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Pauline Mendola, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Germaine M Buck Louis, Liping Sun, Maeve E Wallace, Melissa M Smarr, Seth Sherman, Yeyi Zhu, Qi Ying, Danping Liu
We aimed to study the potential impact of proximity to major roadways on time-to-pregnancy and infertility in couples attempting pregnancy in the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and Environment (LIFE) study (2005-2009), a population-based, prospective cohort study. Couples attempting pregnancy (n=500) were enrolled and followed prospectively until pregnancy or 12months of trying and 393 couples (78%) had complete data and full follow-up. Time-to-pregnancy was based on a standard protocol using fertility monitors, tracking estrone-3-glucuonide and luteinizing hormone, and pregnancy test kits to detect human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Carolina Barriga-Montoya, Araceli de la O-Martínez, Beatriz Fuentes-Pardo, Froylán Gómez-Lagunas
In this work, we studied the characteristics of recovery from desensitization of the light-elicited current of crayfish. Applying a two-flash protocol, we found that the first flash triggers a current that activates with a noticeable latency, reaches a peak value, and thereafter decays along a single exponential time course. In comparison with the first-elicited current, the current elicited by the second flash not only presents an expected smaller peak current, depending on the time between flashes, but it also displays a different latency and decay time constant...
October 23, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Amy E B Packard, Ann E Egan, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
Perhaps the most salient behaviors that individuals engage in involve the avoidance of aversive experiences and the pursuit of pleasurable experiences. Engagement in these behaviors is regulated to a significant extent by an individual's hormonal milieu. For example, glucocorticoid hormones are produced by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, and influence most aspects of behavior. In turn, many behaviors can influence HPA axis activity. These bidirectional interactions not only coordinate an individual's physiological and behavioral states to each other, but can also tune them to environmental conditions thereby optimizing survival...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Hiroshi Kaji
Adipose tissue has recently been reevaluated as an endocrine organ, and adipose-tissue-derived endocrine factors are termed adipokines. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of PAs, which convert plasminogen into plasmin, a critical protease involved in fibrinolysis. PAI-1 induces fibrinogenesis by suppressing intravascular and tissue fibrinolysis. Moreover, PAI-1 exerts various cellular effects independently of fibrinolysis. Although PAI-1 is expressed in various tissues, its expression is regulated by numerous growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in a paracrine and endocrine manner...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Sharon M Moe
Calcium is an important ion in cell signaling, hormone regulation, and bone health. Its regulation is complex and intimately connected to that of phosphate homeostasis. Both ions are maintained at appropriate levels to maintain the extracellular to intracellular gradients, allow for mineralization of bone, and to prevent extra skeletal and urinary calcification. The homeostasis involves the target organs intestine, parathyroid glands, kidney, and bone. Multiple hormones converge to regulate the extracellular calcium level: parathyroid hormone, vitamin D (principally 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D), fibroblast growth factor 23, and α-klotho...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Colin H Brown
The posterior pituitary gland secretes oxytocin and vasopressin (the antidiuretic hormone) into the blood system. Oxytocin is required for normal delivery of the young and for delivery of milk to the young during lactation. Vasopressin increases water reabsorption in the kidney to maintain body fluid balance and causes vasoconstriction to increase blood pressure. Oxytocin and vasopressin secretion occurs from the axon terminals of magnocellular neurons whose cell bodies are principally found in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Antonia Lanni, Maria Moreno, Fernando Goglia
The hypermetabolic effects of thyroid hormones (THs), the major endocrine regulators of metabolic rate, are widely recognized. Although, the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects have been extensively investigated, much has yet to be learned about how TH regulates diverse cellular functions. THs have a profound impact on mitochondria, the organelles responsible for the majority of cellular energy production, and several studies have been devoted to understand the respective importance of the nuclear and mitochondrial pathways for organelle activity...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Georgios N Panagopoulos, Panayiotis D Megaloikonomos, Andreas F Mavrogenis
Peripheral nerve injury can have a potentially devastating impact on a patient's quality of life, resulting in severe disability with substantial social and personal cost. Refined microsurgical techniques, advances in peripheral nerve topography, and a better understanding of the pathophysiology and molecular basis of nerve injury have all led to a decisive leap forward in the field of translational neurophysiology. Nerve repair, nerve grafting, and nerve transfers have improved significantly with consistently better functional outcomes...
