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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515685/pupillary-response-to-negative-emotional-stimuli-is-differentially-affected-in-meditation-practitioners
#1
Alejandra Vasquez-Rosati, Enzo P Brunetti, Carmen Cordero, Pedro E Maldonado
Clinically, meditative practices have become increasingly relevant, decreasing anxiety in patients and increasing antibody production. However, few studies have examined the physiological correlates, or effects of the incorporation of meditative practices. Because pupillary reactivity is a marker for autonomic changes and emotional processing, we hypothesized that the pupillary responses of mindfulness meditation practitioners (MP) and subjects without such practices (non-meditators (NM)) differ, reflecting different emotional processing...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497927/the-potential-role-of-pain-related-sseps-in-the-early-prognostication-of-long-term-functional-outcome-in-post-anoxic-coma
#2
Alessandra Del Felice, Stefano Bargellesi, Federico Linassi, Bruno Scarpa, Emanuela Formaggio, Paolo Boldrini, Stefano Masiero, Paolo Zanatta
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a common cause of disability. Multimodal evaluation has improved prognosis but precocious biomarkers are not appropriate in determining long-term functional outcome. AIM: to identify early prognostication markers of long-term functional outcome in post-anoxic coma. DESIGN: retrospective assessment of outcomes. POPULATION: Individuals older than 18 years with post-anoxic coma hospitalized in intensive care units after cardiac arrest (CA) regardless of cause (cardiac or non-cardiac) and location of event (in or out-of-hospital)...
May 12, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439168/ocular-injuries-in-patients-of-zygomatico-complex-zmc-fractures
#3
Altaf Hussain Malik, Aijaz A Shah, Irshad Ahmad, Babar Ai Shah
PURPOSE: Mid face injuries commonly destroy the integrity of the orbital skeleton, and are frequently complicated by injury to the eye, ranging between 2.7 and 90.6 % as reported in literature. The eye injuries range from simple subconjunctival haemorrhage to globe rupture. The paper aims to study the types of ocular injuries in patients with ZMC fractures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A study of 67 patients, who had sustained facial trauma sufficient to lead to a facial bone fracture, was undertaken in the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Govt Dental College, Srinagar from 2008 to 2014 and the patients received a comprehensive examination by an ophthalmologist within 1 week of injury...
June 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406812/electroencephalography-predicts-poor-and-good-outcomes-after-cardiac-arrest-a-two-center-study
#4
Andrea O Rossetti, Diego F Tovar Quiroga, Elsa Juan, Jan Novy, Roger D White, Nawfel Ben-Hamouda, Jeffrey W Britton, Mauro Oddo, Alejandro A Rabinstein
OBJECTIVE: The prognostic role of electroencephalography during and after targeted temperature management in postcardiac arrest patients, relatively to other predictors, is incompletely known. We assessed performances of electroencephalography during and after targeted temperature management toward good and poor outcomes, along with other recognized predictors. DESIGN: Cohort study (April 2009 to March 2016). SETTING: Two academic hospitals (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland; Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN)...
April 12, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337603/multimodal-outcome-prognostication-after-cardiac-arrest-and-targeted-temperature-management-analysis-at-36%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c
#5
Spyridoula Tsetsou, Jan Novy, Christian Pfeiffer, Mauro Oddo, Andrea O Rossetti
BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management (TTM) represents the standard of care in comatose survivors after cardiac arrest (CA) and may be applied targeting 33° or 36 °C. While multimodal prognostication has been extensively tested for 33 °C, scarce information exists for 36 °C. METHODS: In this cohort study, consecutive comatose adults after CA treated with TTM at 36 °C between July 2014 and October 2016 were included. A combination of neurological examination, electrophysiological features, and serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was evaluated for outcome prediction at 3 months (mortality; good outcome defined as cerebral performance categories (CPC) score of 1-2, poor outcome defined as CPC 3-5)...
March 23, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324264/reverse-locked-in-syndrome
#6
Pooja Raibagkar, Ram V Chavali, Tamara B Kaplan, Jennifer A Kim, Meaghan V Nitka, Sherry H-Y Chou, Brian L Edlow
BACKGROUND: Basilar artery occlusion can cause locked-in syndrome, which is characterized by quadriplegia, anarthria, and limited communication via eye movements. Here, we describe an uncommon stroke syndrome associated with endovascular recanalization of the top of the basilar artery: "reverse locked-in syndrome." METHODS: We report the case of a patient with atypical neurological deficits caused by acute ischemic stroke of the midbrain tegmentum. We perform neuroanatomic localization of the patient's infarcts by mapping the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data onto a brainstem atlas...
