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Cosimo Durante, Giorgio Grani, Livia Lamartina, Sebastiano Filetti, Susan J Mandel, David S Cooper
Importance: Thyroid nodules are common, being detected in up to 65% of the general population. This is likely due to the increased use of diagnostic imaging for purposes unrelated to the thyroid. Most thyroid nodules are benign, clinically insignificant, and safely managed with a surveillance program. The main goal of initial and long-term follow-up is identification of the small subgroup of nodules that harbor a clinically significant cancer (≈10%), cause compressive symptoms (≈5%), or progress to functional disease (≈5%)...
March 6, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Sean D Raj, Rohit Ram, David J Sabbag, Mark A Sultenfuss, Rebecca Matejowsky
OBJECTIVE: Thyroid nodules are prevalent in over half the general population. Several multidisciplinary societies have management recommendations. However, the majority of data to support these guidelines are derived from studies of predominantly younger and female populations. This study's aim was to evaluate characteristics of thyroid nodules in a largely older and male Veteran population and apply these findings prospectively to reduce unnecessary thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA)...
January 6, 2018: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
M U Cinar, D A Schneider, D F Waldron, K I O'Rourke, S N White
Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats, and scrapie eradication programs in many parts of the world rely on strong genetic resistance to classical scrapie in sheep. However, the utility of putative resistance alleles in goats has been a focus of research because goats can transmit scrapie to sheep and may serve as a scrapie reservoir. Prior work showed that disease-free survival time was significantly extended in orally inoculated goats singly heterozygous for prion amino acid substitutions S146 or K222, but average durations were only around 3 years post-inoculation...
March 2018: Veterinary Journal
Frédéric Leroy, Malaika Brengman, Wouter Ryckbosch, Peter Scholliers
The debate on meat's role in health and disease is a rowdy and dissonant one. This study uses the health section of the online version of The Daily Mail as a case study to carry out a quantitative and qualitative reflection on the related discourses in mass media during the first fifteen years of the 21st century. This period ranged from the fall-out of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis and its associated food safety anxieties, over the Atkins diet-craze in 2003 and the avian flu episode in 2007, to the highly influential publication of the report on colon cancer by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2015...
February 24, 2018: Appetite
Andreas E Steinhilber, Felix F Schmidt, Wael Naboulsi, Hannes Planatscher, Alicia Niedzwiecka, Jutta Zagon, Albert Braeuning, Alfonso Lampen, Thomas O Joos, Oliver Poetz
The ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in feed for farmed animals introduced in 2001 was one of the main EU measures to control the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis. Currently, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are the official methods for the detection of illegal PAPs in feed. However, the progressive release of the feed ban, recently with the legalization of non-ruminant PAPs for the use in aquaculture, requires the development of alternative methods to determine the species origin and the source (legal or not)...
February 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Yong-Chan Kim, Byung-Hoon Jeong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Nicholas J Haley, Jürgen A Richt, Kristen A Davenport, Davin M Henderson, Edward A Hoover, Matteo Manca, Byron Caughey, Douglas Marthaler, Jason Bartz, Sabine Gilch
Amplification assays for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies have been in development for close to 15 years, with critical implications for the postmortem and antemortem diagnosis of human and animal prion diseases. Little has been published regarding the structured development, implementation and interpretation of experiments making use of protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) and real time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC), and our goal with this Perspectives manuscript is to offer a framework which might allow for more efficient expansion of pilot studies into diagnostic trials in both human and animal subjects...
