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Complement and brain

Benjamin Puccio, James P Pooley, John S Pellman, Elise C Taverna, R Cameron Craddock
BACKGROUND: Skull-stripping is the procedure of removing non-brain tissue from anatomical MRI data. This procedure can be useful for calculating brain volume and for improving the quality of other image processing steps. Developing new skull-stripping algorithms and evaluating their performance requires gold standard data from a variety of different scanners and acquisition methods. We complement existing repositories with manually corrected brain masks for 125 T1-weighted anatomical scans from the Nathan Kline Institute Enhanced Rockland Sample Neurofeedback Study...
October 25, 2016: GigaScience
Ali Alawieh, Stephen Tomlinson
Cumulative evidence indicates a role for the complement system in both pathology and recovery after ischemic stroke. Here, we review the current understanding of the dual role of complement in poststroke injury and recovery, and discuss the challenges of anti-complement therapies. Most complement directed therapeutics currently under investigation or development systemically inhibit the complement system, but since complement is important for immune surveillance and is involved in various homeostatic activities, there are potential risks associated with systemic inhibition...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
Kit D Longden
Color is famous for not existing in the external world: our brains create the perception of color from the spatial and temporal patterns of the wavelength and intensity of light. For an intangible quality, we have detailed knowledge of its origins and consequences. Much is known about the organization and evolution of the first phases of color processing, the filtering of light in the eye and processing in the retina, and about the final phases, the roles of color in behavior and natural selection. To understand how color processing in the central brain has evolved, we need well-defined pathways or circuitry where we can gauge how color contributes to the computations involved in specific behaviors...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Michael Hanke, Nico Adelhöfer, Daniel Kottke, Vittorio Iacovella, Ayan Sengupta, Falko R Kaule, Roland Nigbur, Alexander Q Waite, Florian Baumgartner, Jörg Stadler
Here we present an update of the studyforrest ( dataset that complements the previously released functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for natural language processing with a new two-hour 3 Tesla fMRI acquisition while 15 of the original participants were shown an audio-visual version of the stimulus motion picture. We demonstrate with two validation analyses that these new data support modeling specific properties of the complex natural stimulus, as well as a substantial within-subject BOLD response congruency in brain areas related to the processing of auditory inputs, speech, and narrative when compared to the existing fMRI data for audio-only stimulation...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Data
Iliana Michailidou, Daphne M P Naessens, Simon Hametner, Willemijn Guldenaar, Evert-Jan Kooi, Jeroen J G Geurts, Frank Baas, Hans Lassmann, Valeria Ramaglia
Microglial clusters with C3d deposits are observed in the periplaque of multiple sclerosis (MS) brains and were proposed as early stage of lesion formation. As such they should appear in the brain of MS donors with acute disease but thus far this has not been shown. Using postmortem brain tissue from acute (n = 10) and chronic (n = 15) MS cases we investigated whether C3d+ microglial clusters are part of an acute attack against myelinated axons, which could have implications for disease pathogenesis...
October 25, 2016: Glia
Hadis Biglari, Reza Sameni
Fetal motility is a widely accepted indicator of the well-being of a fetus. In previous research, it has be shown that fetal motion (FM) is coherent with fetal heart rate accelerations and an indicator for active/rest cycles of the fetus. The most common approach for FM and fetal heart rate (FHR) assessment is by Doppler ultrasound (DUS). While DUS is the most common approach for studying the mechanical activities of the heart, noninvasive fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) and magnetocardiogram (MCG) recording and processing techniques have been considered as a possible competitor (or complement) for the DUS...
October 24, 2016: Physiological Measurement
M Vouri, D R Croucher, S P Kennedy, Q An, G J Pilkington, S Hafizi
Acquired resistance to conventional and targeted therapies is becoming a major hindrance in cancer management. It is increasingly clear that cancer cells are able to evolve and rewire canonical signalling pathways to their advantage, thus evading cell death and promoting cell invasion. The Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) has been shown to modulate acquired resistance to EGFR-targeted therapies in both breast and lung cancers. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly infiltrative and invasive form of brain tumour with little response to therapy...
