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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736426/modulation-of-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-and-ros-generation-by-nicotinamide-in-a-manner-independent-of-sirt1-and-mitophagy
#1
Seon Beom Song, So-Young Jang, Hyun Tae Kang, Bie Wei, Un-Woo Jeoun, Gye Soon Yoon, Eun Seong Hwang
Nicotinamide (NAM) plays essential roles in physiology through facilitating NAD+ redox homeostasis. Importantly, at high doses, it protects cells under oxidative stresses, and has shown therapeutic effectiveness in a variety of disease conditions. In our previous studies, NAM lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and extended cellular life span in primary human cells. In the treated cells, levels of NAD+/NADH and SIRT1 activity increased, while mitochondrial content decreased through autophagy activation...
July 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721137/beneficial-effects-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-adiponectin-levels-and-adipor-gene-expression-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-clinical-trial
#2
Maryam Mazaherioun, Ahmad Saedisomeolia, Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht, Fariba Koohdani, Mohammad Reza Eshraghian, Mahmoud Djalali
INTRODUCTION: There is evidence that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert beneficial effects to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but its complications remain poorly understood. Hypoadiponectinemia is one of the important mechanisms responsible for T2DM which necessitates developing novel therapeutic strategies. We aimed to determine the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on circulating adiponectin and mRNA expression of adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) and Sirt-1 in T2DM patients...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718701/occludin-regulates-glucose-uptake-and-atp-production-in-pericytes-by-influencing-amp-activated-protein-kinase-activity
#3
Victor Castro, Marta Skowronska, Jorge Lombardi, Jane He, Neil Seth, Martina Velichkovska, Michal Toborek
Energetic regulation at the blood-brain barrier is critical for maintaining its integrity, transport capabilities, and brain demands for glucose. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate these processes are still poorly explored. We recently characterized the protein occludin as a NADH oxidase and demonstrated its influence on the expression and activation of the histone deacetylase SIRT-1. Because SIRT-1 works in concert with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (AMPK), we investigated the impact of occludin on this metabolic switch...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713986/hydrogen-sulfide-prevents-homocysteine%C3%A2-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-pc12-cells-by-upregulating-sirt%C3%A2-1
#4
Chun-Yan Wang, Wei Zou, Xiao-Yu Liang, Zhi-Sheng Jiang, Xiang Li, Hai-Jun Wei, Yi-Yun Tang, Ping Zhang, Xiao-Qing Tang
It was previously confirmed that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has a neuroprotective effect, preventing homocysteine‑induced neurotoxicity. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this protective effect remain to be fully elucidated. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to homocysteine‑induced neurotoxicity. Silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT‑1) can attenuate ER stress, exerting its neuroprotective effect. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether H2S protects PC12 cells against homocysteine‑induced ER stress and whether SIRT‑1 mediates this protective effect of H2S...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702557/synthesis-characterization-and-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-photodynamic-activities-of-a-gallium-iii-tris-ethoxycarbonyl-corrole
#5
Zhao Zhang, Hua-Hua Wang, Hua-Jun Yu, Yu-Zhen Xiong, Hai-Tao Zhang, Liang-Nian Ji, Hai-Yang Liu
Corroles have been previously demonstrated to be a new and promising photosensitizer (PS) in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer cells. This research reported the preparation of an electron-deficient flat gallium(iii) tris(ethoxycarbonyl)corrole (1-Ga). Its in vitro PDT activities towards different cancer cell lines were examined, and the best PDT activity was observed in A549 cell lines. 1-Ga could penetrate the cell membrane rapidly and exhibit remarkable photo-cytotoxicity. 1-Ga can induce A549 cell apoptosis via ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathways, in which p38 and sirt-1 proteins play a key role...
July 12, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699360/mir-34a-and-mir-9-are-overexpressed-and-sirt-genes-are-downregulated-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-aging-humans
#6
Magdalena Owczarz, Monika Budzinska, Anna Domaszewska-Szostek, Joanna Borkowska, Jacek Polosak, Magdalena Gewartowska, Przemyslaw Slusarczyk, Monika Puzianowska-Kuznicka
Increased expression of sirtuins lowers the risk of age-related diseases, while their role in the regulation of longevity is not firmly established. Since aging is associated with immunosenescence, we tested whether sirtuin expression was modified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in an age-related manner and whether this might result from altered expression of the selected miRNAs. The expression of seven SIRT genes and of SIRT1 mRNA-interacting miR-9, miR-34a, miR-132, and miR-199a-5p was evaluated by real-time PCR in PBMC originating from young (Y, n = 57, mean age 27 ± 4...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698968/inhibition-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-enhances-gene-expression-of-selected-sirtuins-and-app-cleaving-enzymes-in-amyloid-beta-cytotoxicity
#7
Przemysław L Wencel, Walter J Lukiw, Joanna B Strosznajder, Robert Piotr Strosznajder
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and sirtuins (SIRTs) are involved in the regulation of cell metabolism, transcription, and DNA repair. Alterations of these enzymes may play a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous results indicated that amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides and inflammation led to activation of PARP1 and cell death. This study focused on a role of PARP1 in the regulation of gene expression for SIRTs and beta-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) cleaving enzymes under Aβ42 oligomers (AβO) toxicity in pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) in culture...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694093/functional-analyses-of-major-cancer-related-signaling-pathways-in-alzheimer-s-disease-etiology
#8
REVIEW
Jianping Guo, Ji Cheng, Brian J North, Wenyi Wei
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an aging-related neurodegenerative disease and accounts for majority of human dementia. The hyper-phosphorylated tau-mediated intracellular neurofibrillary tangle and amyloid β-mediated extracellular senile plaque are characterized as major pathological lesions of AD. Different from the dysregulated growth control and ample genetic mutations associated with human cancers, AD displays damage and death of brain neurons in the absence of genomic alterations. Although various biological processes predominately governing tumorigenesis such as inflammation, metabolic alteration, oxidative stress and insulin resistance have been associated with AD genesis, the mechanistic connection of these biological processes and signaling pathways including mTOR, MAPK, SIRT, HIF, and the FOXO pathway controlling aging and the pathological lesions of AD are not well recapitulated...
