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Lab science

Minghui Yan, Bing-Hua Wang, Xiaofen Xu, Peng Chang, Feng Hang, Zhengjun Wu, Chunping You, Zhenmin Liu
Family GH70 glucansucrases (GSs) catalyze the synthesis of α-glucans from sucrose, a reaction widely seen in lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These enzymes have been implicated in many aspects of the microbial life. Products of GSs have great commercial value as food supplements and medical materials, therefore these enzymes have attracted much attention from both fields of science and industry. However, certain issues concerning the origin and evolution of GS are still to be addressed, although an increasing number of GH70 enzymes have been characterized...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jun Qu
Jun Qu speaks to Sankeetha Nadarajah, Editor of Bioanalysis: Jun Qu is the group leader of the proteomics and pharmaceutical analysis lab of SUNY-Buffalo (NY, USA) and a Professor in the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences. His research is focused on the study of Clinical and Pharmaceutical Proteomics and Pharmaceutical Analysis using LC-MS-based strategies. His research programs include high-resolution and large-scale expression profiling of pathological proteomes, for the discovery of novel disease/therapeutics biomarkers using gel-free proteomic methods; sensitive identification, localization and quantification of post-translational modifications in tissue proteomes such as these in myocardium, using novel anti-PTM affinity capture and alternating Collision-induced dissociation/Electron transfer dissociation to obtain abundant PTM information; targeted investigation of marker proteins that are of high interests for clinical and pharmaceutical study, using highly sensitive nano-LC/SRM-based methods; and highly sensitive and accurate investigation of the PK of biotherapeutics using LC-MS...
February 16, 2018: Bioanalysis
Denise J Montell
Today's political climate can seem hostile to science. Alternative facts, climate change denial, and relabeling of actual news as fake news are discouraging phenomena for sure. But these trends make it more important than ever to engage our politicians. Take heart! There is something you can do. You can show your representatives firsthand the amazing things you do, evidence of the economic engine that your activities generate, and the real people behind the discoveries. I did, and it was fun. We invited our congressman to the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), and he accepted! For 2 hours, we explained and demonstrated efforts to cure blindness using stem cells, the medical implications of the discovery that cells can recover from the brink of death, a mosquito lab striving to eliminate insect-borne disease, and an Alzheimer's disease laboratory...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Diana E Kornbrot, Richard Wiseman, George J Georgiou
The quality of psychological studies is currently a major concern. The Many Labs Project (MLP) and the Open-Science-Collaboration (OSC) have collected key data on replicability and statistical effect sizes. We build on this work by investigating the role played by three measurement types: ratings, proportions and unbounded (measures without conceptual upper limits, e.g. time). Both replicability and effect sizes are dependent on the amount of variability due to extraneous factors. We predicted that the role of such extraneous factors might depend on measurement type, and would be greatest for ratings, intermediate for proportions and least for unbounded...
2018: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Guillaume Hatte is the first author on 'Tight junctions negatively regulate mechanical forces applied to adherens junctions in vertebrate epithelial tissue', published in Journal of Cell Science. Guillaume completed his PhD in the lab of Claude Prigent at CNRS UMR 6290 and Université de Rennes 1, Rennes, France, where he investigated the involvement of tight junctions during epithelial cell cytokinesis in a vertebrate model...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Shaker El-Sappagh, Daehan Kwak, Farman Ali, Kyung-Sup Kwak
BACKGROUND: Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex problem. A clinical decision support system (CDSS) based on massive and distributed electronic health record data can facilitate the automation of this process and enhance its accuracy. The most important component of any CDSS is its knowledge base. This knowledge base can be formulated using ontologies. The formal description logic of ontology supports the inference of hidden knowledge. Building a complete, coherent, consistent, interoperable, and sharable ontology is a challenge...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
André Kouabosso, Christian Diamant Mossoro-Kpinde, Ralph-Sydney Mboumba Bouassa, Jean De Dieu Longo, Marcel Mbeko Simaleko, Gérard Grésenguet, Laurent Bélec
BACKGROUND: The accuracy of CD4 T cell monitoring by the recently developed flow cytometry-based CD4 T cell counting Muse™ Auto CD4/CD4% Assay analyzer (EMD Millipore Corporation, Merck Life Sciences, KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) was evaluated in trained lay providers against laboratory technicians. METHODS: After 2 days of training on the Muse™ Auto CD4/CD4% analyzer, EDTA-blood samples from 6 HIV-positive and 4 HIV-negative individuals were used for CD4 T cell counting in triplicate in parallel by 12 trained lay providers as compared to 10 lab technicians...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Minhaj Sirajuddin
Minhaj Sirajuddin talks to Francesca Lake, Head of Open Access Publishing. Minhaj Sirajuddin is currently an Assistant Investigator at the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine (InStem), Bangalore, India. His lab works on understanding biological motility mediated by cytoskeleton elements using biophysics and cell biology. Previously his tenures were at UCSF (CA, USA) for his postdoctoral work and the Max Planck Institute (Dortmund, Germany) for his PhD. Minhaj is a recipient of Wellcome Trust - DBT India Alliance Intermediate Fellowship and the EMBO Young Investigator Award...
