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Harvey J Woehlck, Brent T Boettcher, Kathryn K Lauer, David C Cronin, Johnny C Hong, Michael A Zimmerman, Joohyun Kim, Motaz Selim
Systemic vasoplegia is common in patients undergoing liver transplantation. In this report, we present a case in which treatment with conventional vasopressors caused peripheral arterial spasm, rendering arterial blood pressure monitoring impossible. Administration of methylene blue resolved the vasospasm; however, concern for toxic dose requirements limited its use. Hydroxocobalamin administration resolved the vasospasm and increased blood pressure without the potential adverse effects seen with methylene blue...
October 5, 2016: A & A Case Reports
Miklos D Kertai, Sreekanth Cheruku, Wenjing Qi, Yi-Ju Li, G Chad Hughes, Joseph P Mathew, Jörn A Karhausen
OBJECTIVE: Aortic surgeries requiring hypothermic circulatory arrest evoke systemic inflammatory responses that often manifest as vasoplegia and hypotension. Because mast cells can rapidly release vasoactive and proinflammatory effectors, we investigated their role in intraoperative hypotension. METHODS: We studied 31 patients undergoing proximal aortic repair with hypothermic circulatory arrest between June 2013 and April 2015 at Duke University Medical Center...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Salomé L Gazit, Boubacar Mariko, Patrice Thérond, Benoit Decouture, Yuquan Xiong, Ludovic Couty, Philippe Bonnin, Véronique Baudrie, Sylvain M Le Gall, Blandine Dizier, Nesrine Zoghdani, Jessica Ransinan, Justin R Hamilton, Pascale Gaussem, Pierre-Louis Tharaux, Jerold Chun, Shaun R Coughlin, Christilla Bachelot-Loza, Timothy Hla, Benoit Ho-Tin-Noé, Eric Camerer
RATIONALE: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling is essential for vascular development and postnatal vascular homeostasis. The relative importance of S1P sources sustaining these processes remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To address the level of redundancy in bioactive S1P provision to the developing and mature vasculature. METHODS AND RESULTS: S1P production was selectively impaired in mouse platelets, erythrocytes, endothelium, or smooth muscle cells by targeted deletion of genes encoding sphingosine kinases -1 and -2...
September 30, 2016: Circulation Research
Angélica K Bernardelli, Rita de C V de A F Da Silva, Thiago Corrêa, José Eduardo Da Silva-Santos
We evaluated the effects of phenylephrine, norepinephrine, angiotensin II, and vasopressin in mesenteric, renal, carotid, and tail arteries, and in perfused mesenteric vascular bed from rats subjected to the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Phenylephrine and angiotensin II were less efficacious in mesenteric arteries from the CLP 6 h and CLP 18 h groups than in preparations from non-septic animals, but no differences were found for norepinephrine and vasopressin between the preparations. In renal arteries, none of the vasoconstrictors had impaired activity in the CLP groups...
June 24, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Laurent Guérin, Antoine Vieillard-Baron
Echocardiography is a noninvasive and accurate tool used in the intensive care unit to assess cardiac function and monitor hemodynamics in shocked patients. During severe sepsis or septic shock, several mechanisms can lead to hemodynamic failure and have to be quickly and precisely diagnosed to propose adequate, personalized, and timely hemodynamic therapy. Echocardiography truly provides intensivists with this diagnostic possibility, whether or not there is fluid responsiveness, cardiac dysfunction, or persistent vasoplegia...
June 2016: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Nelson Américo Hossne Junior, Matheus Miranda, Marcus Rodrigo Monteiro, João Nelson Rodrigues Branco, Guilherme Flora Vargas, José Osmar Medina de Abreu Pestana, Walter José Gomes
OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery bypass grafting is currently the best treatment for dialysis patients with multivessel coronary artery involvement. Vasoplegic syndrome of inflammatory etiology constitutes an important postoperative complication, with highly negative impact on prognosis. Considering that these patients have an intrinsic inflammatory response exacerbation, our goal was to evaluate the incidence and mortality of vasoplegic syndrome after myocardial revascularization in this group...
