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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102935/ectopic-cushing-syndrome-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Hang-Yu Zhang, Jun Zhao
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a neuroendocrine tumor with the potential to secrete various peptides or hormones that can lead to paraneoplastic syndromes, such as Ectopic Cushing syndrome (ECS). Because of the aggressive nature of the syndrome and its atypical features, ECS in small-cell lung cancer is difficult to diagnose and has a poor prognosis. We report a case of a 74-year-old male patient who presented with severe hypokalemia, proximal muscle weakness, peripheral edema, metabolic alkalosis, and worsening hyperglycemia...
November 8, 2016: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102888/genetic-polymorphisms-in-estrogen-metabolic-pathway-associated-with-risks-of-alzheimer-s-disease-evidence-from-a-southern-chinese-population
#2
Lu Hua Chen, Yan Hui Fan, Patrick Yu Ping Kao, Deborah Tip Yin Ho, Joyce Cheuk Tung Ha, Leung Wing Chu, You-Qiang Song
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether genetic variations on the estrogen metabolic pathway would be associated with risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Individuals were recruited at the Memory Clinic, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS: Chinese individuals with (n = 426) and without (n = 350) AD. MEASUREMENTS: All subjects underwent a standardized cognitive assessment and genotyping of four candidate genes on the estrogen metabolic pathway (estrogen receptor α gene (ESR1), estrogen receptor β gene (ESR2), cytochrome P450 19A1 gene (CYP19A1), cytochrome P450 11A1 gene (CYP11A1))...
January 19, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102883/exploring-prognostic-factors-for-her2-positive-metastatic-breast-cancer-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-a-major-swiss-hospital
#3
Lilian Bringolf, Bernhard Pestalozzi, Daniel Fink, Konstantin Dedes
BACKGROUND: Trastuzumab (Herceptin®, Roche) has significantly improved the prognosis of patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Some patients remain in remission for many years. However, there are no prognostic markers associated with long-term survival. This study aimed to analyse treatment patterns of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer at a single institution and explore prognostic factors for long-term survival after HER2-targeted treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer receiving first-line treatment with HER2-targeted therapy between 2004 and 2014 at the University Hospital of Zurich (n = 81)...
January 19, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102548/the-shade-avoidance-syndrome-multiple-signals-and-ecological-consequences
#4
REVIEW
Carlos L Ballaré, Ronald Pierik
Plants use photoreceptor proteins to detect the proximity of other plants and to activate adaptive responses. Of these photoreceptors, phytochrome B (phyB), which is sensitive to changes in the red (R) to far-red (FR) ratio of sunlight, is the one that has been studied in greatest detail. The molecular connections between the proximity signal (low R:FR) and a model physiological response (increased elongation growth) have now been mapped in considerable detail in Arabidopsis seedlings. We briefly review our current understanding of these connections, and discuss recent progress in establishing the roles of other photoreceptors in regulating growth-related pathways in response to competition cues...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102542/silicon-promotes-cytokinin-biosynthesis-and-delays-senescence-in-arabidopsis-and-sorghum
#5
Oshry Markovich, Evyatar Steiner, Štěpán Kouřil, Petr Tarkowski, Asaph Aharoni, Rivka Elbaum
Silicate minerals are dominant soil components. Thus, plant roots are constantly exposed to silicic acid. High silicon intake, enabled by root silicon transporters, correlates with increased tolerance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the underlying protection mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that silicon interacts with the plant hormones, and specifically, that silicic acid intake increases cytokinin biosynthesis. The reaction of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and Arabidopsis plants, modified to absorb high versus low amounts of silicon, to dark-induced senescence was monitored, by quantifying expression levels of genes along the senescence pathway and measuring tissue cytokinin levels...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102526/hormonal-and-reproductive-factors-and-the-risk-of-ovarian-cancer
#6
Anita Koushik, Anne Grundy, Michal Abrahamowicz, Jocelyne Arseneau, Lucy Gilbert, Walter H Gotlieb, Julie Lacaille, Anne-Marie Mes-Masson, Marie-Élise Parent, Diane M Provencher, Lesley Richardson, Jack Siemiatycki
PURPOSE: Hormone-related factors have been associated with ovarian cancer, the strongest being parity and oral contraceptive use. Given reductions in birth rates and increases in oral contraceptive use over time, associations in more recent birth cohorts may differ. Furthermore, consideration of ovarian cancer heterogeneity (i.e., Type I/II invasive cancers) may contribute to a better understanding of etiology. We examined hormone-related factors in relation to ovarian cancer risk overall, for Type I and Type II cancers, as well as borderline tumors...