October 25, 2016: Orthopedics
Xanthi D Andrianou, Stephanie Gängler, Andra Piciu, Pantelis Charisiadis, Christina Zira, Kyriacos Aristidou, Doina Piciu, Russ Hauser, Konstantinos C Makris
Although the increasing prevalence of thyroid nodular disease (TND) has been partially attributed to the more frequent usage of improved diagnostics, environmental factors, such as exposures to thyroid-disrupting chemicals may contribute to TND and altered thyroid function. We investigated the association between exposures to bisphenol A (BPA), its chlorinated derivatives (ClxBPA), and bisphenol F (BPF) with TND and thyroid measures in adult women. A case-control study in Cyprus and Romania (n = 212) was conducted, where cases were those with thyroid nodules (diameter >3mm), and controls without nodules...
2016: PloS One
Elie El Agha, Werner Seeger, Saverio Bellusci
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) constitute a large family of polypeptides that are involved in many biological processes, ranging from prenatal cell-fate specification and organogenesis to hormonal and metabolic regulation in postnatal life. During embryonic development, these growth factors are important mediators of the crosstalk among ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm-derived cells and they instruct the spatial and temporal growth of organs and tissues such as the brain, bone, lung, gut etc. The involvement of FGFs in postnatal lung homeostasis is a growing field and there is emerging literature about their roles in lung pathophysiology...
October 26, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Paola Sebastiani, Bharat Thyagarajan, Fangui Sun, Lawrence S Honig, Nicole Schupf, Stephanie Cosentino, Mary F Feitosa, Mary Wojczynski, Anne B Newman, Monty Montano, Thomas T Perls
OBJECTIVES: To determine reference values for laboratory tests in individuals aged 85 and older. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING: International. PARTICIPANTS: Long Life Family Study (LLFS) participants (N~5,000, age: range 25-110, median 67, 45% male). MEASUREMENTS: Serum biomarkers were selected based on association with aging-related diseases and included complete blood count, lipids (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol), 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3, vitamin D epi-isomer, diabetes mellitus-related biomarkers (adiponectin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproduct), kidney disease-related biomarkers (albumin, creatinine, cystatin), endocrine biomarkers (dehydroepiandrosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin, testosterone), markers of inflammation (interleukin 6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide), ferritin, and transferrin...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
N A Popova, V I Kaledin, V P Nikolin, L A Bogdanova, T S Morozkova, Yu V Tornuev
Experiments were performed on the model of transplanted mouse tumor with high incidence of liver metastases. Hydrophilic drug cycloplatam (injected intravenously in liposomes) was more potent than "free cycloplatam" (injected intravenously or intraperitoneally in physiological saline) in inhibiting the growth of natural and experimental metastases in the liver. By contrast, liposomal cycloplatam had lower efficiency than free cycloplatam in suppressing the growth of solid tumor. Liposomal and free cortifen (hydrophobic hormonal cytostatic) produced nearly the same effects on solid tumor growth...
October 26, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
A V Babina, V A Lavrinenko
Ultrastructural changes in cells of the renal inner medulla involved in the realization of the antidiuretic effect of vasopressin under conditions of prostaglandin synthesis blockade were studied in the kidneys of Wistar rats and endogenous vasopressin-deficient homozygous Brattleboro rats. The results indicated uniform trend to an increase in the number of clathrincoated vesicles under conditions of hormone treatment combined with prostaglandin synthesis blockade in animals with different neurohypophyseal status...
October 25, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
D L Misner, M A Kauss, J Singh, H Uppal, A Bruening-Wright, B M Liederer, T Lin, B McCray, N La, T Nguyen, D Sampath, P S Dragovich, T O'Brien, T S Zabka
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a pleiotropic protein that functions as an enzyme, cytokine, growth factor and hormone. As a target for oncology, NAMPT is particularly attractive, because it catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the salvage pathway to generate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a universal energy- and signal-carrying molecule involved in cellular energy metabolism and many homeostatic functions. Inhibition of NAMPT generally results in NAD depletion, followed by ATP reduction and loss of cell viability...
