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Complement and brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816089/medusa-s-head-the-complement-system-in-traumatic-brain-and-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Francesco Roselli, Ebru Karasu, Clara Volpe, Markus Huber-Lang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Spinal cord injury (SCI) are critical medical conditions and public health problem for which limited therapeutic options are available. Complement cascade is activated after TBI and SCI and the resulting effects have been investigated in gene-knockout and pharmacological models. Multiple experimental studies support a net detrimental role of C3 and C5 activation in the early stages of TBI and SCI. Less firm experimental evidence suggests that, downstream of C3/C5, effector mechanisms including the generation of MAC and direct damage to membranes and neutrophils infiltration may bring about the direct damage of CNS tissue and the enhancement of neuroinflammation...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810930/sex-differences-in-microrna-mrna-networks-examination-of-novel-epigenetic-programming-mechanisms-in-the-sexually-dimorphic-neonatal-hypothalamus
#2
Christopher P Morgan, Tracy L Bale
BACKGROUND: Sexual differentiation of the male brain, and specifically the stress circuitry in the hypothalamus, is primarily driven by estrogen exposure during the perinatal period. Surprisingly, this single hormone promotes diverse programs of sex-specific development that vary widely between different cell types and across the developing male brain. The complexity of this phenomenon suggests that additional layers of gene regulation, including microRNAs (miRNAs), must act downstream of estrogen to mediate this specificity...
August 15, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807479/multifactorial-analyses-revealed-optimal-aquaculture-modalities-improving-husbandry-fitness-without-clear-effect-on-stress-and-immune-status-of-pikeperch-sander-lucioperca
#3
Sébastien Baekelandt, Baptiste Redivo, Syaghalirwa N M Mandiki, Thibaut Bournonville, Alexis Houndji, Benoît Bernard, Najlae El Kertaoui, Mélodie Schmitz, Pascal Fontaine, Jean-Noël Gardeur, Yannick Ledoré, Patrick Kestemont
High mortality and impairment in growth rate during pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) ongrowing are among the major bottlenecks for its development in aquaculture. These failures may be related to high stress responsiveness since the rearing conditions are not yet optimized for this species. The objectives were to characterize the stress and immunological responses of pikeperch to major aquaculture modalities, and to identify the optimal aquaculture conditions for improving its welfare status. In a screening experiment, eight factors considered as relevant for the welfare of pikeperch were compared in two modalities using a fractional multifactorial design (2(8-4))...
August 11, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801174/the-cerebral-collateral-circulation-relevance-to-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-stroke
#4
REVIEW
Myron D Ginsberg
The brain's collateral circulation consists of arterial anastomotic channels capable of providing nutrient perfusion to brain regions whose normal sources of flow have become compromised, as occurs in acute ischemic stroke. Modern CT-based neuroimaging is capable of providing detailed information as to collateral extent and sufficiency and is complemented by magnetic resonance-based methods. In the present era of standard-of-care IV thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke, and following the recent therapeutic successes of randomized clinical trials of acute endovascular intervention, the sufficiency of the collateral circulation has been convincingly established as a key factor influencing the likelihood of successful reperfusion and favorable clinical outcome...
August 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790016/tau-imaging-in-neurodegeneration
#5
REVIEW
Gérard N Bischof, Heike Endepols, Thilo van Eimeren, Alexander Drzezga
Pathological cerebral aggregations of proteins are suggested to play a crucial role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. For example, aggregation of the protein ß-amyloid in form of extracellular amyloid-plaques as well as intraneuronal depositions of the protein tau in form of neurofibrillary tangles represent hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, novel tracers for in vivo molecular imaging of tau-aggregates in the brain have been introduced, complementing existing tracers for imaging amyloid-plaques...
August 5, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780369/new-method-to-induce-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rodents-produces-differential-outcomes-in-female-and-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#6
Peter Wirth, Waylin Yu, Amanda L Kimball, Jennifer Liao, Paul Berkner, Melissa J Glenn
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) are an increasing health concern due to persistent behavioral and neurological effects. To better understand these effects, researchers frequently rely on animal injury models. Existing models, however, may not adequately reproduce the mechanism of injury as it occurs in humans. NEW METHOD: Our new model for inducing mTBI in rodents entails acceleration of the animal toward a stationary impact zone to produce rapid rotational movement of the head...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777260/persistence-of-parenchymal-and-perivascular-t-cells-in-treatment-refractory-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#7
Alexander Filatenkov, Timothy E Richardson, Elena Daoud, Sarah F Johnson-Welch, Denise M Ramirez, Jose Torrealba, Benjamin Greenberg, Nancy L Monson, Veena Rajaram
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disease mediated by IgG1 or IgG3 antibodies to the GluN1 subunit of the NMDAR, resulting in downregulation of NMDARs. Early diagnosis, prompt reduction of anti-NMDAR antibodies, and removal of associated ovarian tumors when identified are important drivers of prognosis. Immunohistochemical studies were carried out to evaluate B cell, plasma cell, and T-cell infiltrates in the brain of a 3-year-old patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis who failed to show improvement after plasma exchange and Rituximab treatment...