March 21, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323524/comparison-of-two-predictive-models-for-short-term-mortality-in-patients-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Klara Kesmarky, Cecile Delhumeau, Marie Zenobi, Bernhard Walder
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the Abbreviated Injury Score of the head region (HAIS) are validated prognostic factors in traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to compare the prognostic performance of an alternative predictive model including motor GCS, pupillary reactivity, age, HAIS, and presence of multi-trauma for short-term mortality with a reference predictive model including motor GCS, pupil reaction, and age (IMPACT core model). A secondary analysis of a prospective epidemiological cohort study in Switzerland including patients after severe TBI (HAIS >3) with the outcome death at 14 days was performed...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286831/predictive-factors-of-survival-and-6-month-favorable-outcome-of-very-severe-head-trauma-patients-a-historical-cohort-study
#8
Karin Vathanalaoha, Thakul Oearsakul, Thara Tunthanathip
INTRODUCTION: Very severe head trauma cases, defined as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of less than 6, have a higher mortality rate and poorer outcome. The purpose of this study was to recognize factors associated with survival and 6-month favorable outcome of very severe head trauma patients presenting to emergency department. METHODS: In this historical cohort study, the authors retrospectively reviewed medical records of head trauma patients who were admitted to the emergency department with post-resuscitation GCS scores of less than 6...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107273/influence-of-depth-of-hypnosis-on-pupillary-reactivity-to-a-standardized-tetanic-stimulus-in-patients-under-propofol-remifentanil-target-controlled-infusion-a-crossover-randomized-pilot-study
#9
Nada Sabourdin, Jean-Baptiste Peretout, Eliane Khalil, Marie-Laurence Guye, Nicolas Louvet, Isabelle Constant
BACKGROUND: Pupillometry allows the measurement of pupillary diameter variations in response to nociceptive stimuli. This technique has been used to monitor the balance between analgesia and nociception. Under general anesthesia, the amplitude of pupillary dilation is related to the amount of administered opioids. The objective of this study was to determine whether at a constant infusion rate of opioids, the pupillary response was influenced by depth of hypnosis assessed by the bispectral index (BIS)...
January 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008074/increased-neural-and-pupillary-reactivity-to-emotional-faces-in-adolescents-with-current-and-remitted-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Katie L Burkhouse, Max Owens, Cope Feurer, Effua Sosoo, Anastacia Kudinova, Brandon E Gibb
The current study combined multiple levels of analysis to examine whether disrupted neural and pupillary reactivity to emotional faces serves as a state- or trait-like marker of adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD). The study examined differences in pupil dilation and the event-related potential (ERP) late positive potential (LPP) component to emotional faces before and after a negative mood induction between 71 adolescents (age 11-18 years) with (i) a current diagnosis of MDD, (ii) a past episode of MDD currently in full remission, and (iii) no lifetime history of any Axis I disorder...
December 21, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982219/nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-following-pars-plana-vitrectomy-for-macular-hole-treatment-case-report
#11
Leonardo Provetti Cunha, Luciana Virgínia Ferreira Costa Cunha, Carolina Ferreira Costa, Mário Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro
Herein, we report a case of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) following uneventful pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole treatment. A 56-year-old previously healthy woman presented with a full-thickness macular hole in right eye (OD) and small cup-to-disc ratios in both eyes. Five days after surgery, she noticed sudden painless loss of vision in OD and was found to have an afferent pupillary defect and intraocular pressure of 29 mmHg. Fundus examination showed right optic disc edema and the resolution of a macular hole with an inferior altitudinal visual field defect...
September 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796652/prognostic-value-of-corpus-callosum-injuries-in-severe-head-trauma
#12
Marta Cicuendez, Ana Castaño-León, Ana Ramos, Amaya Hilario, Pedro A Gómez, Alfonso Lagares
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to investigate the relationship between corpus callosum (CC) injury and prognosis in traumatic axonal injury (TAI). METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed 264 patients with severe head trauma who underwent a conventional MR imaging in the first 60 days after injury. They were selected from a prospectively collected database of 1048 patients with severe head trauma admitted in our hospital. TAI lesions were defined as areas of increased signal intensity on T2 and FLAIR or areas of decreased signal on gradient-echo T2...
January 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784772/predicting-survival-after-acute-civilian-penetrating-brain-injuries-the-spin-score
#13
MULTICENTER STUDY
Susanne Muehlschlegel, Didem Ayturk, Aditi Ahlawat, Saef Izzy, Thomas M Scalea, Deborah M Stein, Timothy Emhoff, Kevin N Sheth
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors associated with survival in civilian penetrating traumatic brain injury (pTBI) utilizing a contemporary, large, diverse 2-center cohort, and to develop a parsimonious survival prediction score for pTBI. METHODS: Our cohort comprised 413 pTBI patients retrospectively identified from the local trauma registries at 2 US level 1 trauma centers, of which one was predominantly urban and the other predominantly rural. Predictors of in-hospital and 6-month survival identified in univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to develop the simple Surviving Penetrating Injury to the Brain (SPIN) score...
