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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441344/collagenous-extracellular-matrix-biomaterials-for-tissue-engineering-lessons-from-the-common-sea-urchin-tissue
#1
REVIEW
Kheng Lim Goh, David F Holmes
Scaffolds for tissue engineering application may be made from a collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues because the ECM can mimic the functions of the target tissue. The primary sources of collagenous ECM material are calf skin and bone. However, these sources are associated with the risk of having bovine spongiform encephalopathy or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Alternative sources for collagenous ECM materials may be derived from livestock, e.g., pigs, and from marine animals, e...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429419/semi-synthesis-of-murine-prion-protein-by-native-chemical-ligation-and-chemical-activation-for-preparation-of-polypeptide-%C3%AE-thioester
#2
Lei Shi, Huai Chen, Si-Yu Zhang, Ting-Ting Chu, Yu-Fen Zhao, Yong-Xiang Chen, Yan-Mei Li
Prions are suspected as pathogen of the fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Strategies to access homogenous prion protein (PrP) are required to fully comprehend the molecular mechanism of prion diseases. However, the polypeptide fragments from PrP show a high tendency to form aggregates, which is a gigantic obstacle of protein synthesis and purification. In this study, murine prion sequence 90 to 230 that is the core three-dimensional structure domain was constructed from three segments murine PrP (mPrP)(90-177), mPrP(178-212), and mPrP(213-230) by combining protein expression, chemical synthesis and chemical ligation...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421568/prions-prionoid-complexes-and-amyloids-the-bad-the-good-and-something-in-between
#3
Iva Hafner Bratkovič
Prions are infectious agents causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in humans and animals. These protein-based particles template conformational changes in a host-encoded prion protein to an insoluble self-like conformation. Prions are also present in yeast, where they support protein-based epigenetic inheritance. There is emerging evidence that prion-like (prionoid) particles can support a variety of pathological and beneficial functions. The recent data on the prionoid spread of other pathological amyloids are discussed in light of differences between prions and prion-like aggregates...
April 19, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421536/lysosomal-quality-control-in-prion-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Priyanka Majumder, Oishee Chakrabarti
Prion diseases are transmissible, familial or sporadic. The prion protein (PrP), a normal cell surface glycoprotein, is ubiquitously expressed throughout the body. While loss of function of PrP does not elicit apparent phenotypes, generation of misfolded forms of the protein or its aberrant metabolic isoforms has been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative disorders such as scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413741/serial-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Ahmed H Qavi, Tasnim F Imran, Zachariah Hasan, Fariha Ilyas, Usman Ghani, Salman Assad, Shabih Hasan
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, degenerative, invariably fatal brain disorder. CJD usually appears in later life and runs a rapid course. Typically, the onset of symptoms occurs about age 60 and about 90% of individuals die within one year. We report a case of 67-year-old male presented with progressive aphasia, confusion, dysphagia and inability to carry out activities of daily life (ADLs) over a period of three to four weeks. The patient had past medical history of chronic atrial fibrillation and hypertension...
March 14, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402718/prions-on-the-run-how-extracellular-vesicles-serve-as-delivery-vehicles-for-self-templating-protein-aggregates
#6
Shu Liu, André Hossinger, Sarah Göbbels, Ina M Vorberg
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are actively secreted, membrane-bound communication vehicles that exchange biomolecules between cells. EVs also serve as dissemination vehicles for pathogens, including prions, proteinaceous infectious agents that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in mammals. Increasing evidence accumulates that diverse protein aggregates associated with common neurodegenerative diseases are packaged into EVs as well. Vesicle-mediated intercellular transmission of protein aggregates can induce aggregation of homotypic proteins in acceptor cells and might thereby contribute to disease progression...
March 4, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402042/mm1-type-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-with-1-month-total-disease-duration-and-early-pathologic-indicators
#7
Yasushi Iwasaki, Hiroko Kato, Tetsuo Ando, Maya Mimuro, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Mari Yoshida
A 62-year-old man presented with abnormal behavior and cognitive impairment. Diffusion-weighted images (DWI) obtained on MRI showed extensive hyperintense regions in the cerebral cortex and striatum. Myoclonus was recognized, and the patient died 1 month after the onset; his condition did not reach the akinetic mutism state. The brain weighed 1300 g and showed no apparent atrophy. Extensive spongiform changes were observed in the cerebral neocortex, striatum, thalamus and cerebellar cortex, but gliosis was mild or absent...
