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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934291/emotional-metacontrol-of-attention-top-down-modulation-of-sensorimotor-processes-in-a-robotic-visual-search-task
#1
Marwen Belkaid, Nicolas Cuperlier, Philippe Gaussier
Emotions play a significant role in internal regulatory processes. In this paper, we advocate four key ideas. First, novelty detection can be grounded in the sensorimotor experience and allow higher order appraisal. Second, cognitive processes, such as those involved in self-assessment, influence emotional states by eliciting affects like boredom and frustration. Third, emotional processes such as those triggered by self-assessment influence attentional processes. Last, close emotion-cognition interactions implement an efficient feedback loop for the purpose of top-down behavior regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933874/wisdom-bias-and-balance-toward-a-process-sensitive-measurement-of-wisdom-related-cognition
#2
Justin P Brienza, Franki Y H Kung, Henri C Santos, D Ramona Bobocel, Igor Grossmann
Philosophers and behavioral scientists refer to wisdom as unbiased reasoning that guides one toward a balance of interests and promotes a good life. However, major instruments developed to test wisdom appear biased, and it is unclear whether they capture balance-related tendencies. We examined whether shifting from global, de-contextualized reports to state-level reports about concrete situations provides a less biased method to assess wise reasoning (e.g., intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty and change, consideration of the broader context at hand and perspectives of others, integration of these perspectives or compromise), which may be aligned with the notion of balancing interests...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933068/functional-neuroimaging-in-obesity-research
#3
Liliana Letra, Daniela Pereira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Functional neuroimaging is beginning to yield valuable insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of the effects of obesity on neural circuits. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have been used to identify aberrant activation patterns in regions implicated in reward (e.g., striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, insula), emotion and memory (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus), sensory and motor processing (e...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933047/the-right-touch-stroking-of-ct-innervated-skin-promotes-vocal-emotion-processing
#4
Annett Schirmer, Thomas C Gunter
Research has revealed a special mechanoreceptor, called C-tactile (CT) afferent, that is situated in hairy skin and that seems relevant for the processing of social touch. We pursued a possible role of this receptor in the perception of other social signals such as a person's voice. Participants completed three sessions in which they heard surprised and neutral vocal and nonvocal sounds and detected rare sound repetitions. In a given session, participants received no touch or soft brushstrokes to the arm (CT innervated) or palm (CT free)...
September 20, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933023/to-whistleblow-or-not-to-whistleblow-affective-and-cognitive-differences-in-reporting-peers-and-advisors
#5
Tristan McIntosh, Cory Higgs, Megan Turner, Paul Partlow, Logan Steele, Alexandra E MacDougall, Shane Connelly, Michael D Mumford
Traditional whistleblowing theories have purported that whistleblowers engage in a rational process in determining whether or not to blow the whistle on misconduct. However, stressors inherent to whistleblowing often impede rational thinking and act as a barrier to effective whistleblowing. The negative impact of these stressors on whistleblowing may be made worse depending on who engages in the misconduct: a peer or advisor. In the present study, participants are presented with an ethical scenario where either a peer or advisor engages in misconduct, and positive and the negative consequences of whistleblowing are either directed to the wrongdoer, department, or university...
