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hypertrophy strength

Alex S Ribeiro, Brad J Schoenfeld, Steven J Fleck, Fábio L C Pina, Matheus A Nascimento, Edilson S Cyrino
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT) performed in a pyramid (PR) versus a traditional (TD) system on muscular strength, muscle mass, and hormonal responses in older women. Twenty-five older women (67.6 ± 5.1 years, 65.9 ± 11.1 kg, 154.7 ± 5.8 cm, and 27.5 ± 4.5 kg m) performed both a TD and PR system RT program in a balanced crossover design. The TD program consisted of 3 sets of 8-12 RM with a constant load for the 3 sets, whereas the PR system consisted of 3 sets of 12/10/8 RM with incrementally higher loads for each set...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
David J Tennent, Christina M Hylden, Anthony E Johnson, Travis C Burns, Jason M Wilken, Johnny G Owens
INTRODUCTION: Quadriceps strength after arthroscopic knee procedures is frequently diminished several years postoperation. Blood flow restriction (BFR) training uses partial venous occlusion while performing submaximal exercise to induce muscle hypertrophy and strength improvements. The purpose of this study was to evaluate BFR as a postoperative therapeutic intervention after knee arthroscopy. METHODS: A randomized controlled pilot study comparing physical therapy with and without BFR after knee arthroscopy was conducted...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
L Giangregorio, R El-Kotob
A fracture occurs when the applied load is greater than the bone can withstand. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of osteoporosis include recommendations for exercise; one of the few therapies where the proposed anti-fracture mechanisms that include effects on both bone strength and applied loads, where applied loads can come in the form of a fall, externally applied loads, body weight, or muscle forces. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the clinical evidence pertaining to the potential efficacy of exercise for preventing fractures in older adults, including its direct effects on outcomes along the causal pathway to fractures (e...
October 13, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Wilson Nadruz, Dalane Kitzman, Beverly Gwen Windham, Anna Kucharska-Newton, Kenneth Butler, Priya Palta, Michael E Griswold, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Gerardo Heiss, Scott D Solomon, Hicham Skali, Amil M Shah
BACKGROUND: The contribution of cardiovascular dysfunction to frailty in older adults is uncertain. This study aimed to define the relationship between frailty and cardiovascular structure and function, and determine whether these associations are independent of coexisting abnormalities in other organ systems. METHODS: We studied 3,991 older adults (mean age 75.6±5.0 years; 59% female) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in whom the following six organ systems were uniformly assessed: cardiac (by echocardiography), vascular (by ankle-brachial-index and pulse-wave-velocity), pulmonary (by spirometry), renal (by estimated glomerular filtration rate), hematologic (by hemoglobin), and adipose (by body mass index and bioimpedance)...
October 12, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Cláudia Maria de Felício, Franciele Voltarelli da Silva Dias, Gislaine Aparecida Folha, Leila Azevedo de Almeida, Jaqueline Freitas de Souza, Wilma Terezinha Anselmo-Lima, Luciana Vitaliano Voi Trawitzki, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira Valera
OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were (1) to identify possible differences in muscular and orofacial functions between children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and with primary snoring (PS); (2) to examine the standardized difference between normal values of myofunctional scores and those of subjects with OSA or PS; and (3) to identify the features associated with OSA. METHODS: Participants were 39 children (mean age 8 ± 1.2 years) of which, 27 had a diagnosis of OSA and 12 had PS...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Samuel L Buckner, Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Jeremy P Loenneke
In this paper we revisit a topic originally discussed in 1955, namely the lack of direct evidence that muscle hypertrophy from exercise plays an important role in increasing strength. To this day, long-term adaptations in strength are thought to be primarily contingent on changes in muscle size. Given this assumption, there has been considerable attention placed on programs designed to allow for maximization of both muscle size and strength. However, the conclusion that a change in muscle size affects a change in strength is surprisingly based on little evidence...
October 7, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Scott J Dankel, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Samuel L Buckner, Jeremy P Loenneke
Studies examining resistance training are of importance given that increasing or maintaining muscle mass aids in the prevention or attenuation of chronic disease. Within the literature, it is common practice to administer a set number of target repetitions to be completed by all individuals (i.e. 3 sets of 10) while setting the load relative to each individual's predetermined strength level (usually a one-repetition maximum). This is done under the assumption that all individuals are receiving a similar stimulus upon completing the protocol, but this does not take into account individual variability with regard to how fatiguing the protocol actually is...
September 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
Paulo Gentil, James Fisher, James Steele
Resistance exercises can be considered to be multi-joint (MJ) or single-joint (SJ) in nature. Many strength coaches, trainers, and trainees believe that adding SJ exercises to a resistance training (RT) program may be required to optimize muscular size and strength. However, given that lack of time is a frequently cited barrier to exercise adoption, the time commitment resulting from these recommendations may not be convenient for many people. Therefore, it is important to find strategies that reduce the time commitment without negatively affecting results...
September 27, 2016: Sports Medicine
S Tsitkanou, K Spengos, A-N Stasinaki, N Zaras, G Bogdanis, G Papadimas, G Terzis
Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week)...
September 23, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Rajiv Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) is associated with greater target organ damage such as left ventricular hypertrophy, increased arterial stiffness and albuminuria. Whether MUCH independently associates with greater cardiovascular end-organ damage or kidney damage is unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the strength of the relationship of MUCH (awake ambulatory blood pressure ≥135/85 mmHg and clinic blood pressure <140/90 mmHg) with target organ damage...
