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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786892/association-between-initial-age-of-exposure-to-childhood-abuse-and-cognitive-control-preliminary-evidence
#1
Kristen L Mackiewicz Seghete, Anne P DePrince, Marie T Banich
Cognitive control, which relies on the protracted development of frontal-parietal regions into adolescence, is a brain process that may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of childhood abuse. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine associations between the age of onset of childhood abuse and alterations to the neural mechanisms supporting cognitive control in early adulthood, which have not been previously examined. During fMRI scanning, participants completed hybrid block/event-related versions of a classic color-word Stroop task as well as emotional Stroop tasks (threat and positive words)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786067/disrupting-reconsolidation-memory-erasure-or-blunting-of-emotional-motivational-value
#2
Elizabeth S Cogan, Mark A Shapses, Terry E Robinson, Natalie C Tronson
When memories are retrieved they become labile, and subject to alteration by a process known as reconsolidation. Disruption of memory reconsolidation decreases the performance of learned responses, which is often attributed to erasure of the memory; in the case of Pavlovian learning, to a loss of the association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). However, an alternative interpretation is that disrupting reconsolidation does not erase memories, but blunts their emotional/motivational impact...
May 3, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785838/learning-and-processing-abstract-words-and-concepts-insights-from-typical-and-atypical-development
#3
Gabriella Vigliocco, Marta Ponari, Courtenay Norbury
The paper describes two plausible hypotheses concerning the learning of abstract words and concepts. According to a first hypothesis, children would learn abstract words by extracting co-occurrences among words in linguistic input, using, for example, mechanisms as described by models of Distributional Semantics. According to a second hypothesis, children would exploit the fact that abstract words tend to have more emotional associations than concrete words to infer that they refer to internal/mental states...
May 21, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785719/children-s-experiences-and-expectations-of-kidney-transplantation-a-qualitative-interview-study
#4
Rachael C Walker, Derisha Naicker, Tonya Kara, Suetonia C Palmer
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Kidney transplantation offers improved quality of life and life expectancy compared with dialysis for children. This study aims to understand the experiences and expectations of children during the kidney transplantation process to inform clinical care. STUDY DESIGN: Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We interviewed 13 children and adolescents aged between 7 and 17 years old in New Zealand who had received a kidney transplantation...
May 21, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785110/prefrontoparietal-dysfunction-during-emotion-regulation-in-anxiety-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#5
Hai-Yang Wang, Xiao-Xia Zhang, Cui-Ping Si, Yang Xu, Qian Liu, He-Tao Bian, Bing-Wei Zhang, Xue-Lin Li, Zhong-Rui Yan
Objective: Impairments in emotion regulation, and more specifically in cognitive reappraisal, are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. However, the available evidence on such deficits is inconsistent. To further illustrate the neurobiological underpinnings of anxiety disorder, the present meta-analysis summarizes functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings for cognitive reappraisal tasks and investigates related brain areas. Methods: We performed a comprehensive series of meta-analyses of cognitive reappraisal fMRI studies contrasting patients with anxiety disorder with healthy control (HC) subjects, employing an anisotropic effect-size signed differential mapping approach...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785065/relation-between-coping-and-posttrauma-cognitions-on-ptsd-in-a-combat-trauma-population
#6
Christina M Sheerin, Nadia Chowdhury, Mackenzie J Lind, Erin D Kurtz, Lance M Rappaport, Erin C Berenz, Ruth C Brown, Treven Pickett, Scott D McDonald, Carla Kmett Danielson, Ananda B Amstadter
Individual differences in cognitive processes and coping behaviors play a role in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given the large numbers of combat-exposed service members returning from the Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) conflicts, exploring individual differences in cognitive-affective processes is important for informing our understanding of PTSD etiology and early intervention in military samples. The present study examined the unique main and interactive effects of negative posttrauma cognitions (i...
