernandez-Costa, John R Yates, Juan Pablo Albar
Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has evolved into a high-throughput technology where numerous large-scale datasets are generated from diverse analytical platforms. Furthermore, several scientific journals and funding agencies have emphasized the storage of proteomics data in public repositories to facilitate its evaluation, inspection and reanalysis. As a consequence, public proteomics data repositories are growing rapidly. However, tools are needed to integrate multiple proteomics datasets in order to compare different experimental features or to perform quality control analysis...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Sean Conroy, Nicholas D Kindon, Jacqueline Glenn, Leigh A Stoddart, Richard James Lewis, Stephen J Hill, Barrie Kellam, Michael John Stocks
The human P2Y2 receptor (hP2Y2R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that shows promise as a therapeutic target for many important conditions including anti-metastatic cancer therapy and more recently for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. As such, there is a need for new hP2Y2R antagonists and molecular probes to study this receptor. Herein, we report the development of a new series of non-nucleotide hP2Y2R antagonists leading to the discovery of a series of fluorescent ligands containing different linkers and fluorophores based on the known, non-nucleotide hP2Y2R antagonist AR-C118925 (1)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
L Rodriguez-Prunotto, R Cano-de-la-Cuerda
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of stroke has increased in recent years, highlighting the role of prevention and identification of risk factors, as well as the analysis of their costs. At present, new technologies, specifically mobile applications, are considered as tools with potential benefits in patients with stroke care. AIM: To carry out a systematic review about the information related to potential or specifically designed mobile applications in the field of stroke, in order to classify them and carry out a description of the main characteristics of them...
April 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
James D Weinstein
Despite decades of research, at present there is no curative therapy for Alzheimer's disease. Changes in the way new drugs are tested appear to be necessary. Three changes are presented here and will be discussed. The first change is that Alzheimer's disease must be considered a disease of four major pathological processes, not one. The four processes are: 1) vascular hypoperfusion of the brain with associated mitochondrial dysfunction, 2) destructive protein inclusions, 3) uncontrolled oxidative stress, and 4) proinflammatory immune processes secondary to microglial and astrocytic dysfunction in the brain...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Aaron C Brault, Bradley J Blitvich
The expanded use of next generation sequencing tools has led to an explosion in the rate of discovery of novel viral agents and has had a measured effect on the capacity to genetically identify the presence of previously described viruses in new geographic environments and within different hosts and vectors. For example, more than 30 flaviviruses ( Flavivirus ; Flaviviridae ) with the capacity to infect only mosquitoes have been described in the last 10 years. By contrast, only two such viruses had been described in the previous 33 years...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Seynabou Sougoufara, Omar Thiaw, Aurélie Cailleau, Nafissatou Diagne, Myriam Harry, Charles Bouganali, Pape M Sembène, Souleymane Doucoure, Cheikh Sokhna
The implementation of long-lasting insecticidal-treated bed nets (LLINs) has contributed to halving the mortality rate due to malaria since 2000 in sub-Saharan Africa. These tools are highly effective against indoor-feeding malaria vectors. Thus, to achieve the World Health Assembly's new target to reduce the burden of malaria over the next 15 years by 90%, it is necessary to understand how the spatiotemporal dynamics of malaria vectors and human exposure to bites is modified in the context of scaling up global efforts to control malaria transmission...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Richard F Gillum
For over four decades the National Medical Association (NMA) and the Association of Black Cardiologists (ABC) have sought to bring to national attention the disparate burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among African Americans. However, systematic inquiry has been inadequate into the burden of CVD in the poor countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the African diaspora in the Americas outside the USA. However, recently, the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) has offered new tools for such inquiry. Several initial efforts in that direction using 2010 data have been published...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Xiaoping Su, Kuiqing Cui, Shanshan Du, Hongli Li, Fenghua Lu, Deshun Shi, Qingyou Liu
Myostatin (MSTN), a protein encoded by growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and negatively regulates the development and regeneration of muscle. Accordingly, myostatin-deficient animals exhibit a double-muscling phenotype. The CRISPR/Cas9 system has proven to be an efficient genome-editing tool and has been applied to gene modification in cells from many model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster, zebrafish, mouse, rat, sheep, and human. Here, we edited the GDF8 gene in fibroblasts and embryos of Debao pig and swamp buffalo using the CRISPR/Cas9 system...
March 19, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Elizabeth Ann Misch, Christopher Saddler, James Muse Davis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes recent trends in the epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), emerging pathogens, new insights into NTM pathogenesis, and advances in diagnosis and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging pathogens include Mycobacterium chimaera and drug-resistant subspecies of Mycobacterium abscessus. Important virulence mechanisms of pathogenic NTM include the ability to alter the macrophage's permissiveness to intracellular bacterial growth...