April 12, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393682/new-feed-ingredients-the-insect-opportunity
#8
L W D van Raamsdonk, H J van der Fels-Klerx, J de Jong
In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of 'yes, provided that' its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc...
April 10, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373833/the-biological-function-of-the-prion-protein-a-cell-surface-scaffold-of-signaling-modules
#9
Rafael Linden
The prion glycoprotein (PrP(C)) is mostly located at the cell surface, tethered to the plasma membrane through a glycosyl-phosphatydil inositol (GPI) anchor. Misfolding of PrP(C) is associated with the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), whereas its normal conformer serves as a receptor for oligomers of the β-amyloid peptide, which play a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). PrP(C) is highly expressed in both the nervous and immune systems, as well as in other organs, but its functions are controversial...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372173/species-specific-detection-of-processed-animal-proteins-in-feed-by-raman-spectroscopy
#10
Luisa Mandrile, Giuseppina Amato, Daniela Marchis, Gianmario Martra, Andrea Mario Rossi
The existing European Regulation (EC n° 51/2013) prohibits the use of animals meals in feedstuffs in order to prevent Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy infection and diffusion, however the legislation is rapidly moving towards a partial lifting of the "feed ban" and the competent control organisms are urged to develop suitable analytical methods able to avoid food safety incidents related to animal origin products. The limitations of the official methods (i.e. light microscopy and Polymerase Chain Reaction) suggest exploring new analytic ways to get reliable results in a short time...
August 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358272/evaluation-of-rapid-post-mortem-test-kits-for-bovine-spongiform-encephalopathy-bse-screening-in-japan-their-analytical-sensitivity-to-atypical-bse-prions
#11
Ken'ichi Hagiwara, Yoshifumi Iwamaru, Naoko Tabeta, Takashi Yokoyama, Minoru Tobiume
A classical type of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE), recognized in 1987, had a large impact on public health due to its zoonotic link to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by the human consumption of dietary products contaminated with the C-BSE prion. Thus, a number of countries implemented BSE surveillance using rapid post-mortem test kits that were approved for detection of the C-BSE prion in the cattle brain. However, as atypical BSE (L- and H-BSE) cases emerged in subsequent years, the efficacy of the kits for the detection of atypical BSE prions became a matter of concern...
March 4, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351484/hypocapnic-hypothesis-of-leigh-disease
#12
Ewa Pronicka
Leigh syndrome (LS) is a neurogenetic disorder of children caused by mutations in at least 75 genes which impair mitochondrial bioenergetics. The changes have typical localization in basal ganglia and brainstem, and typical histological picture of spongiform appearance, vascular proliferation and gliosis. ATP deprivation, free radicals and lactate accumulation are suspected to be the causes. Hypocapnic hypothesis proposed in the paper questions the energy deprivation as the mechanism of LS. We assume that the primary harmful factor is hypocapnia (decrease in pCO2) and respiratory alkalosis (increase in pH) due to hyperventilation, permanent or in response to stress...
April 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333986/building-the-road-to-a-regional-zoonoses-strategy-a-survey-of-zoonoses-programmes-in-the-americas
#13
Melody J Maxwell, Mary H Freire de Carvalho, Armando E Hoet, Marco A N Vigilato, Julio C Pompei, Ottorino Cosivi, Victor J Del Rio Vilas
BACKGROUND: In recent years, global public health security has been threatened by zoonotic disease emergence as exemplified by outbreaks of H5N1 and H1N1 influenza, SARS, and most recently Ebola and Zika. Additionally, endemic zoonoses, such as rabies, burden countries year after year, placing demands on limited finances and personnel. To survey the baseline status of the emerging and endemic zoonoses programmes of the Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) conducted a survey of priority emerging and endemic zoonoses, countries´ prioritization criteria and methodologies, and suggestions to strengthen countries capacities and regional approaches to zoonoses control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324664/limited-understanding-of-the-functional-diversity-of-n-linked-glycans-as-a-major-gap-of-prion-biology
#14
Ilia V Baskakov
Among a broad range of hypotheses on the molecular nature of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or scrapie agents discussed in 1960s was a hypothesis of self-replicating polysaccharides. While the studies of the past 40 years provided unambiguous proof that this is not the case, emerging evidence suggests that carbohydrates in the form of sialylated N-linked glycans, which are a constitutive part of mammalian prions or PrP(Sc), are essential in determining prion fate in an organism. The current extra-view article discusses recent advancements on the role of N-linked glycans and specifically their sialylation status in controlling prion fate...
