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Implicit memory

David R Shanks
Many studies of unconscious processing involve comparing a performance measure (e.g., some assessment of perception or memory) with an awareness measure (such as a verbal report or a forced-choice response) taken either concurrently or separately. Unconscious processing is inferred when above-chance performance is combined with null awareness. Often, however, aggregate awareness is better than chance, and data analysis therefore employs a form of extreme group analysis focusing post hoc on participants, trials, or items where awareness is absent or at chance...
October 17, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Anna Brancato, Gianluca Lavanco, Angela Cavallaro, Fulvio Plescia, Carla Cannizzaro
BACKGROUND: Emotionally salient experiences induce the formation of explicit memory traces, besides eliciting automatic or implicit emotional memory in rodents. This study aims at investigating the implementation of a novel task for studying the formation of limbic memory engrams as a result of the acquisition- and retrieval- of fear-conditioning - biased declarative memory traces, measured by animal discrimination of an "emotional-object". Moreover, by using this new method we investigated the potential interactions between stimulation of cannabinoid transmission and integration of emotional information and cognitive functioning...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
A Gómez, B Rodríguez-Expósito, E Durán, I Martín-Monzón, C Broglio, C Salas, F Rodríguez
The presence of multiple memory systems supported by different neural substrata has been demonstrated in animal and human studies. In mammals, two variants of eyeblink classical conditioning, differing only in the temporal relationships between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US), have been widely used to study the neural substrata of these different memory systems. Delay conditioning, in which both stimuli coincide in time, depends on a non-relational memory system supported by the cerebellum and associated brainstem circuits...
October 6, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Soleil García-Brito, Ignacio Morgado-Bernal, Neus Biosca-Simon, Pilar Segura-Torres
Intracranial self-Stimulation (ICSS) of the medial forebrain bundle is a treatment capable of consistently facilitating acquisition of learning and memory in a wide array of experimental paradigms in rats. However, the evidence supporting this effect on implicit memory comes mainly from classical conditioning and avoidance tasks. The present work aims to determine whether ICSS would also improve the performance of rats in another type of implicit task such as cued simultaneous visual discrimination in the Morris Water Maze...
October 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Ari S Morcos, Christopher D Harvey
We studied how the posterior parietal cortex combines new information with ongoing activity dynamics as mice accumulate evidence during a virtual navigation task. Using new methods to analyze population activity on single trials, we found that activity transitioned rapidly between different sets of active neurons. Each event in a trial, whether an evidence cue or a behavioral choice, caused seconds-long modifications to the probabilities that govern how one activity pattern transitions to the next, forming a short-term memory...
October 3, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Liwen Zhang, Lisette van der Meer, Esther M Opmeer, Jan-Bernard C Marsman, Henricus G Ruhé, André Aleman
Disturbances in implicit self-processing have been reported both in psychotic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia. It remains unclear whether these two psychotic disorders show disturbed functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection, which is associated with social functioning and illness symptoms. Therefore, we investigated functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection in BD with past psychosis and schizophrenia. Twenty-three BD-patients, 17 schizophrenia-patients and 21 health controls (HC) performed a self-reflection task, including the conditions self-reflection, close other-reflection and semantic control...