July 2015: Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular
Jacob R Miller, Kathleen E Simpson, Deirdre J Epstein, Timothy S Lancaster, Matthew C Henn, Richard B Schuessler, David T Balzer, Shabana Shahanavaz, Joshua J Murphy, Charles E Canter, Pirooz Eghtesady, Umar S Boston
BACKGROUND: Patients with a failing Fontan continue to have decreased survival after heart transplant (HT), particularly those with preserved ventricular function (PVF) compared with impaired ventricular function (IVF). In this study we evaluated the effect of institutional changes on post-HT outcomes. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected for all Fontan patients who underwent HT. Mode of failure was defined by the last echocardiogram before HT, with mild or no dysfunction considered PVF and moderate or severe considered IVF...
July 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Christos Stefanou, Lakis Palazis, Areti Loizou, Chrystalla Timiliotou
Any advanced shock eventually degenerates into vasoplegia, which responds weakly to vasopressors. The highest reported norepinephrine flow rate is 3 μg/kg/min. We present the case of a young explosion victim, who was transferred in late haemorrhagic shock. Apart from usual treatment (hydration, mass transfusion protocol), single-agent norepinephrine was used to maintain a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of >60-65 mm Hg. For several hours, norepinephrine flow was 7-10 times the aforementioned (highest reported) in order to achieve our goal; during which, further hydration or transfusion would not contribute to MAP elevation...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Laura Hencken, Long To, Nancy Ly, Jeffrey A Morgan
Methylene blue (MB) has been used for additional blood pressure support in patients who develop severe, refractory vasoplegia; however, MB can induce serotonin syndrome, especially when used in conjunction with other serotonergic agents. We describe a case of serotonin syndrome in a patient who received MB for vasoplegic syndrome after left ventricular assist device implantation and discuss its presentation and management.
April 2016: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Davide Tommaso Andreis, Mervyn Singer
Catecholamines are endogenous neurosignalling mediators and hormones. They are integral in maintaining homeostasis by promptly responding to any stressor. Their synthetic equivalents are the current mainstay of treatment in shock states to counteract myocardial depression and/or vasoplegia. These phenomena are related in large part to decreased adrenoreceptor sensitivity and altered adrenergic signalling, with resultant vascular and cardiomyocyte hyporeactivity. Catecholamines are predominantly used in supraphysiological doses to overcome these pathological consequences...
September 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Wentao Zheng, Yong Kou, Feng-lan Gao, Xiu-he Ouyang
The current study was conducted with the hypothesis that failure of maintenance of the vascular tone may be central to failure of the peripheral circulation and spiralling down of blood pressure in sepsis. Namely, we examined the balance between expression of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphatase and kinase, enzymes that regulate MLCs dephosphorylation and phosphorylation with a direct effect on pharmacomechanical coupling for smooth muscle relaxation and contraction respectively. Mechanical recordings and enzyme immunoassays of vascular smooth muscle lysates were used as the major methods to examine arterial biopsy samples from terminally ill sepsis patients...
2016: Bioscience Reports
Leila Hosseinian, Menachem Weiner, Matthew A Levin, Gregory W Fischer
Methylene blue (MB) has received much attention in the perioperative and critical care literature because of its ability to antagonize the profound vasodilation seen in distributive (also referred to as vasodilatory or vasoplegic) shock states. This review will discuss the pharmacologic properties of MB and review the critical care, liver transplantation, and cardiac anesthesia literature with respect to the efficacy and safety of MB for the treatment of shock. Although improved blood pressure has consistently been demonstrated with the use of MB in small trials and case reports, better oxygen delivery or decreased mortality with MB use has not been demonstrated...
January 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Jennifer K Lee, Caleb Ing
Ventricular assist devices (VADs) are associated with conditions that may complicate the perioperative course of pediatric heart transplants. A 7-year-old girl with dilated cardiomyopathy supported by a Toyobo-NCVC left VAD (Toyobo-National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, Japan), a pulsatile extracorporeal device, and preoperatively anticoagulated with warfarin presented for orthotopic heart transplant. The course was complicated by persistent bleeding treated with prothrombin complex concentrate and refractory postbypass vasoplegia treated with methylene blue...
