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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210884/discrepancy-between-cerebral-structure-and-cognitive-functioning-a-review
#1
Michael Nahm, David Rousseau, Bruce Greyson
Neuroscientists typically assume that human mental functions are generated by the brain and that its structural elements, including the different cell layers and tissues that form the neocortex, play specific roles in this complex process. Different functional units are thought to complement one another to create an integrated self-awareness or episodic memory. Still, findings that pertain to brain dysplasia and brain lesions indicate that in some individuals there is a considerable discrepancy between the cerebral structures and cognitive functioning...
December 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208230/learning-from-connectomics-on-the-fly
#2
REVIEW
Philipp Schlegel, Marta Costa, Gregory Sxe Jefferis
Parallels between invertebrates and vertebrates in nervous system development, organisation and circuits are powerful reasons to use insects to study the mechanistic basis of behaviour. The last few years have seen the generation in Drosophila melanogaster of very large light microscopy data sets, genetic driver lines and tools to report or manipulate neural activity. These resources in conjunction with computational tools are enabling large scale characterisation of neuronal types and their functional properties...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202042/relative-impact-of-complement-receptors-cd21-35-cr2-1-on-scrapie-pathogenesis-in-mice
#3
Sarah J Kane, Eric Swanson, Elizabeth O Gordon, Savannah Rocha, Heather R Bender, Luke R Donius, Adriano Aguzzi, Jonathan P Hannan, Mark D Zabel
Complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/2 or CD35/CD21) recognize complement-opsonized antigens to initiate innate and adaptive immunity, respectively. CD35 stimulates phagocytosis on macrophages and antigen presentation on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). CD21 helps activate B cells as part of the B cell coreceptor with CD19 and CD81. Differential splicing of transcripts from the mouse Cr2 gene generates isoforms with both shared and unique complement binding capacities and cell-type expression. In mouse models, genetic depletion of Cr2 causes either a delay or complete prevention of prion disease, but the relative importance of CD35 versus CD21 in promoting prion disease remains unknown...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198270/contributions-to-understanding-the-neuropsychology-of-alcoholism-an-ins-legacy
#4
Edith V Sullivan
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been a major cause of family, social, and personal strife for centuries, with current prevalence estimates of 14% for 12-month and 29% lifetime AUD. Neuropsychological testing of selective cognitive, sensory, and motor functions complemented with in vivo brain imaging has enabled tracking the consequences of AUD, which follows a dynamic course of development, maintenance, and recovery or relapse. Controlled studies of alcoholism reviewed herein provide evidence for disruption of selective functions involving executive, visuospatial, mnemonic, emotional, and attentional processes, response inhibition, prosody, and postural stability and brain systems supporting these functions...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198014/inhibition-of-complement-drives-increase-in-early-growth-response-proteins-and-neuroprotection-mediated-by-salidroside-after-cerebral-ischemia
#5
Wenfang Lai, XiuLi Xie, Xiaoqin Zhang, Yingzheng Wang, Kedan Chu, John Brown, Lidian Chen, Guizhu Hong
Salidroside is neuroprotective across a wide therapeutic time-window after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Here, we investigated the role of complement in mediating effects of salidroside after cerebral IRI in rats. Rats were administrated with vehicle or salidroside 50 mg/kg, given daily for either 24 or 48 h, after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h and reperfusion for 1 h. Levels of proteins in ischemic brain were measured by immunofluorescence and western blotting. We observed early increases in the deposition of immunoglobulin M, mannose-binding lectin 2, and annexin IV on cerebral endothelial cells, induction of the complement components C3 and C3a, by 24 h after IRI, and a later significant increase in the complement component C1q by 48 h...
December 2, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196460/microglia-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
David V Hansen, Jesse E Hanson, Morgan Sheng
Proliferation and activation of microglia in the brain, concentrated around amyloid plaques, is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Human genetics data point to a key role for microglia in the pathogenesis of AD. The majority of risk genes for AD are highly expressed (and many are selectively expressed) by microglia in the brain. There is mounting evidence that microglia protect against the incidence of AD, as impaired microglial activities and altered microglial responses to β-amyloid are associated with increased AD risk...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196443/modelling-glioblastoma-tumour-host-cell-interactions-using-adult-brain-organotypic-slice-co-culture
#7
Maria Angeles Marques-Torrejon, Ester Gangoso, Steven M Pollard
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive incurable brain cancer. The cells that fuel the growth of tumours resemble neural stem cells found in the developing and adult mammalian forebrain. These are referred to as GBM stem cells (GSCs). Similar to neural stem cells, GSCs exhibit a variety of phenotypic states: dormant, quiescent, proliferative and differentiating. How environmental cues within the brain influence these distinct states is not well understood. Laboratory models of GBM can be generated using either genetically engineered mouse models, or via intracranial transplantation of cultured tumour initiating cells (mouse or human)...
