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C Fast, W Goldmann, P Berthon, K Tauscher, O Andréoletti, I Lantier, C Rossignol, A Bossers, J G Jacobs, N Hunter, M H Groschup, F Lantier, J P M Langeveld
Breeding towards genetic resistance to prion disease is effective in eliminating scrapie. In sheep, classical forms of scrapie have been eradicated almost completely in several countries by breeding programs using a prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP) amino acid polymorphism. For goats, field and experimental studies have provided evidence for several amino acid polymorphisms that are associated with resistance to scrapie, but only limited data are available concerning the susceptibility of caprine PRNP genotypes to BSE...
September 19, 2017: Veterinary Research
M Aragrande, M Canali
Animal health diseases can severely affect the food supply chain by causing variations in prices and market demand. Price transmission analysis reveals in what ways price variations are transmitted along the supply chain, and how supply chains of substitute products and different regional markets are also affected. In perfect markets, a price variation would be completely and instantaneously transmitted across the different levels of the supply chain: producers, the processing industry, retailers and consumers...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
Hiroyuki Honda, Kensuke Sasaki, Hiroshi Takashima, Daisuke Mori, Sachiko Koyama, Satoshi O Suzuki, Toru Iwaki
Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) is an autosomal, dominantly inherited prion disease. In this study, we present different complicated brain pathologies determined postmortem of monozygotic GSS twin sisters. Case 1 showed cerebellar ataxia at the age of 58 years, and died at 66 years. Case 2 became symptomatic at the age of 75 years, and died at 79 years. There was a 17-year difference in the age of onset between the twins. Postmortem examination revealed numerous prion protein (PrP) plaques in the brains of both cases...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Rosa Bolea, Carlos Hedman, Óscar López-Pérez, Belén Marín, Enríc Vidal, Martí Pumarola, Fabien Corbière, Antonio Romero, Bernardino Moreno, Inmaculada Martín-Burriel, Olivier Andréoletti, Juan José Badiola
Multiple theories exist regarding the origin of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). An early and prominent theory proposed that BSE was the result of the adaptation of sheep scrapie to cattle. The reports to date indicate that the distribution of the pathological prion protein (PrPSc) in experimental bovine scrapie is largely restricted to the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we describe pathological findings in a calf intracerebrally inoculated with a Spanish classical scrapie isolate. While clinical disease was observed 30 months after inoculation and PrPSc was detected in the CNS, the corresponding phenotype differed from that of BSE...
September 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Rukmini Mukherjee, Priyanka Majumder, Oishee Chakrabarti
MGRN1 mediated ubiquitination of α-tubulin regulates microtubule stability and mitotic spindle positioning in mitotic cells. This study elucidates the effect of MGRN1 mediated ubiquitination of α-tubulin in interphase cells. Here, we show that MGRN1 mediated ubiquitination regulates dynamics of EB1 labelled plus ends of microtubules. Intracellular transport of mitochondria and endosomes are affected in cultured cells where functional MGRN1 is depleted. Defects in microtubule-dependent organellar transport are evident in cells where noncanonical K6 mediated ubiquitination of α-tubulin by MGRN1 is compromised...
September 13, 2017: Traffic
Rubén S Rosales, Roberto Puleio, Guido R Loria, Salvatore Catania, Robin A J Nicholas
Mycoplasmas of humans and animals are usually associated with respiratory, autoimmune, genital and joint diseases. Human mycoplasmas have also been known to affect the brain. Severe central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as encephalitis, have been linked to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and ureaplasma infections. Less well known is the sheep and goat pathogen, Mycoplasma agalactiae, which has been found in large quantities in the brain where it may be responsible for non-purulent encephalitis as well as ataxia in young animals...
September 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
Angélique Igel-Egalon, Mohammed Moudjou, Davy Martin, Alexandra Busley, Tina Knäpple, Laetitia Herzog, Fabienne Reine, Nad'a Lepejova, Charles-Adrien Richard, Vincent Béringue, Human Rezaei
Mammalian prions, the pathogens that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, propagate by self-perpetuating the structural information stored in the abnormally folded, aggregated conformer (PrPSc) of the host-encoded prion protein (PrPC). To date, no structural model related to prion assembly organization satisfactorily describes how strain-specified structural information is encoded and by which mechanism this information is transferred to PrPC. To achieve progress on this issue, we correlated the PrPSc quaternary structural transition from three distinct prion strains during unfolding and refolding with their templating activity...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Marlena Gauza-Włodarczyk, Leszek Kubisz, Sławomir Mielcarek, Dariusz Włodarczyk
The increased interest in fish collagen is a consequence of the risk of exposure to Creutzfeld-Jacob disease (CJD) and the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), whose occurrence is associated with prions carried by bovine collagen. Collagen is the main biopolymer in living organisms and the main component of the skin and bones. Until the discovery of the BSE, bovine collagen had been widely used. The BSE epidemic increased the interest in new sources of collagen such as fish skin collagen (FSC) and its properties...
