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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100419/redox-dysregulation-immuno-inflammatory-alterations-and-genetic-variants-of-bdnf-and-mmp-9-in-schizophrenia-pathophysiological-and-phenotypic-implications
#1
Fahmy T Ali, Eman M Abd El-Azeem, Marwa A Hamed, Mohamed A M Ali, Nour M Abd Al-Kader, Ekrami A Hassan
BACKGROUND: Although a clear mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ) remains elusive, oxidative stress, inflammatory syndrome and immune activation have become an attractive hypothesis for explaining the pathophysiology of SZ. Data from prior studies on the role of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SZ are contradictory. We aimed to investigate whether oxidative stress, inflammatory and immune activation markers as well as MMP-9 levels may be implicated in SZ pathogenesis...
January 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093049/efficient-variational-approach-to-multimodal-registration-of%C3%A2-anatomical%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-functional-intra-patient-tumorous-brain-data
#2
Alvar-Ginés Legaz-Aparicio, Rafael Verdú-Monedero, Jorge Larrey-Ruiz, Juan Morales-Sánchez, Fernando López-Mir, Valery Naranjo, Ángela Bernabéu
This paper addresses the functional localization of intra-patient images of the brain. Functional images of the brain (fMRI and PET) provide information about brain function and metabolism whereas anatomical images (MRI and CT) supply the localization of structures with high spatial resolution. The goal is to find the geometric correspondence between functional and anatomical images in order to complement and fuse the information provided by each imaging modality. The proposed approach is based on a variational formulation of the image registration problem in the frequency domain...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092565/a-passive-eeg-bci-for-single-trial-detection-of-changes-in-mental-state
#3
Andrew Myrden, Tom Chau
Traditional brain-computer interfaces often exhibit unstable performance over time. It has recently been proposed that passive brain-computer interfaces may provide a way to complement and stabilize these traditional systems. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a passive brain-computer interface that uses electroencephalography to monitor changes in mental state on a single-trial basis. We recorded cortical activity from 15 locations while 11 able-bodied adults completed a series of challenging mental tasks...
January 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089893/proteomic-characterization-of-the-interactions-between-fish-serum-proteins-and-waterborne-bacteria-reveals-the-suppression-of-anti-oxidative-defense-as-a-serum-mediated-antimicrobial-mechanism
#4
Miao Dong, Yimin Liang, Rajkumar Ramalingam, Sze Wing Tang, Wei Shen, Rui Ye, Singaram Gopalakrishnan, Doris Wai Ting Au, Yun Wah Lam
Fish blood is one of the crucial tissues of innate immune system, but the full repertoire of fish serum components involved in antibacterial defense is not fully identified. In this study, we demonstrated that turbot serum, but not the heat-inactivated control, significantly reduced the number of Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda). By conjugating serum proteins with fluorescent dyes, we showed that E. tarda were coated with multiple fish proteins. In order to identify these proteins, we used E. tarda to capture turbot serum proteins and subjected the samples to shotgun proteomic analysis...
January 9, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089760/enhanced-long-term-brain-mri-evaluation-of-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-following-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#5
Nancy S Green, Monica Bhatia, Erica Y Griffith, Mahvish Qureshi, Courtney Briamonte, Mirko Savone, Stephen Sands, Margaret T Lee, Angela Lignelli, Adam M Brickman
Progressive neurovasculopathy in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) results in decreased cognitive function and quality of life (QoL). Hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is believed to halt progression of neurovasculopathy. Quantitative analysis of T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI for white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden provides a meaningful estimate of small vessel cerebrovascular disease. We asked if quantitative analysis of WMH could complement standardized clinical assessment of MRI/MRA for assessing SCD CNS vasculopathy pre- and post-HCT...
January 9, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086758/toxoplasmosis-associated-iris-involving-the-cns-a-case-report-with-longitudinal-analysis-of-t-cell-subsets
#6
Rita Rb-Silva, Claudia Nobrega, Eugénia Reiriz, Soraia Almeida, Rui Sarmento-Castro, Margarida Correia-Neves, Ana Horta
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients may present an unforeseen clinical worsening after initiating antiretroviral therapy known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This syndrome is characterized by a heightened inflammatory response toward infectious or non-infectious triggers, and it may affect different organs. Diagnosis of IRIS involving the central nervous system (CNS-IRIS) is challenging due to heterogeneous manifestations, absence of biomarkers to identify this condition, risk of long-term sequelae and high mortality...