November 22, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779091/pupillary-and-affective-responses-to-maternal-feedback-and-the-development-of-borderline-personality-disorder-symptoms
#14
Lori N Scott, Maureen Zalewski, Joseph E Beeney, Neil P Jones, Stephanie D Stepp
Etiological models propose that a biological vulnerability to emotional reactivity plays an important role in the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the physiological and phenomenological components of emotional reactivity that predict the course of BPD symptoms in adolescence are poorly understood. This prospective study examines pupillary and affective responses to maternal feedback as predictors of BPD symptom development in adolescent girls over 18 months. Fifty-seven 16-year-old girls completed a laboratory task in which they heard recorded clips of their own mothers making critical or praising statements about them, as well as neutral statements that did not pertain to them...
October 25, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720997/autonomic-nervous-system-reactivity-within-the-valence-arousal-affective-space-modulation-by-sex-and-age
#15
Patrick Gomez, Armin von Gunten, Brigitta Danuser
In the present study, we examined how sex and age shape cardiovascular, electrodermal, and pupillary reactivity to picture series within the valence-arousal affective space in a sample of 176 healthy younger, middle-aged, and older men and women. Across participants, heart rate (HR) decelerated with increasing self-reported unpleasantness, whereas skin conductance level (SCL) and pupil size (PS) increased with increasing self-rated arousal. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure increased with increasing self-rated arousal when valence was pleasant but much less when valence was unpleasant...
November 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671353/pupillary-reactivity-to-negative-stimuli-prospectively-predicts-recurrence-of-major-depressive-disorder-in-women
#16
Anastacia Y Kudinova, Katie L Burkhouse, Greg Siegle, Max Owens, Mary L Woody, Brandon E Gibb
There is a large body of research supporting the association between disrupted physiological reactivity to negative stimuli and depression. The present study aimed to examine whether physiological reactivity to emotional stimuli, assessed via pupil dilation, served as a biological marker of risk for depression recurrence among individuals who are known to be at a higher risk due to having previous history of depression. Participants were 57 women with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD). Pupil dilation to angry, happy, sad, and neutral faces was recorded...
December 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669329/ciliary-body-iris-appositioning-producing-mechanical-pupillary-defects-in-carotid-cavernous-sinus-fistula-an-overlooked-pathophysiologic-mechanism
#17
Margarita G Todorova, Cameron F Parsa
BACKGROUND: Variable pupillary responses have been described with carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas. These often are associated with a decrease in visual acuity and attributed to retinal ischemia. We propose a novel pathophysiologic mechanism for changes in pupillary reactivity involving anatomic changes secondary to choroidal effusion. METHODS: To demonstrate proof-of-concept, we investigated 2 consecutive patients with carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas and pupillary disturbances using repeated refractions and anterior segment ultrasound biomicroscopy...
March 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553436/early-prediction-of-outcome-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-simple-and-practical-model
#18
Sandro Rizoli, Ashley Petersen, Eileen Bulger, Raul Coimbra, Jeffrey D Kerby, Joseph Minei, Laurie Morrison, Avery Nathens, Martin Schreiber, Airton Leonardo de Oliveira Manoel
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a heterogeneous syndrome with a broad range of outcome. We developed a simple model for long-term outcome prognostication after severe TBI. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of a large multicenter randomized trial. Patients were grouped according to 6-month extended Glasgow outcome scale (eGOS): poor-outcome (eGOS ≤ 4; severe disability or death) and acceptable outcome (eGOS > 4; no or moderate disability)...
August 24, 2016: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422586/inter-device-reliability-of-the-npi-100-pupillometer
#19
Weidan Zhao, Sonja Stutzman, Olson DaiWai, Ciji Saju, Margaret Wilson, Venkatesh Aiyagari
The purpose of this study was to explore the inter-device reliability of NPi-100 pupillometers (NeuroOptics, Inc.). The pupillary examination is a fundamental element of the neurological exam. Current evidence suggests that the traditional examination of the pupil with a hand held flashlight has limited inter-rater reliability. Automated pupillometers were developed to provide an objective scoring of pupil size and reactivity. However, there are no data examining inter-device reliability of automated pupil assessments...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274213/safety-and-efficacy-of-phacoemulsification-and-intraocular-lens-implantation-through-a-small-pupil-using-minimal-iris-manipulation
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Dimitris Papaconstantinou, George Kalantzis, Dimitris Brouzas, Anastasios Kontaxakis, Chryssanthi Koutsandrea, Andreas Diagourtas, Ilias Georgalas
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the results of phacoemulsification through a small pupil using minimal iris manipulation versus phacoemulsification through a well-dilated pupil. METHODS: This prospective randomized control (comparative) study comprised 78 patients (group I) with a maximally dilated pupil size of ≤4.00 mm and 45 patients (group II) with dilated pupil size of ≥7.00 mm. In group I patients, only viscodilation and minimal push-and-pull iris stretching with two collar-button iris-retractor hooks were utilized without iris manipulation...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
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