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Hepatitis E

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149972/right-extended-split-liver-transplantation-compared-with-whole-liver-transplantation-lessons-learned-at-a-single-center-in-latin-america-results-from-a-match-case-control-study
#1
S E Gambaro, P Romero, N Pedraza, L Moulin, S Yantorno, D Ramisch, C Rumbo, P Barros-Schelotto, V Descalzi, G E Gondolesi
BACKGROUND: Despite the progressively increasing gap between patients waiting for liver transplant under the Model for End-stage Liver Disease MELD system and the availability of deceased donor organs, the use of right extended split liver grafts (RESLG) has not been accepted by all centers. In this study, we compared the results obtained using RESLG vs a group of matched whole liver graft (WLG) recipients at a single center in Latin America. METHODS: A single-center retrospective review performed between August 2009 and December 2015...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149205/kir-content-genotypes-associate-with-carriage-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-e-antigen-and-hbv-viral-load-in-gambians
#2
Louis-Marie Yindom, Maimuna Mendy, Christopher Bodimeade, Caroline Chambion, Peter Aka, Hilton C Whittle, Sarah L Rowland-Jones, Robert Walton
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) causes over 800,000 deaths worldwide annually, mainly in low income countries, and incidence is rising rapidly in the developed world with the spread of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses. Natural Killer (NK) cells protect against viral infections and tumours by killing abnormal cells recognised by Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR). Thus genes and haplotypes encoding these receptors may be important in determining both outcome of initial hepatitis infection and subsequent chronic liver disease and tumour formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149046/impact-of-a-single-oral-acute-dose-of-aflatoxin-b%C3%A2-on-liver-function-cytokines-and-the-lymphoproliferative-response-in-c57bl-6-mice
#3
Angélica Tieme Ishikawa, Elisa Yoko Hirooka, Paula Leonello Alvares E Silva, Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro Bracarense, Karina Keller Marques da Costa Flaiban, Claudia Yuri Akagi, Osamu Kawamura, Marcio Carvalho da Costa, Eiko Nakagawa Itano
Aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), a mycotoxin found in food and feed, exerts harmful effects on humans and animals. The liver is the earliest target of AFB₁, and its effects have been evaluated in animal models exposed to acute or chronic doses. Considering the possibility of sporadic ingestion of AFB₁-contaminated food, this study investigated the impact of a single oral dose of AFB₁ on liver function/cytokines and the lymphoproliferative response in mice. C57BL/6 mice were treated with a single oral AFB₁ dose (44, 442 or 663 μg AFB₁/kg of body weight) on the first day...
November 17, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148605/an-overview-rabbit-hepatitis-e-virus-hev-and-rabbit-providing-an-animal-model-for-hev-study
#4
REVIEW
Lin Wang, Lin Liu, Ling Wang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus and the causative agent of hepatitis E. The virus belongs to genus Orthohepevirus in the family Hepeviridae, which contains 4 major genotypes closely relating to humans. Genotypes 1 and 2 only infect humans whereas genotypes 3 and 4 HEV are harbored in a wide range of animal species worldwide and are zoonotic to humans. Recently, a novel animal strain of HEV has been isolated in farmed rabbits in China, and subsequently more strains were discovered in the rabbit populations in at least 7 other countries...
November 17, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146513/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-of-hepatitis-e-infection-in-jordan-population-first-report
#5
Mohammad M Obaidat, Amira A Roess
OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is hyperendemic in many countries, but data on this virus are not available in Jordan. This study determined the seroprevalence, risk factors and zoonotic potential of HEV in a Jordanian population. METHODS: A total of 450 sera samples from 8 different governorates were tested for HEV-IgG. A pre-tested and validated questionnaire was used to collect risk factor data including animal interaction and environmental exposures. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence was 30...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146096/ten-year-review-of-isolated-spontaneous-mesenteric-arterial-dissections
#6
Courtney E Morgan, Neel A Mansukhani, Mark K Eskandari, Heron E Rodriguez
OBJECTIVE: Isolated spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and celiac artery (CA) remains a rare condition; however, it has been increasingly noted incidentally on diagnostic imaging. The purpose of this study was to examine the natural history and outcomes of patients presenting with isolated spontaneous mesenteric artery dissection (SMAD). We hypothesized that most SMADs can be treated nonoperatively. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective review of patients presenting with the diagnosis of SMAD between 2006 and 2016...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145911/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-north-italy-high-seroprevalence-in-swine-herds-and-increased-risk-for-swine-workers
#7
L Mughini-Gras, G Angeloni, C Salata, N Vonesch, W D'Amico, G Campagna, A Natale, F Zuliani, L Ceglie, I Monne, M Vascellari, K Capello, G DI Martino, N Inglese, G Palù, P Tomao, L Bonfanti
We determined the hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence and detection rate in commercial swine herds in Italy's utmost pig-rich area, and assessed HEV seropositivity risk in humans as a function of occupational exposure to pigs, diet, foreign travel, medical history and hunting activities. During 2011-2014, 2700 sera from 300 swine herds were tested for anti-HEV IgG. HEV RNA was searched in 959 faecal pools from HEV-seropositive herds and in liver/bile/muscle samples from 179 pigs from HEV-positive herds. A cohort study of HEV seropositivity in swine workers (n = 149) was also performed using two comparison groups of people unexposed to swine: omnivores (n = 121) and vegetarians/vegans (n = 115)...
