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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340257/cd8-positive-t-cell-leukoencephalitis-with-astrocytopathy-clinically-presenting-as-neuromyelitis-optica
#1
Diana L Thomas, Jody Manners, Daniel Marker, Joseph Mettenburg, Geoffrey Murdoch, Bryan Stevens, Guoji Wang, Clayton Wiley
We describe a novel disease entity with the clinical and radiologic presentation of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and widespread CD8-positive T-cell leukoencephalitis and astrocytopathy. The 59-year-old female patient had a complex 2-year neurological history that included early changes in cognition and memory, progressive lower extremity motor dysfunction, and multimodal sensory involvement. MRI of the spinal cord showed increased T2 signal in the central cord extending from C2 through T4. MRI of the brain showed symmetric radial enhancement in periventricular deep white matter without evidence of demyelinating lesions...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334082/decoding-grasping-movements-from-the-parieto-frontal-reaching-circuit-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#2
Koen Nelissen, Prosper Agbesi Fiave, Wim Vanduffel
Prehension movements typically include a reaching phase, guiding the hand toward the object, and a grip phase, shaping the hand around it. The dominant view posits that these components rely upon largely independent parieto-frontal circuits: a dorso-medial circuit involved in reaching and a dorso-lateral circuit involved in grasping. However, mounting evidence suggests a more complex arrangement, with dorso-medial areas contributing to both reaching and grasping. To investigate the role of the dorso-medial reaching circuit in grasping, we trained monkeys to reach-and-grasp different objects in the dark and determined if hand configurations could be decoded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) responses obtained from the reaching and grasping circuits...
February 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333255/alkaline-protease-contributes-to-pyocyanin-production-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#3
Kazuhiro Iiyama, Eigo Takahashi, Jae Man Lee, Hiroaki Mon, Mai Morishita, Takahiro Kusakabe, Chisa Yasunaga-Aoki
The role of the alkaline protease (AprA) in pyocyanin production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. AprA was overproduced when a plasmid carrying the aprA gene was introduced to an aprA-deletion mutant strain, EG03; thus, aprA-complemented EG03 was used as an overproducing strain. The complemented strain produced higher pyocyanin than the mutant strain in all commercially available media evaluated. Particularly, pyocyanin production was higher in the complemented than in the parental strain in brain-heart infusion and tryptic soy broths...
March 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326060/microbial-neuraminidase-induces-a-moderate-and-transient-myelin-vacuolation-independent-of-complement-system-activation
#4
Pablo Granados-Durán, María Dolores López-Ávalos, Manuel Cifuentes, Margarita Pérez-Martín, María Del Mar Fernández-Arjona, Timothy R Hughes, Krista Johnson, B Paul Morgan, Pedro Fernández-Llebrez, Jesús M Grondona
AIMS: Some central nervous system pathogens express neuraminidase (NA) on their surfaces. In the rat brain, a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of NA induces myelin vacuolation in axonal tracts. Here, we explore the nature, the time course, and the role of the complement system in this damage. METHODS: The spatiotemporal analysis of myelin vacuolation was performed by optical and electron microscopy. Myelin basic protein-positive area and oligodendrocyte transcription factor (Olig2)-positive cells were quantified in the damaged bundles...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322982/toward-biomarkers-of-the-addicted-human-brain-using-neuroimaging-to-predict-relapse-and-sustained-abstinence-in-substance-use-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Scott J Moeller, Martin P Paulus
The ability to predict relapse is a major goal of drug addiction research. Clinical and diagnostic measures are useful in this regard, but these measures do not fully and consistently identify who will relapse and who will remain abstinent. Neuroimaging approaches have the potential to complement these standard clinical measures to optimize relapse prediction. The goal of this review was to survey the existing drug addiction literature that either used a baseline functional or structural neuroimaging phenotype to longitudinally predict a clinical outcome, or that examined test-retest of a neuroimaging phenotype during a course of abstinence or treatment...
March 18, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321965/robust-presurgical-functional-mri-at-7-t-using-response-consistency
#6
Pedro Lima Cardoso, Florian Ph S Fischmeister, Barbara Dymerska, Alexander Geißler, Moritz Wurnig, Siegfried Trattnig, Roland Beisteiner, Simon Daniel Robinson
Functional MRI is valuable in presurgical planning due to its non-invasive nature, repeatability, and broad availability. Using ultra-high field MRI increases the specificity and sensitivity, increasing the localization reliability and reducing scan time. Ideally, fMRI analysis for this application should identify unreliable runs and work even if the patient deviates from the prescribed task timing or if there are changes to the hemodynamic response due to pathology. In this study, a model-free analysis method-UNBIASED-based on the consistency of fMRI responses over runs was applied, to ultra-high field fMRI localizations of the hand area...
