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Alejandro De la Torre-Luque, Maria Balle, Aina Fiol-Veny, Jordi Llabrés, Xavier Bornas
The risk of suffering anxiety disorders is associated with sustained subthreshold symptoms of anxiety. This study evaluated the stability of anxiety scores (high, moderate or low) across a six-month period in early adolescents (N = 95). The associations between sustained anxiety, vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV), sympathetic activity, and heart rate fractal dynamics in everyday life conditions were analyzed. The anxiety scores from 71.50% of participants remained at the same level. The linear correlations between anxiety and cardiac measures were weak but a group-based approach revealed that the fractal dimension (FD) from stable-low anxiety participants was higher than the FD from participants with stable-moderate anxiety scores but not higher than the FD from the stable-high anxiety group...
July 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Neil V Shah, Maximilian Solow, John J Kelly, Alexandr Aylyarov, James P Doran, Lee R Bloom, Samuel Akil, Bilal Siddiqui, Jared M Newman, Dipal Chatterjee, Neel Pancholi, Anant Dixit, Borna Kavousi, Scott E Barbash, William P Urban, David T Neuman
Survey of 869 arthroscopists regarding joint-specific arthroscopic procedures and postoperative rehabilitative preferences revealed comparable support for use of supervised physical therapy (SPT) and home exercise programs (HEPs) but stronger preference for joint-specific HEP applications (wrist, knee). Among respondents utilizing HEPs, modality of delivery (verbal/handout/web-based) didn't differ by joint, yet only 2.9% utilized web-based HEPs. This is the first known study to identify postoperative rehabilitation preferences...
June 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
Charlotte Fiskum, Tonje G Andersen, Xavier Bornas, Per M Aslaksen, Magne A Flaten, Karl Jacobsen
Background: Internalizing psychopathology and dysregulated negative affect are characterized by dysregulation in the autonomic nervous system and reduced heart rate variability (HRV) due to increases in sympathetic activity alongside reduced vagal tone. The neurovisceral system is however, a complex nonlinear system, and nonlinear indices related to psychopathology are so far less studied in children. Essential nonlinear properties of a system can be found in two main domains: the informational domain and the invariant domain...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Shinwan Kany, Johann-Philipp Horstmann, Ramona Sturm, Katharina Mörs, Borna Relja
Objective: Traumatic injury or severe surgery leads to a profound immune response with a diminished functionality of monocytes and subsequently their IL-1 β release. IL-1 β plays an important role in host immunity and protection against infections. Its biological activation via IL-1 β -precursor processing requires the transcription of inflammasome components and their activation. Deregulated activity of NOD-like receptor inflammasomes (NLR) like NLRP3 that leads to the maturation of IL-1 β has been described in various diseases...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Khoschy Schawkat, Henriette Heinrich, Helen L Parker, Borna K Barth, Rishi P Mathew, Dominik Weishaupt, Mark Fox, Caecilia S Reiner
OBJECTIVES: To assess the extents of pelvic floor descent both during the maximal straining phase and the defecation phase in healthy volunteers and in patients with pelvic floor disorders, studied with MR defecography (MRD), and to define specific threshold values for pelvic floor descent during the defecation phase. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-two patients (mean age 51 ± 19.4) with obstructed defecation and 20 healthy volunteers (mean age 33.4 ± 11...
June 1, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Hojjat Borna, Kasim Assadoulahei, Gholamhossein Riazi, Asghar Beigi Harchegani, Alireza Shahriary
Neurodegenrative diseases are among the most widespread life-threatening disorders around the world in elderly ages. The common feature of a group of neurodegenerative disorders, called tauopathies, is accumulation of microtubule associated protein tau inside the neurons. The exact mechanism underlying tauopathies is not well-understood but several factors such as traumatic brain injuries and genetics are considered as potential risk factors. Although tau protein is well-known for its key role in stabilizing and organization of axonal microtubule network, it bears a broad range of functions including DNA protection and participation in signaling pathways...
May 24, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Tomoyuki Honda, Kozue Sofuku, Hidenori Matsunaga, Masaya Tachibana, Ikuko Mohri, Masako Taniike, Keizo Tomonaga
Bornavirus infection is observed in both animals, including humans. However, bornavirus epidemiology in humans, especially in children, remains unclear. Here, we evaluated antibodies against bornaviruses in Japanese children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using immunofluorescence analysis, western blotting, and radio ligand assay. The prevalence of antibodies against bornavirus-specific speckles, N, and P proteins were 22%, 48%, and 33%, respectively, in the ASD children. According to our criteria, the prevalence of antibodies against bornaviruses was 7...