October 25, 2016: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Bartosz Kazimierz Słowikowski, Margarita Lianeri, Paweł Piotr Jagodziński
It is well known that a connection between xenobiotics inhalation, especially tobacco combustion and Lung Cancer development is strongly significant and indisputable. However, recent studies provide evidence indicating that another factors such as, estrogens are also involved in lung carcinoma biology and metabolism. Although the status of estrogen receptors (ER), in both cancerous and healthy lung tissue has been well documented, there is still inconclusive data with respect of which isoform of the receptor is present in the lungs...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
Nicholas M Dalesio, Craig W Hendrix, Douglas Hale McMichael, Carol B Thompson, Carlton K K Lee, Huy Pho, Rafael S Arias, Rachael Rzasa Lynn, Jeffrey Galinkin, Myron Yaster, Robert H Brown, Alan R Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Obesity causes multiorgan dysfunction, specifically metabolic abnormalities in the liver. Obese patients are opioid-sensitive and have high rates of respiratory complications after surgery. Obesity also has been shown to cause resistance to leptin, an adipose-derived hormone that is key in regulating hunger, metabolism, and respiratory stimulation. We hypothesized that obesity and leptin deficiency impair opioid pharmacokinetics (PK) independently of one another. METHODS: Morphine PK were characterized in C57BL/6J wild-type (WT), diet-induced obese (DIO), and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice, and in ob/ob mice given leptin-replacement (LR) therapy...
October 24, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
A V Sirotkin, A H Harrath, R Grossmann
The aim of the present study was to examine the role of nutritional status, the metabolic hormone ghrelin and their interrelationships in the control of chicken hormones involved in the regulation of reproduction. For this purpose, we identified the effect of food deprivation, administration of ghrelin 1-18 and their combination on plasma levels of testosterone (T), estradiol (E), arginine-vasotocin (AVT) and growth hormone (GH) as well as the release of these hormones by isolated and cultured ovarian fragments...
October 26, 2016: Physiological Research
K Szkudelska, M Deniziak, P Roś, K Gwóźdź, T Szkudelski
Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in different plant species and having numerous health-promoting properties in animals and humans. However, its protective action against deleterious effects of ethanol is poorly elucidated. In the present study, the influence of resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day) on some hormones and metabolic parameters was determined in rats ingesting 10% ethanol solution for two weeks. Blood levels of insulin, glucagon and adiponectin were affected by ethanol, however, resveratrol partially ameliorated these changes...
October 26, 2016: Physiological Research
Michael A Lee, Naveed Bakh, Gili Bisker, Emery N Brown, Michael S Strano
Cortisol is an important glucocorticoid hormone whose biochemistry influences numerous physiological and pathological processes. Moreover, it is a biomarker of interest for a number of conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder, Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and others. An implantable biosensor capable of real time monitoring of cortisol concentrations in adipose tissue may revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders, as well as provide an invaluable research tool. Toward this end, a mathematical model, informed by the physiological literature, is developed to predict dynamic cortisol concentrations in adipose, muscle, and brain tissues, where a significant number of important processes with cortisol occur...
October 26, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Emad A Rakha, Devika Agarwal, Andrew R Green, Ibraheem Ashankyty, Ian O Ellis, Graham Ball, Mohammed A Alaskandarany
: Multigene assay is currently recommended for prognostic stratification of the clinically indeterminate group of breast cancer (BC) patients defined as lymph node (LN)-negative, oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive HER2-negative (LN-/ER+/HER2-) to determine the use of chemotherapy. However this cohort, comprising approximately 40% of BC, is not a homogeneous group and shows variable outcome. This study aims to determine the prognostic value of routinely assessed variables, singly and in combination, in the LN-/ER+/HER2- BC...
October 26, 2016: Histopathology
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