keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Complement and brain

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923083/prevention-of-c5ar1-signaling-delays-microglial-inflammatory-polarization-favors-clearance-pathways-and-suppresses-cognitive-loss
#1
Michael X Hernandez, Shan Jiang, Tracy A Cole, Shu-Hui Chu, Maria I Fonseca, Melody J Fang, Lindsay A Hohsfield, Maria D Torres, Kim N Green, Rick A Wetsel, Ali Mortazavi, Andrea J Tenner
BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic inhibition of C5aR1, a receptor for the complement activation proinflammatory fragment, C5a, suppressed pathology and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models. To validate that the effect of the antagonist was specifically via C5aR1 inhibition, mice lacking C5aR1 were generated and compared in behavior and pathology. In addition, since C5aR1 is primarily expressed on cells of the myeloid lineage, and only to a lesser extent on endothelial cells and neurons in brain, gene expression in microglia isolated from adult brain at multiple ages was compared across all genotypes...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919245/n1-responses-to-images-of-hands-in-occipito-temporal-event-related-potentials
#2
Miguel Granja Espírito Santo, Octavian Sorin Maxim, Martin Schürmann
Hands, much like faces, convey social information, instructions and intentions to an observer. While the neural processes of face perception have been widely studied, it was only recently that fMRI identified occipito-temporal areas sensitive to static images of hands as body parts. To complement these studies with fine-grained timing information, we measured event-related EEG potentials (ERPs) from 33 subjects who were presented with static images of hands versus faces, whole bodies, and inanimate objects as controls...
September 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916505/nuclear-organisation-of-cholinergic-catecholaminergic-serotonergic-and-orexinergic-neurons-in-two-relatively-large-brained-rodent-species-the-springhare-pedetes-capensis-and-beecroft-s-scaly-tailed-squirrel-anomalurus-beecrofti
#3
Jordan Sweigers, Adhil Bhagwandin, Muhammad A Spocter, Consolate Kaswera-Kyamakya, Emmanuel Gilissen, Paul R Manger, Busisiwe C Maseko
The present study describes the nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems in the brains of the springhare and Beecroft's scaly-tailed squirrel following immunohistochemical labelling. We aimed to investigate any differences in the nuclear organization of these neural systems when compared to previous data on other species of rodents, as these two rodent species have relatively large brains - 1.2 to 1.4 times larger than would be expected for mammals of their body mass and 1...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916475/deletion-of-nadh-oxidase-in-listeria-monocytogenes-promotes-the-bacterial-infection-of-brain
#4
Sen Li, Wenwen Yu, Xiao Guan, Zhen Luo, Guowei Chen, Wukang Liu, Jingchen Zhang
NADH oxidase (NOX) plays important roles in respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in cells. In this study, we explored the function of NOX in Listeria monocytogenes by gene deletion. From our results, nox mutant strain (∆nox) had lower H2O2 level and showed no significant alteration in bacteria growth activity. But it had enhanced invasiveness during the invasion of glial cells and mice brain compared to wildtype strain. Furthermore, several virulence genes involved in invasion, such as inlA, inlB, vip and sigB, were upregulated in ∆nox, and the alterations could be restored by complementation...
September 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912200/development-and-validation-of-electronic-quality-measures-to-assess-care-for-patients-with-transient-ischemic-attack-and-minor-ischemic-stroke
#5
Dawn M Bravata, Laura J Myers, Eric Cheng, Mathew Reeves, Fitsum Baye, Zhangsheng Yu, Teresa Damush, Edward J Miech, Jason Sico, Michael Phipps, Alan Zillich, Jason Johanning, Seemant Chaturvedi, Curt Austin, Jared Ferguson, Bailey Maryfield, Kathy Snow, Susan Ofner, Glenn Graham, Rachel Rhude, Linda S Williams, Greg Arling
BACKGROUND: Despite interest in using electronic health record (EHR) data to assess quality of care, the accuracy of such data is largely unknown. We sought to develop and validate transient ischemic attack and minor ischemic stroke electronic quality measures (eQMs) using EHR data. METHODS AND RESULTS: A random sample of patients with transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic stroke, cared for in Veterans Health Administration facilities (fiscal year 2011), was identified...
September 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911200/homozygous-eef1a2-mutation-causes-dilated-cardiomyopathy-failure-to-thrive-global-developmental-delay-epilepsy-and-early-death
#6
Siqi Cao, Laura L Smith, Sergio R Padilla-Lopez, Brandon S Guida, Elizabeth Blume, Jiahai Shi, Sarah U Morton, Catherine A Brownstein, Alan H Beggs, Michael C Kruer, Pankaj B Agrawal
Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (EEF1A), is encoded by two distinct isoforms, EEF1A1 and EEF1A2; whereas EEF1A1 is expressed almost ubiquitously, EEF1A2 expression is limited such that it is only detectable in skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spinal cord. Currently, the role of EEF1A2 in normal cardiac development and function is unclear. There have been several reports linking de novo dominant EEF1A2 mutations to neurological issues in humans. We report a pair of siblings carrying a homozygous missense mutation p...