February 22, 2018: Prion
Cyrus Bett, Pedro Piccardo, Juraj Cervenak, Juan-Maria Torres, David M Asher, Luisa Gregori
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are infections that are experimentally transmissible to laboratory animals. TSE agents (prions) can be serially passaged in the same animal species. The susceptibility of mice to infection with specific TSE agents can be unpredictable and must be established empirically. We challenged wild-type C57BL/6 and RIIIS/J mice and transgenic mice overexpressing bovine prion protein (TgBo110) with a human brain infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) agent and pooled brains of macaques experimentally infected with human vCJD agent (first-passage macaque vCJD)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Peter Bannerman, Fuzheng Guo, Olga Chechneva, Travis Burns, Xiaoqing Zhu, Yan Wang, Bokyung Kim, Naveen K Singhal, Jennifer A McDonough, David Pleasure
Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy caused by loss-of-function ASPA mutations, is characterized by brain dysmyelination, vacuolation, and astrogliosis ("spongiform leukodystrophy"). ASPA encodes aspartoacylase, an oligodendroglial enzyme that cleaves the abundant brain amino acid N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA) to L-aspartate and acetate. Aspartoacylase deficiency results in a 50% or greater elevation in brain NAA concentration ([NAAB ]). Prior studies showed that homozygous constitutive knockout of Nat8l, the gene encoding the neuronal NAA synthesizing enzyme N-acetyltransferase 8-like, prevents aspartoacylase-deficient mice from developing spongiform leukodystrophy...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Keith Meldrum, Bill Watson
A distinguished vet who became the UK's chief veterinary officer, dealing with issues such as salmonella in eggs and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. His passions were his family and rugby.
February 10, 2018: Veterinary Record
Sebastian Eilebrecht, Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt, Victor Sarachaga, Amelie Burk, Konstantina Falida, Deblina Chakraborty, Ekaterina Nikitina, Claudia Tessmer, Corinna Whitley, Charlotte Sauerland, Karin Gunst, Imke Grewe, Timo Bund
The consumption of bovine milk and meat is considered a risk factor for colon- and breast cancer formation, and milk consumption has also been implicated in an increased risk for developing Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A number of highly related virus-like DNAs have been recently isolated from bovine milk and sera and from a brain sample of a MS patient. As a genetic activity of these Acinetobacter-related bovine milk and meat factors (BMMFs) is unknown in eukaryotes, we analyzed their expression and replication potential in human HEK293TT cells...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Regina Adão, Letícia M Zanphorlin, Tatiani B Lima, Dev Sriranganadane, Käthe M Dahlström, Glaucia M S Pinheiro, Fabio C Gozzo, Leandro R S Barbosa, Carlos H I Ramos
Proteostasis is dependent on the Hsp70/Hsp90 system (the two chaperones and their co-chaperones). Of these, Hop (Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein), also known as Sti1, forms an important scaffold to simultaneously binding to both Hsp70 and Hsp90. Hop/Sti1 has been implicated in several disease states, for instance cancer and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Therefore, human and yeast homologous have been better studied and information on plant homologous is still limited, even though plants are continuously exposed to environmental stress...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Nicholas J Haley, Davin M Henderson, Sarah Wycoff, Joanne Tennant, Edward A Hoover, Dan Love, Ed Kline, Aaron Lehmkuhl, Bruce Thomsen
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) affecting members of the cervid species, and is one of the few TSEs with an expanding geographic range. Diagnostic limitations, efficient transmission, and the movement of infected animals are important contributing factors in the ongoing spread of disease. Managing CWD in affected populations has proven difficult, relying on population reduction in the case of wild deer and elk, or quarantine and depopulation in farmed cervids...
February 9, 2018: Prion
Holger Wille, Jesús R Requena
PrPSc (scrapie isoform of the prion protein) prions are the infectious agent behind diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, chronic wasting disease in cervids (deer, elk, moose, and reindeer), as well as goat and sheep scrapie. PrPSc is an alternatively folded variant of the cellular prion protein, PrPC, which is a regular, GPI-anchored protein that is present on the cell surface of neurons and other cell types. While the structure of PrPC is well studied, the structure of PrPSc resisted high-resolution determination due to its general insolubility and propensity to aggregate...