May 22, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Madoka Sakai, Sakiho Ueda, Takuji Daito, Megumi Asada-Utsugi, Yumiko Komatsu, Ayae Kinoshita, Takakuni Maki, Akira Kuzuya, Ryosuke Takahashi, Akiko Makino, Keizo Tomonaga
Accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ40 and Aβ42) in the brain is a characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because neprilysin (NEP) is a major Aβ-degrading enzyme, NEP delivery in the brain is a promising gene therapy for AD. Borna disease virus (BoDV) vector enables long-term transduction of foreign genes in the central nerve system. Here, we evaluated the proteolytic ability of NEP transduced by the BoDV vector and found that the amounts of Aβ40 and Aβ42 significantly decreased, which suggests that NEP expressed from the BoDV vector is functional to degrade Aβ...
May 17, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Aina Fiol-Veny, Alejandro De la Torre-Luque, Maria Balle, Xavier Bornas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diminished heart rate variability has been found to be associated with high anxiety symptomatology. Since adolescence is the period of onset for many anxiety disorders, this study aimed to determine sex- and anxiety-related differences in heart rate variability and complexity in adolescents. METHODS: We created four groups according to sex and anxiety symptomatology: high-anxiety girls (n = 24) and boys (n = 25), and low-anxiety girls (n = 22) and boys (n = 24) and recorded their cardiac function while they performed regular school activities...
May 15, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Katharina Mörs, Shinwan Kany, Jason-Alexander Hörauf, Nils Wagner, Claudia Neunaber, Mario Perl, Ingo Marzi, Borna Relja
AIM: To evaluate protective immunosuppressive dose and time-dependent effects of ethanol in an in vitro model of acute inflammation in human Chang liver cells. METHOD: The study was performed in 2016 and 2017 in the research laboratory of the Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, the University Hospital of the Goethe-University Frankfurt. Chang liver cells were stimulated with either interleukin (IL)-1β or IL-6 and subsequently treated with low-dose ethanol (85 mmol/L) or high-dose ethanol (170 mmol/L) for one hour (acute exposure) or 72 hours (subacute exposure)...
April 30, 2018: Croatian Medical Journal
Borna Relja, Katharina Mörs, Ingo Marzi
This review summarizes a short list of currently discussed trauma-induced danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMP). Due to the bivalent character and often pleiotropic effects of a DAMP, it is difficult to describe its "friend or foe" role in post-traumatic inflammation and regeneration, both systemically as well locally in tissues. DAMP can be used as biomarkers to indicate or monitor disease or injury severity, but also may serve as clinically applicable parameters for better indication and timing of surgery...
May 4, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Ida Delač Marion, Davor Čapeta, Borna Pielic, Fabio Faraguna, Aurelio Gallardo, Pablo Pou, Blanca Biel, Nataša Vujičić, Marko Kralj
MoS<sub>2</sub> monolayer samples were synthesized on SiO<sub>2</sub>/Si wafer and transferred to Ir(111) for nano-scale characterization. Samples were extensively characterized during every step of the transfer process, and MoS<sub>2</sub> on the final substrate examined down to the atomic level by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Conducted procedures yielded high quality monolayer MoS<sub>2</sub> of milimeter-scale size with an average defect density of 2×10<sup>13</sup>/cm<sup>2</sup>...
May 4, 2018: Nanotechnology
Jackson D Blonde, Megan Roussy, Rogelio Luna, Borna Mahmoudian, Roberto A Gulli, Kevin C Barker, Jonathan C Lau, Julio C Martinez-Trujillo
BACKGROUND: Several primate neurophysiology laboratories have adopted acrylic-free, custom-fit cranial implants. These implants are often comprised of titanium or plastic polymers, such as polyether ether ketone (PEEK). Titanium is favored for its mechanical strength and osseointegrative properties whereas PEEK is notable for its lightweight, machinability, and MRI compatibility. Recent titanium/PEEK implants have proven to be effective in minimizing infection and implant failure, thereby prolonging experiments and optimizing the scientific contribution of a single primate...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Massimo S Fiandaca, Mark Mapstone, Amin Mahmoodi, Thomas Gross, Fabio Macciardi, Amrita K Cheema, Kian Merchant-Borna, Jeffrey Bazarian, Howard J Federoff
Past and recent attempts at devising objective biomarkers for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid have focused on abundance measures of time-dependent proteins. Similar independent determinants would be most welcome in diagnosing the most common form of TBI, mild TBI (mTBI), which remains difficult to define and confirm based solely on clinical criteria. There are currently no consensus diagnostic measures that objectively define individuals as having sustained an acute mTBI. Plasma metabolomic analyses have recently evolved to offer an alternative to proteomic analyses, offering an orthogonal diagnostic measure to what is currently available...
