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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719833/in-silico-search-of-inhibitors-of-streptococcus-mutans-for-the-control-of-dental-plaque
#1
Rodrigo Ochoa, María Cecilia Martínez-Pabón, María Adelaida Arismendi-Echeverri, Willer Leandro Rendón-Osorio, Carlos Enrique Muskus-López
Biofilm is an extremely complex microbial community arranged in a matrix of polysaccharides and attached to a substrate. Its development is crucial in the pathophysiology of oral infections like dental caries, as well as in periodontal, pulp, and periapical diseases. Streptococcus mutans is one of the most effective microorganisms in lactic acid production of the dental biofilm. Identifying essential Streptococcus mutans proteins using bioinformatics methods helps to search for alternative therapies. To this end, the bacterial genomes of several Streptococcus mutans strains and representative strains of other cariogenic and non-cariogenic bacteria were analysed by identifying pathogenicity islands and alignments with other bacteria, and by detecting the exclusive genes of cariogenic species in comparison to the non-pathogenic ones...
July 1, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719648/oligo-ethylene-glycol-sidechain-microgels-prepared-in-absence-of-cross-linking-agent-polymerization-characterization-and-variation-of-particle-deformability
#2
Nicole Welsch, L Andrew Lyon
We present a systematic study of self-cross-linked microgels formed by precipitation polymerization of oligo ethylene glycol methacrylates. The cross-linking density of these microgels and, thus, the network flexibility can be easily tuned through the modulation of the reaction temperature during polymerization. Microgels prepared in absence of any difunctional monomer, i.e. cross-linker, show enhanced deformability and particle spreading on solid surfaces as compared to microgels cross-linked with varying amounts of poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate) (PEG-DA) in addition to self-crosslinking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719601/clic-a-tool-for-expanding-biological-pathways-based-on-co-expression-across-thousands-of-datasets
#3
Yang Li, Alexis A Jourdain, Sarah E Calvo, Jun S Liu, Vamsi K Mootha
In recent years, there has been a huge rise in the number of publicly available transcriptional profiling datasets. These massive compendia comprise billions of measurements and provide a special opportunity to predict the function of unstudied genes based on co-expression to well-studied pathways. Such analyses can be very challenging, however, since biological pathways are modular and may exhibit co-expression only in specific contexts. To overcome these challenges we introduce CLIC, CLustering by Inferred Co-expression...
July 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719578/de-novo-active-sites-for-resurrected-precambrian-enzymes
#4
Valeria A Risso, Sergio Martinez-Rodriguez, Adela M Candel, Dennis M Krüger, David Pantoja-Uceda, Mariano Ortega-Muñoz, Francisco Santoyo-Gonzalez, Eric A Gaucher, Shina C L Kamerlin, Marta Bruix, Jose A Gavira, Jose M Sanchez-Ruiz
Protein engineering studies often suggest the emergence of completely new enzyme functionalities to be highly improbable. However, enzymes likely catalysed many different reactions already in the last universal common ancestor. Mechanisms for the emergence of completely new active sites must therefore either plausibly exist or at least have existed at the primordial protein stage. Here, we use resurrected Precambrian proteins as scaffolds for protein engineering and demonstrate that a new active site can be generated through a single hydrophobic-to-ionizable amino acid replacement that generates a partially buried group with perturbed physico-chemical properties...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719564/the-new-apgar-score-a-checklist-to-enhance-quality-of-life-in-geriatric-patients-with-hip-fracture
#5
Joseph Bernstein, Sara Weintraub, Eric Hume, Mark D Neuman, Stephen L Kates, Jaimo Ahn
For geriatric patients with hip fractures, the broken bone is the reason for admission, but only part of the overall disease. Indeed, it may be more helpful to consider the patient having geriatric hip fracture syndrome or sustaining a hip attack, as there are many associated medical, social, psychological, and other problems to which attention must be paid. To that end, we have identified a series of 10 steps, collected into a checklist, that can be undertaken for all patients with geriatric hip fracture. In homage to the maxim "we come into the world under the brim of the pelvis and go out through the neck of the femur," we defined our checklist by the acronym APGAR SCORE, named after the classic checklist of the same name used to assess a newborn child...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719490/identification-of-hypotensive-emergency-department-patients-with-cardiogenic-etiologies
#6
Daniel J Henning, Kathleen E Kearney, M Kennedy Hall, Claudius Mahr, Nathan I Shapiro, Graham Nichol
OBJECTIVE: Identify predictors of cardiogenic etiology among Emergency Department (ED) patients with hypotension, and use these predictors to create a clinical tool to discern cardiogenic etiology of hypotension. METHODS: This secondary analysis evaluated a prospective cohort of consecutive patients with hypotension in an urban, academic, tertiary care ED from November 2012 to September 2013. We included adults with hypotension, defined as a new vasopressor requirement, systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 90 mmHg after at least 1L of crystalloid or 2 units packed red blood cells, or SBP < 90 mmHg and fluids withheld due to concern for fluid overload...