March 4, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294542/pras40-alleviates-neurotoxic-prion-peptide-induced-apoptosis-via-mtor-akt-signaling
#15
Wei Yang, Li-Feng Yang, Zhi-Qi Song, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Yong-Yong Cui, Chao-Si Li, Hua-Fen Zhao, Hong-Li Gao, Xiang-Mei Zhou, De-Ming Zhao
AIMS: The proline-rich Akt substrate of 40-kDa (PRAS40) protein is a direct inhibitor of mTORC1 and an interactive linker between the Akt and mTOR pathways. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is considered to be a central regulator of cell growth and metabolism. Several investigations have demonstrated that abnormal mTOR activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders and lead to cognitive deficits. METHODS: Here, we used the PrP peptide 106-126 (PrP(106-126) ) in a cell model of prion diseases (also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, TSEs) to investigate the mechanisms of mTOR-mediated cell death in prion diseases...
May 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290153/viral-infections-and-obesity
#16
REVIEW
Jameson D Voss, Nikhil V Dhurandhar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a multifactorial disease that is now endemic throughout most of the world. Although addressing proximate causes of obesity (excess energy intake and reduced energy expenditure) have been longstanding global health priorities, the problem has continued to worsen at the global level. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous microbial agents cause obesity in various experimental models-a phenomena known as infectobesity. Several of the same agents alter metabolic function in human cells and are associated with human obesity or metabolic dysfunction in humans...
March 13, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281929/in-vitro-amplification-of-h-type-atypical-bovine-spongiform-encephalopathy-by-protein-misfolding-cyclic-amplification
#17
Matthew J O'Connor, Keith Bishop, Robert G Workman, Ben C Maddison, Kevin C Gough
The in vitro amplification of prions by serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification has been shown to detect PrP(Sc) to levels at least as sensitive as rodent bioassay but in a fraction of the time. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a zoonotic prion disease in cattle and has been shown to occur in 3 distinct forms, classical BSE (C-BSE) and 2 atypical BSE forms (L-BSE and H-BSE). Atypical forms are usually detected in asymptomatic, older cattle and are suggested to be spontaneous forms of the disease. Here, we show the development of a serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification method for the detection of H-BSE...
January 2, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281925/infectious-prions-and-proteinopathies
#18
Rona M Barron
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are caused by an infectious agent that is thought to consist of only misfolded and aggregated prion protein (PrP). Unlike conventional micro-organisms, the agent spreads and propagates by binding to and converting normal host PrP into the abnormal conformer, increasing the infectious titre. Synthetic prions, composed of refolded fibrillar forms of recombinant PrP (rec-PrP) have been generated to address whether PrP aggregates alone are indeed infectious prions...
January 2, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278413/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-surveillance-in-australia-update-to-december-2015
#19
Genevieve M Klug, Alison Boyd, Shannon Sarros, Christiane Stehmann, Marion Simpson, Catriona A McLean, Colin L Masters, Steven J Collins
Nation-wide surveillance of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (also known as prion diseases), the most common being Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, is performed by the Australian National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Registry, based at the University of Melbourne. Prospective surveillance has been undertaken since 1993 and over this dynamic period in transmissible spongiform encephalopathy research and understanding, the unit has evolved and adapted to changes in surveillance practices and requirements concomitant with the delineation of new disease subtypes, improvements in diagnostic capabilities and the overall heightened awareness of prion diseases in the health care setting...
September 30, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276094/pathology-of-toxic-leucoencephalopathy-in-drug-abuse-supports-hypoxic-ischemic-pathophysiology-etiology
#20
Murad Alturkustani, Lee-Cyn Ang, David Ramsay
The histopathological features of leucoencephalopathy caused by illicit drugs (such as opioids and cocaine) are well documented in acute cases but not in long-survival cases. There are several hypotheses about the pathogenesis of this disorder, including hypoperfusion, direct drug toxicity resulting from the neurotoxic effects of the drug itself or contaminants in the illicit drug vehicle. We reviewed the post mortem findings in five males (aged 24 to 56 years, with survival intervals ranging from 7 days to 5 months) with a history of illicit drug use and concomitant fatal white matter changes...
March 9, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
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