November 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
G M Klug, V Lewis, S J Collins
Across the spectrum of sporadic human prion diseases (also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: TSE), there is considerable phenotypic diversity. Cumulative scientific evidence supports that prions, the infectious agents of prion diseases, are constituted predominantly, if not exclusively, by misfolded, typically protease-resistant, disease-associated isoforms of the prion protein (PrP(res)). Consequently, tissue deposition of PrP(res) is considered a hallmark of prion disease pathology, and this can be visualized by Western blotting after tissue homogenization and treatment with proteinases, particularly proteinase K (PK)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Aileen Boyle, Kris Hogan, Jean C Manson, Abigail B Diack
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) or prion diseases exhibit strain variation, a phenomenon that has been studied extensively in mouse bioassays. Despite the introduction of many rapid in vitro systems, bioassays remain a key tool in defining prion strains and their ability to transmit disease in vivo. Prion strains can be characterized by a range of phenotypic characteristics such as incubation period, vacuolar pathology, and distribution of the abnormal form of PrP following experimental transmission of the agent into a panel of mice (transgenic or wild type)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Julie A Moreno, Glenn C Telling
Prions represent a new paradigm of protein-mediated information transfer. In the case of mammals, prions are the cause of fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative diseases, sometimes referred to as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), which frequently occur as epidemics. An increasing body of evidence indicates that the canonical mechanism of conformational corruption of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) by the pathogenic isoform (PrP(Sc)) that is the basis of prion formation in TSEs is common to a spectrum of proteins associated with various additional human neurodegenerative disorders, including the more common Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Natalia Fernández-Borges, Hasier Eraña, Saioa R Elezgarai, Chafik Harrathi, Vanesa Venegas, Joaquín Castilla
Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of neurodegenerative diseases where the misfolding of the prion protein (PrP) is a crucial event. Based on studies in TSE-affected humans and the generation of transgenic mouse models overexpressing different mutated versions of the PrP, we conclude that both wild-type and mutated PrPs exhibit differential propensity to misfold in vivo. Here, we describe a new method in vitro to assess and quantify the PrP misfolding phenomenon in order to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in this process...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shayne A Bellingham, Andrew F Hill
Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are disorders of the central nervous system that affect both humans and animals. The underlying cause of prion diseases is the formation and propagation of the infectious prion protein. Prion diseases are difficult to diagnose and treat due to a prolonged asymptomatic incubation period prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA species and have been identified as potential biomarkers that also function to regulate disease-specific pathways and proteins in several neurodegenerative disorders, including prion diseases...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Saioa R Elezgarai, Natalia Fernández-Borges, Hasier Eraña, Alejandro M Sevillano, Jorge M Charco, Chafik Harrathi, Paula Saá, David Gil, Qingzhong Kong, Jesús R Requena, Olivier Andréoletti, Joaquín Castilla
Human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that include Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), and fatal familial insomnia. GSS is a genetically determined TSE caused by a range of mutations within the prion protein (PrP) gene. Several animal models, based on the expression of PrPs carrying mutations analogous to human heritable prion diseases, support that mutations might predispose PrP to spontaneously misfold...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Robert Karl Clemens, Frederic Baumann, Marc Husmann, Thomas Oleg Meier, Christoph Thalhammer, Gail MacCallum, Beatrice Ruth Amann-Vesti, Ahmad Ibrahim Alomari
BACKGROUND: Congenital venous malformations are frequently treated with sclerotherapy. Primary treatment goal is to control the often size-related symptoms. Functional impairment and aesthetical aspects as well as satisfaction have rarely been evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical records of patients who underwent sclerotherapy of spongiform venous malformations were reviewed and included in this retrospective study. The outcome of sclerotherapy as self-reported by patients was assessed in a 21 item questionnaire...
August 25, 2017: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
Ivana Biljan, Gregor Ilc, Janez Plavec
Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies constitute a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases that can be of sporadic, genetic, or acquired origin. The central molecular event of prion diseases is the conformational conversion of the physiological cellular prion protein, PrP(C), into a disease-associated form known as prion or PrP(Sc). Spontaneous generation of prions in genetic prion diseases is caused by mutations in the human prion protein gene (PRNP). Understanding of the earliest conformational changes during misfolding of PrP(C) in genetic forms of prion diseases may benefit from detailed structural characterization of various human (Hu) PrP variants...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Edoardo Bistaffa, Martina Rossi, Chiara M G De Luca, Fabio Moda
Prions are the infectious agents that cause devastating and untreatable disorders known as Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs). The pathologic events and the infectious nature of these transmissible agents are not completely understood yet. Due to the difficulties in inactivating prions, working with them requires specific recommendations and precautions. Moreover, with the advent of innovative technologies, such as the Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) and the Real Time Quaking-Induced Conversion (RT-QuIC), prions could be amplified in vitro and the infectious features of the amplified products need to be carefully assessed...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Michele Fiorini, Matilde Bongianni, Salvatore Monaco, Gianluigi Zanusso
Prion disease or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are characterized by the presence of the abnormal form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)). The pathological and transmissible properties of PrP(Sc) are enciphered in its secondary and tertiary structures. Since it's well established that different strains of prions are linked to different conformations of PrP(Sc), biochemical characterization of prions seems a preliminary but reliable approach to detect, analyze, and compare prion strains. Experimental biochemical procedures might be helpful in distinguishing PrP(Sc) physicochemical properties and include resistance to proteinase K (PK) digestion, insolubility in nonionic detergents, PK-resistance under denaturing conditions and sedimentation properties in sucrose gradients...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Fabio Moda
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, are a group of incurable disorders caused by the accumulation of an abnormally folded prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the brain. According to the "protein-only" hypothesis, PrP(Sc) is the infectious agent able to propagate the disease by acting as a template for the conversion of the correctly folded prion protein (PrP(C)) into the pathological isoform. Recently, the mechanism of PrP(C) conversion has been mimicked in vitro using an innovative technique named protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA)...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Jesús R Requena, Holger Wille
The prion diseases, which include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, chronic wasting disease in cervids (i.e., deer, elk, moose, and reindeer), bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, as well as sheep and goat scrapie, are caused by the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into a disease-causing conformer (PrP(Sc)). PrP(C) is a regular, GPI-anchored protein that is expressed on the cell surface of neurons and many other cell types. The structure of PrP(C) is well studied, based on analyses of recombinant PrP, which is thought to mimic the structure of native PrP(C)...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
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