January 19, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102491/shedding-new-light-on-female-fertility-the-role-of-vitamin-d
#7
REVIEW
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Barbara Altieri, Cristina de Angelis, Stefano Palomba, Rosario Pivonello, Annamaria Colao, Francesco Orio
In the last decades several studies suggested that vitamin D is involved in the modulation of the reproductive process in women due to the expression of VDR and 1α-hydroxylase in reproductive tissues such as ovary, uterus, placenta, pituitary and hypothalamus. Vitamin D has also a role in the regulation of sex hormone steroidogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D might have a regulatory role in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-associated symptoms, including ovulatory dysfunction, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism...
January 19, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102440/thyroid-hormones-retinol-and-clinical-parameters-in-relation-to-mercury-and-organohalogen-contaminants-in-great-blue-heron-ardea-herodias-nestlings-from-the-st-lawrence-river-qu%C3%A3-bec-canada
#8
Louise Champoux, Monique Boily, Guy Fitzgerald
The exposure and effects of persistent environmental contaminants were investigated in great blue heron (Ardea herodias) nestlings sampled in 2001, 2002, 2006, and 2007 in freshwater and estuarine heronries along the St. Lawrence River, Québec (Canada). Biomarkers (retinoids, thyroid hormones, and clinical parameters) and contaminants (organochlorine contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and mercury (Hg)) were analyzed in blood, and Hg was analyzed in feathers (generally 9 nestlings per colony and 4 colonies per year)...
January 19, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102330/new-insights-into-fetal-mammary-gland-morphogenesis-differential-effects-of-natural-and-environmental-estrogens
#9
Lucia Speroni, Maria Voutilainen, Marja L Mikkola, Skylar A Klager, Cheryl M Schaeberle, Carlos Sonnenschein, Ana M Soto
An increased breast cancer risk during adulthood has been linked to estrogen exposure during fetal life. However, the impossibility of removing estrogens from the feto-maternal unit has hindered the testing of estrogen's direct effect on mammary gland organogenesis. To overcome this limitation, we developed an ex vivo culture method of the mammary gland where the direct action of estrogens can be tested during embryonic days (E)14 to 19. Mouse mammary buds dissected at E14 and cultured for 5 days showed that estrogens directly altered fetal mammary gland development...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102304/local-melatonin-application-induces-cold-tolerance-in-distant-organs-of-citrullus-lanatus-l-via-long-distance-transport
#10
Hao Li, Jingjing Chang, Junxian Zheng, Yuchuan Dong, Qiyan Liu, Xiaozhen Yang, Chunhua Wei, Yong Zhang, Jianxiang Ma, Xian Zhang
Melatonin is a ubiquitous chemical substance that regulates plant growth and responses to stress. Several recent studies show that exogenous melatonin confers cold tolerance to plants; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report that melatonin application at optimal dose, either on the leaves or the roots, not only induced cold stress tolerance in the site of application, but also systemically induced cold tolerance in untreated distant parts. Foliar or rhizospheric treatment with melatonin increased the melatonin levels in untreated roots or leaves, respectively, under both normal and cold stress conditions, whereas rhizospheric melatonin treatment increased the melatonin exudation rates from the xylem...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102225/glucocorticoid-receptor-signalling-activates-yap-in-breast-cancer
#11
Giovanni Sorrentino, Naomi Ruggeri, Alessandro Zannini, Eleonora Ingallina, Rebecca Bertolio, Carolina Marotta, Carmelo Neri, Elisa Cappuzzello, Mattia Forcato, Antonio Rosato, Miguel Mano, Silvio Bicciato, Giannino Del Sal