December 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189905/complementary-research-models-and-methods-to-study-axonal-regeneration-in-the-vertebrate-retinofugal-system
#8
REVIEW
Ilse Bollaerts, Lien Veys, Emiel Geeraerts, Lien Andries, Lies De Groef, Tom Buyens, Manuel Salinas-Navarro, Lieve Moons, Inge Van Hove
Due to the lack of axonal regeneration, age-related deterioration in the central nervous system (CNS) poses a significant burden on the wellbeing of a growing number of elderly. To overcome this regenerative failure and to improve the patient's life quality, the search for novel regenerative treatment strategies requires valuable (animal) models and techniques. As an extension of the CNS, the retinofugal system, consisting of retinal ganglion cells that send their axons along the optic nerve to the visual brain areas, has importantly contributed to the current knowledge on mechanisms underlying the restricted regenerative capacities and to the development of novel strategies to enhance axonal regeneration...
November 30, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188495/protein-biomarkers-and-neuroproteomics-characterization-of-microvesicles-exosomes-from-human-cerebrospinal-fluid-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Rachna Manek, Ahmed Moghieb, Zhihui Yang, Dhwani Kumar, Firas Kobessiy, George Anis Sarkis, Vijaya Raghavan, Kevin K W Wang
Recently, there have been emerging interests in the area of microvesicles and exosome (MV/E) released from brain cells in relation to neurodegenerative diseases. However, only limited studies focused on MV/E released post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) as they highlight on the mechanistic roles of released proteins. This study sought to examine if CSF samples from severe TBI patients contain MV/E with unique protein contents. First, nanoparticle tracking analysis determined MV/E from TBI have a mode of 74-98 nm in diameter, while control CSF MV/E have a mode of 99-104 nm...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188091/compact-fs-ytterbium-fiber-laser-at-1010-nm-for-biomedical-applications
#10
Cihang Kong, Christian Pilger, Henning Hachmeister, Xiaoming Wei, Tom H Cheung, Cora S W Lai, Thomas Huser, Kevin K Tsia, Kenneth K Y Wong
Ytterbium-doped fiber lasers (YDFLs) working in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral window and capable of high-power operation are popular in recent years. They have been broadly used in a variety of scientific and industrial research areas, including light bullet generation, optical frequency comb formation, materials fabrication, free-space laser communication, and biomedical diagnostics as well. The growing interest in YDFLs has also been cultivated for the generation of high-power femtosecond (fs) pulses. Unfortunately, the operating wavelengths of fs YDFLs have mostly been confined to two spectral bands, i...
November 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187333/toward-a-clinic-of-temporality
#11
Thérèse Rivasseau Jonveaux, Martine Batt, Alain Trognon
The discovery of time cells has expanded our knowledge in the field of spatial and temporal information coding and the key role of the hippocampus. The internal clock model complemented with the attentional gate model allows a more in-depth understanding of the perception of time. The motor representation of duration is ensured by the basal ganglia, while the cerebellum synchronizes short duration for the movement. The right prefrontal cortex seemingly intervenes in the handling of temporal information in working memory...
December 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185545/movement-disorders-and-chronic-psychosis-five-new-things
#12
Davide Martino, Francesca Morgante
Purpose of review: To discuss selected peer-reviewed research articles published between 2014 and 2016 and highlight 5 clinically relevant messages related to hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movement disorders in patients with chronic psychosis. Recent findings: A recent population-based study complemented data from clinical trials in showing increased risk of developing extrapyramidal symptoms with antipsychotic use. A community service-based longitudinal study showed that dopamine transporter imaging could help identify subgroups of patients with parkinsonism associated with antipsychotics with a progressive course, potentially manageable with l-dopa...
April 2017: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176918/the-influence-of-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-tacs-on-fluid-intelligence-an-fmri-study
#13
A C Neubauer, M Wammerl, M Benedek, E Jauk, N Jaušovec
The past decades have witnessed a huge interest in uncovering the neural bases of intelligence (e.g., Stelmack, & Houlihan, 1995; Stelmack, Knott, & Beauchamp, 2003). This study investigated the influence of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on fluid intelligence performance and corresponding brain activation. Previous findings showed that left parietal theta tACS leads to a transient increase in fluid reasoning performance. In an attempt to extend and replicate these findings, we combined theta tACS with fMRI...
