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Generic error modelling system

C Pizzolato, M Reggiani, L Modenese, D G Lloyd
Real-time estimation of joint angles and moments can be used for rapid evaluation in clinical, sport, and rehabilitation contexts. However, real-time calculation of kinematics and kinetics is currently based on approximate solutions or generic anatomical models. We present a real-time system based on OpenSim solving inverse kinematics and dynamics without simplifications at 2000 frame per seconds with less than 31.5 ms of delay. We describe the software architecture, sensitivity analyses to minimise delays and errors, and compare offline and real-time results...
October 10, 2016: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Shawn M O'Connor, Jeremy D Wong, J Maxwell Donelan
While forcing of end-tidal gases by regulating inspired gas concentrations is a common technique for studying cardio-respiratory physiology, independently controlling end-tidal gases is technically challenging. Feedforward control methods are challenging because end-tidal values vary as a dynamic function of both inspired gases and other non-regulated physiological parameters. Conventional feedback control is limited by delays within the lungs and body tissues, and within the end-tidal forcing system itself...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Sean S Downey, W Randall Haas, Stephen J Shennan
Ecosystems on the verge of major reorganization-regime shift-may exhibit declining resilience, which can be detected using a collection of generic statistical tests known as early warning signals (EWSs). This study explores whether EWSs anticipated human population collapse during the European Neolithic. It analyzes recent reconstructions of European Neolithic (8-4 kya) population trends that reveal regime shifts from a period of rapid growth following the introduction of agriculture to a period of instability and collapse...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Huizhe Liu, Jason Gao, Viet Phuong Bui, Zhengtong Liu, Kenneth Eng Kian Lee, Li-Shiuan Peh, Ching Eng Png
Active triangulation range finders are widely used in a variety of applications such as robotics and assistive technologies. The power of the laser source should be carefully selected in order to satisfy detectability and still remain eye-safe. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to assess the detectability of an active triangulation range finder in an outdoor environment. For the first time, we accurately quantify the background noise of a laser system due to solar irradiance by coupling the Perez all-weather sky model and ray tracing techniques...
June 27, 2016: Optics Express
Timothy L Fletcher, Paul L A Popelier
A machine learning method called kriging is applied to the set of all 20 naturally occurring amino acids. Kriging models are built that predict electrostatic multipole moments for all topological atoms in any amino acid based on molecular geometry only. These models then predict molecular electrostatic interaction energies. On the basis of 200 unseen test geometries for each amino acid, no amino acid shows a mean prediction error above 5.3 kJ mol(-1), while the lowest error observed is 2.8 kJ mol(-1). The mean error across the entire set is only 4...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Ivan Gregor, Johannes Dröge, Melanie Schirmer, Christopher Quince, Alice C McHardy
Background. Metagenomics is an approach for characterizing environmental microbial communities in situ, it allows their functional and taxonomic characterization and to recover sequences from uncultured taxa. This is often achieved by a combination of sequence assembly and binning, where sequences are grouped into 'bins' representing taxa of the underlying microbial community. Assignment to low-ranking taxonomic bins is an important challenge for binning methods as is scalability to Gb-sized datasets generated with deep sequencing techniques...
2016: PeerJ
Kassaye Tolessa, Michael Rademaker, Bernard De Baets, Pascal Boeckx
The growing global demand for specialty coffee increases the need for improved coffee quality assessment methods. Green bean coffee quality analysis is usually carried out by physical (e.g. black beans, immature beans) and cup quality (e.g. acidity, flavour) evaluation. However, these evaluation methods are subjective, costly, time consuming, require sample preparation and may end up in poor grading systems. This calls for the development of a rapid, low-cost, reliable and reproducible analytical method to evaluate coffee quality attributes and eventually chemical compounds of interest (e...
April 1, 2016: Talanta
Elizabeth Goodwin, Colin Green, Anne Spencer
BACKGROUND: Condition-specific measures are frequently used to assess the health-related quality of life of people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Such measures are unsuitable for use in economic evaluations that require estimates of cost per quality-adjusted life-year because they are not based on preferences. OBJECTIVES: To report the estimation of a preference-based single index for an eight-dimensional instrument for MS, the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale - Eight Dimensions (MSIS-8D), derived from an MS-specific measure of health-related quality of life, the 29-item Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29)...
December 2015: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Xiaoliang Sun, Bettina Länger, Wolfram Weckwerth
Inferring dynamics of metabolic networks directly from metabolomics data provides a promising way to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of biological systems, as reported in our previous studies (Weckwerth, 2011; Sun and Weckwerth, 2012; Nägele et al., 2014) by a differential Jacobian approach. The Jacobian is solved from an overdetermined system of equations as JC + CJ(T)  = -2D, called Lyapunov Equation in its generic form, where J is the Jacobian, C is the covariance matrix of metabolomics data, and D is the fluctuation matrix...
2015: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Saqib Yousaf, Shiyin Qin
Blind image deconvolution (BID) aims to remove or reduce the degradations that have occurred during the acquisition or processing. It is a challenging ill-posed problem due to a lack of enough information in degraded image for unambiguous recovery of both point spread function (PSF) and clear image. Although recently many powerful algorithms appeared; however, it is still an active research area due to the diversity of degraded images as well as degradations. Closed-loop control systems are characterized with their powerful ability to stabilize the behavior response and overcome external disturbances by designing an effective feedback optimization...