The Hippo pathway is an oncosuppressor signalling cascade that plays a major role in the control of cell growth, tissue homoeostasis and organ size. Dysregulation of the Hippo pathway leads to aberrant activation of the transcription co-activator YAP (Yes-associated protein) that contributes to tumorigenesis in several tissues. Here we identify glucocorticoids (GCs) as hormonal activators of YAP. Stimulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) leads to increase of YAP protein levels, nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity in vitro and in vivo...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102207/drosophila-fit-is-a-protein-specific-satiety-hormone-essential-for-feeding-control
#12
Jinghan Sun, Chang Liu, Xiaobing Bai, Xiaoting Li, Jingyun Li, Zhiping Zhang, Yunpeng Zhang, Jing Guo, Yan Li
Protein homeostasis is critical for health and lifespan of animals. However, the mechanisms for controlling protein feeding remain poorly understood. Here we report that in Drosophila, protein intake-induced feeding inhibition (PIFI) is specific to protein-containing food, and this effect is mediated by a fat body (FB) peptide named female-specific independent of transformer (FIT). Upon consumption of protein food, FIT expression is greatly elevated. Secreted FIT peptide in the fly haemolymph conveys this metabolic message to the brain, thereby promoting the release of Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (DILP2) and suppressing further protein intake...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102101/thyroid-in-pregnancy-from-physiology-to-screening
#13
Drahomira Springer, Jan Jiskra, Zdenka Limanova, Tomas Zima, Eliska Potlukova
Thyroid hormones are crucial for the growth and maturation of many target tissues, especially the brain and skeleton. During critical periods in the first trimester of pregnancy, maternal thyroxine is essential for fetal development as it supplies thyroid hormone-dependent tissues. The ontogeny of mature thyroid function involves organogenesis, and maturation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and the thyroid gland; and it is almost complete by the 12th-14th gestational week. In case of maternal hypothyroidism, substitution with levothyroxine must be started in early pregnancy...
January 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102095/significance-of-the-ionized-calcium-measurement-to-assess-calcium-status-in-osteopenic-osteoporosis-postmenopausal-outpatients
#14
Letizia Guiducci, Silvia Maffei, Laura Sabatino, Luc Zyw, Debora Battaglia, Alessandro Vannucci, Pietro Di Cecco, Cristina Vassalle
INTRODUCTION: Evaluation of calcium status is important in the osteoporotic risk assessment. Although guidelines indicate total calcium (tCa) as first-line measurement, directly measured ionized calcium (m-iCa), considered as the gold standard, is more and more often required. Aim of this study is to evaluate the agreement between m-iCa, tCa and iCa calculated from a formula based on total calcium and albumin (c-iCa) in osteopenic/osteoporotic postmenopausal outpatients. METHODS: A total of 140 postmenopausal outpatients, 41 osteopenic (OPN) and 99 osteoporotic (OP) were enrolled...
January 19, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101970/neuropeptide-y-resists-excess-loss-of-fat-by-lipolysis-in-calorie-restricted-mice-a-trait-potential-for-the-life-extending-effect-of-calorie-restriction
#15
Seongjoon Park, Toshimitsu Komatsu, Sang Eun Kim, Katsuya Tanaka, Hiroko Hayashi, Ryoichi Mori, Isao Shimokawa
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an orexigenic peptide that plays an essential role in caloric restriction (CR)-mediated lifespan extension. However, the mechanisms underlying the NPY-mediated effects in CR are poorly defined. Here, we report that NPY deficiency in male mice during CR increases mortality in association with lipodystrophy. NPY(-/-) mice displayed a rapid decrease in body weight and fat mass, as well as increased lipolysis during CR. These alterations in fat regulation were inhibited by the lipolysis inhibitor, acipimox, a treatment associated with reduced mortality...
