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Lab science

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First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Olivia Susanto is the first author on 'LPP3 mediates self-generation of chemotactic LPA gradients by melanoma cells', published in Journal of Cell Science. Olivia is a postdoctoral researcher in the lab of Prof. Robert Insall at the Beaton Institute in Glasgow, UK, where she focuses on imaging live cell interactions and cell migration both in vivo and in vitro, in cell biology and immunology...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Marta Gładysz, Małgorzata Król, Paweł Kościelniak
The main challenge for the identification and differentiation of lipsticks for forensic purposes is the fact that they have a similar chemical composition - in particular, samples of the same hue. The objective of the presented research was to solve this problem using a nondestructive analytical technique - attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (ATR). 38 red lipsticks produced by 20 different manufacturers were examined in optimized experimental conditions. To facilitate discrimination and provide more extensive analyses of the obtained data, two chemometric techniques: principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used...
October 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
Paolo Soffientini, Angela Bachi
Proteomics is nowadays a standard tool in life sciences for the analysis of protein abundance, modifications and interactions but has so far failed to enter the clinic for routine applications. New generation mass spectrometers and chromatographic systems are able to cover approximately an entire cell proteome in one run but sample preparation, in terms of time and sample recovery, is still a critical step. Here we describe a modification of the in-gel digestion method, called STAGE-diging, that reduces sample handling, decreases the analysis time and improves protein identification and quantification...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nicole L Garneau, Tiffany M Nuessle, Robin M Tucker, Mengjie Yao, Stephanie A Santorico, Richard D Mattes
Dietary fats serve multiple essential roles in human health but may also contribute to acute and chronic health complications. Thus, understanding mechanisms that influence fat ingestion are critical. All sensory systems may contribute relevant cues to fat detection, with the most recent evidence supporting a role for the sense of taste. Taste detection thresholds for fat vary markedly between individuals and responses are not normally distributed; genetics may contribute to these observations. Using crowdsourced data obtained from families visiting the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, our objective was to estimate the heritability of fat taste (oleogustus)...
August 29, 2017: Chemical Senses
Sara B Algoe, Laura E Kurtz, Karen Grewen
In this research, we tested hypotheses about the role of oxytocin in adult human bonding. Inspired by revisiting the research on pair bonding in microtine voles that fueled psychologists' interest in the role of oxytocin in social life, we drew on recent theory from affective and relationship science to identify a well-defined bonding context for human romantic relationships. We then paired these behaviors and subjective psychological responses with a measure of naturally circulating oxytocin. In 129 romantically involved adults whose partner expressed gratitude to them in the lab, greater oxytocin over the prior 24 hr was associated with greater perceptions of the expresser's responsiveness and gratitude, as well as greater experienced love, but not general affective reward...
September 1, 2017: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
Originally from Iaşi, Romania, Dana received her bachelor's degree in pharmaceutical sciences and a master's degree in molecular and cellular biology from Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan. For her PhD, she joined the lab of Takemi Enomoto to work on DNA replication and recombination in yeast. After a short postdoc with Kunihiro Ohta at the RIKEN laboratory in Wako, Dana took a position as a staff scientist with Marco Foiani at the Institute of Molecular Oncology Foundation (IFOM) in Milan, Italy. There, she became a junior group leader in 2008 and tenured principal investigator in 2013...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Yi-Wen Xu is the first author on 'Maternal DCAF2 is crucial for maintenance of genome stability during the first cell cycle in mice', published in Journal of Cell Science. Yi-Wen is a PhD student in the lab of Heng-Yu Fan at the Life Sciences Institute, Zhejiang University, China, investigating the mechanisms of mammalian germ cell development and disease models relating to the female reproductive system...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Jinhang Hu is the first author on 'CCR2 3'UTR functions as a competing endogenous RNA to inhibit breast cancer metastasis', published in Journal of Cell Science. Jinhang conducted the work in this article in Tao Xi's lab at China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China. She is now a research associate with Zhishu Tang at the Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine in Xian Yang, China, investigating the bioactive constituents and anti-tumour mechanisms of the active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Brandy Hyndman and Mathieu Crupi are co-first authors on 'Differential recruitment of E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes regulates RET isoform internalization', published in Journal of Cell Science. Brandy is a Research Associate and Mathieu is a PhD student, both in the lab of Dr Lois Mulligan at the Queen's University Cancer Research Institute in Kingston, ON, Canada, investigating the ubiquitylation and trafficking of RET receptor tyrosine kinase isoforms...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Itsuo Hanasaki, Jens H Walther
It is well known that translocation events of a polymer or rod through pores or narrower parts of micro- and nanochannels have a stochastic nature due to the Brownian motion. However, it is not clear whether the objects of interest need to have a larger size than the entrance to exhibit the deviation from the dynamics of the surrounding fluid. We show by numerical analysis that the particle injection into the narrower part of the channel is affected by thermal fluctuation, where the particles have spherical symmetry and are smaller than the height of the constriction...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
Aidan Maartens
George Daley is Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, Professor of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, and Caroline Shields Walker Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. A former Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and President of the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) from 2007-2008, his lab works on the biology and clinical application of stem cells, with a particular focus on hematopoiesis. He was awarded the Public Service Award at the ISSCR 2017 meeting in Boston, where we caught up with him to discuss his move from the lab to the clinic and back again, his quest to derive human hematopoietic stem cells in vitro, and his advocacy for science in uncertain political times...
