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Mahejibin Khan, Amit Kumar
The understanding of the 3-dimensional enzyme structure is important for the point of protein engineering and applications. Computer-based molecular modelling is a vital tool for theoretical predication of enzyme activities and finding their substrates and inhibitors. SMlipA lipase was cloned from forest soil metagenome and characterized as broad spectrum enzyme with high stability in various organic solvents. In the present study, to understand the mechanism of SMlipA lipase and to identify the key residues involved in enzyme-substrate interaction, three dimensional-computational model of SMlipA has been generated and validated for stereo-chemical and amino-acid environment quality using appropriate programs, and further validation of the active-site architecture was achieved by performing docking studies with different ligand...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Masayuki Onishi, John R Pringle
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model organism that provides an opportunity to understand the evolution and functional biology of the lineage that includes the land plants, as well as aspects of the fundamental core biology conserved throughout the eukaryotic phylogeny. Although many tools are available to facilitate genetic, molecular biological, biochemical, and cell biological studies in Chlamydomonas, expression of unselected transgenes of interest (GOIs) has been challenging. In most methods used previously, the GOI and a selectable marker are expressed from two separate mRNAs, so that their concomitant expression is not guaranteed...
October 21, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Eun-Young Nam, Sun Ah Kim, Heejung Kim, Su-Hyun Kim, Jae-Hyun Han, Ju-Hee Lee, Dong-Il Kim
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Evodiae Fructus (EF) is the dried, unripe fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa Benth., and one of the main components of traditional herbal prescriptions issued for the treatment of sterility caused by irregular menstruation in Korea. However, scientific evidence regarding the efficacy and action mechanism of EF is lacking. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, the authors established an in vitro screening tool to identify promising new drug candidates in herbal medicines for the prevention and treatment of premature ovarian failure...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
William R Pitchers, Savvas J Constantinou, Mauricio Losilla, Jason R Gallant
Electric fish have served as a model system in biology since the 18th century, providing deep insight into the nature of bioelectrogenesis, the molecular structure of the synapse, and brain circuitry underlying complex behavior. Neuroethologists have collected extensive phenotypic data that span biological levels of analysis from molecules to ecosystems. This phenotypic data, together with genomic resources obtained over the past decades, have motivated new and exciting hypotheses that position the weakly electric fish model to address fundamental 21(st) century biological questions...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Joachim Niehren, Cristian Versari, Mathias John, François Coutte, Philippe Jacques
We wish to predict changes of reaction networks with partial kinetic information that lead to target changes of their steady states. The changes may be either increases or decreases of influxes, reaction knockouts, or multiple changes of these two kinds. Our prime applications are knockout prediction tasks for metabolic and regulation networks. In a first step, we propose a formal modeling language for reaction networks with partial kinetic information. The modeling language has a graphical syntax reminiscent to Petri nets...
October 18, 2016: Bio Systems
Danilo Solano, Juan Carlos Navarro, Antonio León-Reyes, Washington Benítez-Ortiz, Richar Rodríguez-Hidalgo
Tapeworms Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are the causative agents of taeniasis/cysticercosis. These are diseases with high medical and veterinary importance due to their impact on public health and rural economy in tropical countries. The re-emergence of T. solium as a result of human migration, the economic burden affecting livestock industry, and the large variability of symptoms in several human cysticercosis, encourage studies on genetic diversity, and the identification of these parasites with molecular phylogenetic tools...
