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Hepatitis E

Miriam Fritz, Benjamin Berger, Mathias Schemmerer, Dominique Endres, Jürgen J Wenzel, Oliver Stich, Marcus Panning
There is growing evidence that hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can present with extrahepatic manifestations including neurological disorders. Among these, neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) has been reported to occur in some industrialized countries. We investigated 35 patients with NA and a control group for markers of HEV infection. Acute HEV infection was found in NA patients only and was associated with an inflammatory response in the central nervous system. Shedding of HEV RNA into the cerebrospinal fluid and intrathecal production of anti-HEV IgM occurred in one patient suggesting that HEV is neurotropic...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jung-Heun Ha, Caglar Doguer, Shireen R L Flores, Tao Wang, James F Collins
Background: Consumption of a high-iron diet causes copper deficiency in weanling rodents; however, the minimum amount of dietary iron that disrupts copper homeostasis has not been established. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that dietary iron at only several-fold above physiologic requirements would cause copper depletion. Methods: Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6/group) were fed AIN-93G-based diets with adequate (88 µg Fe/g = 1×), or excessive (4×, 9...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Luke MacMillan, Garrett Tingley, Sara K Young, Kathy A Clow, Edward W Randell, Margaret E Brosnan, John T Brosnan
Background: Formate is produced in mitochondria via the catabolism of serine, glycine, dimethylglycine, and sarcosine. Formate produced by mitochondria may be incorporated into the cytosolic folate pool where it can be used for important biosynthetic reactions. Previous studies from our lab have shown that cobalamin deficiency results in increased plasma formate concentrations. Objective: Our goal was to determine the basis for elevated formate in vitamin B-12 deficiency...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Juliana Gil Melgaço, Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Vinicius da Motta de Mello, Mariana Leal, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Marcelo Alves Pinto
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common etiology of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Recombinant HEV vaccines have been developed, but only one is commercially available and licensed in China since 2011. Epidemiological studies have identified genotype 3 as the major cause of chronic infection in immunocompromised individuals. Ribavirin has been shown to be effective as a monotherapy to induce HEV clearance in chronic patients who have undergone solid organ transplant (SOT) under immunosuppressive therapy. Efforts and improvements in prevention and control have been made to reduce the instances of acute and chronic hepatitis E in endemic and nonendemic countries...
2018: BioMed Research International
Salvatore Sutti, Frank Tacke
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains a clinical challenge due to the poorly predictable outcomes. Accordingly, considerable efforts have been devoted to unravel the risk factors responsible for DILI worsening toward acute liver failure (ALF), liver transplantation (LT), and/or death. From a pathogenic point of view, exhaustion of drug metabolizing pathways, cell death mechanisms, activation of local immune cells, such as Kupffer cells, and recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes including monocytes and lymphocytes are key drivers of DILI progression...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Nermeen M Abu-Elala, Huda O AbuBakr, Marwa S Khattab, Samah H Mohamed, Maha A El-Hady, Rehab A Ghandour, Rania E Morsi
Despite the potential antimicrobial and water purification benefits of chitosan-based nanocomposites, there are growing concerns regarding the hazards of leached nanoparticles (NPs) to the in-contact circumference. The antibacterial performance of the nanocomposites of chitosan with silver and copper NPs and carbon nanotubes was assessed with an emphasis on their impact on fish health. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of each preparation and the growth curves of Aeromonas hydrophila exposed to different nanocomposites were measured...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yu Wu, Ze-Yang Ding, Guan-Nan Jin, Yi-Xiao Xiong, Bin Yu, Yi-Min Sun, Wei Wang, Hui-Fang Liang, Bixiang Zhang, Xiao-Ping Chen
Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are a subpopulation of cells which was usually expanded in chronic liver injury and are contributed to liver regeneration through differentiating into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a dynamic process which is important for the progression of liver fibrosis and cancer initiation. This study demonstrated that LE/6 and WB-F344 cells, both of which were HPC derived cell lines, were undergoing partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition states, which was indicated by the co-expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and zona occludin 1), and mesenchymal markers (vimentin, fibronectin, collagen 1and α-SMA)...