July 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687192/optimisation-of-reconstruction-volumetry-and-dosimetry-for-99m-tc-spect-and-90-y-pet-images-towards-reliable-dose-volume-histograms-for-selective-internal-radiation-therapy-with-90-y-microspheres
#9
M Bernardini, H Thevenet, C Berthold, A Desbrée, C Smadja, C Desiré, M Bianciardi, N Ghazzar
PURPOSE: In Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT), (99m)Tc-MAA SPECT images are commonly used to predict microspheres distribution but recent works used (90)Y-microspheres PET images. Nevertheless, evaluation of the predictive power of (99m)Tc-MAA has been hampered by the lack of reliable comparisons between (99m)Tc-SPECT and (90)Y-PET images. Our aim was to determine the "in situ" optimisation procedure in order to reliably compare (99m)Tc-SPECT and (90)Y-PET images and achieve optimal personal dosimetry...
July 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675952/a-novel-fine-tuning-scheme-of-mir-200c-in-modulating-lung-cell-redox-homeostasis
#10
Yi-Hsuan Wu, Hsin-Ru Lin, Ying-Hsuan Lee, Pin-Hao Huang, Huei-Chung Wei, Arnold Stern, Daniel Tsun-Yee Chiu
Oxidative stress induces miR-200c, the predominant microRNA (miRNA) in lung tissues; however, the antioxidant role and biochemistry of such induction have not been clearly defined. Therefore, a lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) and a normal lung fibroblast (MRC-5) were used as models to determine the effects of miR-200c expression on lung antioxidant response. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) upregulated miR-200c, whose overexpression exacerbated the decrease in cell proliferation, retarded the progression of cells in the G2/M-phase, and increased oxidative stress upon H2O2 stimulation...
July 4, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673962/potential-mechanisms-linking-sirt-activity-and-hypoxic-2-hydroxyglutarate-generation-no-role-for-direct-enzyme-de-acetylation
#11
Sergiy M Nadtochiy, Yves T Wang, Jimmy Zhang, Keith Nehrke, Xenia Schafer, Kevin Welle, Sina Ghaemmaghami, Joshua Munger, Paul S Brookes
2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) is a hypoxic metabolite with potentially important epigenetic signaling roles. The mechanisms underlying 2-HG generation are poorly understood, but evidence suggests a potential regulatory role for the sirtuin family of lysine deacetylases. Thus, we hypothesized that the acetylation status of the major 2-HG-generating enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH)) may govern their 2-HG generating activity. In-vitro acetylation of these enzymes, with confirmation by western blotting, mass spectrometry, reversibility by recombinant sirtuins, and an assay for global lysine occupancy, yielded no effect on 2-HG generating activity...
July 3, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661724/sirt1-and-sirt6-signaling-pathways-in-cardiovascular-disease-protection
#12
Nunzia D'Onofrio, Luigi Servillo, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
SIGNIFICANCE: Oxidative stress represents the common hallmark of pathological conditions associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), including atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, aging, diabetes, and other vascular system-related diseases. The sirtuin (SIRT) family, comprising seven proteins (SIRT1-SIRT7) sharing a highly conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-binding catalytic domain, attracted a great attention for the past few years as stress adaptor and epigenetic enzymes involved in the cellular events controlling aging-related disorder, cancer, and CVD...
June 29, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653161/the-post-sir-spheres-surgery-study-p4s-retrospective-analysis-of-safety-following-hepatic-resection-or-transplantation-in-patients-previously-treated-with-selective-internal-radiation-therapy-with-yttrium-90-resin-microspheres
#13
Fernando Pardo, Bruno Sangro, Rheun-Chuan Lee, Derek Manas, Rohan Jeyarajah, Vincent Donckier, Geert Maleux, Antonio D Pinna, Lourens Bester, David L Morris, David Iannitti, Pierce K Chow, Richard Stubbs, Paul J Gow, Gianluca Masi, Kevin T Fisher, Wan Y Lau, Konstantinos Kouladouros, Georgios Katsanos, Giorgio Ercolani, Fernando Rotellar, José I Bilbao, Michael Schoen
BACKGROUND: Reports show that selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) may downsize inoperable liver tumors to resection or transplantation, or enable a bridge-to-transplant. A small-cohort study found that long-term survival in patients undergoing resection following SIRT appears possible but no robust studies on postsurgical safety outcomes exist. The Post-SIR-Spheres Surgery Study was an international, multicenter, retrospective study to assess safety outcomes of liver resection or transplantation following SIRT with yttrium-90 (Y-90) resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres(®); Sirtex)...