November 17, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145578/the-changing-paradigm-of-management-of-liver-abscesses-in-chronic-granulomatous-disease
#8
David M Straughan, Kaitlin C McLoughlin, John E Mullinax, Beatriz E Marciano, Alexandra F Freeman, Victoria L Anderson, Gulbu Uzel, Sa D C Azoury, Rebecca Sorber, Humair S Quadri, Harry L Malech, Suk See DeRavin, Natasha Kamal, Christopher Koh, Christa S Zerbe, Douglas B Kuhns, John I Gallin, Theo Heller, Steven M Holland, Udo Rudloff
Background: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare genetic disorder causing recurrent infections. Over one quarter of patients develop hepatic abscesses and liver dysfunction. Recent reports suggest disease-modifying treatment with corticosteroids is effective for these abscesses. Comparison of corticosteroid therapy to traditional invasive treatments has not been performed. Methods: Records of 268 patients with CGD treated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) from 1980 to 2014 were reviewed...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145453/the-antiviral-drug-tenofovir-an-inhibitor-of-pannexin-1-mediated-atp-release-prevents-liver-and-skin-fibrosis-by-downregulating-adenosine-levels-in-the-liver-and-skin
#9
Jessica L Feig, Aranzazu Mediero, Carmen Corciulo, Hailing Liu, Jin Zhang, Miguel Perez-Aso, Laura Picard, Tuere Wilder, Bruce Cronstein
BACKGROUND: Fibrosing diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and, therefore, there is a need for safe and effective antifibrotic therapies. Adenosine, generated extracellularly by the dephosphorylation of adenine nucleotides, ligates specific receptors which play a critical role in development of hepatic and dermal fibrosis. Results of recent clinical trials indicate that tenofovir, a widely used antiviral agent, reverses hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145204/comparing-the-clinical-features-and-outcomes-of-acute-hepatitis-e-viral-infections-with-those-of-acute-hepatitis-a-b-and-c-infections-in-korea
#10
Hye Won Oh, Ra Ri Cha, Sang Soo Lee, Chang Min Lee, Wan Soo Kim, Yun Won Jo, Jin Joo Kim, Jae Min Lee, Hong Jun Kim, Chang Yoon Ha, Hyun Jin Kim, Tae Hyo Kim, Woon Tae Jung, Ok Jae Lee
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the etiology of acute viral hepatitis and compared the clinical features of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections with those of other acute viral hepatitis infections in Korea. METHODS: This study included 2,357 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with acute hepatitis, based on acute illness with jaundice or elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (>100 IU/L), between January 2007 and January 2016. Acute viral infections were observed in 23 (19...
November 17, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143806/hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#11
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143681/economic-evaluation-of-hcv-testing-approaches-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#12
REVIEW
Jake R Morgan, Maria Servidone, Philippa Easterbrook, Benjamin P Linas
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major public health burden with diverse epidemics worldwide, but at present, only a minority of infected persons have been tested and are aware of their diagnosis. The advent of highly effective direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, which is becoming available at increasingly lower costs in low and middle income countries (LMICs), represents a major opportunity to expand access to testing and treatment. However, there is uncertainty as to the optimal testing approaches and who to prioritize for testing...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143620/optimising-diagnosis-of-viraemic-hepatitis-c-infection-the-development-of-a-target-product-profile
#13
Elena Ivanova Reipold, Philippa Easterbrook, Alessandra Trianni, Nivedha Panneer, Douglas Krakower, Stefano Ongarello, Teri Roberts, Veronica Miller, Claudia Denkinger
BACKGROUND: The current low access to virological testing to confirm chronic viraemic HCV infection in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is limiting the rollout of hepatitis C (HCV) care. Existing tests are complex, costly and require sophisticated laboratory infrastructure. Diagnostic manufacturers need guidance on the optimal characteristics a virological test needs to have to ensure the greatest impact on HCV diagnosis and treatment in LMIC. Our objective was to develop a target product profile (TPP) for diagnosis of HCV viraemia using a global stakeholder consensus-based approach...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143615/diagnostic-accuracy-of-tests-to-detect-hepatitis-c-antibody-a-meta-analysis-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Weiming Tang, Wen Chen, Ali Amini, Debi Boeras, Jane Falconer, Helen Kelly, Rosanna Peeling, Olivia Varsaneux, Joseph D Tucker, Philippa Easterbrook
BACKGROUND: Although direct-acting antivirals can achieve sustained virological response rates greater than 90% in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infected persons, at present the majority of HCV-infected individuals remain undiagnosed and therefore untreated. While there are a wide range of HCV serological tests available, there is a lack of formal assessment of their diagnostic performance. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate he diagnostic accuracy of available rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and laboratory based EIA assays in detecting antibodies to HCV...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143613/who-guidelines-on-testing-for-hepatitis-b-and-c-meeting-targets-for-testing