March 12, 2018: Biochimie
Minghua Zheng, Jie Jiang, Xiao Zhang, Nan Wang, Kaihang Wang, Qiong Li, Tingting Li, Qingshan Lin, Yingbin Wang, Hai Yu, Ying Gu, Jun Zhang, Shaowei Li, Ningshao Xia
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is associated with acute hepatitis disease. Numerous truncated HEV capsid proteins have been successfully expressed using different expression systems. Among these, p495, a protein truncated at its N- and C-termini by 111 and 54 amino acids (aa), respectively (HEV ORF2 aa 112-606) can self-assemble into T = 1 virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed by insect cells. A shorter p239 (aa 368-606) protein is a particulate antigen that we have previously used in our commercialized HEV vaccine, Hecolin...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
Taylor McLinden, Erica E M Moodie, Anne-Marie Hamelin, Sam Harper, Carmine Rossi, Sharon L Walmsley, Sean B Rourke, Curtis Cooper, Marina B Klein, Joseph Cox
BACKGROUND: Severe food insecurity (FI) is common among individuals living with HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection. We hypothesize that the injection of opioids is partly responsible for the association between injection drug use and severe FI. Therefore, this analysis examines whether methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence is associated with a lower risk of severe FI. METHODS: We used biannual data from the Canadian Co-infection Cohort (N = 608, 2012-2015)...
February 20, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Yasmine Baktash, Anisha Madhav, Kelly E Coller, Glenn Randall
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters hepatocytes via various entry factors, including scavenger receptor BI (SR-B1), cluster of differentiation 81 (CD81), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), claudin-1 (CLDN1), and occludin (OCLN). As CLDN1 and OCLN are not readily accessible due to their tight junctional localization, HCV likely accesses them by either disrupting cellular polarity or migrating to the tight junction. In this study, we image HCV entry into a three-dimensional polarized hepatoma system and reveal that the virus sequentially engages these entry factors through actin-dependent mechanisms...
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
C G Hart, B E Voelz, K E Brockus, C O Lemley
Production from the corpus luteum (CL) and/or hepatic steroid inactivation impacts peripheral concentrations of P4, which can alter reproductive performance. Our primary objective was to examine hepatic steroid inactivating enzymes, portal blood flow, and luteal blood perfusion at 10 days post-insemination in pregnant versus non-pregnant beef and dairy cows. Twenty early lactation Holstein cows and 20 lactating commercial beef cows were utilized for this study. At day 10 post-insemination, hepatic portal blood flow and CL blood perfusion were measured via Doppler ultrasonography...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Carlos Fritzsche, M Loebermann, E C Reisinger
BACKGROUND: Vaccination against hepatitis A virus infection is recommended for men who have sex with men and other risk groups. The protection offered by the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine is comparable to that offered by the monovalent hepatitis A vaccine. CASE: A 38-year-old HIV-positive patient presented with right upper abdominal pain, fever and jaundice. Serological work-up and detection of hepatitis A RNA in stool sample revealed an acute hepatitis A infection despite a previous complete vaccination with the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine...
March 14, 2018: Infection
Ivelise Regina Canito Brasil, Igor Farias de Araujo, Adriana Augusta Lopes de Araujo Lima, Ernesto Lima Araujo Melo, Ronaldo de Matos Esmeraldo
Objective: To describe the main anatomical variations of the celiac trunk and the hepatic artery at their origins. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective analysis of 100 consecutive computed tomography angiography studies of the abdomen performed during a one-year period. The findings were stratified according to classification systems devised by Sureka et al. and Michels. Results: The celiac trunk was "normal" (i.e., the hepatogastrosplenic trunk and superior mesenteric artery originating separately from the abdominal aorta) in 43 patients...