September 20, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Jamie Douglas, Simon Pearson, Angus Ross, Mike McGuigan
BACKGROUND: Resistance training is an integral component of physical preparation for athletes. A growing body of evidence indicates that eccentric strength training methods induce novel stimuli for neuromuscular adaptations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effects of eccentric training in comparison to concentric-only or traditional (i.e. constrained by concentric strength) resistance training. METHODS: Searches were performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE via EBSCO, PubMed and SPORTDiscus via EBSCO...
September 19, 2016: Sports Medicine
James J Tufano, Jenny A Conlon, Sophia Nimphius, Lee E Brown, Harry G Banyard, Bryce D Williamson, Leslie G Bishop, Amanda J Hopper, G Gregory Haff
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of intra-set rest frequency and training load on muscle time under tension, external work, and external mechanical power output during back squat protocols with similar changes in velocity. METHODS: Twelve strength-trained men (26.0±4.2 y; 83.1±8.8 kg; 1.75±0.06 m; 1.88 ± 0.19 1RM:body mass) performed three sets of twelve back squats using three different set structures: traditional sets with 60% 1RM (TS), cluster sets of four with 75% 1RM (CS4), and cluster sets of two with 80% 1RM (CS2)...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Christian Than, Danijel Tosovic, Laura Seidl, J Mark Brown
PURPOSE: To determine whether mechanomyographic (MMG) determined contractile properties of the biceps brachii change during exercise-induced hypertrophy and subsequent disuse atrophy. METHODS: Healthy subjects (mean ± SD, 23.7 ± 2.6 years, BMI 21.8 ± 2.4, n = 19) performed unilateral biceps curls (9 sets × 12 repetitions, 5 sessions per week) for 8 weeks (hypertrophic phase) before ceasing exercise (atrophic phase) for the following 8 weeks (non-dominant limb; treatment, dominant limb; control)...
September 10, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Simon D Burley, Jayde Whittingham-Dowd, Jeremy Allen, Jean-Francois Grosset, Gladys L Onambele-Pearson
Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), myogenic index and differentiation) and catabolic processes (cortisol)...
2016: PloS One
Francesco Giannini, Matteo Montorfano, Vittorio Romano, Neil Ruparelia, Richard J Jabbour, Susanna Benincasa, Azeem Latib, Antonio Colombo
Valve embolization during transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a rare but potentially fatal complication of first generation transcatheter valves. As a result, second generation valves were designed to be fully retrievable and minimize this complication. We report a first case of embolization with a second-generation fully-retrievable and repositionable Lotus valve. In this case, the presence of severe left ventricular hypertrophy and a sigmoid septum may have contributed to prosthesis embolization with the initial 23mm Lotus valve...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Vernon G Coffey, John A Hawley
Specificity is a core principle of exercise training to promote the desired adaptations for maximising athletic performance. The principle of specificity of adaptation is underpinned by the volume, intensity, frequency and mode of contractile activity and is most evident when contrasting the divergent phenotypes that result after undertaking either prolonged endurance or resistance training. The molecular profiles that generate the adaptive response to different exercise modes have undergone intense scientific scrutiny...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Physiology
P Platen
The striated skeletal muscles consist of different myocytes that have different metabolic and contractile characteristics. They react in a specific way to difference training stimuli: adaptations as a result of endurance training trigger an increase in mitochondria and lead to an intensified oxidative metabolism. Adaptations as a result of strength training result in increased protein biosynthesis and hypertrophy of the skeletal myocytes. About 50 % of the adaptation associated with endurance training are due to genetic factors...
August 2016: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
Sandeep Mukherjee, Lindsey Cherry, Jalaa Zarroug, David Culliford, Catherine Bowen, Nigel Arden, Christopher Edwards
BACKGROUND: The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of US-detectable forefoot bursae, metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint synovial hypertrophy (SH), Power Doppler (PD) signal or erosion in participants with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A secondary aim was to determine the strength of potential association between patient reported foot-related disability and US-detected forefoot bursae, MTP joint SH, PD signal or erosion in participants with SLE...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
G Nicholson, T Ispoglou, A Bissas
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the acute and chronic training responses to strength-, hypertrophy- and cluster-type resistance training. METHODS: Thirty-four trained males were assigned to a strength [STR: 4 × 6 repetitions, 85 % of one repetition maximum, (1RM), 900 s total rest], hypertrophy (HYP: 5 × 10 repetitions, 70 % 1RM, 360 s total rest), cluster 1 (CL-1: 4 × 6/1 repetitions, 85 % 1RM, 1400 s total rest), and cluster 2 (CL-2: 4 × 6/1 repetitions, 90 % 1RM, 1400 s total rest) regimens which were performed twice weekly for a 6-week period...
October 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Mark A South, Andrew S Layne, Charles A Stuart, N Travis Triplett, Michael Ramsey, Mary E Howell, William A Sands, Satoshi Mizuguchi, W Guy Hornsby, Ashley A Kavanaugh, Michael H Stone
South, MA, Layne, AS, Stuart, CA, Triplett, NT, Ramsey, MW, Howell, ME, Sands, WA, Mizuguchi, S, Hornsby, WG, Kavanaugh, AA, and Stone, MH. Effects of short-term free-weight and semiblock periodization resistance training on metabolic syndrome. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2682-2696, 2016-The effects of short-term resistance training on performance and health variables associated with prolonged sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome (MS) were investigated. Resistance training may alter a number of health-related, physiological, and performance variables...
October 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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