#15
EDITORIAL
Margaret E Hellard, Roger Chou, Philippa Easterbrook
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143081/generation-in-yeast-and-antigenic-characterization-of-hepatitis-e-virus-capsid-protein-virus-like-particles
#16
Martynas Simanavicius, Paulius Lukas Tamosiunas, Rasa Petraityte-Burneikiene, Reimar Johne, Rainer G Ulrich, Aurelija Zvirbliene, Indre Kucinskaite-Kodze
Hepatitis E is a globally distributed human disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). In Europe, it spreads through undercooked pork meat or other products and with blood components through transfusions. There are no approved or golden standard serologic systems for HEV diagnostics. Commercially available HEV tests often provide inconsistent results which may differ among the assays. In this study, we describe generation in yeast and characterization of HEV genotype 3 (HEV-3) and rat HEV capsid proteins self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) and the development of HEV-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs)...
November 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142421/extract-of-bauhinia-vahlii-shows-antihyperglycemic-activity-reverses-oxidative-stress-and-protects-against-liver-damage-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#17
Ahmed H Elbanna, Mohammed M Nooh, Engy A Mahrous, Amal E Khaleel, Taha S Elalfy
Background: Several studies have affirmed the effectiveness of some Bauhinia plants as antihyperglycemic agents. Objective: We investigated the possible effect of Bauhinia vahlii leaves extract in reducing hyperglycemia and reversing signs of organ damage associated with diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ) rat model. Materials and Methods: Both polar fraction of the B. vahlii leaves (defatted ethanolic extract [DEE]) and nonpolar fraction (n-hexane extract) were evaluated in vitro for α-glucosidase inhibition and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging potential...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142263/hyaluronic-acid-35-normalizes-tlr4-signaling-in-kupffer-cells-from-ethanol-fed-rats-via-regulation-of-microrna291b-and-its-target-tollip
#18
Paramananda Saikia, Sanjoy Roychowdhury, Damien Bellos, Katherine A Pollard, Megan R McMullen, Rebecca L McCullough, Arthur J McCullough, Pierre Gholam, Carol de la Motte, Laura E Nagy
TLR4 signaling in hepatic macrophages is increased after chronic ethanol feeding. Treatment of hepatic macrophages after chronic ethanol feeding with small-specific sized hyaluronic acid 35 (HA35) normalizes TLR4 signaling; however, the mechanisms for HA35 action are not completely understood. Here we used Next Generation Sequencing of microRNAs to identify negative regulators of TLR4 signaling reciprocally modulated by ethanol and HA35 in hepatic macrophages. Eleven microRNAs were up-regulated by ethanol; only 4 microRNAs, including miR291b, were decreased by HA35...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140875/bone-mineral-density-declines-twice-as-quickly-among-hiv-infected-women-compared-to-men
#19
Kristine M Erlandson, Jordan E Lake, Myung Sim, Julian Falutz, Carla M Prado, Ana Rita Domingues da Silva, Todd T Brown, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Initial declines in bone mineral density (BMD) following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV are well described, but data on long-term changes and risk factors for decline, particularly among women, are limited. METHODS: HIV-infected men and women in the Modena Metabolic Clinic underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans every 6-12 months for up to 10 years (median 4.6 years). Mixed effect regression model in combined and sex-stratified models determined annual rates of decline and clinical factors associated with BMD...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140756/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#20
G J Webb, G M Hirschfield, E L Krawitt, M E Gershwin
Autoimmune hepatitis is an uncommon idiopathic syndrome of immunemediated destruction of hepatocytes, typically associated with autoantibodies. The disease etiology is incompletely understood but includes a clear association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants and other non- HLA gene variants, female sex, and the environment. Pathologically, there is a CD4+ T cell-rich lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate with variable hepatocyte necrosis and subsequent hepatic fibrosis. Attempts to understand pathogenesis are informed by several monogenetic syndromes that may include autoimmune liver injury, by several drug and environmental agents that have been identified as triggers in a minority of cases, by human studies that point toward a central role for CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells, and by animal models of the disease...
November 15, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
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