January 2018: Radiologia Brasileira
Bangari Haldipur, Prudhvi Lal Bhukya, Vidya Arankalle, Kavita Lole
Molecular mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease in HEV infection remain unclear. MicroRNAs are known to modulate viral pathogenesis either by directly altering viral gene expression or by enhancing cellular antiviral responses. Given the importance of microRNA-122 (miR-122) in liver pathobiology, we investigated possible role of miR-122 in HEV infection. In silico predictions using genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 HEV sequences showed that majority of genomes (203/222) harbor at least one miR-122/miR-122* target site...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Mary Courtney Moore, David E Kelley, Raul C Camacho, Peter Zafian, Tian Ye, Songnian Lin, Niels C Kaarsholm, Ravi Nargund, Terri M Kelly, Margaret Van Heek, Stephen F Previs, Christopher Moyes, Marta S Smith, Ben Farmer, Phil Williams, Alan D Cherrington
We evaluated the hepatic and nonhepatic responses to glucose-responsive insulin (GRI). Eight dogs received GRI or regular human insulin (HI) in random order. A primed, continuous intravenous infusion of [3-3 H]glucose began at -120 min. Basal sampling (-30 to 0 min) was followed by 2 study periods (150 min each), P1 and P2. At 0 min, somatostatin and GRI (36±3 pmol/kg/min) or HI (1.8 pmol/kg/min) were infused IV; basal glucagon was replaced intraportally. Glucose was infused intravenously to clamp plasma glucose at 80 mg/dL (P1) and 240 mg/dL (P2)...
March 14, 2018: Diabetes
Xingrong Peng, Xia Wang, Long Chen, Han Yang, Lei Li, Shuangyang Lu, Lin Zhou, Minghua Qiu
Ganoderma cochlear, as edible and medicinal fungus, has long been used to prevent and treat various diseases. As our continuously phytochemical investigation of this fungus, a HPLC-UV-guided method led to the isolation of nine previously undescribed aromatic meroterpenoids with different ring systems, including six pairs of racemates, (±)-cochlearins A-E, G (1-5, 7), and three new analogues, cochlearins F, H and I (6, 8, 9). Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic data and MS analyses...
March 11, 2018: Fitoterapia
Francelena de Sousa Silva, Yonna Costa Barbosa, Mônica Araújo Batalha, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa Ribeiro, Vanda Maria Ferreira Simões, Maria Dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho Branco, Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz, Waleska Regina Machado Araújo, Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva
This study estimated the percentages of incomplete immunization with new vaccines and old vaccines and associated factors in children 13 to 35 months of age belonging to a birth cohort in São Luís, the capital of Maranhão State, Brazil. The sample was probabilistic, with 3,076 children born in 2010. Information on vaccination was obtained from the Child's Health Card. The new vaccines, namely those introduced in 2010, were meningococcal C and 10-valent pneumococcal, and the old vaccines, or those already on the childhood immunization schedule, were BCG, hepatitis B, human rotavirus, polio, tetravalent (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae b), yellow fever, and triple viral (measles, mumps, rubella)...
March 12, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Vandana Sekhar, Teresa Pollicino, Giacomo Diaz, Ronald E Engle, Farah Alayli, Marta Melis, Juraj Kabat, Ashley Tice, Anna Pomerenke, Nihal Altan-Bonnet, Fausto Zamboni, Paolo Lusso, Suzanne U Emerson, Patrizia Farci
Entry of hepatitis C virus (HCV) into hepatocytes is a complex process that involves numerous cellular factors, including the scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1), the tetraspanin CD81, and the tight junction (TJ) proteins claudin-1 (CLDN1) and occludin (OCLN). Despite expression of all known HCV-entry factors, in vitro models based on hepatoma cell lines do not fully reproduce the in vivo susceptibility of liver cells to primary HCV isolates, implying the existence of additional host factors which are critical for HCV entry and/or replication...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Li Li, Bing Chen, Hongbin Yan, Yannan Zhao, Zhongzi Lou, Jianqiu Li, Baoquan Fu, Xingquan Zhu, Donald P McManus, Jianwu Dai, Wanzhong Jia
BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte-based metacestode culture is an attractive method to study alveolar echinococcosis (AE), but it is limited by the relatively short lifespan of cultured hepatocytes in maintaining their normal function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe a three-dimensional (3D) hepatic culture system developed from co-cultured hepatocytes and mesenchymal stem cells using a collagen scaffold to study the development of Echinococcus multilocularis larvae...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
An Yong-de, Zhu Wen-Jun, Guo Ya-Min, Han Xiu-Min
Echinococcosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larvae of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multiltilocularis , which mainly violate the liver. And the surgical treatment is an important method to cure the disease at present. However, there are many surgical methods for the treatment of hepatic echinococcosis, and different surgeries with different indications and risks. With the standard of precision surgery and no tumor surgery, the surgical operation is more precise. The innovation of surgical methods makes the operation of curing complex hepatic echinococcosis become true...
February 26, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
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