July 17, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719442/social-media-and-pathology-where-are-we-now-and-why-does-it-matter
#7
James Isom, Meggen Walsh, Jerad M Gardner
Social media has exploded in popularity in recent years. It is a powerful new tool for networking, collaborating, and for the communication and evolution of ideas. It has been increasingly used for business purposes and is now being embraced by physicians including pathologists. Pathology professional organizations and even peer-reviewed pathology journals are now beginning to use social media, as well. There are multiple social media platforms, including Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, and others. Each platform has different audiences and different ways to share content and interact with other users...
July 17, 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719372/basics-of-compounding-3d-printing-pharmacy-applications-part-3-compounding-formulation-considerations-and-the-future
#8
Loyd V Allen
3D printing is a standard tool in the automotive, aerospace, and consumer goods in industry and is gaining traction in pharmaceutical manufacturing, which has introduced a new element into dosage form development. This article, which represents part 3 of a 3-part article on the topic of 3D printing, discusses the compounding, formulation considerations, and the future of 3D printing.
July 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719355/mirna-223-suppresses-foxo1-and-functions-as-a-potential-tumor-marker-in-breast-cancer
#9
Y-T Wei, D-W Guo, X-Z Hou, D-Q Jiang
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and a leading cause of cancer mortality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play a key role in proliferation, metastasis and invasion of cancer. In previous study, we found that miRNA-223 was significant expression inexosome derived from peripheral blood serum of breast cancer patients than in samples from control subjects, Therefor,the role ofmiRNA-223willbe researched in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.In this study, to explore the role of miRNA-223in influencing cell proliferation, metastasis and invasion of breast cancer, TargetScan tools (http://www...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719334/precisely-tracking-childhood-death
#10
Tamer H Farag, Jeffrey P Koplan, Robert F Breiman, Shabir A Madhi, Penny M Heaton, Trevor Mundel, Jaume Ordi, Quique Bassat, Clara Menendez, Scott F Dowell
Little is known about the specific causes of neonatal and under-five childhood death in high-mortality geographic regions due to a lack of primary data and dependence on inaccurate tools, such as verbal autopsy. To meet the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 to eliminate preventable child mortality in every country, better approaches are needed to precisely determine specific causes of death so that prevention and treatment interventions can be strengthened and focused. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a technique that uses needle-based postmortem sampling, followed by advanced histopathology and microbiology to definitely determine cause of death...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719313/keynote-address-november-2016-zika-virus-disease-in-the-americas-a-storm-in-the-making
#11
Carissa Etienne, Thais Dos Santos, Marcos A Espinal
More than 700,000 cases of Zika virus (ZIKAV) disease have been officially reported to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) from 48 countries and territories of the Americas. The response led by the PAHO and partners suggests major lessons of this outbreak. A seemingly innocuous pathogen became the new villain, causing fear, economic losses and, most importantly, debilitating birth defects and neurological problems, reaffirming the well-known war principle of never to underestimate one's opponent. The ZIKAV tested public health capacities under the International Health Regulations, highlighting the need for continued investment in health security...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719245/production-of-a-mouse-monoclonal-antibody-against-mortalin-by-whole-cell-immunization
#12
Marzieh Rezaei, Abbas Ghaderi
Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer death and is characterized by early invasion and metastasis. Advances in molecular biology directed new strategies in targeted therapy using monoclonal antibodies. To identify new biomarkers, we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies against the newly established cell line, Faraz-ICR, from a patient with acinar cell carcinoma. After immunization of BALB/c female mice with Faraz-ICR cell line and fusion of splenocytes with SP2/0 myeloma cell line, high reactive hybridoma producing antibodies to Faraz-ICR were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry...
July 18, 2017: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719223/from-bench-to-bedside-converting-placebo-research-into-belief-activation
#13
Jen Green, Heather Wright
Research on the placebo effect contains important elements that can be harnessed to improve clinical care. This paper proposes a new term, "Belief Activation," to describe the deliberate use of placebo effect tools by both patients and clinicians to catalyze healing. Belief Activation includes, but is not limited to, maximizing patient and practitioner expectations, classical and social conditioning, spirituality and prayer/intention, therapeutic relationship, healing environments, and minimizing the nocebo effect...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719188/phage-selection-of-cyclic-peptides-for-application-in-research-and-drug-development
#14
Kaycie Deyle, Xu-Dong Kong, Christian Heinis
Cyclic peptides can bind to protein targets with high affinities and selectivities, which makes them an attractive modality for the development of research reagents and therapeutics. Additional properties, including low inherent toxicity, efficient chemical synthesis, and facile modification with labels or immobilization reagents, increase their attractiveness. Cyclic peptide ligands against a wide range of protein targets have been isolated from natural sources such as bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals...