March 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320737/mir-31-mutants-reveal-continuous-glial-homeostasis-in-the-adult-drosophila-brain
#7
Lynette Caizhen Foo, Shilin Song, Stephen Michael Cohen
The study of adult neural cell production has concentrated on neurogenesis. The mechanisms controlling adult gliogenesis are still poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence for a homeostatic process that maintains the population of glial cells in the Drosophila adult brain. Flies lacking microRNA miR-31a start adult life with a normal complement of glia, but transiently lose glia due to apoptosis. miR-31a expression identifies a subset of predominantly gliogenic adult neural progenitor cells. Failure to limit expression of the predicted E3 ubiquitin ligase, Rchy1, in these cells results in glial loss...
March 20, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317947/parietal-operculum-and-motor-cortex-activities-predict-motor-recovery-in-moderate-to-severe-stroke
#8
Firdaus Fabrice Hannanu, Thomas A Zeffiro, Laurent Lamalle, Olivier Heck, Félix Renard, Antoine Thuriot, Alexandre Krainik, Marc Hommel, Olivier Detante, Assia Jaillard
While motor recovery following mild stroke has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, mechanisms of recovery after moderate to severe strokes of the types that are often the focus for novel restorative therapies remain obscure. We used fMRI to: 1) characterize reorganization occurring after moderate to severe subacute stroke, 2) identify brain regions associated with motor recovery and 3) to test whether brain activity associated with passive movement measured in the subacute period could predict motor outcome six months later...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315387/functional-role-of-ompf-and-ompc-porins-in-pathogenesis-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#9
Hassan M A Hejair, Yingchu Zhu, Jiale Ma, Yue Zhang, Zihao Pan, Wei Zhang, Huochun Yao
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli is an important pathogen causes systemic infections in avian species and large economic losses in poultry industry worldwide. The functional role of porins during the infection and their mechanisms of interaction with host tissues for adhesion to and invasion are poorly understood. However, whether porins play a role in infection remains unclear. In this study we evaluated the potential of ompF and ompC outer membrane porins in the pathogenesis of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strain TW-XM...
March 14, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314818/allometric-analysis-detects-brain-size-independent-effects-of-sex-and-sex-chromosome-complement-on-human-cerebellar-organization
#10
Catherine Mankiw, Min Tae M Park, P K Reardon, Ari M Fish, Liv S Clasen, Deanna Greenstein, Jay N Giedd, Jonathan D Blumenthal, Jason P Lerch, M Mallar Chakravarty, Armin Raznahan
The cerebellum is a large hindbrain structure that is increasingly recognized for its contribution to diverse domains of cognitive and affective processing in human health and disease. Although several of these domains are sex-biased, our fundamental understanding of cerebellar sex differences - including their spatial distribution, potential biological determinants, and independence from brain volume variation - lags far behind that for the cerebrum. Here, we harness automated neuroimaging methods for cerebellar morphometrics in 417 individuals to (i) localize normative male-female differences in raw cerebellar volume, (ii) compare these to sex chromosome effects estimated across five rare X-/Y-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA) syndromes, and (iii) clarify brain size-independent effects of sex and SCA on cerebellar anatomy using a generalizable allometric approach which considers scaling relationships between regional cerebellar volume and brain volume in health...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298456/microglial-complement-receptor-3-regulates-brain-a%C3%AE-levels-through-secreted-proteolytic-activity
#11
Eva Czirr, Nicholas A Castello, Kira I Mosher, Joseph M Castellano, Izumi V Hinkson, Kurt M Lucin, Bernat Baeza-Raja, Jae Kyu Ryu, Lulin Li, Sasha N Farina, Nadia P Belichenko, Frank M Longo, Katerina Akassoglou, Markus Britschgi, John R Cirrito, Tony Wyss-Coray
Recent genetic evidence supports a link between microglia and the complement system in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we uncovered a novel role for the microglial complement receptor 3 (CR3) in the regulation of soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) clearance independent of phagocytosis. Unexpectedly, ablation of CR3 in human amyloid precursor protein-transgenic mice results in decreased, rather than increased, Aβ accumulation. In line with these findings, cultured microglia lacking CR3 are more efficient than wild-type cells at degrading extracellular Aβ by secreting enzymatic factors, including tissue plasminogen activator...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298319/analysis-of-axonal-trafficking-via-a-novel-live-imaging-technique-reveals-distinct-hedgehog-transport-kinetics
#12
Joseph R Daniele, Rehan M Baqri, Samuel Kunes
The Drosophila melanogaster (Dmel) eye is an ideal model to study development, intracellular signaling, behavior, and neurodegenerative disease. Interestingly, dynamic data is not commonly employed to investigate eye-specific disease models. Using axonal transport of the morphogen Hedgehog (Hh), which is integral to Dmel eye-brain development and implicated in stem cell maintenance and neoplastic disease, we demonstrate the ability to comprehensively quantify and characterize its trafficking in various neuron types and a neurodegeneration model in live early 3(rd) instar larval Drosophila We find that neuronal Hh, whose kinetics have not been reported previously, favors fast anterograde transport and varies in speed and flux with respect to axonal position...