2018: PloS One
Milad Azami, Farid Azizi Jalilian, Ali Khorshidi, Younes Mohammadi, Zeinab Tardeh
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric disorder. The role of Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in the etiology of schizophrenia has been suggested by several studies. However, the existence of such association remained controversial. The present meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate this association. METHOD: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA). Online databases including Scopus, PubMed, Science direct, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Google scholar search engine were searched until January 15, 2017...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Sean Callahan, Kavita Pal, Diana Gomez, Mark Stoler, Borna Mehrad
A 52-year-old white woman and her 61-year-old white brother separately presented with gradually worsening dyspnea on exertion and cough, and evidence of interstitial lung disease on chest imaging.
April 2018: Chest
Mahdi Aghili, Sarvazad Sotoudeh, Reza Ghalehtaki, Mohammad Babaei, Borna Farazmand, Mohammad-Sadegh Fazeli, Amir Keshvari, Peiman Haddad, Farshid Farhan
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess complications and outcomes of a new approach, that is, combining short course radiotherapy (SRT), concurrent and consolidative chemotherapies, and delayed surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single arm phase II prospective clinical trial, patients with T3-4 or N+ M0 rectal adenocarcinoma were enrolled. Patients who received induction chemotherapy or previous pelvic radiotherapy were excluded. Study protocol consisted of three-dimensional conformal SRT (25 Gy in 5 fractions in 1 week) with concurrent and consolidation chemotherapies including capecitabine and oxaliplatin...
March 2018: Radiation Oncology Journal
Rafael Serve, Ramona Sturm, Lukas Schimunek, Philipp Störmann, David Heftrig, Michel P J Teuben, Elsie Oppermann, Klemens Horst, Roman Pfeifer, Tim P Simon, Yannik Kalbas, Hans-Christoph Pape, Frank Hildebrand, Ingo Marzi, Borna Relja
Background: Severely injured patients experience substantial immunological stress in the aftermath of traumatic insult, which often results in systemic immune dysregulation. Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a key role in the suppression of the immune response and in the maintenance of immunological homeostasis. Little is known about their presence and dynamics in blood after trauma, and nothing is known about Treg in the porcine polytrauma model. Here, we assessed different subsets of Treg in trauma patients (TP) and compared those to either healthy volunteers (HV) or data from porcine polytrauma...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tamar Gefen, Saman S Ahmadian, Qinwen Mao, Garam Kim, Mustafa Seckin, Borna Bonakdarpour, Eliana Marisa Ramos, Giovanni Coppola, Rosa Rademakers, Emily Rogalski, Alfred Rademaker, Sandra Weintraub, M-Marsel Mesulam, Changiz Geula, Eileen H Bigio
This study investigated the presence of combined pathologies in a large cohort of autopsies that show a primary pathologic diagnosis of phosphorylated 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (FTLD-TDP), the majority of which portrayed clinical phenotypes consistent with primary progressive aphasia or behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Thirty-eight cases with FTLD-TDP (30 type-A and 8 type-C) were identified to determine characteristic differences between cases with and without combined pathologies. Findings indicated that combined pathologies co-occur with FTLD-TDP type-A at a high frequency (50%)-greater than when compared to FTLD-TDP type-C cases (12...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Asghar Beigi Harchegani, Eisa Tahmasbpour, Hojat Borna, Ali Imamy, Mostafa Ghanei, Alireza Shahriary
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical alkylating compound that primary targets lung tissue. It causes a wide variety of pathological effects in respiratory system such as chronic bronchitis, bronchiolitis obliterans, necrosis of the mucosa and inflammation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pulmonary fibrosis. However, molecular and cellular mechanisms for these pathologies are still unclear. Oxidative stress (OS) induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is likely a significant mechanism by which SM leads to cell death and tissues injury...
April 16, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
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