March 1, 2016: A & A Case Reports
P Marik, R Bellomo
Aggressive fluid resuscitation to achieve a central venous pressure (CVP) greater than 8 mm Hg has been promoted as the standard of care, in the management of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. However recent clinical trials have demonstrated that this approach does not improve the outcome of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Pathophysiologically, sepsis is characterized by vasoplegia with loss of arterial tone, venodilation with sequestration of blood in the unstressed blood compartment and changes in ventricular function with reduced compliance and reduced preload responsiveness...
March 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Michelle Carley, Jacob Schaff, Terrance Lai, Jeremy Poppers
Vasoplegia syndrome, characterized by hypotension refractory to fluid resuscitation or high-dose vasopressors, low systemic vascular resistance, and normal-to-increased cardiac index, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality after cardiothoracic surgery. Methylene blue inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and guanylyl cyclase, and has been used to treat vasoplegia during cardiopulmonary bypass. However, because methylene blue is associated with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, its use in patients undergoing lung transplantion has been limited...
October 15, 2015: A & A Case Reports
Robert Burkes, Gregg Wendorf
Calcium channel blocker toxicity can be devastating. Initial therapy with fluid, calcium, and adrenoreceptor agonists should be prompt and novel therapies can be added if no response. Determining cardiogenic shock versus vasoplegia with echocardiogram or other hemodynamic monitoring may guide treatment options.
July 2015: Clinical Case Reports
Pascale Dewachter, Claudie Mouton-Faivre, David L Hepner
Perioperative anaphylaxis is a unique condition as a result of the additive cardiovascular effects of anesthetics on the cardiovascular disturbances of anaphylaxis. It occurs mainly in adulthood, primarily follows anesthetic induction, and for the most part, is an IgE-mediated pathomechanism. Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) and antibiotics are the main culprit drugs, while latex is now infrequently involved. The Ring and Messmer scale is a useful tool for demonstrating the clinical severity of perioperative immediate hypersensitivity and guiding its management...
May 2015: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
John T Denny, Andrew T Burr, Fred Balzer, James T Tse, Julia E Denny, Darrick Chyu
Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG) is an infusion of polyclonal rabbit-derived antibodies against human thymocyte markers, which can be used to prevent and treat acute rejection following organ transplantation. However, the product monograph issued by the manufacturer (Sanofi Canada) reports that serious immune-mediated reactions have been observed following the use of rATG, consisting of anaphylaxis or severe cytokine release syndrome (CRS), which is a form of vasoplegic syndrome (VS), in which distributive shock occurs refractory to norepinephrine (NE) and vasopressin (VP)...
May 2015: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Kannan Kandasamy, Soumen Choudhury, Vishakha Singh, M Pule Addison, Sazad Ahmad Darzi, Jaya Kiran Kasa, Ramasamy Thangamalai, Jeevan Ranjan Dash, Tarun Kumar, Faheem Sultan, Thakur Uttam Singh, Subhashree Parida, Santosh Kumar Mishra
We investigated the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) posttreatment on survival time and vascular functions in a mouse model of sepsis. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. After 20 ± 2 hours of sepsis, thoracic aorta was isolated for assessing its reactivity to norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine (ACh). We also measured the tissue nitric oxide (NO) level, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), and α1D adrenoceptor messenger RNA (mRNA)/protein expression...
January 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Ludovic Gérard, Anne-Cécile Galloy, Arnaud Capron, Philippe Hantson
CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 58-year-old woman who developed a severe distributive shock following the intentional ingestion of a large overdose of amlodipine (480 mg) combined with valsartan (3680 mg). Extreme vasoplegia remained refractory to maximal standard therapy including fluid resuscitation, intravenous calcium, vasopressors at very high doses, hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia therapy, lipid emulsion, and methylene blue administration. Besides, the patient exhibited hyperglycemia refractory to very high doses of insulin...
July 2015: Clinical Toxicology
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