July 18, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719185/small-molecule-enhancement-of-20s-proteasome-activity-targets-intrinsically-disordered-proteins
#15
Corey L Jones, Evert Njomen, Benita Sjogren, Thomas S Dexheimer, Jetze J Tepe
The 20S proteasome is the main protease for degradation of oxidatively damaged and intrinsically disordered proteins. When accumulation of disordered or oxidatively damaged proteins exceed proper clearance in neurons, imbalanced pathway signaling or aggregation occurs, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological disor-ders. Screening of the NIH Clinical Collection and Prestwick libraries identified the neuroleptic agent chlorpromazine as a lead agent capable of enhancing 20S proteasome activity...
July 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719136/comparing-alternative-and-traditional-dissemination-metrics-in-medical-education
#16
Aysah Amath, Kristin Ambacher, John J Leddy, Timothy J Wood, Christopher J Ramnanan
CONTEXT: The impact of academic scholarship has traditionally been measured using citation-based metrics. However, citations may not be the only measure of impact. In recent years, other platforms (e.g. Twitter) have provided new tools for promoting scholarship to both academic and non-academic audiences. Alternative metrics (altmetrics) can capture non-traditional dissemination data such as attention generated on social media platforms. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this exploratory study were to characterise the relationships among altmetrics, access counts and citations in an international and pre-eminent medical education journal, and to clarify the roles of these metrics in assessing the impact of medical education academic scholarship...
July 18, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719017/contrasting-sirtuin-and-parp-activity-of-selected-2-4-6-trisubstituted-benzimidazoles
#17
Keng Yoon Yeong, Soo Choon Tan, Chun-Wai Mai, Chee-Onn Leong, Felicia Fei-Lei Chung, Yean Kee Lee, Chin Fei Chee, Noorsaadah Abdul Rahman
Both sirtuin and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) family of enzymes utilize NAD+ as co-substrate. Inhibitors of sirtuins and PARPs are important tools in drug discovery as they are reported to be linked to multiple diseases such as cancer. New potent sirtuin inhibitors (2,4,6-trisubstituted benzimidazole) were discovered from reported PARP inhibitor scaffold. Interestingly, the synthesized compounds have contrasting sirtuin and PARP-1 inhibitory activity. We showed that modification on benzimidazoles may alter their selectivity towards sirtuin or PARP-1 enzymes...
July 18, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718828/tobacco-harm-reduction-with-vaporised-nicotine-thrive-the-study-protocol-of-an-uncontrolled-feasibility-study-of-novel-nicotine-replacement-products-among-people-living-with-hiv-who-smoke
#18
Stephanie Bell, Judith Dean, Charles Gilks, Mark A Boyd, Lisa Fitzgerald, Allyson Mutch, Peter Baker, Graham Neilsen, Coral E Gartner
Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV), who have high rates of tobacco smoking. Vaporised nicotine products (VNPs) are growing in popularity as a quit aid and harm reduction tool. However, little is known about their acceptability and use among PLHIV. Using a pragmatic, uncontrolled, mixed methods design this exploratory clinical trial aims to examine the feasibility of conducting a powered randomised clinical trial of VNPs as a smoking cessation and harm reduction intervention among vulnerable populations, such as PLHIV who smoke tobacco...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718709/bioaerosols-concentrations-in-working-areas-in-biomethanization-facilities
#19
Marie-Eve Dubuis, Hamza M'Bareche, Marc Veillette, Bouchra Bakhiyi, Joseph Zayed, Jacques Lavoie, Caroline Duchaine
This study sought to fill the gap in information about the type and the concentration of bioaerosols present in the air of biomethanization facilities (BF). Evaluation of bioaerosol composition and concentration was achieved in two biomethanization facilities located in Eastern Canada, during summer and winter. In order to have a thorough understanding of the studied environment, the methodology combined culture of bacteria and molds, qPCR for specific microorganisms, endotoxin quantification and NGS for bacterial diversity...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718632/systematic-approaches-to-efficiently-produce-2-3-butanediol-in-a-marine-cyanobacterium
#20
Nicole E Nozzi, Anna E Case, Austin L Carroll, Shota Atsumi
Cyanobacteria have attracted significant interest as a platform for renewable production of fuel and feedstock chemicals from abundant atmospheric carbon dioxide by way of photosynthesis. While great strides have been made in developing this technology in freshwater cyanobacteria, logistical issues remain in scale-up. Use of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 (7002) as a chemical production chassis could address a number of these issues given the higher tolerance to salt, light, and heat as well as the fast growth rate of 7002 in comparison to traditional model cyanobacteria such as Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 and Synechocystis sp...
July 18, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
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