January 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078709/expression-of-transcription-factors-divide-retinal-ganglion-cells-into-distinct-classes
#7
Neal T Sweeney, Kiely N James, Andreea Nistorica, Ryan M Lorig-Roach, David A Feldheim
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are tasked with transmitting all light information from the eye to the retinal recipient areas of the brain. RGCs can be classified into many different types by morphology, gene expression, axonal projections, and functional responses to different light stimuli. Ultimately, these classification systems should be unified into an all-encompassing taxonomy. Toward that end, we show here that nearly all RGCs express either Islet-2, Tbr2 or a combination of Satb1and Satb2. We present gene expression data supporting the hypothesis that Satb1 and Satb2 are expressed in ON-OFF direction-selective (DS) RGCs, complementing our previous work demonstrating that RGCs that express Islet-2 and Tbr2 are non-DS and non-image-forming, respectively...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077641/chikungunya-influenza-nipah-and-semliki-forest-chimeric-viruses-with-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-actions-in-the-brain
#8
Anthony N van den Pol, Guochao Mao, Anasuya Chattopadhyay, John K Rose, John N Davis
: Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based chimeric viruses that include genes from other viruses show promise as vaccines and oncolytic viruses. However, the critical safety concern is the neurotropic nature conveyed by the VSV glycoprotein. VSVs that include the VSV glycoprotein gene, even in most recombinant attenuated strains, can still show substantial adverse or lethal actions in the brain. Here we test 4 chimeric viruses in the brain including those in which glycoprotein genes from Nipah, chikungunya, or influenza H5N1 viruses were substituted for the VSV glycoprotein gene...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074934/disease-modifying-effect-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-in-an-experimental-model-of-epilepsy
#9
Min Chen, Thiruma V Arumugam, Gayeshika Leanage, Quang M Tieng, Ashwin Yadav, Jeremy F P Ullmann, David T She, Vy Truong, Marc J Ruitenberg, David C Reutens
Novel therapies that prevent or modify the development of epilepsy following an initiating brain insult could significantly reduce the burden of this disease. In light of evidence that immune mechanisms play an important role in generating and maintaining the epileptic condition, we evaluated the effect of a well-established immunomodulatory treatment, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), on the development of epilepsy in an experimental model of epileptogenesis. In separate experiments, IVIg was administered either before (pre-treatment) or after (post-treatment) the onset of pilocarpine status epilepticus (SE)...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074911/further-evidence-for-microtubule-independent-dimerization-of-tppp-p25
#10
J Oláh, T Szénási, S Szunyogh, A Szabó, A Lehotzky, J Ovádi
Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP/p25) is a brain-specific disordered protein that modulates the dynamics and stability of the microtubule network by its assembly promoting, cross-linking and acetylation enhancing activities. In normal brain it is expressed primarily in differentiated oligodendrocytes; however, at pathological conditions it is enriched in inclusions of both neurons and oligodendrocytes characteristic for Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy, respectively. The objective of this paper is to highlight a critical point of a recently published Skoufias's paper in which the crucial role of the microtubules in TPPP/p25 dimerization leading to microtubule bundling was suggested...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074898/the-curved-lead-pathway-method-to-enable-a-single-lead-to-reach-any-two-intracranial-targets
#11
Chen-Yu Ding, Liang-Hong Yu, Yuan-Xiang Lin, Fan Chen, Zhang-Ya Lin, De-Zhi Kang
Deep brain stimulation is an effective way to treat movement disorders, and a powerful research tool for exploring brain functions. This report proposes a "curved lead pathway" method for lead implantation, such that a single lead can reach in sequence to any two intracranial targets. A new type of stereotaxic system for implanting a curved lead to the brain of human/primates was designed, the auxiliary device needed for this method to be used in rat/mouse was fabricated and verified in rat, and the Excel algorithm used for automatically calculating the necessary parameters was implemented...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074864/a-novel-monoclonal-antibody-targeting-coxsackie-virus-and-adenovirus-receptor-inhibits-tumor-growth-in-vivo
#12
Manabu Kawada, Hiroyuki Inoue, Masunori Kajikawa, Masahito Sugiura, Shuichi Sakamoto, Sakiko Urano, Chigusa Karasawa, Ihomi Usami, Mitsuru Futakuchi, Tohru Masuda
To create a new anti-tumor antibody, we conducted signal sequence trap by retrovirus-meditated expression method and identified coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CXADR) as an appropriate target. We developed monoclonal antibodies against human CXADR and found that one antibody (6G10A) significantly inhibited the growth of subcutaneous as well as orthotopic xenografts of human prostate cancer cells in vivo. Furthermore, 6G10A also inhibited other cancer xenografts expressing CXADR, such as pancreatic and colorectal cancer cells...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073936/human-exploration-of-enclosed-spaces-through-echolocation
#13
Virginia L Flanagin, Sven Schörnich, Michael Schranner, Nadine Hummel, Ludwig Wallmeier, Magnus Wahlberg, Thomas Stephan, Lutz Wiegrebe
: Some blind humans have developed echolocation, as a method of navigation in space. Echolocation is a truly active sense because subjects analyze echoes of dedicated, self-generated sounds to assess space around them. Using a special virtual space technique we assess how humans perceive enclosed spaces through echolocation, thereby revealing the interplay between sensory and vocal-motor neural activity while humans perform this task. Sighted subjects were trained to detect small changes in virtual room size analyzing real-time generated echoes of their vocalizations...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062175/intranasal-c3a-treatment-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#14
Javier Morán, Anna Stokowska, Frederik R Walker, Carina Mallard, Henrik Hagberg, Marcela Pekna
Perinatal asphyxia-induced brain injury is often associated with irreversible neurological complications such as intellectual disability and cerebral palsy but available therapies are limited. Novel neuroprotective therapies as well as approaches stimulating neural plasticity mechanism that can compensate for cell death after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are urgently needed. We previously reported that single i.c.v. injection of complement-derived peptide C3a 1h after HI induction prevented HI-induced cognitive impairment when mice were tested as adults...