October 18, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Johann Issartel, Bronagh McGrane, Richard Fletcher, Wesley O'Brien, Danielle Powell, Sarahjane Belton
OBJECTIVES: This study proposes an extension of a widely used test evaluating fundamental movement skills proficiency to an adolescent population, with a specific emphasis on validity and reliability for this older age group. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. METHODS: A total of 844 participants (n=456 male, 12.03±0.49) participated in this study. The 12 fundamental movement skills of the TGMD-2 were assessed. Inter-rater reliability was examined to ensure a minimum of 95% consistency between coders...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
K Gabriela Mejía-Piña, Miguel Angel Huerta-Diaz, O González-Yajimovich
Handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (XRFs) represent a more practical, efficient and economic tool to determine the elemental composition of solid inorganic and organic samples than conventional analytical techniques. The objective of this work was to demonstrate that handheld XRFs could be a precise, accurate and reliable tool to analyze up to 27 different elements. This objective was accomplished through the optimization of an empirical calibration curve that, in addition to include certified reference materials (CRM), it also introduced new approaches, such as the use of solid CRM mixtures and combinations of organic and inorganic matrices...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Hong-Xin Jiang, Zhen-Zhen Liang, Yan-Hong Ma, De-Ming Kong, Zhang-Yong Hong
Real-time PCR has revolutionized PCR from qualitative to quantitative. As an isothermal DNA amplification technique, rolling circular amplification (RCA) has been demonstrated to be a versatile tool in many fields. Development of a simple, highly sensitive, and specific strategy for real-time monitoring of RCA will increase its usefulness in many fields. The strategy reported here utilized the specific fluorescence response of thioflavin T (ThT) to G-quadruplexes formed by RCA products. Such a real-time monitoring strategy works well in both traditional RCA with linear amplification efficiency and modified RCA proceeded in an exponential manner, and can be readily performed in commercially available real-time PCR instruments, thereby achieving high-throughput detection and making the proposed technique more suitable for biosensing applications...
November 2, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Wylie S Palmer
The entry of small molecule inhibitors of the bromodomain and extra C-terminal domain (BET) family of bromodomains into the clinic has demonstrated the therapeutic potential for this class of epigenetic acetyl-lysine reader proteins. Within the past two years, the development of potent inhibitors for the bromodomain and PHD finger containing protein (BRPF) family and the tripartite motif containing protein 24 (TRIM24) have been reported and are the subject of this review. Both proteins contain other domains with diverse functions and can also be part of a complex of proteins which have implications in epigenetic signaling and disease...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
Allan Riis, Cathrine Elgaard Jensen, Flemming Bro, Helle Terkildsen Maindal, Karin Dam Petersen, Mette Dahl Bendtsen, Martin Bach Jensen
BACKGROUND: Guidelines are often slowly adapted into clinical practice. However, actively supporting healthcare professionals in evidence-based treatment may speed up guideline implementation. Danish low back pain (LBP) guidelines focus on primary care treatment of LBP, to reduce referrals from primary care to secondary care. The primary aim of this project was to reduce secondary care referral within 12 weeks by a multifaceted implementation strategy (MuIS). METHODS: In a cluster randomised design, 189 general practices from the North Denmark Region were invited to participate...
October 21, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Denice Kamugumya, Jill Olivier
BACKGROUND: Public-private partnership (PPP) has been suggested as a tool to assist governments in lower to middle income countries fulfil their responsibilities in the efficient delivery of health services. In Tanzania, although the idea of PPP has existed for many years in the health sector, there has been limited coordination, especially at a district level - which has contributed to limited health gains or systems strengthening obviously seen as a result of PPP. METHODS: This case study was conducted in the Bagamoyo district of Tanzania, and employed in-depth interviews, document reviews, and observations methods...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Seul-Gi Oh, Xian Li, Ho Won Lee, Thoudam Debraj Singh, Sang Bong Lee, Hyun Dong Ji, GhilSuk Yoon, Sung Jin Cho, In-Kyu Lee, Shin Young Jeong, Byeong-Cheol Ahn, Jaetae Lee, Hyeun Wook Chang, Sang-Woo Lee, Yong Hyun Jeon
The inability to monitor the in vivo dynamics of mast cells (MCs) limits the better understanding of its role in cancer progression. Here, we report on noninvasive imaging of MC migration to tumor lesions in mice and evaluation of the effects of migrated MCs on tumor progression through reporter gene-based in vivo optical imaging and glucose metabolism monitoring in cancer with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) in vitro and in vivo. Murine MCs (MC-9) and Lewis lung cancer cells (LLC) expressing an enhanced firefly luciferase (effluc) gene were established, termed MC-9/effluc and LLC/effluc, respectively...