September 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910968/efficiency-of-antibody-therapy-in-demyelinating-diseases
#7
Tetsuya Akaishi, Ichiro Nakashima
Monoclonal antibody therapy is a new treatment strategy for many types of diseases including cancers and autoimmune diseases, realizing a high efficacy and tolerability. In multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders, several monoclonal antibodies have been suggested to decrease the incidence of clinical relapse and the disease activity. In MS, anti-α4 integrin (natalizumab), anti-CD52 (alemtuzumab), anti-CD25 (daclizumab) and anti-CD20 (ocrelizumab) have been shown to effectively reduce the relapses in randomized controlled trials and have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration...
July 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894415/loss-of-fmrp-impaired-hippocampal-long-term-plasticity-and-spatial-learning-in-rats
#8
Yonglu Tian, Chaojuan Yang, Shujiang Shang, Yijun Cai, Xiaofei Deng, Jian Zhang, Feng Shao, Desheng Zhu, Yunbo Liu, Guiquan Chen, Jing Liang, Qiang Sun, Zilong Qiu, Chen Zhang
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the FMR1 gene that inactivate expression of the gene product, the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP). In this study, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) technology to generate Fmr1 knockout (KO) rats by disruption of the fourth exon of the Fmr1 gene. Western blotting analysis confirmed that the FMRP was absent from the brains of the Fmr1 KO rats (Fmr1(exon4-KO) )...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884477/fragile-x-granules-are-a-family-of-axonal-ribonucleoprotein-particles-with-circuit-dependent-protein-composition-and-mrna-cargos
#9
Eunice Chyung, Hannah F LeBlanc, Justin R Fallon, Michael R Akins
Local axonal protein synthesis plays a crucial role in the formation and function of neuronal circuits. Understanding the role of this mechanism in specific circuits requires identifying the protein composition and mRNA cargos of the ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) that form the substrate for axonal translation. FXGs (Fragile X granules) are axonal RNPs present in a stereotyped subset of mature axons in the intact brain that contain one or more of the Fragile X related (FXR) proteins (FMRP, FXR2P, and FXR1P) along with mRNA and ribosomes...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883901/loss-of-sigma-1-receptor-chaperone-promotes-astrocytosis-and-enhances-the-nrf2-antioxidant-defense
#10
Tzu-Yu Weng, Denise T Hung, Tsung-Ping Su, Shang-Yi A Tsai
Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) functions as a chaperon that interacts with multiple proteins and lipids and is implicated in neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Here, we used Sig-1R KO mice to examine brain expression profiles of astrocytes and ubiquitinated proteins, which are both hallmarks of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. Our results showed that Sig-1R KO induces increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in primary neuron-glia cultures and in the whole brain of fetus mice with concomitantly increased accumulations of ubiquitinated proteins...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882996/fibril-structure-of-amyloid-%C3%A3-1-42-by-cryoelectron-microscopy
#11
Lothar Gremer, Daniel Schölzel, Carla Schenk, Elke Reinartz, Jörg Labahn, Raimond B G Ravelli, Markus Tusche, Carmen Lopez-Iglesias, Wolfgang Hoyer, Henrike Heise, Dieter Willbold, Gunnar F Schröder
Amyloids are implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Fibrillar aggregates of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ) are the main component of the senile plaques found in brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. We present the structure of an Aβ(1-42) fibril composed of two intertwined protofilaments determined by cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) to 4.0 Å resolution, complemented by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The backbone of all 42 residues and nearly all sidechains are well resolved in the EM density map, including the entire N terminus, which is part of the cross-β structure resulting in an overall "LS"-shaped topology of individual subunits...
September 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882862/detection-of-volume-changing-metastatic-brain-tumors-on-longitudinal-mri-using-a-semiautomated-algorithm-based-on-the-jacobian-operator-field
#12
O Shearkhani, A Khademi, A Eilaghi, S-P Hojjat, S P Symons, C Heyn, M Machnowska, A Chan, A Sahgal, P J Maralani
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Accurate follow-up of metastatic brain tumors has important implications for patient prognosis and management. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of a semiautomated algorithm in detecting growing or shrinking metastatic brain tumors on longitudinal brain MRIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used 50 pairs of successive MR imaging datasets, 30 on 1.5T and 20 on 3T, containing contrast-enhanced 3D T1-weighted sequences...
