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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096196/task-evoked-pupil-dilation-and-bold-variance-as-indicators-of-locus-coeruleus-dysfunction
#1
Jeremy A Elman, Matthew S Panizzon, Donald J Hagler, Lisa T Eyler, Eric L Granholm, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Michael J Lyons, Linda K McEvoy, Carol E Franz, Anders M Dale, William S Kremen
Pupillary responses during cognitive tasks are linked to functioning of the locus coeruleus (LC). The LC is an early site of abnormal tau deposition, which may contribute to key aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology. We previously found attenuation of pupillary responses to increases in cognitive load in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), suggesting pupillary responses may provide a biomarker of early risk for AD associated with LC dysfunction. The LC modulates cortical activity through two modes of operation: tonic and phasic...
October 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089921/the-neurological-wake-up-test-a-role-in-neurocritical-care-monitoring-of-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#2
REVIEW
Niklas Marklund
The most fundamental clinical monitoring tool in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients is the repeated clinical examination. In the severe TBI patient treated by continuous sedation in a neurocritical care (NCC) unit, sedation interruption is required to enable a clinical evaluation (named the neurological wake-up test; NWT) assessing the level of consciousness, pupillary diameter and reactivity to light, and presence of focal neurological deficits. There is a basic conflict regarding the NWT in the NCC setting; can the clinical information obtained by the NWT justify the risk of inducing a stress response in a severe TBI patient? Furthermore, in the presence of advanced multimodal monitoring and neuroimaging, is the NWT necessary to identify important clinical alterations? In studies of severe TBI patients, the NWT was consistently shown to induce a stress reaction including brief increases in intracranial pressure (ICP) and changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026665/lasting-bilateral-mydriasis-after-traumatic-brain-injury-may-not-always-be-a-lost-case
#3
Alkinoos Athanasiou, Ioannis Balogiannis, Ioannis Magras
BACKGROUND: Lasting bilateral mydriasis and absence of pupillary light reflex following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are considered signs of irreversible brainstem damage and have been strongly associated with poor outcome. CASE DESCRIPTION: A young female patient presented with severe TBI, contusions, and diffuse brain edema. She was initially treated medically, but developed delayed secondary refractory intracranial hypertension and bilaterally dilated, non-reactive pupils for 12 h...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023181/review-for-disease-of-the-year-varicella-zoster-virus-induced-anterior-uveitis
#4
Ilknur Tugal-Tutkun, Luca Cimino, Yonca Aydin Akova
Varicella zoster virus (VZV)-induced anterior uveitis (AU) may complicate the course of primary varicella infection typically seen in children. In adults, especially with advanced age, VZV AU is more commonly associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) with or without skin rash affecting the distribution of the ophthalmic nerve due to reactivation of the latent VZV in the trigeminal ganglion. While it is typically a mild self-limiting AU in primary infection, HZO AU is often accompanied by keratitis, may have a chronic recurrent course, and lead to sectoral iris atrophy, pupillary distortion, and ocular hypertension...
October 12, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973016/what-do-your-eyes-reveal-about-your-foreign-language-reading-emotional-sentences-in-a-native-and-foreign-language
#5
Sara Iacozza, Albert Costa, Jon Andoni Duñabeitia
Foreign languages are often learned in emotionally neutral academic environments which differ greatly from the familiar context where native languages are acquired. This difference in learning contexts has been argued to lead to reduced emotional resonance when confronted with a foreign language. In the current study, we investigated whether the reactivity of the sympathetic nervous system in response to emotionally-charged stimuli is reduced in a foreign language. To this end, pupil sizes were recorded while reading aloud emotional sentences in the native or foreign language...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970182/pathophysiological-profiles-of-sdt-fatty-rats-a-potential-new-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-model
#6
Tatsuya Maekawa, Hironobu Tadaki, Tomohiko Sasase, Yu Motohashi, Katsuhiro Miyajima, Takeshi Ohta, Shinichi Kume
INTRODUCTION: To establish an animal model for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) at an earlier stage, we performed functional and pathophysiological evaluations in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rats before 16weeks of age. METHODS: Male SDT fatty rats were treated with vehicle or phlorizin (100 to 150mg/kg/day) from 5 to 16weeks. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used as age-matched controls. Body weights and biochemical parameters were measured over time...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904458/can-transcranial-color-doppler-spectral-signatures-be-a-novel-biomarker-for-monitoring-cerebrovascular-autoregulation-and-intracranial-pressure-a-speculative-synthesis
#7
Sandhya Mangalore, Kotresh, Rakshith Srinivasa, Alangar Sathyaranjandas Hegde, Rangashetty Srinivasa
BACKGROUND: Trans Cranial Colour Doppler (TCCD) has been extensively used in various neurological and neurosurgical conditions causing severe raise in the intracranial pressure (ICP). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Our study explores the sequential evolution of TCCD flow pattern by correlating with pupillary reactivity, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), and imaging. Our cohort consisted of thirty patients with ten patients in each subgroup admitted to the neuro-Intensive Care Unit (NICU) for various neurological and neurosurgical causes...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884559/artificial-neural-network-predicts-hemorrhagic-contusions-following-decompressive-craniotomy-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Jian-Li Wang, Guo-Liang Jin, Zi-Gang Yuan