June 26, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650731/combination-treatments-with-luteolin-and-fisetin-enhance-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-high-glucose-treated-thp-1-cells-through-histone-acetyltransferase-histone-deacetylase-regulation
#14
Arang Kim, Jung-Mi Yun
Hyperglycemia leads to diabetes and its diabetic complications. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effects of luteolin and fisetin on proinflammatory cytokine secretion and its underlying epigenetic regulation in human monocytes exposed to hyperglycemic (HG) concentrations. Human monocytic cells (THP-1) were cultured under controlled (14.5 mM mannitol), normoglycemic (5.5 mM glucose), or HG (20 mM glucose) conditions in the absence or presence of the two phytochemicals for 48 h. Whereas HG conditions significantly induced histone acetylation, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor-α release from THP-1 cells; combination treatments with the two phytochemicals (500 nM fisetin, and l μM and 500 nM luteolin) suppressed NF-κB activity and inflammatory cytokine release...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648927/silibinin-capsules-improves-high-fat-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-hamsters-through-modifying-hepatic-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-fatty-acid-oxidation
#15
Chun-Xue Cui, Jing-Na Deng, Li Yan, Yu-Ying Liu, Jing-Yu Fan, Hong-Na Mu, Hao-Yu Sun, Ying-Hong Wang, Jing-Yan Han
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Silibinin Capsules (SC) is a silybin-phospholipid complex with silybin as the bioactive component. Silybin accounts for 50-70% of the seed extract of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.. As a traditional medicine, silybin has been used for treatment of liver diseases and is known to provide a wide range of hepatoprotective effects. AIM OF THE STUDY: High fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a worldwide health problem...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638677/changes-in-sirtuin-2-and-sirtuin-3-mrna-expressions-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
Murat Kara, Servet Yolbaş, Cem Şahin, Süleyman Serdar Koca
OBJECTIVE: Sirtuins (SIRTs) play a prominent role in metabolism, apoptosis, aging, inflammation, and epigenetics. Inflammation, apoptosis, and epigenetics are pathogenic issues in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed to evaluate SIRT2 and SIRT3 mRNA expressions in patients with RA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients with RA and 26 healthy controls were enrolled. Disease activity was determined using the disease activity score (DAS) 28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (score of >2...
June 2017: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634672/hcc-locoregional-therapies-yttrium-90-y-90-selective-internal-radiation-therapy-sirt
#17
REVIEW
İsa Burak Güney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634669/yttrium-90-y-90-resin-microsphere-therapy-for-patients-with-unresectable-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-single-center-experience
#18
Semra İnce, Bülent Karaman, Engin Alagoz, Nuri Karadurmuş, Hüseyin Şan, Cemal Nuri Erçin, Nuri Arslan
BACKGROUND/AIM: Selective intraarterial radionuclide therapy (SIRT) with yttrium-90 (Y-90) resin microspheres presently has successful results in primary or metastatic inoperable liver tumors. This procedure, which is also known as radioembolisation, delivers high doses of radiation selectively to hepatic tumors while minimum healthy liver exposure. The aim of this study was to present our clinical experience of radiomicrosphere therapy for the treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607107/myeloid-sirtuin-6-deficiency-causes-insulin-resistance-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-by-eliciting-macrophage-polarization-toward-an-m1-phenotype
#19
Youngyi Lee, Sun-O Ka, Hye-Na Cha, Yu-Na Chae, Mi-Kyung Kim, So-Young Park, Eun Ju Bae, Byung-Hyun Park
Obesity-related insulin resistance is closely associated with macrophage accumulation and subsequent cytokine release in local tissues. Sirtuin (Sirt) 6 is known to exert an anti-inflammatory function but its role in macrophages in the context of obesity has not been investigated. Here, we generated myeloid-specific Sirt6 knockout mice (mS6KO) and investigated the metabolic characteristics after high-fat diet (HFD) feeding for 16 weeks. Compared with their wild type littermates, HFD-fed mS6KO mice exhibited greater increases in body weight, fasting blood glucose- and insulin-levels, hepatic steatosis, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance...
June 12, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605745/current-standard-and-future-perspectives-in-non-surgical-therapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Tobias Eggert, Tim F Greten
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive liver tumor with a poor 5-year survival rate. Many HCCs are not amenable to surgical resection, because of tumor size, location, or because of the patient's poor liver function, a common obstacle to HCC therapy, because HCCs almost always develop in chronically inflamed livers. SUMMARY: In recent years, many efforts have been made to improve patient survival by conducting clinical trials investigating local and systemic treatment options for patients with unresectable tumors...
June 13, 2017: Digestion
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