October 24, 2016: Oncogenesis
Elena Hernandez-Encinas, Diana Aguilar-Morante, Jose A Morales-Garcia, Elena Gine, Marina Sanz-SanCristobal, Angel Santos, Ana Perez-Castillo
BACKGROUND: The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) is a transcription factor implicated in the control of proliferation, differentiation, and inflammatory processes mainly in adipose tissue and liver; although more recent results have revealed an important role for this transcription factor in the brain. Previous studies from our laboratory indicated that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β is implicated in inflammatory process and brain injury, since mice lacking this gene were less susceptible to kainic acid-induced injury...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Katie M Parkins, Amanda M Hamilton, Ashley V Makela, Yuanxin Chen, Paula J Foster, John A Ronald
Cellular MRI involves sensitive visualization of iron-labeled cells in vivo but cannot differentiate between dead and viable cells. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) measures cellular viability, and thus we explored combining these tools to provide a more holistic view of metastatic cancer cell fate in mice. Human breast carcinoma cells stably expressing Firefly luciferase were loaded with iron particles, injected into the left ventricle, and BLI and MRI were performed on days 0, 8, 21 and 28. The number of brain MR signal voids (i...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Svetlana A Dambinova, Joseph C Maroon, Alicia M Sufrinko, John David Mullins, Eugenia V Alexandrova, Alexander A Potapov
Concussion is a complex, heterogeneous process affecting the brain. Accurate assessment and diagnosis and appropriate management of concussion are essential to ensure that athletes do not prematurely return to play or others to work or active military duty, risking re-injury. To date, clinical diagnosis relies primarily on evaluating subjects for functional impairment using instruments that include neurocognitive testing, subjective symptom report, and neurobehavioral assessments, such as balance and vestibular-ocular reflex testing...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Michele Zorzetto, Francesca Datturi, Laura Divizia, Cristiana Pistono, Ilaria Campo, Annalisa De Silvestri, Mariaclara Cuccia, Giovanni Ricevuti
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Increasing evidence suggests the importance of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is a complex neurodegenerative disorder. Complement activation occurs in the brain of patients with AD and seems to contribute to an important local inflammatory state. Increased expression of the fourth serum complement component 4 (C4) has been observed in AD patients in many studies. This protein has two isoforms, encoded by two genes: C4A and C4B localized to the HLA class III region...
October 12, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Rafet Özay, Erhan Türkoğlu, Bora Gürer, Habibullah Dolgun, Oya Evirgen, Berrin İmge Ergüder, Nazlı Hayırlı, Levent Gürses, Zeki Şekerci, Erdal Reşit Yılmaz
BACKGROUND: The development of secondary brain injury via oxidative stress after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is well known. Decorin inactivates Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), complement system (CS) and Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) which are related the oxidative stress and apoptosis. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of Decorin (DC) on TBI. METHODS: A total of 24 male rats were used and divided into four groups as follows; control, trauma, DC, and methylprednisolone (MP)...
October 12, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Laura Llull, Steffen Thiel, Sergio Amaro, Álvaro Cervera, Anna M Planas, Ángel Chamorro
Activation of the inflammatory generating complement system might play a pathogenic role in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We studied whether plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of complement proteins were associated with angiographic vasospasm and cerebral ischemic lesions after SAH. Ficolin-1 (M-ficolin), ficolin-3 (H-ficolin), mannose-binding lectin (MBL), MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2), MASP-3, and MAp44 were analyzed in plasma of 45 SAH patients at 24 h after bleeding. Additionally, ficolin-1 levels were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained 24 h after bleeding in 19 patients with external ventricular drainage placement...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Bonnie Alexander, Andrea L Murray, Wai Yen Loh, Lillian G Matthews, Chris Adamson, Richard Beare, Jian Chen, Claire E Kelly, Sandra Rees, Simon K Warfield, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle, Alicia J Spittle, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Marc L Seal, Deanne K Thompson
Investigating neonatal brain structure and function can offer valuable insights into behaviour and cognition in healthy and clinical populations; both at term age, and longitudinally in comparison with later time points. Parcellated brain atlases for adult populations are readily available, however warping infant data to adult template space is not ideal due to morphological and tissue differences between these groups. Several parcellated neonatal atlases have been developed, although there remains strong demand for manually parcellated ground truth data with detailed cortical definition...