January 4, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059571/presynaptic-calmodulin-targets-lessons-from-structural-proteomics
#15
Noa Lipstein, Melanie Göth, Christine Piotrowski, Kevin Pagel, Andrea Sinz, Olaf Jahn
Calmodulin (CaM) is a highly conserved Ca(2+)-binding protein that is exceptionally abundant in the brain. In the presynaptic compartment of neurons, CaM transduces changes in Ca(2+) concentration into the regulation of synaptic transmission dynamics. Areas covered: We review selected literature including published CaM interactor screens and outline established and candidate presynaptic CaM targets. We present a workflow of biochemical and structural proteomic methods that were used to identify and characterize the interactions between CaM and Munc13 proteins...
January 6, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058672/neuroprotective-effects-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-are-mediated-through-inhibition-of-complement-activation-and-apoptosis-in-a-rat-model-of-sepsis
#16
Figen Esen, Gunseli Orhun, Perihan Ergin Ozcan, Evren Senturk, Melike Kucukerden, Murat Giris, Ugur Akcan, Canan Ugur Yilmaz, Nurcan Orhan, Nadir Arican, Mehmet Kaya, Sema Bilgic Gazioglu, Erdem Tuzun
BACKGROUND: Intravenous (IV) immunoglobulin (Ig) treatment is known to alleviate behavioral deficits and increase survival in the experimentally induced model of sepsis. To delineate the mechanisms by which IVIg treatment prevents neuronal dysfunction, an array of immunological and apoptosis markers was investigated. METHODS: Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation perforation (CLP) in rats. The animals were divided into five groups: sham, control, CLP + saline, CLP + immunoglobulin G (IgG) (250 mg/kg, iv), and CLP + immunoglobulins enriched with immunoglobulin M (IgGAM) (250 mg/kg, iv)...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057017/the-brain-penetrating-cxcr4-antagonist-prx177561-increases-the-antitumor-effects-of-bevacizumab-and-sunitinib-in-preclinical-models-of-human-glioblastoma
#17
Giovanni Luca Gravina, Andrea Mancini, Francesco Marampon, Alessandro Colapietro, Simona Delle Monache, Roberta Sferra, Flora Vitale, Peter J Richardson, Lee Patient, Stephen Burbidge, Claudio Festuccia
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma recurrence after treatment with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab is characterized by a highly infiltrative and malignant behavior that renders surgical excision and chemotherapy ineffective. It has been demonstrated that anti-VEGF/VEGFR therapies control the invasive phenotype and that relapse occurs through the increased activity of CXCR4. We therefore hypothesized that combining bevacizumab or sunitinib with the novel CXCR4 antagonist, PRX177561, would have superior antitumor activity...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041983/basic-discriminative-and-semantic-processing-in-patients-in-the-vegetative-and-minimally-conscious-state
#18
Helena Erlbeck, Ruben G L Real, Boris Kotchoubey, Donatella Mattia, Jakob Bargak, Andrea Kübler
Patients who survive injuries to the brain following accidents or diseases often acquire a disorder of consciousness (DOC). Assessment of the state of consciousness in these patients is difficult since they are usually incapable of reproducible motor movements. The application of event-related potentials (ERP) recorded via EEG constitutes one promising approach to complement the assessment of cognitive functions in DOC patients. For these assessments, a hierarchical approach was suggested which means that paradigms aiming at higher order ERPs are only presented if early responses were found...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040552/chemoprotective-role-of-quercetin-in-manganese-induced-toxicity-along-the-brain-pituitary-testicular-axis-in-rats
#19
Isaac A Adedara, Temitayo I Subair, Valerie C Ego, Oluwasetemi Oyediran, Ebenezer O Farombi
Reproductive dysfunction in response to manganese exposure has been reported in humans and animals. Quercetin, a bioflavonoid widely distributed in fruits, vegetables and beverages has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities in different experimental model systems. However, there is dearth of scientific information on the influence of quercetin on manganese-induced reproductive toxicity. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of quercetin on manganese-induced functional alterations along the brain-pituitary- testicular axis in rats...
December 28, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039094/petpve12-an-spm-toolbox-for-partial-volume-effects-correction-in-brain-pet-application-to-amyloid-imaging-with-av45-pet
#20
Gabriel Gonzalez-Escamilla, Catharina Lange, Stefan Teipel, Ralph Buchert, Michel J Grothe
Positron emission tomography (PET) allows detecting molecular brain changes in vivo. However, the accuracy of PET is limited by partial volume effects (PVE) that affects quantitative analysis and visual interpretation of the images. Although PVE-correction methods have been shown to effectively increase the correspondence of the measured signal with the true regional tracer uptake, these procedures are still not commonly applied, neither in clinical nor in research settings. Here, we present an implementation of well validated PVE-correction procedures as a SPM toolbox, PETPVE12, for automated processing...
December 28, 2016: NeuroImage
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