October 13, 2016: Biomaterials
Alan F Cowman, Julie Healer, Danushka Marapana, Kevin Marsh
Malaria has been a major global health problem of humans through history and is a leading cause of death and disease across many tropical and subtropical countries. Over the last fifteen years renewed efforts at control have reduced the prevalence of malaria by over half, raising the prospect that elimination and perhaps eradication may be a long-term possibility. Achievement of this goal requires the development of new tools including novel antimalarial drugs and more efficacious vaccines as well as an increased understanding of the disease and biology of the parasite...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Kerstin Reuter, Alexander Biehl, Laurena Koch, Volkhard Helms
Translation of mRNA sequences into proteins typically starts at an AUG triplet. In rare cases, translation may also start at alternative non-AUG codons located in the annotated 5' UTR which leads to an increased regulatory complexity. Since ribosome profiling detects translational start sites at the nucleotide level, the properties of these start sites can then be used for the statistical evaluation of functional open reading frames. We developed a linear regression approach to predict in-frame and out-of-frame translational start sites within the 5' UTR from mRNA sequence information together with their translation initiation confidence...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Helen Cullington, Padraig Kitterick, Lisa DeBold, Mark Weal, Nicholas Clarke, Eva Newberry, Lisa Aubert
Purpose: This research note describes a planned project to design, implement, and evaluate remote care for adults using cochlear implants and compare their outcomes with those of individuals following the standard care pathway. Method: Sixty people with cochlear implants will be recruited and randomized to either the remote care group or a control group. The remote care group will use new tools for 6 months: remote and self-monitoring, self-adjustment of device, and a personalized online support tool...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
Paolo Gabrieli, Francesca Scolari
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest species with extremely high agricultural relevance. This is due to its reproductive behavior: females damage the external surface of fruits and vegetables when they lay eggs and the hatched larvae feed on their pulp. Wild C. capitata populations are traditionally controlled through insecticide spraying and/or eco-friendly approaches, the most successful being the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The SIT relies on mass-rearing, radiation-based sterilization and field release of males that retain their capacity to mate but are not able to generate fertile progeny...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Emanuele Mauri, Alessandro Sacchetti, Filippo Rossi
The use of polymers as biomaterials has provided significant advantages in therapeutic applications. In particular, the possibility to modify and functionalize polymer chains with compounds that are able to improve biocompatibility, mechanical properties, or cell viability allows the design of novel materials to meet new challenges in the biomedical field. With the polymer functionalization strategies, click chemistry is a powerful tool to improve cell-compatibility and drug delivery properties of polymeric devices...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mieke T Bus, Daniel M De Bruin, Guido M Kamphuis, Patricia J Zondervan, Maria P Laguna Pes, Theo M De Reijke, Ton G Van Leeuwen, Jean J De LA Rosette
BACKGROUND: The applicability of urinary biomarkers and optical diagnostics in upper urinary tract carcinoma (UUTUC) are increasingly debated. To receive insight in the opinion of the urological community involved in this field, a survey was sent out to identify the most promising techniques and understand the need for new diagnostics. Primary objective of this study was to provide an overview of current diagnostics in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. Secondary objectives of this study was to assess the need for additional diagnostic techniques in the current diagnostic work-up for UUT-UC and to assess knowledge of novel techniques...
October 21, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
James Raftery, Steve Hanney, Trish Greenhalgh, Matthew Glover, Amanda Blatch-Jones
BACKGROUND: This report reviews approaches and tools for measuring the impact of research programmes, building on, and extending, a 2007 review. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify the range of theoretical models and empirical approaches for measuring the impact of health research programmes; (2) to develop a taxonomy of models and approaches; (3) to summarise the evidence on the application and use of these models; and (4) to evaluate the different options for the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
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