January 19, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101914/prenatal-stress-exposure-generates-higher-early-survival-and-smaller-size-without-impacting-developmental-rate-in-a-pacific-salmon
#16
Pauline M Capelle, Christina A D Semeniuk, Natalie M Sopinka, John W Heath, Oliver P Love
Prenatal exposure to elevated glucocorticoids can act as a signal of environmental stress, resulting in modifications to offspring phenotype. While "negative" phenotypic effects (i.e., smaller size, slower growth) are often reported, recent research coupling phenotype with other fitness-related traits has suggested positive impacts of prenatal stress. Using captive Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), we treated eggs with biologically relevant cortisol levels-low (300 ng mL(-1) ), high (1,000 ng mL(-1) ), or control (0 ng mL(-1) )-to examine the early-life impacts of maternally transferred stress hormones on offspring...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101810/increased-incidence-of-autoimmune-thyroid-disorders-in-patients-with-psoriatic-arthritis-a-longitudinal-follow-up-study
#17
Poupak Fallahi, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Ilaria Ruffilli, Giusy Elia, Mario Miccoli, Andrea Delle Sedie, Lucrezia Riente, Alessandro Antonelli
Contrasting results have been reported about the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity (AT) and dysfunction (TD) in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). In this study, we pointed to evaluate the incidence of new cases of clinical and subclinical TD in a broad group of patients with PsA versus a control group, matched by age and gender belonging to the same geographic area. PsA patients with TD were excluded firstly, and new cases of thyroid disorders were evaluated in 97 PsA patients and 97 matched controls, who had comparable iodine intake (median follow-up of 74 months in PsA versus 92 in controls)...
January 18, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101803/lung-retransplantation-in-an-adult-13%C3%A2-years-after-single-lobar-transplant-in-childhood
#18
Seiichiro Sugimoto, Shinji Otani, Takashi Ohki, Takeshi Kurosaki, Kentaroh Miyoshi, Masaomi Yamane, Shinichiro Miyoshi, Takahiro Oto
Single living-donor lobar lung transplantation provides acceptable results for critically ill children; however, an additional lung transplantation may be required in the future as the recipient grows. We describe a case of successful lung retransplantation in a grown-up patient after single lobar lung transplantation in childhood. A 23-year-old man underwent bilateral cadaveric lung retransplantation for chronic lung allograft dysfunction 13 years after right single living-donor lobar transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension performed at the age of 10 years...
January 18, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101678/breast-carcinoma-subtypes-show-different-patterns-of-metastatic-behavior
#19
István Artúr Molnár, Béla Ákos Molnár, Laura Vízkeleti, Krisztina Fekete, Judit Tamás, Péter Deák, Csilla Szundi, Borbála Székely, Judit Moldvay, Stefan Vári-Kakas, Marcell A Szász, Balázs Ács, Janina Kulka, Anna-Mária Tőkés
The aim of our retrospective study was to analyze patterns of subtype specific metastatic spread and to identify the time course of distant metastases. A consecutive series of 490 patients with breast cancer who underwent surgery and postoperative treatment at Semmelweis University, Hungary, and diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2007 was identified from the archives of the 2nd Department of Pathology, Hungary. Molecular subtypes were defined based on the 2011 St. Gallen recommendations. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22...
January 19, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101640/labia-minora-hypertrophy-causes-impact-on-women-s-health-and-treatment-options
#20
Caterina Gulia, Andrea Zangari, Vito Briganti, Zhoobin H Bateni, Alessandro Porrello, Roberto Piergentili
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We provide a review of the literature about the onset and development of hypertrophy of the labia minora, together with some expert opinions on the appropriateness of labiaplasty. METHODS: We searched PubMed and used popular search engines, with a greater emphasis on the physiology and hormone-mediated metabolism of these structures, and less emphasis on their surgical treatment. RESULTS: We describe major embryological, cytological, and biochemical features of this anatomical part and summarize the clinical aspects of its hypertrophy, evaluating types of discomfort reported by women and the medical treatments available...
January 18, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
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