March 19, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Pilar Carranza-Rosales, Nancy Elena Guzmán-Delgado, Irma Edith Carranza-Torres, Ezequiel Viveros-Valdez, Javier Morán-Martínez
Breast cancer is the most common cancer type diagnosed in women, it represents a critical public health problem worldwide, with 1,671,149 estimated new cases and nearly 571,000 related deaths. Research on breast cancer has mainly been conducted using two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures and animal models. The usefulness of these models is reflected in the vast knowledge accumulated over the past decades. However, considering that animal models are three-dimensional (3D) in nature, the validity of the studies using 2D cell cultures has recently been questioned...
March 20, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Ivan Tyukin, Alexander N Gorban, Carlos Calvo, Julia Makarova, Valeri A Makarov
Codifying memories is one of the fundamental problems of modern Neuroscience. The functional mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain largely unknown. Experimental evidence suggests that some of the memory functions are performed by stratified brain structures such as the hippocampus. In this particular case, single neurons in the CA1 region receive a highly multidimensional input from the CA3 area, which is a hub for information processing. We thus assess the implication of the abundance of neuronal signalling routes converging onto single cells on the information processing...
March 19, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Nelson Nardo Junior, Josiane Aparecida Alves Bianchini, Danilo Fernandes da Silva, Zachary M Ferraro, Carlos Andres Lopera, Vanessa Drieli Seron Antonini
To propose a response criterion for analyzing the intervention success by verifying patient outcomes after a multidisciplinary obesity treatment program in Brazilian children and adolescents. Obese children and adolescents (n = 103) completed a 16-week multidisciplinary intervention (IG) and were compared to the control group (CG) (n = 66). A cluster of parameters (e.g. total domain of HRQoL; BMI z-score; cardiorespiratory fitness; body mass; waist circumference; fat mass; lean mass) were measured pre and post-intervention, and the sum of the median percentage variation and the percentile 25 and 75 were used from IG and CG to determine the responsiveness to the program...
March 19, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Jie Dong, Zhi-Jiang Yao, Lin Zhang, Feijun Luo, Qinlu Lin, Ai-Ping Lu, Alex F Chen, Dong-Sheng Cao
BACKGROUND: With the increasing development of biotechnology and informatics technology, publicly available data in chemistry and biology are undergoing explosive growth. Such wealthy information in these data needs to be extracted and transformed to useful knowledge by various data mining methods. Considering the amazing rate at which data are accumulated in chemistry and biology fields, new tools that process and interpret large and complex interaction data are increasingly important...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Cheminformatics
Cathrin Rohleder, Dagmar Koethe, Stefan Fritze, Cristina E Topor, F Markus Leweke, Dusan Hirjak
OBJECTIVES: Binocular depth inversion illusion (BDII), a visual, 'top-down'-driven information process, is impaired in schizophrenia and particularly in its early stages. BDII is a sensitive measure of impaired visual information processing and represents a valid diagnostic tool for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, neurobiological underpinnings of aberrant BDII in first-episode schizophrenia are largely unknown at present. METHODS: In this study, 22 right-handed, first-episode, antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients underwent BDII assessment and MRI scanning at 1...
March 19, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Peter J Turnbaugh
Although the importance of human genetic polymorphisms in therapeutic outcomes is well established, the role of specific genotypic or copy number variants in our "second genome" (the microbiome) has been largely overlooked. In this Perspective, I will discuss three major barriers to integrating metagenomics into pharmacology, highlighting ongoing research by us and others that has begun to shed light on the mechanisms that link the human microbiome to the efficacy and toxicity of small-molecule and biological therapies...
March 2018: MSystems
Mathias Montenarh, Claudia Götz
Ecto-protein kinases, including protein kinase CK2 (former name, casein kinase 2), have been the focus of research for more than 30 years. At the beginning of the ecto-kinase research their identification was performed with substrates and inhibitors whose specificity under the current knowledge was rather limited. Since all currently known ecto-kinases, including ecto-CK2, have intracellular counterparts, one has to exclude that an ecto-localization originates from intracellular counterparts after cell damage...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
M Mizandari, J Kumar, M Pai, T Chikovani, T Azrumelashvili, I Reccia, N Habib
Background: Malignant biliary and/or pancreatic obstruction has often encountered in the advanced stages of periampullary and cholangicarcinomas. HabibTM Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been successfully used in the management of various cancers of liver and pancreas. Percutaneous HPB probe (EMcision Ltd, London, UK) is a new addition to this class of tools. It is an endoluminal Radiofrequency (RF) catheter which works on the principle of ablation and induces coagulative necrosis to recanalize the obstructed duct...
2018: Journal of Cancer
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