September 15, 2017: Development
Hye Kyung Jin, Jae Hee Choi, Ji Eun Kang, Sandy Jeong Rhie
Communication skills in pharmacy education and practice are increasingly regarded as a crucial component. However, thus far, estimating of the overall communication skills training (CST) effects in a variety of outcomes is lacking. The aim of this study was to synthesize the effects of CST in pharmacy education by performing a meta-analysis of CST studies. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Communication and Mass Media Complete (CMMC), key journals, and bibliographic databases...
September 16, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
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First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Chaitali Khan is the first author on 'The initiator caspase Dronc plays a non-apoptotic role in promoting DNA damage signalling in D. melanogaster', published in Journal of Cell Science. Chaitali is a PhD student in the lab of Basuthkar J. Rao at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India, investigating the principles of tissue homeostasis in the context of DNA damage, cell death and cellular signalling...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Zhi-Heng Yuan, Yan-Mei Zhao
A class of 24-32 nt PIWI-binding small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) termed as PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have been identified in animal germline. Recent studies suggest that piRNA/PIWI pathway plays a critical role in both silencing of transposons and posttranscriptional regulation of mRNAs in animal germline. A study from Dr. Mofang Liu's lab in Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, reveals the physiological and pathological importance of PIWI metabolism (mouse PIWI as known as MIWI; human PIWI as HIWI) in mammalian spermatogenesis...
August 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
(no author information available yet)
When John Schiller first joined Douglas Lowy's lab at the National Cancer Institute of the NIH, he could have not predicted that their common interest in the molecular biology of oncogenes would set them in path for discoveries that ultimately enabled the development of a vaccine for the human papillomavirus, which causes the majority of cervical cancers worldwide. John and Doug, the recipients of the 2017 Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Award, have joined Cell editor João Monteiro in a Conversation about science, public health, and the joys and challenges of being basic scientists in a translational space...
September 21, 2017: Cell
Toshio Matsushima, J Richard Lister, Ken Matsushima, Evandro de Oliveira, Erdener Timurkaynak, David A Peace, Shigeaki Kobayashi
The work performed in Dr. Rhoton's Lab, represented by over 500 publications on microneurosurgical anatomy, greatly contributed to improving the level of neurosurgical treatment throughout the world. The authors reviewed the development and activities of the Lab over 40 years. Dr. Albert L. Rhoton Jr., the founder of, and leader in, this field, displayed great creativity and ingenuity during his life. He devoted himself to perfecting his study methodology, employing high-definition photos and slides to enhance the quality of his published papers...
September 6, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
Macarena Parra, Jimmy Jung, Travis D Boone, Luan Tran, Elizabeth A Blaber, Mark Brown, Matthew Chin, Tori Chinn, Jacob Cohen, Robert Doebler, Dzung Hoang, Elizabeth Hyde, Matthew Lera, Louie T Luzod, Mark Mallinson, Oana Marcu, Youssef Mohamedaly, Antonio J Ricco, Kathleen Rubins, Gregory D Sgarlato, Rafael O Talavera, Peter Tong, Eddie Uribe, Jeffrey Williams, Diana Wu, Rukhsana Yousuf, Charles S Richey, Julie Schonfeld, Eduardo A C Almeida
The International Space Station (ISS) National Laboratory is dedicated to studying the effects of space on life and physical systems, and to developing new science and technologies for space exploration. A key aspect of achieving these goals is to operate the ISS National Lab more like an Earth-based laboratory, conducting complex end-to-end experimentation, not limited to simple microgravity exposure. Towards that end NASA developed a novel suite of molecular biology laboratory tools, reagents, and methods, named WetLab-2, uniquely designed to operate in microgravity, and to process biological samples for real-time gene expression analysis on-orbit...
2017: PloS One
Guanghao Rui, Yanbao Ma, Bing Gu, Qiwen Zhan, Yiping Cui
Manipulation of nanoparticles in solution is of great importance for a wide range of applications in biomedical, environmental, and material sciences. In this work, we present a novel plasmonic tweezers based on metahologram. We show that various kinds of nanoparticles can be stably trapped in a surface plasmon (SP) standing wave generated by the constructive interference between two coherent focusing SPs. The absence of the axial scattering force and the enhanced gradient force enable to avoid overheating effect while maintaining mechanical stability even under the resonant condition of the metallic nanoparticle...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gol Mohammad Mojarrad Moghanloo, Maryam Khatami, Amin Javidanbardan, Seyed Nezamedin Hosseini
In biopharmaceutical science, ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) is a well-known purification technique to separate the impurities such as host cell proteins from recombinant proteins. However, IEC is one of the limiting steps in the purification process of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (rHBsAg), due to its low recovery rate (<50%). In the current study, we hypothesized that ionic strengths of IEC buffers are easy-to-control parameters which can play a major role in optimizing the process and increasing the recovery...
January 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Helen R Saibil
Helen Saibil is Bernal Professor of Structural Biology at Birkbeck, University of London. After undergraduate work at McGill University, Canada, Helen moved to London for her PhD at Kings College. After stints at CEA Grenoble and the University of Oxford, she moved to Birkbeck where her lab studies the operation of macromolecular machinery-including molecular chaperones, protein folding/misfolding, and host cell interactions with pathogens. Helen is a Fellow of the Royal Society, Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences, and an Honorary Member of both the British Biophysical Society and the Royal Microscopical Society...
August 31, 2017: BMC Biology
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