2018: Military Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783240/-effect-of-preventive-treatment-on-cognitive-performance-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Maria S Shorobura
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: cognitive, emotional and psychopathological changes play a significant role in the clinical picture of multiple sclerosis and influence the effectiveness of drug therapy, working capacity, quality of life, and the process of rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis. The aim: investigate the changes in cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis, such as information processing speed and working memory of patients before and after treatment with immunomodulating drug...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783216/-complex-of-psycho-hygienic-correction-measures-of-personality-features-of-hiv-infected-men-and-evaluation-of-their-efficiency
#8
Ihor V Serheta, Oksana B Dudarenko, Olha P Mostova, Tetiana V Lobastova, Vitalii M Andriichuk, Larysa M Vakolyuk, Olha M Yakubovska
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: In addition to adequate diagnosis and treatment of HIV-infected individuals, development, scientific substantiation and implementation of psycho-hygienic measures aimed at correcting the processes of forming personality traits and improving the psycho-emotional state of HIV-infected individuals are of particular importance. The aim: The purpose of the scientific research was to determine the most significant changes of situational and personal anxiety indicators, the degree of gravity of the asthenic state and depressive manifestations that were recorded in the context of the introduction of a number of measures for psycho-hygienic correction...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782379/the-dysfunction-of-processing-emotional-faces-in-schizophrenia-revealed-by-expression-related-visual-mismatch-negativity
#9
Guimei Yin, Shenglin She, Lun Zhao, Yingjun Zheng
To investigate the emotional face processing in patients with schizophrenia, the preattentive automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with schizophrenia was compared with that of age-matched healthy control group as indexed by the expressional mismatch negativity (EMMN) elicited by facial expressions. Compared with neutral faces as standard stimuli, deviant emotional faces elicited posterior EMMN between 150 and 500 ms after stimuli onset, with larger amplitudes for sad than happy deviant faces...
May 18, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782325/early-emotional-attention-is-impacted-in-alzheimer-s-disease-an-eye-tracking-study
#10
Jessica Bourgin, Nathalie Guyader, Alan Chauvin, Alexandra Juphard, Mathilde Sauvée, Olivier Moreaud, Laetitia Silvert, Pascal Hot
Emotional deficits have been repetitively reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) without clearly identifying how emotional processing is impaired in this pathology. This paper describes an investigation of early emotional processing, as measured by the effects of emotional visual stimuli on a saccadic task involving both pro (PS) and anti (AS) saccades. Sixteen patients with AD and 25 age-matched healthy controls were eye-tracked while they had to quickly move their gaze toward a positive, negative, or neutral image presented on a computer screen (in the PS condition) or away from the image (in the AS condition)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782074/supporting-women-at-the-time-of-abortion-a-mixed-methods-study-of-male-partner-experiences-and-perspectives
#11
Brian T Nguyen, Luciana E Hebert, Sara L Newton, Melissa L Gilliam
CONTEXT: Although men are commonly viewed as unaware, uninvolved and even obstructive regarding their partner's abortion access, those who accompany women to an abortion appointment may be more supportive. A better understanding of men's motivations could inform clinic policies regarding their involvement. METHODS: In 2015-2016, data were collected from male partners of women seeking an abortion at two clinics in a large Midwestern city. Twenty-nine interviews were conducted to explore how men wanted to be involved in the abortion and why they accompanied their partners...
May 21, 2018: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781980/disclosure-coaching-an-ask-tell-ask-model-to-support-clinicians-in-disclosure-conversations
#12
Jo Shapiro, Lynne Robins, Pamela Galowitz, Thomas H Gallagher, Sigall Bell
Error disclosure is a high-stakes, emotionally charged interaction for patients and families as well as clinicians. A failed disclosure can result in emotional distress, reduced patient and family trust, litigation, and lost opportunities to learn from and prevent subsequent errors. However, many clinicians have little expertise in handling these challenging interactions and can inadvertently make a bad situation worse. Even those clinicians who have had formal disclosure training may have trouble remembering what they were taught when faced with the need to actually discuss an error with patients...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781888/neurophysiological-response-to-olfactory-stimuli-in-combat-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#13
Jeffrey S Bedwell, Corey J Bohil, Mark B Neider, Michael A Gramlich, Sandra M Neer, John P OʼDonnell, Deborah C Beidel
There is a need for a better understanding of underlying pathology in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to develop more effective treatments. The late positive potential (LPP) amplitude from electroencephalogram has been used to assess individual differences in emotional reactivity. There is evidence that olfaction is particularly important in emotional processing in PTSD. The current study examined LPP amplitudes in response to olfactory stimuli in 24 combat veterans with PTSD and 24 nonmilitary/non-PTSD controls...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781660/the-development-and-validation-of-the-physical-appearance-comparison-scale-3-pacs-3