December 2015: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Paul J Wensveen, Len Thomas, Patrick J O Miller
BACKGROUND: Detailed information about animal location and movement is often crucial in studies of natural behaviour and how animals respond to anthropogenic activities. Dead-reckoning can be used to infer such detailed information, but without additional positional data this method results in uncertainty that grows with time. Combining dead-reckoning with new Fastloc-GPS technology should provide good opportunities for reconstructing georeferenced fine-scale tracks, and should be particularly useful for marine animals that spend most of their time under water...
2015: Movement Ecology
Alberta Ipser, Richard Cook
Built on models of 'action understanding', motor theories of expression perception propose that facial simulation, a process similar to covert imitation, aids perception and interpretation of others' facial expressions. As predicted by these accounts, some reports suggest that blocking facial mimicry impairs expression recognition. However, these reports have been criticized and motor theories remain controversial. Crucially, it remains to be determined whether the labeling errors observed reflect a loss of perceptual sensitivity - a genuine perceptual phenomenon - or whether they are a product of response bias...
2015: Journal of Vision
Helga Mazyar, Bosco Tjan
A saccade brings a retinal locus to a target in the visual field. For normally sighted individuals, this retinal locus is the fovea. Central field loss (CFL) caused by macular degeneration often leads to the adoption of a preferred retinal locus (PRL) in the peripheral retina for saccades and fixation. Factors underlying the development of a PRL are not known. Here we show that a conceptually simple computational model can account for the formation of a PRL and its idiosyncrasies. We assume that the visual system always intends to aim the retinal locus with the highest expected post-saccade acuity at the saccade target...
2015: Journal of Vision
Joseph A Ewing, Michelle K Kaufman, Erin E Hutter, Jeffrey F Granger, Matthew D Beal, Stephen J Piazza, Robert A Siston
Surgical technique is one factor that has been identified as critical to success of total knee arthroplasty. Researchers have shown that computer simulations can aid in determining how decisions in the operating room generally affect post-operative outcomes. However, to use simulations to make clinically relevant predictions about knee forces and motions for a specific total knee patient, patient-specific models are needed. This study introduces a methodology for estimating knee soft-tissue properties of an individual total knee patient...
March 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Jan Kneissler, Jan Drugowitsch, Karl Friston, Martin V Butz
Predictive coding appears to be one of the fundamental working principles of brain processing. Amongst other aspects, brains often predict the sensory consequences of their own actions. Predictive coding resembles Kalman filtering, where incoming sensory information is filtered to produce prediction errors for subsequent adaptation and learning. However, to generate prediction errors given motor commands, a suitable temporal forward model is required to generate predictions. While in engineering applications, it is usually assumed that this forward model is known, the brain has to learn it...
2015: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Bahram Marami, Shahin Sirouspour, Suha Ghoul, Jeremy Cepek, Sean R H Davidson, David W Capson, John Trachtenberg, Aaron Fenster
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being used increasingly for image-guided targeted biopsy and focal therapy of prostate cancer. In this paper, a combined rigid and deformable registration technique is proposed to register pre-treatment diagnostic 3T magnetic resonance (MR) images of the prostate, with the identified target tumor(s), to intra-treatment 1.5T MR images. The pre-treatment T2-weighted MR images were acquired with patients in a supine position using an endorectal coil in a 3T scanner, while the intra-treatment T2-weighted MR images were acquired in a 1...
April 2015: Medical Image Analysis
Benjamin J Block, Suam Kim, Peter Virnau, Kurt Binder
As a generic example for crystals where the crystal-fluid interface tension depends on the orientation of the interface relative to the crystal lattice axes, the nearest-neighbor Ising model on the simple cubic lattice is studied over a wide temperature range, both above and below the roughening transition temperature. Using a thin-film geometry L(x)×L(y)×L(z) with periodic boundary conditions along the z axis and two free L(x)×L(y) surfaces at which opposing surface fields ±H(1) act, under conditions of partial wetting, a single planar interface inclined under a contact angle θ<π/2 relative to the yz plane is stabilized...
December 2014: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Victoria R Tallentire, Samantha E Smith, Janet Skinner, Helen S Cameron
BACKGROUND: Junior doctors are often the first responders to deteriorating patients in hospital. In the high-stakes and time-pressured context of acute care, the propensity for error is high. This study aimed to identify the main subject areas in which junior doctors' acute care errors occur, and cross-reference the errors with Reason's Generic Error Modelling System (GEMS). GEMS categorises errors according to the underlying cognitive processes, and thus provides insight into the causative factors...
2015: BMC Medical Education
Kansuporn Sriyudthsak, Yuji Sawada, Yukako Chiba, Yui Yamashita, Shigehiko Kanaya, Hitoshi Onouchi, Toru Fujiwara, Satoshi Naito, Ebernard O Voit, Fumihide Shiraishi, Masami Yokota Hirai
BACKGROUND: Progress in systems biology offers sophisticated approaches toward a comprehensive understanding of biological systems. Yet, computational analyses are held back due to difficulties in determining suitable model parameter values from experimental data which naturally are subject to biological fluctuations. The data may also be corrupted by experimental uncertainties and sometimes do not contain all information regarding variables that cannot be measured for technical reasons...
2014: BMC Systems Biology
Diego Pazó, Juan M López, Rafael Gallego, Miguel A Rodríguez
We study the synchronization of two spatially extended dynamical systems where the models have imperfections. We show that the synchronization error across space can be visualized as a rough surface governed by the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation with both upper and lower bounding walls corresponding to nonlinearities and model discrepancies, respectively. Two types of model imperfections are considered: parameter mismatch and unresolved fast scales, finding in both cases the same qualitative results. The consistency between different setups and systems indicates that the results are generic for a wide family of spatially extended systems...
December 2014: Chaos
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