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore relevant factors of hemorrhagic contusions following decompressive craniotomy (DC) in traumatic brain injury (TBI), and create an artificial neural network (ANN) prediction model of the risk factors of hemorrhagic contusions. METHODS: This study analyzed 425 patients with TBI who underwent DC in the Neurosurgery Department of Shaoxing People's Hospital between 2009 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups according to the first postoperative CT scans: hemorrhage group and non-hemorrhage group...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867312/models-of-mortality-and-morbidity-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-an-analysis-of-a-singapore-neurotrauma-database
#9
Julian Xinguang Han, Angela An Qi See, Mihir Gandhi, Nicolas Kon Kam King
OBJECTIVE: Current prognostic models for traumatic brain injury (TBI) are developed from diverse historical data sets. We aimed to construct a prognostication tool for patients with severe TBI, as this group would benefit most from an accurate model. METHODS: Model development was based on a cohort of 300 patients with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤8) consecutively admitted to a neurosurgical intensive care unit at the National Neuroscience Institute (NNI), Singapore, between February 2006 and December 2009...
September 1, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728875/the-use-and-uptake-of-pupillometers-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#10
Matthew Hao Lee, Biswadev Mitra, Jiun Kae Pui, Mark Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health issue. Assessing pupil reactivity is a crucial aspect of its management and the pupillometer has been shown to be a more objective tool compared to the standard penlight. Its use, however, is not widespread. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the paucity in uptake, we examined the frequency of use of pupillometers (NeurOptics(®)NPi-100™) amongst Intensive Care Unit (ICU) doctors and nurses, evaluated its user-friendliness and explored barriers to its use...
July 17, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726590/a-method-of-managing-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-absence-of-intracranial-pressure-monitoring-the-imaging-and-clinical-examination-protocol
#11
Randall M Chesnut, Nancy Temkin, Sureyya Dikmen, Carlos Rondina, Walter Videtta, Gustavo Petroni, Silvia Lujan, Victor Alanis, Antonio Falcao, Gustavo de la Fuenta, Luis Gonzalez, Manuel Jibaja, Arturo Lavarden, Freddy Sandi, Roberto Mérida, Ricardo Romero, Jim Pridgeon, Jason Barber, Joan Machamer, Kelley Chaddock
The imaging and clinical examination (ICE) algorithm used in the Benchmark Evidence from South American Trials: Treatment of Intracranial Pressure (BEST TRIP) randomized controlled trial is the only prospectively investigated clinical protocol for traumatic brain injury management without intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. As the default literature standard, it warrants careful evaluation. We present the ICE protocol in detail and analyze the demographics, outcome, treatment intensity, frequency of intervention usage, and related adverse events in the ICE-protocol cohort...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661950/establishing-normative-data-for-pupillometer-assessment-in-neuroscience-intensive-care-the-end-panic-registry
#12
DaiWai M Olson, Sonja E Stutzman, Folefac Atem, Julia D Kincaide, Thuy-Tien Ho, Byron A Carlisle, Venkatesh Aiyagari
BACKGROUND: Trained medical practitioners have been assessing the pupillary light reflex for more than 2 millennia. However, the interrater reliability of the pupillary light reflex remains low. To overcome the drawbacks of a subjective interpretation of pupillary size and reactivity, automated pupillometers are becoming increasingly commonplace, but practitioners do not have adequate data from which to judge whether the numerical values provided by the pupillometer are "within reference limits...
August 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643996/age-related-outcome-of-patients-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-single-centre-observation
#13
Rolf Erlebach, Alberto Pagnamenta, Stephanie Klinzing, Federica Stretti, Silvia Cottini, Reto Schüpbach, Peter Steiger, Giovanna Brandi
BACKGROUND: Study-purpose is to analyze clinical features of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), their age-related outcomes and determinants of long- term outcome. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in a level I University Swiss trauma center. Consecutive patients with moderate to severe TBI admitted for more than 48 hours to the Intensive Care Unit were included. Patients' and trauma characteristics, management during ICU-stay, prognostic scores and long- term outcomes were analyzed...
June 22, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578187/pupillometric-and-saccadic-measures-of-affective-and-executive-processing-in-anxiety
#14
Piril Hepsomali, Julie A Hadwin, Simon P Liversedge, Matthew Garner
Anxious individuals report hyper-arousal and sensitivity to environmental stimuli, difficulties concentrating, performing tasks efficiently and inhibiting unwanted thoughts and distraction. We used pupillometry and eye-movement measures to compare high vs. low anxious individuals hyper-reactivity to emotional stimuli (facial expressions) and subsequent attentional biases in a memory-guided pro- and antisaccade task during conditions of low and high cognitive load (short vs. long delay). High anxious individuals produced larger and slower pupillary responses to face stimuli, and more erroneous eye-movements, particularly following long delay...