September 7, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880870/c1-inactivator-is-upregulated-in-glioblastoma
#13
Karolina Förnvik, Aida Maddahi, Oscar Persson, Kurt Osther, Leif G Salford, Henrietta Nittby Redebrandt
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumor in adults. A key problem is the capacity of glioma cells to inactivate the body's immune response. The complement system acts as a functional bridge between the innate and adaptive immune response. Still, the role of the complement system has almost been forgotten in glioma research. In our present study, we hypothesize that C1 inactivator (C1-IA) is upregulated in astrocytoma grade IV, and that its inhibition of the complement system has beneficial effects upon survival...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871262/role-of-neuroinflammation-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-cellular-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-implications
#14
REVIEW
Jia Liu, Fei Wang
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects upper motor neurons (MNs) comprising the corticospinal tract and lower MNs arising from the brain stem nuclei and ventral roots of the spinal cord, leading to fatal paralysis. Currently, there are no effective therapies for ALS. Increasing evidence indicates that neuroinflammation plays an important role in ALS pathogenesis. The neuroinflammation in ALS is characterized by infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages, activation of microglia and reactive astrocytes, as well as the involvement of complement...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867998/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-insights-from-combined-recording-studies
#15
REVIEW
Vanessa Scarapicchia, Cassandra Brown, Chantel Mayo, Jodie R Gawryluk
Although blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a widely available, non-invasive technique that offers excellent spatial resolution, it remains limited by practical constraints imposed by the scanner environment. More recently, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has emerged as an alternative hemodynamic-based approach that possesses a number of strengths where fMRI is limited, most notably in portability and higher tolerance for motion. To date, fNIRS has shown promise in its ability to shed light on the functioning of the human brain in populations and contexts previously inaccessible to fMRI...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861010/syntactic-priming-as-a-test-of-argument-structure-a-self-paced-reading-experiment
#16
Isabel Oltra-Massuet, Victoria Sharpe, Kyriaki Neophytou, Alec Marantz
Using data from a behavioral structural priming experiment, we test two competing theoretical approaches to argument structure, which attribute different configurations to (in)transitive structures. These approaches make different claims about the relationship between unergatives and transitive structures selecting either a DP complement or a small clause complement in structurally unambiguous sentences, thus making different predictions about priming relations between them. Using statistical tools that combine a factorial 6 × 6 within subjects ANOVA, a mixed effects ANCOVA and a linear mixed effects regression model, we report syntactic priming effects in comprehension, which suggest a stronger predictive contribution of a model that supports an interpretive semantics view of syntax, whereby syntactic structures do not necessarily reflect argument/event structure in semantically unambiguous configurations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858413/decoding-the-microstructural-correlate-of-diffusion-mri
#17
Svenja Caspers, Markus Axer
Diffusion imaging has evolved considerably over the past decade. While it provides valuable information about the structural connectivity at the macro- and mesoscopic scale, bridging the gap to the microstructure at the level of single nerve fibers poses an enormous challenge. This is particularly true for the human brain with its large size, its large white-matter volume and availability of histological techniques for studying human whole-brain sections and subsequent 3D reconstruction. Classic post-mortem techniques for studying the fiber architecture of the brain, such as myeloarchitectonic staining or dye tracing, are complemented by novel histological approaches, such as 3D polarized light imaging or optical coherence tomography, enabling unique insight into the fiber architecture from large fiber bundles within deep white matter to single nerve fibers in the cortex...
August 31, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856799/complexity-analysis-of-cortical-surface-detects-changes-in-future-alzheimer-s-disease-converters
#18
Juan Ruiz de Miras, Víctor Costumero, Vicente Belloch, Joaquín Escudero, César Ávila, Jorge Sepulcre
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological disorder that creates neurodegenerative changes at several structural and functional levels in human brain tissue. The fractal dimension (FD) is a quantitative parameter that characterizes the morphometric variability of the human brain. In this study, we investigate spherical harmonic-based FD (SHFD), thickness, and local gyrification index (LGI) to assess whether they identify cortical surface abnormalities toward the conversion to AD. We study 33 AD patients, 122 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients (50 MCI converters and 29 MCI nonconverters), and 32 healthy controls (HC)...
August 30, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854540/electroencephalography-and-delirium-in-the-postoperative-period
#19
B J A Palanca, T S Wildes, Y S Ju, S Ching, M S Avidan
Delirium commonly manifests in the postoperative period as a clinical syndrome resulting from acute brain dysfunction or encephalopathy. Delirium is characterized by acute and often fluctuating changes in attention and cognition. Emergence delirium typically presents and resolves within minutes to hours after termination of general anaesthesia. Postoperative delirium hours to days after an invasive procedure can herald poor outcomes. Easily recognized when patients are hyperactive or agitated, delirium often evades diagnosis as it most frequently presents with hypoactivity and somnolence...
August 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851850/toxoplasma-gondii-requires-glycogen-phosphorylase-for-balancing-amylopectin-storage-and-for-efficient-production-of-brain-cysts
#20
Tatsuki Sugi, Vincent Tu, Yanfen Ma, Tadakimi Tomita, Louis M Weiss
In immunocompromised hosts, latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii can reactivate from tissue cysts, leading to encephalitis. A characteristic of T. gondii bradyzoites in tissue cysts is the presence of amylopectin granules. The regulatory mechanisms and role of amylopectin accumulation in this organism are not fully understood. The T. gondii genome encodes a putative glycogen phosphorylase (TgGP), and mutants were constructed to manipulate the activity of TgGP and to evaluate the function of TgGP in amylopectin storage...
August 29, 2017: MBio
keyword
keyword
50159
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"