October 7, 2016: NeuroImage
Edith V Sullivan, Barton Lane, Dongjin Kwon, M J Meloy, Susan F Tapert, Sandra A Brown, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker, Michael D De Bellis, Duncan B Clark, Bonnie J Nagel, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Structural MRI of volunteers deemed "normal" following clinical interview provides a window into normal brain developmental morphology but also reveals unexpected dysmorphology, commonly known as "incidental findings." Although unanticipated, these anatomical findings raise questions regarding possible treatment that could even ultimately require neurosurgical intervention, which itself carries significant risk but may not be indicated if the anomaly is nonprogressive or of no functional consequence. Neuroradiological readings of 833 structural MRI from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) cohort found an 11...
October 8, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Elijah Mak, Sean J Colloby, Alan Thomas, John T O'Brien
Late-life depression (LLD) has been associated with both generalized and focal neuroanatomical changes including gray matter atrophy and white matter abnormalities. However, previous literature has not been consistent and, in particular, its impact on the topology organization of brain networks remains to be established. In this multimodal study, we first examined cortical thickness, and applied graph theory to investigate structural covariance networks in LLD. Thirty-three subjects with LLD and 25 controls underwent T1-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and clinical assessments...
August 24, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
John D Murdoch, Christine M Rostosky, Sindhuja Gowrisankaran, Amandeep S Arora, Sandra-Fausia Soukup, Ramon Vidal, Vincenzo Capece, Siona Freytag, Andre Fischer, Patrik Verstreken, Stefan Bonn, Nuno Raimundo, Ira Milosevic
Endophilin-A, a well-characterized endocytic adaptor essential for synaptic vesicle recycling, has recently been linked to neurodegeneration. We report here that endophilin-A deficiency results in impaired movement, age-dependent ataxia, and neurodegeneration in mice. Transcriptional analysis of endophilin-A mutant mice, complemented by proteomics, highlighted ataxia- and protein-homeostasis-related genes and revealed upregulation of the E3-ubiquitin ligase FBXO32/atrogin-1 and its transcription factor FOXO3A...
October 5, 2016: Cell Reports
Patrick L McGeer, Joseph Rogers, Edith G McGeer
Two basic discoveries spurred research into inflammation as a driving force in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The first was the identification of activated microglia in association with the lesions. The second was the discovery that rheumatoid arthritics, who regularly consume anti-inflammatory agents, were relatively spared from the disease. These findings led to an exploration of the inflammatory pathways that were involved in AD pathogenesis. A pivotal advance was the discovery that amyloid-β protein (Aβ) activated the complement system...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Anne Moessner, James F Malec, Scott Beveridge, Cara Camiolo Reddy, Tracy Huffman, Julia Marton, Audrey J Schmerzler
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To develop and provide initial validation of a measure for accurately determining the need for Constant Visual Observation (CVO) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) admitted to inpatient rehabilitation. RESEARCH DESIGN: Rating scale development and evaluation through Rasch analysis and assessment of concurrent validity. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: One hundred and thirty-four individuals with moderate-severe TBI were studied in seven inpatient brain rehabilitation units associated with the National Institute for Disability, Independent Living and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) TBI Model System...
August 11, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Ramon Francisco Barajas, Soonmee Cha
Metastatic cancer to the central nervous system is primarily deposited by hematogenous spread in various anatomically distinct regions: calvarial, pachymeningeal, leptomeningeal, and brain parenchyma. A patient's overall clinical status and the information needed to make treatment decisions are the primary considerations in initial imaging modality selection. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is the preferred imaging modality. Morphologic MR imaging is limited to delineating anatomic deraignment of tissues. Dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion and diffusion-weighted physiology-based MR imaging sequences have been developed that complement morphologic MR imaging by providing additional diagnostic information...
November 2016: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
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