May 31, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569348/black-tar-heroin-skin-popping-as-a-cause-of-wound-botulism
#15
Ihtesham A Qureshi, Mohtashim A Qureshi, Mohammad Rauf Afzal, Alberto Maud, Gustavo J Rodriguez, Salvador Cruz-Flores, Darine Kassar
BACKGROUND: Botulism is a rare potentially fatal and treatable disorder caused by a bacteria-produced toxin that affects the presynaptic synaptic membrane resulting in a characteristic neuromuscular dysfunction. It is caused by either the ingestion of the toxin or the bacteria, inhalation, or wound infection. We present our observations with a descriptive case series of wound botulism secondary to black tar heroin (BTH) injection. METHODS: We report a retrospective single-center case series of 15 consecutive cases of wound botulism presenting to University Medical Center of El Paso...
May 31, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554534/ophthalmic-manifestations-of-xeroderma-pigmentosum-a-perspective-from-the-united-kingdom
#16
Rongxuan Lim, Mieran Sethi, Ana M S Morley
PURPOSE: To document the ocular manifestations of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), presenting via the United Kingdom (UK) XP service, and to analyze the correlations between XP genotype and ophthalmic phenotype. DESIGN: Prospective observational case series. SUBJECTS: Eighty-nine patients seen by the UK Nationally Commissioned XP Service, from April 2010 to December 2014, with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of XP. METHODS: Patients underwent a full ophthalmic examination at each visit...
November 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515685/pupillary-response-to-negative-emotional-stimuli-is-differentially-affected-in-meditation-practitioners
#17
Alejandra Vasquez-Rosati, Enzo P Brunetti, Carmen Cordero, Pedro E Maldonado
Clinically, meditative practices have become increasingly relevant, decreasing anxiety in patients and increasing antibody production. However, few studies have examined the physiological correlates, or effects of the incorporation of meditative practices. Because pupillary reactivity is a marker for autonomic changes and emotional processing, we hypothesized that the pupillary responses of mindfulness meditation practitioners (MP) and subjects without such practices (non-meditators (NM)) differ, reflecting different emotional processing...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497927/the-potential-role-of-pain-related-sseps-in-the-early-prognostication-of-long-term-functional-outcome-in-post-anoxic-coma
#18
Alessandra Del Felice, Stefano Bargellesi, Federico Linassi, Bruno Scarpa, Emanuela Formaggio, Paolo Boldrini, Stefano Masiero, Paolo Zanatta
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a common cause of disability. Multimodal evaluation has improved prognosis but precocious biomarkers are not appropriate in determining long-term functional outcome. AIM: to identify early prognostication markers of long-term functional outcome in post-anoxic coma. DESIGN: retrospective assessment of outcomes. POPULATION: Individuals older than 18 years with post-anoxic coma hospitalized in intensive care units after cardiac arrest (CA) regardless of cause (cardiac or non-cardiac) and location of event (in or out-of-hospital)...
May 12, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439168/ocular-injuries-in-patients-of-zygomatico-complex-zmc-fractures
#19
Altaf Hussain Malik, Aijaz A Shah, Irshad Ahmad, Babar Ai Shah
PURPOSE: Mid face injuries commonly destroy the integrity of the orbital skeleton, and are frequently complicated by injury to the eye, ranging between 2.7 and 90.6 % as reported in literature. The eye injuries range from simple subconjunctival haemorrhage to globe rupture. The paper aims to study the types of ocular injuries in patients with ZMC fractures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A study of 67 patients, who had sustained facial trauma sufficient to lead to a facial bone fracture, was undertaken in the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Govt Dental College, Srinagar from 2008 to 2014 and the patients received a comprehensive examination by an ophthalmologist within 1 week of injury...
June 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406812/electroencephalography-predicts-poor-and-good-outcomes-after-cardiac-arrest-a-two-center-study
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Andrea O Rossetti, Diego F Tovar Quiroga, Elsa Juan, Jan Novy, Roger D White, Nawfel Ben-Hamouda, Jeffrey W Britton, Mauro Oddo, Alejandro A Rabinstein
OBJECTIVE: The prognostic role of electroencephalography during and after targeted temperature management in postcardiac arrest patients, relatively to other predictors, is incompletely known. We assessed performances of electroencephalography during and after targeted temperature management toward good and poor outcomes, along with other recognized predictors. DESIGN: Cohort study (April 2009 to March 2016). SETTING: Two academic hospitals (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland; Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN)...
July 2017: Critical Care Medicine
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