February 2018: Future Science OA
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Yoko Ito is the first author on 'The Golgi entry core compartment functions as a COPII-independent scaffold for ER-to-Golgi transport in plant cells', published in Journal of Cell Science. Yoko is a postdoctoral researcher in the Live Cell Super-Resolution Imaging Research Team in the lab of Akihiko Nakano at the RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, Wako, Saitama, Japan...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Klaus Herburger is the first author on 'Localisation and substrate specificities of transglycanases in charophyte algae relate to development and morphology', published in Journal of Cell Science. Klaus is a position in the lab of Professor Stephen Fry at University of Edinburgh, UK, investigating enzymatic remodelling of polysaccharides in plant cell walls...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Andrew J S McGonigle, Thomas C Wilkes, Tom D Pering, Jon R Willmott, Joseph M Cook, Forrest M Mims, Alfio V Parisi
Smartphones are playing an increasing role in the sciences, owing to the ubiquitous proliferation of these devices, their relatively low cost, increasing processing power and their suitability for integrated data acquisition and processing in a 'lab in a phone' capacity. There is furthermore the potential to deploy these units as nodes within Internet of Things architectures, enabling massive networked data capture. Hitherto, considerable attention has been focused on imaging applications of these devices. However, within just the last few years, another possibility has emerged: to use smartphones as a means of capturing spectra, mostly by coupling various classes of fore-optics to these units with data capture achieved using the smartphone camera...
January 14, 2018: Sensors
Azar Shokri, Majid Saeedi, Mahdi Fakhar, Katayoun Morteza-Semnani, Masoud Keighobadi, Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi, Hamid Reza Kelidari, Siamak Sadjadi
Background: The aim of present study was to evaluate antileishmanial effects of Lavandula angustifolia (L. angustifolia) and Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) medicinal plants essential oils and nano-emulsions on Leishmania major (L. major). Methods: The present study was performed in Leishmaniasis Reference Lab at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran during 2016-2017. The IC50 values were calculated in both the promastigote and amastigote stages in J774 macrophage in comparison with meglumine antimoniate (MA) as positive control...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Wendy Y Wang, Amrita Srivathsan, Maosheng Foo, Seiki Yamane, Rudolf Meier
Biologists frequently sort specimen-rich samples to species. This process is daunting when based on morphology, and disadvantageous if performed using molecular methods that destroy vouchers (e.g., metabarcoding). An alternative is barcoding every specimen in a bulk sample and then presorting the specimens using DNA barcodes, thus mitigating downstream morphological work on presorted units. Such a "reverse workflow" is too expensive using Sanger sequencing, but we here demonstrate that is feasible with an NGS barcoding pipeline that allows for cost-effective high throughput generation of short specimen-specific barcodes (313 bp of COI; lab cost <$0...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Avinash Persaud is the first author on 'Dynamin inhibitors block activation of mTORC1 by amino acids independently of dynamin', published in Journal of Cell Science. Avinash is a research associate in the lab of Daniela Rotin at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada, investigating mTORC1 signaling and the function of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
S Helene Richter
The scientific literature is full of articles discussing poor reproducibility of findings from animal experiments as well as failures to translate results from preclinical animal studies to clinical trials in humans. Critics even go so far as to talk about a "reproducibility crisis" in the life sciences, a novel headword that increasingly finds its way into numerous high-impact journals. Viewed from a cynical perspective, Fett's law of the lab "Never replicate a successful experiment" has thus taken on a completely new meaning...
August 31, 2017: Lab Animal
Olivia Campana, Donald Wlodkowic
Biological and environmental sciences are, more than ever, becoming highly dependent on technological and multidisciplinary approaches that warrant advanced analytical capabilities. Microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip technologies are perhaps one the most groundbreaking offshoots of bioengineering, enabling design of an entirely new generation of bioanalytical instrumentation. They represent a unique approach to combine micro-scale engineering and physics with specific biological questions, providing technological advances that allow for fundamentally new capabilities in the spatio-temporal analysis of molecules, cells, tissues and even small metazoan organisms...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Caixia Jin, Haibin Tian, Jiao Li, Song Jia, Siguang Li, Guo-Tong Xu, Lei Xu, Lixia Lu
Stem cells are cells that can self-renew and differentiate into a variety of cell types under certain conditions. Stem cells have great potential in regenerative medicine and cell therapy for the treatment of certain diseases. To deliver knowledge about this frontier in science and technology to medical undergraduate students, we designed an innovative practical experiment for freshmen in their second semester. The lab exercise focused on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) isolation, cell culture and differentiation, and it aimed to help students master the aseptic techniques for cell culture, the basic methods and procedures for the primary culture and passage of BMSCs, the basic procedure for the directional differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes and their subsequent identification by oil-red-O staining...
December 23, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Julian Perelman, Ricardo Rosado, Adriana Ferro, Pedro Aguiar
Poor engagement into HIV care limits the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) to improve survival and reduce transmission. The design of effective interventions to enhance linkage to care is dependent on evidence about rates of entry into HIV care. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis on linkage measurement and its determinants in the late era of HAART (post-2003), in high-income countries. We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases, restricting our sample to the late HAART era (post-2003) until February 2016, and to high-income countries...
December 19, 2017: AIDS Care
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Brian Jenkins is the first author on 'Effects of mutating α-tubulin lysine 40 on sensory dendrite development', published in Journal of Cell Science. Brian conducted the research in this article while a post-doc in the lab of Jill Wildonger at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI. He is now at the Jungers Center for Neurosciences Research, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, where his research interests include visualizing all things related to how cells transport RNA, proteins and organelles throughout the cell...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Zhen Zhang and Yen Wei Lim are joint first authors on 'ImaEdge - a platform for quantitative analysis of the spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical proteins during cell polarization', published in Journal of Cell Science. Zhen Zhang is a PhD student in the lab of Pakorn Kanchanawong at the National University of Singapore, developing novel and robust computational tools to analyse microscopic images and videos...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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