March 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293111/influence-of-cfh-gene-on-symptom-severity-of-schizophrenia
#13
Chen Zhang, Qinyu Lv, Weixing Fan, Wei Tang, Zhenghui Yi
OBJECTIVE: Recent advances have provided compelling evidence for the role of excessive complement activity in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to detect the association of the gene encoding complement factor H (CFH), a regulator in complement activation, with schizophrenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample of 1783 individuals with or without schizophrenia was recruited for genetic analysis. Genomic DNA samples were extracted from peripheral blood cells using multiplex polymerase chain reaction and the SNaPshot assay...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289062/mapping-neurodegenerative-disease-onset-and-progression
#14
William W Seeley
Brain networks have been of long-standing interest to neurodegeneration researchers, including but not limited to investigators focusing on conventional prion diseases, which are known to propagate along neural pathways. Tools for human network mapping, however, remained inadequate, limiting our understanding of human brain network architecture and preventing clinical research applications. Until recently, neuropathological studies were the only viable approach to mapping disease onset and progression in humans but required large autopsy cohorts and laborious methods for whole-brain sectioning and staining...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286321/synaptic-proteome-changes-in-the-hypothalamus-of-mother-rats
#15
Edina Brigitta Udvari, Katalin Völgyi, Péter Gulyássy, Diána Dimén, Viktor Kis, János Barna, Éva Rebeka Szabó, Gert Lubec, Gábor Juhász, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi, Árpád Dobolyi
To establish synaptic proteome changes associated with motherhood, we isolated synaptosome fractions from the hypothalamus of mother rats and non-maternal control females at the 11th postpartum day. Proteomic analysis by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometric protein identification established 26 significant proteins, 7 increasing and 19 decreasing protein levels in the dams. The altered proteins are mainly involved in energy homeostasis, protein folding, and metabolic processes suggesting the involvement of these cellular processes in maternal adaptations...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285134/loss-of-gspt1l-disturbs-the-patterning-of-the-brain-central-arteries-in-zebrafish
#16
Hongcheng Wang, Lingfei Luo, Deqin Yang
The cranial vasculature is crucial for the survival and development of the central nervous system and is closely related to brain pathologies. Characterizations of the underlying mechanisms by which cranial vessels acquire their stereotypic patterning remain to be the key interest in the cerebrovascular research. In this report, we show an interesting zebrafish cq37 mutant displaying aberrant patterning of the central arteries. Genetic mapping results indicate that the gene responsible for cq37 encodes G1 to S phase transition 1, like (Gspt1l) with a nonsense mutation...
April 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284604/identification-of-the-ferric-iron-utilization-gene-b739_1208-and-its-role-in-the-virulence-of-r-anatipestifer-ch-1
#17
MengYi Wang, PengYun Zhang, DeKang Zhu, MingShu Wang, RenYong Jia, Shun Chen, KunFeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, XiaoYue Chen, Francis Biville, AnChun Cheng, MaFeng Liu
Riemerella anatipestifer is an important bacterial pathogen in ducks and causes heavy economic losses in the duck industry. However, the pathogensis of this bacterium is poorly understood. In this study, a putative outer membrane hemin receptor gene B739_1208 in R. anatipestifer CH-1 was deleted to determine the relationship between iron uptake and virulence. The R. anatipestifer CH-1ΔB739_1208 mutants grew significantly more slowly than the wild-type bacteria in TSB liquid medium. Further characterization revealed that the R...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283722/fanconi-anemia-correlating-central-nervous-system-malformations-and-genetic-complementation-groups
#18
Benjamin A Johnson-Tesch, Rakhee S Gawande, Lei Zhang, Margaret L MacMillan, David R Nascene
BACKGROUND: Congenital central nervous system abnormalities in children with Fanconi anemia are poorly characterized, especially with regard to specific genetic complementation groups. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the impact of genetic complementation groups on central nervous system anatomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through chart review we identified 36 patients with Fanconi anemia with available brain MRIs at the University of Minnesota (average age, 11...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275047/the-new-biology-and-pharmacology-of-glucagon
#19
REVIEW
T D Müller, B Finan, C Clemmensen, R D DiMarchi, M H Tschöp
In the last two decades we have witnessed sizable progress in defining the role of gastrointestinal signals in the control of glucose and energy homeostasis. Specifically, the molecular basis of the huge metabolic benefits in bariatric surgery is emerging while novel incretin-based medicines based on endogenous hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and pancreas-derived amylin are improving diabetes management. These and related developments have fostered the discovery of novel insights into endocrine control of systemic metabolism, and in particular a deeper understanding of the importance of communication across vital organs, and specifically the gut-brain-pancreas-liver network...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268812/identification-of-blood-biomarkers-for-use-in-point-of-care-diagnosis-tool-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
E Jammeh, P Zhao, C Carroll, S Pearson, E Ifeachor
Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is widely regarded as necessary to allow treatment to be started before irreversible damage to the brain occur and for patients to benefit from new therapies as they become available. Low-cost point-of-care (PoC) diagnostic tools that can be used to routinely diagnose AD in its early stage would facilitate this, but such tools require reliable and accurate biomarkers. However, traditional biomarkers for AD use invasive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and/or expensive neuroimaging techniques together with neuropsychological assessments...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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