November 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172703/quantitative-eeg-parameters-for-prediction-of-outcome-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-development-study
#14
Antti Tolonen, Mika O K Särkelä, Riikka S K Takala, Ari Katila, Janek Frantzén, Jussi P Posti, Markus Müller, Mark van Gils, Olli Tenovuo
Monitoring of quantitative EEG (QEEG) parameters in the intensive care unit (ICU) can aid in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients by complementing visual EEG review done by an expert. We performed an explorative study investigating the prognostic value of 59 QEEG parameters in predicting the outcome of patients with severe TBI. Continuous EEG recordings were done on 28 patients with severe TBI in the ICU of Turku University Hospital. We computed a set of QEEG parameters for each patient, and correlated these to patient outcome, measured by dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at a follow-up visit between 6 and 12 months, using area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) as a nonlinear correlation measure...
November 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161351/echoes-of-affective-stimulation-in-brain-connectivity-networks
#15
Viola Borchardt, Yan Fan, Marie Dietz, Ana Lucia Herrera Melendez, Malek Bajbouj, Matti Gärtner, Meng Li, Martin Walter, Simone Grimm
Affective experience has effects on subjective feelings, physiological indices, entails immediate activity changes in the brain, and even influences brain networks in a protracted manner. However, it is still unclear, how the functional connectivity (FC) interplay between major intrinsic connectivity networks upon affective stimulation depends on affective valence, and whether this is specific for affective experience, i.e., can be distinguished from cognitive task execution. Our study included fMRI scans during and after affective stimulation with sad and neutral movies and a working memory task complemented with measures of cardiovascular activity and mood...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155029/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-complement-component-3-in-dojo-loach-misgurnus-anguillicaudatus
#16
Yongsheng Xu, Yongyao Yu, Xiaoting Zhang, Zhenyu Huang, Huili Li, Shuai Dong, Yangzhou Liu, Fen Dong, Zhen Xu
The complement component 3 (C3) is a central component of complement system. All three pathways converge at formation of C3 convertases and share the terminal pathways of membrane attack complex (MAC) formation. In this study, three isoforms of C3 were discovered in Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, named "C3-1", "C3-2" and "C3-3", respectively. The full-length of C3-1 cDNA sequence was firstly identified and analyzed from dojo loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). The Ma-C3-1 cDNA sequence comprised of 4509 bp encoding 1454 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 20 amino acid residues...
November 15, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147635/global-and-targeted-pathway-impact-of-gliomas-on-white-matter-integrity-based-on-lobar-localization
#17
David R Ormond, Shawn D'Souza, John A Thompson
Primary brain tumors comprise 28% of all tumors and 80% of malignant tumors. Pathophysiology of high-grade gliomas includes significant distortion of white matter architecture, necrosis, the breakdown of the blood brain barrier, and increased intracranial pressure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a diffusion weighted imaging technique, can be used to assess white matter architecture. Use of DTI as a non-invasive pathophysiological tool to analyze glioma impact on white matter microstructure has yet to be fully explored...
September 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141045/csf-in-the-ventricles-of-the-brain-behaves-as-a-relay-medium-for-arteriovenous-pulse-wave-phase-coupling
#18
William E Butler, Pankaj K Agarwalla, Patrick Codd
The ventricles of the brain remain perhaps the largest anatomic structure in the human body without established primary purpose, even though their existence has been known at least since described by Aristotle. We hypothesize that the ventricles help match a stroke volume of arterial blood that arrives into the rigid cranium with an equivalent volume of ejected venous blood by spatially configuring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to act as a low viscosity relay medium for arteriovenous pulse wave (PW) phase coupling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134267/complement-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
B Paul Morgan
The emergence of complement as an important player in normal brain development and pathological remodelling has come as a major surprise to most scientists working in neuroscience and almost all those working in complement. That a system, evolved to protect the host against infection, should have these unanticipated roles has forced a rethink about what complement might be doing in the brain in health and disease, where it is coming from, and whether we can, or indeed should, manipulate complement in the brain to improve function or restore homeostasis...
November 13, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125686/neurophagy-the-phagocytosis-of-live-neurons-and-synapses-by-glia-contributes-to-brain-development-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Anna Vilalta, Guy C Brown
It was previously thought that neurons were phagocytosed only when dead or dying. However, it is increasingly clear that viable synapses, dendrites, axons and/or neurons can be phagocytosed alive (defined here as "neurophagy"), and this may contribute to a wide range of developmental, physiological and pathological processes. Phagocytosis of live synapses, dendrites and axons by glia, contribute to experience-dependent sculpting of neuronal networks during development, but excessive phagocytosis of synapses may contribute to pathology in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and aging...
November 10, 2017: FEBS Journal
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