#14
Lauren M Schaefer, J Kevin Thompson
Appearance comparison processes are implicated in the development of body-image disturbance and disordered eating. The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R) assesses the simple frequency of appearance comparisons; however, research has suggested that other aspects of appearance comparisons (e.g., comparison direction) may moderate the association between comparisons and their negative outcomes. In the current study, the PACS-R was revised to examine aspects of comparisons with relevance to body-image and eating outcomes...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781634/household-chaos-and-family-sleep-during-infants-first-year
#15
Corey J Whitesell, Brian Crosby, Thomas F Anders, Douglas M Teti
Household chaos has been linked with dysregulated family and individual processes. The present study investigated linkages between household chaos and infant and parent sleep, a self-regulated process impacted by individual, social, and environmental factors. Studies of relations between household chaos and child sleep have focused on older children and teenagers, with little attention given to infants or parent sleep. This study examines these relationships using objective measures of household chaos and sleep while controlling for, respectively, maternal emotional availability at bedtime and martial adjustment, in infant and parent sleep...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781632/ethnicity-moderates-the-benefits-of-perceived-support-and-emotional-expressivity-on-stress-reactivity-for-asian-americans-and-euro-americans
#16
Shu-Wen Wang, Anna S Lau
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether ethnicity moderated the benefits of perceived support and emotion expressivity on stress responses (cortisol, negative mood, task performance) during a lab stress task for Asian Americans and Euro Americans. We hypothesized that perceived support and emotion expressivity would be less beneficial for Asian Americans (relative to Euro Americans), for whom support seeking and emotional expressivity are less aligned with cultural values. METHOD: A majority female sample (72%) of 83 Asian American (first generation, n = 30; second generation, n = 53) and 50 Euro American college students completed the Trier Social Stress Test...
May 21, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781382/the-effects-of-social-anxiety-on-emotional-face-discrimination-and-its-modulation-by-mouth-salience
#17
Andrew R du Rocher, Alan D Pickering
People high in social anxiety experience fear of social situations due to the likelihood of social evaluation. Whereas happy faces are generally processed very quickly, this effect is impaired by high social anxiety. Mouth regions are implicated during emotional face processing, therefore differences in mouth salience might affect how social anxiety relates to emotional face discrimination. We designed an emotional facial expression recognition task to reveal how varying levels of sub-clinical social anxiety (measured by questionnaire) related to the discrimination of happy and fearful faces, and of happy and angry faces...
May 21, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781173/discourse-and-cognition-in-speakers-with-acquired-brain-injury-abi-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Elizabeth Hill, Mary Claessen, Anne Whitworth, Mark Boyes, Roslyn Ward
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment, particularly of executive functioning, has been implicated in deficits in spoken discourse production following acquired brain injury (ABI). However, due to variation in the methodologies and heterogeneity of findings across studies, the nature and extent of this association is not well understood. AIMS: This review aims to synthesize the literature investigating associations between cognitive deficits and discourse impairment after ABI...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780340/regulating-emotional-responses-to-climate-change-a-construal-level-perspective
#19
Emma Ejelöv, André Hansla, Magnus Bergquist, Andreas Nilsson
This experimental study ( N = 139) examines the role of emotions in climate change risk communication. Drawing on Construal Level Theory, we tested how abstract vs. concrete descriptions of climate threat affect basic and self-conscious emotions and three emotion regulation strategies: changing oneself, repairing the situation and distancing oneself. In a 2 × 2 between subjects factorial design, climate change consequences were described as concrete/abstract and depicted as spatially proximate/distant. Results showed that, as hypothesized, increased self-conscious emotions mediate overall positive effects of abstract description on self-change and repair attempts...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780332/myoclonic-jerks-and-schizophreniform-syndrome-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Dominique Endres, Dirk-M Altenmüller, Bernd Feige, Simon J Maier, Kathrin Nickel, Sabine Hellwig, Jördis Rausch, Christiane Ziegler, Katharina Domschke, John P Doerr, Karl Egger, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
Background: Schizophreniform syndromes can be divided into primary idiopathic forms as well as different secondary organic subgroups (e.g., paraepileptic, epileptic, immunological, or degenerative). Secondary epileptic explanatory approaches have often been discussed in the past, due to the high rates of electroencephalography (EEG) alterations in patients with schizophrenia. In particular, temporal lobe epilepsy is known to be associated with schizophreniform symptoms in well-described constellations. In the literature, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy has been linked to emotionally unstable personality traits, depression, anxiety, and executive dysfunction; however, the association with schizophrenia is largely unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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