August 2, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774729/-thrombotic-microangiopathy-and-cancer
#8
Rania Kheder El-Fekih, Clément Deltombe, Hassan Izzedine
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a group of disorders characterized by mechanical hemolytic anemia with thrombocytopenia and an ischemic organic lesion of variable and potentially fatal importance affecting mostly the kidneys and the brain with histologically a disseminated and occlusive microvasculopathy. The incidence of TMA represents 15% of acute kidney failure in oncological setting, largely due to the introduction of anti-angiogenic agents over the past decade. It may be more rarely related to cancer itself...
July 31, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772104/the-role-of-the-lateral-intraparietal-area-in-the-study-of-decision-making
#9
Alexander C Huk, Leor N Katz, Jacob L Yates
Over the past two decades, neurophysiological responses in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) have received extensive study for insight into decision making. In a parallel manner, inferred cognitive processes have enriched interpretations of LIP activity. Because of this bidirectional interplay between physiology and cognition, LIP has served as fertile ground for developing quantitative models that link neural activity with decision making. These models stand as some of the most important frameworks for linking brain and mind, and they are now mature enough to be evaluated in finer detail and integrated with other lines of investigation of LIP function...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771528/plasma-metabolomics-profiles-in-rats-with-acute-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Fei Zheng, Zi-An Xia, Yi-Fu Zeng, Jie-Kun Luo, Peng Sun, Han-Jin Cui, Yang Wang, Tao Tang, Yan-Tao Zhou
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. We validated the utility of plasma metabolomics analysis in the clinical diagnosis of acute TBI in a rat model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups of 15 rats each: the CCI group and sham group. Blood samples were obtained from the rats within the first 24 h after TBI injury. GC/MS measurements were performed to evaluate the profile of acute TBI-induced metabolic changes, resulting in the identification of 45 metabolites in plasma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771209/point-of-care-testing-in-acute-stroke-management-an-unmet-need-ripe-for-technological-harvest
#11
REVIEW
Dorin Harpaz, Evgeni Eltzov, Raymond C S Seet, Robert S Marks, Alfred I Y Tok
Stroke, the second highest leading cause of death, is caused by an abrupt interruption of blood to the brain. Supply of blood needs to be promptly restored to salvage brain tissues from irreversible neuronal death. Existing assessment of stroke patients is based largely on detailed clinical evaluation that is complemented by neuroimaging methods. However, emerging data point to the potential use of blood-derived biomarkers in aiding clinical decision-making especially in the diagnosis of ischemic stroke, triaging patients for acute reperfusion therapies, and in informing stroke mechanisms and prognosis...
August 3, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765531/neuronal-patterning-of-the-tubular-collar-cord-is-highly-conserved-among-enteropneusts-but-dissimilar-to-the-chordate-neural-tube
#12
Sabrina Kaul-Strehlow, Makoto Urata, Daniela Praher, Andreas Wanninger
A tubular nervous system is present in the deuterostome groups Chordata (cephalochordates, tunicates, vertebrates) and in the non-chordate Enteropneusta. However, the worm-shaped enteropneusts possess a less complex nervous system featuring only a short hollow neural tube, whereby homology to its chordate counterpart remains elusive. Since the majority of data on enteropneusts stem from the harrimaniid Saccoglossus kowalevskii, putative interspecific variations remain undetected resulting in an unreliable ground pattern that impedes homology assessments...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757194/time-resolved-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-neural-oscillations
#13
Soheila Samiee, Sylvain Baillet
Cross-frequency coupling between neural oscillations is a phenomenon observed across spatial scales in a wide range of preparations, including human non-invasive electrophysiology. Although the functional role and mechanisms involved are not entirely understood, the concept of interdependent neural oscillations drives an active field of research to comprehend the ubiquitous polyrhythmic activity of the brain, beyond empirical observations. Phase-amplitude coupling, a particular form of cross-frequency coupling between bursts of high-frequency oscillations and the phase of lower frequency rhythms, has recently received considerable attention...
July 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751823/global-autorecognition-and-activation-of-complement-by-mannan-binding-lectin-in-a-mouse-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#14
Esben Axelgaard, Jakob Appel Østergaard, Saranda Haxha, Steffen Thiel, Troels Krarup Hansen
Increasing evidence links mannan-binding lectin (MBL) to late vascular complications of diabetes. MBL is a complement-activating pattern recognition molecule of the innate immune system that can mediate an inflammation response through activation of the lectin pathway. In two recent animal studies, we have shown that autoreactivity of MBL is increased in the kidney in diabetic nephropathy. We hypothesize that long-term exposure to uncontrolled high blood glucose in diabetes may mediate formation of neoepitopes in several tissues and that MBL is able to recognize these structures and thus activate the lectin pathway...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750658/complement-regulator-cd59-prevents-peripheral-organ-injury-in-rats-made-seropositive-for-neuromyelitis-optica-immunoglobulin-g
#15
Xiaoming Yao, Alan S Verkman
Pathogenesis in aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG) seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (herein called NMO) involves complement-dependent cytotoxicity initiated by AQP4-IgG binding to astrocyte AQP4. We recently reported that rats lacking complement inhibitor protein CD59 were highly susceptible to development of NMO pathology in brain and spinal cord following direct AQP4-IgG administration (Yao and Verkman, Acta Neuropath Commun 2017, 5:15). Here, we report evidence that CD59 is responsible for protection of peripheral, AQP4-expressing tissues in seropositive NMO...