September 20, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931662/-i-have-lost-in-every-facet-of-my-life-the-hidden-burden-of-severe-asthma
#6
Juliet M Foster, Vanessa M McDonald, Michael Guo, Helen K Reddel
People with severe asthma are thought to face a sizeable daily disease burden. This study aimed to explore the little-known life experiences of people living with severe asthma.Adults with severe asthma were invited for telephone interview. Semistructured interviews were conducted until no new themes emerged. The 25 interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically.Four themes emerged. 1) "The body as a hindrance": severe asthma placed broad limits on life from daily chores to career, relationships and family life that left interviewees feeling emotionally distressed...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930709/responding-to-moral-distress-and-ethical-concerns-at-the-intersection-of-medical-illness-and-unmet-mental-health-needs
#7
Donna D McKlindon, Pamela Nathanson, Chris Feudtner
Some of the most difficult clinical ethics consultations involve patients who have both medical and mental health needs, as these cases can result in considerable moral distress on the part of the bedside staff. In this article we examine the issues that such consults raise through the illustrative example of a particular case: several years ago our ethics consultation service received a request from a critical care attending physician who was considering a rarely performed psychosurgical intervention to address intractable and life-threatening agitation and aggression in an adolescent patient for whom standard treatments had proven unsuccessful...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930704/holding-ashley-x-bestowing-identity-through-caregiving-in-profound-intellectual-disability
#8
Lisa Freitag, Joan Liaschenko
The controversy over the so-called Ashley Treatment (AT), a series of medical procedures that inhibited both growth and sexual development in the body of a profoundly intellectually impaired girl, usually centers either on Ashley's rights, including a right to an intact, unaltered body, or on Ashley's parents' rights to make decisions for her. The claim made by her parents, that the procedure would improve their ability to care for her, is often dismissed as inappropriate or, at best, irrelevant. We argue, however, that caregiving is a central issue in the controversy, as Ashley's need for caregiving is a defining characteristic of her life...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929013/constructing-three-emotion-knowledge-tests-from-the-invariant-measurement-approach
#9
Ana R Delgado, Gerardo Prieto, Debora I Burin
BACKGROUND: Psychological constructionist models like the Conceptual Act Theory (CAT) postulate that complex states such as emotions are composed of basic psychological ingredients that are more clearly respected by the brain than basic emotions. The objective of this study was the construction and initial validation of Emotion Knowledge measures from the CAT frame by means of an invariant measurement approach, the Rasch Model (RM). Psychological distance theory was used to inform item generation...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928096/burnout-is-associated-with-changes-in-error-and-feedback-processing
#10
Patrick D Gajewski, Sylvia Boden, Gabriele Freude, Guy G Potter, Michael Falkenstein
Burnout is a pattern of complaints in individuals with emotionally demanding jobs that is often seen as a precursor of depression. One often reported symptom of burnout is cognitive decline. To analyze cognitive control and to differentiate between subclinical burnout and mild-to-moderate depression a double-blinded study was conducted that investigates changes in the processing of performance errors and feedback in a task switching paradigm. Fifty-one of 76 employees from emotionally demanding jobs showed a sufficient number of errors to be included in the analysis...
September 16, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927655/preferential-processing-of-task-irrelevant-beloved-related-information-and-task-performance-two-event-related-potential-studies
#11
Sandra J E Langeslag, Jan W van Strien
People who are in love have better attention for beloved-related information, but report having trouble focusing on other tasks, such as (home)work. So, romantic love can both improve and hurt cognition. Emotional information is preferentially processed, which improves task performance when the information is task-relevant, but hurts task performance when it is task-irrelevant. Because beloved-related information is highly emotional, the effects of romantic love on cognition may resemble these effects of emotion on cognition...
September 16, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927319/angular-versus-curved-shapes-correspondences-and-emotional-processing
#12
Olesya Blazhenkova, Melisa Maya Kumar
The present work aimed to systematically examine sensory and higher level correspondences to angular and curved shapes. Participants matched angular and curved abstract shapes to sensory experiences in five different modalities as well as to emotion, gender, and name attributes presented as written labels (Study 1) and real experiences (Study 2). The results demonstrated nonarbitrary mapping of angular and curved shapes to attributes from all basic sensory modalities (vision, audition, gustation, olfaction, and tactation) and higher level attributes (emotion, gender, and name)...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926147/do-universal-school-based-mental-health-promotion-programmes-improve-the-mental-health-and-emotional-well-being-of-young-people-a-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
C A O'connor, J Dyson, F Cowdell, R Watson
AIM: To examine evidence-using a range of outcomes- for the effectiveness of school-based mental health and emotional well-being programmes. BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 20% of young people experience mental health difficulties every year. Schools have been identified as an appropriate setting for providing mental health and emotional well-being promotion prompting the need to determine whether current school-based programmes are effective in improving the mental health and emotional well-being of young people...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925026/characterizing-community-courts
#14
Tali Gal, Hadar Dancig-Rosenberg
Community courts (CCs) provide a therapeutic diversion for repeat low-level offenders. This article explores the characteristics of two Israeli CCs using the Criminal Law Taxonomy (CLT), an instrument developed by the authors for assessing process-, stakeholder-, substance-, and outcomes-related characteristics of criminal justice mechanisms. Through court-hearing observations and a process of multi-rater coding of cases, the article analyzes the courtroom dynamics according to a set of 13 measurable parameters...