February 7, 2018: Pathogens
Susan Joiner, Emmanuel A Asante, Jacqueline M Linehan, Lara Brock, Sebastian Brandner, Susan J Bellworthy, Marion M Simmons, James Hope, John Collinge, Jonathan D F Wadsworth
The epizootic prion disease of cattle, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), causes variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans following dietary exposure. While it is assumed that all cases of vCJD attributed to a dietary aetiology are related to cattle BSE, sheep and goats are susceptible to experimental oral challenge with cattle BSE prions and farmed animals in the UK were undoubtedly exposed to BSE-contaminated meat and bone meal during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Although no natural field cases of sheep BSE have been identified, it cannot be excluded that some BSE-infected sheep might have entered the European human food chain...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Chunhua Tang, Changyue Gao
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), also known as corticostriate spinal degeneration, subacute spongiform encephalopathy or infectious spongiform encephalopathy, is a type of degenerative disease of the central nervous system caused by prion protein (PrP) infection, which is the most common type of human PrP disease. CJD is genetic and infectious, and is one of the most common causes of rapid progressive dementia with rare clinical occurrence. Herein, we report the clinical conditions of 2 cases of patients with different type of CJD we treated and followed up recently, and a review of relevant literature...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jie Li, Sarantsetseg Erdenee, Shaoli Zhang, Zhenyu Wei, Meng Zhang, Yunyun Jin, Hui Wu, Hong Chen, Xiuzhu Sun, Hongwei Xu, Yong Cai, Xianyong Lan
Prion protein (PRNP) gene is well known for affecting mammal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), and is also reported to regulate phenotypic traits (e.g. growth traits) in healthy ruminants. To identify the insertion/deletion (indel) variations of the PRNP gene and evaluate their effects on growth traits, 768 healthy individuals from five sheep breeds located in China and Mongolia were identified and analyzed. Herein, four novel indel polymorphisms, namely, Intron-1-insertion-7bp (I1-7bp), Intron-2-insertion-15bp (I2-15bp), Intron-2-insertion-19bp (I2-19bp), and 3' UTR-insertion-7bp (3' UTR-7bp), were found in the sheep PRNP gene...
February 2, 2018: Prion
C R Seed, P E Hewitt, R Y Dodd, F Houston, L Cervenakova
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are untreatable, fatal neurologic diseases affecting mammals. Human disease forms include sporadic, familial and acquired Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). While sporadic CJD (sCJD) has been recognized for near on 100 years, variant CJD (vCJD) was first reported in 1996 and is the result of food-borne transmission of the prion of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, 'mad cow disease'). Currently, 230 vCJD cases have been reported in 12 countries, the majority in the UK (178) and France (27)...
January 22, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
Alessia Franceschini, Rosaria Strammiello, Sabina Capellari, Armin Giese, Piero Parchi
AIMS: To describe the regional profiles of microglial activation in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) subtypes and analyse the influence of prion strain, disease duration and codon 129 genotype. METHODS: We studied the amount/severity and distribution of activated microglia, protease-resistant prion protein (PrPSc ) spongiform change, and astrogliosis in 8 regions of 57 brains representative of the entire spectrum of sCJD subtypes. RESULTS: In each individual subtype, the regional extent and distribution of microgliosis significantly correlated with PrPSc deposition and spongiform change, leading to subtype-specific "lesion profiles"...
January 18, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Robert C C Mercer, Nathalie Daude, Lyudmyla Dorosh, Ze-Lin Fu, Charles E Mays, Hristina Gapeshina, Serene L Wohlgemuth, Claudia Y Acevedo-Morantes, Jing Yang, Neil R Cashman, Michael B Coulthart, Dawn M Pearson, Jeffrey T Joseph, Holger Wille, Jiri G Safar, Gerard H Jansen, Maria Stepanova, Brian D Sykes, David Westaway
To explore pathogenesis in a young Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease (GSS) patient, the corresponding mutation, an eight-residue duplication in the hydrophobic region (HR), was inserted into the wild type mouse PrP gene. Transgenic (Tg) mouse lines expressing this mutation (Tg.HRdup) developed spontaneous neurologic syndromes and brain extracts hastened disease in low-expressor Tg.HRdup mice, suggesting de novo formation of prions. While Tg.HRdup mice exhibited spongiform change, PrP aggregates and the anticipated GSS hallmark of a proteinase K (PK)-resistant 8 kDa fragment deriving from the center of PrP, the LGGLGGYV insertion also imparted alterations in PrP's unstructured N-terminus, resulting in a 16 kDa species following thermolysin exposure...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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