July 27, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750047/human-cytomegalovirus-ie1-downregulates-hes1-in-neural-progenitor-cells-as-a-potential-e3-ubiquitin-ligase
#16
Xi-Juan Liu, Bo Yang, Sheng-Nan Huang, Cong-Cong Wu, Xiao-Jun Li, Shuang Cheng, Xuan Jiang, Fei Hu, Ying-Zi Ming, Michael Nevels, William J Britt, Simon Rayner, Qiyi Tang, Wen-Bo Zeng, Fei Zhao, Min-Hua Luo
Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the leading cause of neurological disabilities in children worldwide, but the mechanisms underlying these disorders are far from well-defined. HCMV infection has been shown to dysregulate the Notch signaling pathway in human neural progenitor cells (NPCs). As an important downstream effector of Notch signaling, the transcriptional regulator Hairy and Enhancer of Split 1 (Hes1) is essential for governing NPC fate and fetal brain development. In the present study, we report that HCMV infection downregulates Hes1 protein levels in infected NPCs...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749476/the-wide-genetic-landscape-of-clinical-frontotemporal-dementia-systematic-combined-sequencing-of-121-consecutive-subjects
#17
Cornelis Blauwendraat, Carlo Wilke, Javier Simón-Sánchez, Iris E Jansen, Anika Reifschneider, Anja Capell, Christian Haass, Melissa Castillo-Lizardo, Saskia Biskup, Walter Maetzler, Patrizia Rizzu, Peter Heutink, Matthis Synofzik
PurposeTo define the genetic spectrum and relative gene frequencies underlying clinical frontotemporal dementia (FTD).MethodsWe investigated the frequencies and mutations in neurodegenerative disease genes in 121 consecutive FTD subjects using an unbiased, combined sequencing approach, complemented by cerebrospinal fluid Aβ1-42 and serum progranulin measurements. Subjects were screened for C9orf72 repeat expansions, GRN and MAPT mutations, and, if negative, mutations in other neurodegenerative disease genes, by whole-exome sequencing (WES) (n = 108), including WES-based copy-number variant (CNV) analysis...
July 27, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747717/contextual-connectivity-a-framework-for-understanding-the-intrinsic-dynamic-architecture-of-large-scale-functional-brain-networks
#18
Rastko Ciric, Jason S Nomi, Lucina Q Uddin, Ajay B Satpute
Investigations of the human brain's connectomic architecture have produced two alternative models: one describes the brain's spatial structure in terms of static localized networks, and the other describes the brain's temporal structure in terms of dynamic whole-brain states. Here, we used tools from connectivity dynamics to develop a synthesis that bridges these models. Using resting fMRI data, we investigated the assumptions undergirding current models of the human connectome. Consistent with state-based models, our results suggest that static localized networks are superordinate approximations of underlying dynamic states...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747037/increased-arterial-stiffness-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-hemorrhagic-transformation-in-ischemic-stroke-undergoing-thrombolysis
#19
Maurizio Acampa, Silvia Camarri, Pietro Enea Lazzerini, Francesca Guideri, Rossana Tassi, Raffaella Valenti, Alessandra Cartocci, Giuseppe Martini
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a multifactorial phenomenon and represents a possible complication of ischemic stroke, especially after thrombolytic treatment. Increased arterial stiffness has been associated with intracranial hemorrhage, but there is no evidence of association with HT after thrombolytic therapy. The aim of our study is to investigate a possible link between arterial stiffness and HT occurrence after thrombolytic therapy in patients with ischemic stroke...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742222/disruption-of-the-atp-adenosine-balance-in-cd39-mice-is-associated-with-handling-induced-seizures
#20
Amanda J Lanser, Rafael M Rezende, Stephen Rubino, Paul J Lorello, Dustin J Donnelly, Huixin Xu, Lauren A Lau, Chris G Dulla, Barbara J Caldarone, Simon C Robson, Howard L Weiner
Seizures are due to excessive, synchronous neuronal firing in the brain and are characteristic of epilepsy, the fourth most prevalent neurologic disease. Herein, we report handling-induced and spontaneous seizures in mice deficient of CD39, a cell-surface ATPase highly expressed on microglial cells. CD39(-/-) mice with handling-induced seizures had normal input-output curves and paired-pulse ratio measured from hippocampal slices and lacked microgliosis, astrogliosis or overt cell loss in the hippocampus and cortex...
July 25, 2017: Immunology
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