September 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923160/applying-the-neurodynamics-of-emotional-circular-causalities-in-psychosocial-and-cognitive-therapy-using-multi-sensory-environments-an-orbde-case-study-analysis
#15
Janice Ryan
This exploratory, evidence-based practice research study focuses on presenting a plausible mesoscopic brain dynamics hypothesis for the benefits of treating clients with psychosocial and cognitive challenges using a mindful therapeutic approach and multi-sensory environments. After an extensive neuroscientific review of the therapeutic benefits of mindfulness, a multi-sensory environment is presented as a window of therapeutic opportunity to more quickly and efficiently facilitate the neurobiological experience of becoming more mindful or conscious of self and environment...
October 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923154/activity-during-learning-and-the-nonlinear-differentiation-of-experience
#16
Yuri I Alexandrov, Andrei K Krylov, Karina R Arutyunova
Walter Freeman's work emphasises the role of individual activity and intentionality as opposed to the traditional stimulus-reaction view and the machine metaphor. The results of our computer modeling studies suggest the nonlinear dynamics of experience emerging from perception-action cycles. We consider the perception-action cycle as a behavioral continuum of anticipated outcomes of actions. Neuroscientific research shows that each behavioral act is based on the activity of behaviorally specialized neurons distributed across the brain...
October 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923032/big-hearts-small-hands-a-focus-group-study-exploring-parental-food-portion-behaviours
#17
Kristina Curtis, Louise Atkins, Katherine Brown
BACKGROUND: The development of healthy food portion sizes among families is deemed critical to childhood weight management; yet little is known about the interacting factors influencing parents' portion control behaviours. This study aimed to use two synergistic theoretical models of behaviour: the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation - Behaviour) and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify a broad spectrum of theoretically derived influences on parents' portion control behaviours including examination of affective and habitual influences often excluded from prevailing theories of behaviour change...
September 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922993/an-exploratory-tms-study-on-prefrontal-lateralization-in-valence-categorization-of-facial-expressions
#18
Chiara Ferrari, Lucile Gamond, Marcello Gallucci, Tomaso Vecchi, Zaira Cattaneo
Converging neuroimaging and patient data suggest that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in emotional processing. However, it is still not clear whether the DLPFC in the left and right hemisphere is differentially involved in emotion recognition depending on the emotion considered. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to shed light on the possible causal role of the left and right DLPFC in encoding valence of positive and negative emotional facial expressions. Participants were required to indicate whether a series of faces displayed a positive or negative expression, while TMS was delivered over the right DLPFC, the left DLPFC, and a control site (vertex)...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922947/timely-access-to-inpatient-rehabilitation-after-stroke-a-qualitative-study-of-perceived-barriers-and-potential-solutions-in-ontario-canada
#19
Matthew J Meyer, Robert Teasell, Linda Kelloway, Samantha B Meyer, Deborah Willems, Christina O'Callaghan
PURPOSE: Stroke units have been established as best practice care, in part because they offer timely initiation of rehabilitation. Experts in Ontario, Canada recommend that eligible patients be transferred to inpatient rehabilitation (on average) by day 5 after ischemic stroke and day 7 after a hemorrhagic stroke. This study explores perceived barriers to implementation of these recommendations and potential solutions. METHOD: Exploratory focus groups were held with stakeholders from five geographically diverse regions across Ontario between September 2011 and January 2012...
September 18, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922392/facial-thermal-variations-a-new-marker-of-emotional-arousal
#20
Vladimir Kosonogov, Lucas De Zorzi, Jacques Honoré, Eduardo S Martínez-Velázquez, Jean-Louis Nandrino, José M Martinez-Selva, Henrique Sequeira
Functional infrared thermal imaging (fITI) is considered a promising method to measure emotional autonomic responses through facial cutaneous thermal variations. However, the facial thermal response to emotions still needs to be investigated within the framework of the dimensional approach to emotions. The main aim of this study was to assess how the facial thermal variations index the emotional arousal and valence dimensions of visual stimuli. Twenty-four participants were presented with three groups of standardized emotional pictures (unpleasant, neutral and pleasant) from the International Affective Picture System...
2017: PloS One
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