September 27, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Sydney Y Schaefer, Kevin Duff
Practice effects on neuropsychological tests, which are improvements in test scores due to repeated exposure to testing materials, are robust in healthy elders, but muted in older adults with cognitive disorders. Conversely, few studies have investigated practice effects on motor tasks involving procedural memory, particularly across test-retest periods exceeding 24 hours. The current study examined one-week practice effects on a novel upper extremity motor task in 54 older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Menahem Yeari, Adi Avramovich, Rachel Schiff
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated that students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) struggle particularly with grasping the implicit, inferential level of narratives that is crucial for story comprehension. However, these studies used offline tasks (i.e., after story presentation), used indirect measurements (e.g., identifying main ideas), and/or yielded inconclusive results using think-aloud techniques. Moreover, most studies were conducted with preschool or elementary school children with ADHD, using listening or televised story comprehension...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Cheng Chung Wang, Hsi-Chien Shih, Bai Chuang Shyu, Andrew Chih Wei Huang
Hemorrhagic stroke has many symptoms, including central pain, learning and memory impairments, motor deficits, language problems, emotional disturbances, and social maladjustment. Lesions of the ventral basal complex (VBC) of the thalamus elicit thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, forming an animal model of central post-stroke pain (CPSP). However, no research has yet examined the involvement of learning and memory in CPSP using an animal model. The present study examined whether VBC lesions affect motor function, conditioned place preference (CPP; implicit memory), and spatial learning (explicit memory) in the acquisition and retrieval phases...
September 25, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Nicolas Rothen, Beat Meier
We investigated whether circadian arousal affects perceptual priming as a function of whether stimuli were attended or ignored during learning. We tested 160 participants on- and off-peak with regards to their circadian arousal. In the study phase, they were presented with two superimposed pictures in different colours. They had to name the pictures of one colour while ignoring the others. In the test phase, they were presented with the same and randomly intermixed new pictures. Each picture was presented in black colour in a fragment completion task...
September 24, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Andrea M Lavigne, Mark D Wood, Tim Janssen, Reinout W Wiers
AIMS: Research informed by dual-process models of addictions has clearly demonstrated an association between implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions and alcohol consumption. However, the literature is limited with respect to examination of the cognitive abilities that may moderate these associations across populations. This study examined relations among alcohol associations, inhibition and alcohol consumption in a sample of college students. It was hypothesized that the executive ability of response inhibition would moderate relations between alcohol-related cognitions and alcohol consumption, such that individuals with weaker response inhibition would demonstrate stronger relations between implicit cognitions and use, while individuals with stronger response inhibition would demonstrate more robust relations between explicit cognitions and use...
September 20, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Sevanne Carpenter, Cailin M Rothwell, Michelle L Wright, Eric de Hoog, Sarah Walker, Emma Hudson, Gaynor E Spencer
Retinoid signaling plays an important role in hippocampal-dependent vertebrate memories. However, we have previously demonstrated that retinoids are also involved in the formation of long-term implicit memory following operant conditioning of the invertebrate mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis. Furthermore, we have discovered an interaction between environmental light/dark conditions and retinoid signaling and the ability of both to convert intermediate-term memory into long-term memory. In this study, we extend these findings to show that retinoid receptor agonists and environmental darkness can both also extend the duration of long-term memory...
September 16, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Tim H W Cornelissen, Melissa L-H Võ
People have an amazing ability to identify objects and scenes with only a glimpse. How automatic is this scene and object identification? Are scene and object semantics-let alone their semantic congruity-processed to a degree that modulates ongoing gaze behavior even if they are irrelevant to the task at hand? Objects that do not fit the semantics of the scene (e.g., a toothbrush in an office) are typically fixated longer and more often than objects that are congruent with the scene context. In this study, we overlaid a letter T onto photographs of indoor scenes and instructed participants to search for it...
September 19, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Catherine E Myers, Janice Rego, Paul Haber, Kirsten Morley, Kevin D Beck, Lee Hogarth, Ahmed A Moustafa
This study adapts a widely-used acquired equivalence paradigm to investigate how opioid-addicted individuals learn from positive and negative feedback, and how they generalize this learning. The opioid-addicted group consisted of 33 participants with a history of heroin dependency currently in a methadone maintenance program; the control group consisted of 32 healthy participants without a history of drug addiction. All participants performed a novel variant of the acquired equivalence task, where they learned to map some stimuli to correct outcomes in order to obtain reward, and to map other stimuli to correct outcomes in order to avoid punishment; some stimuli were implicitly "equivalent" in the sense of being paired with the same outcome...
September 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Maddalena Marini, Sara Agosta, Giuseppe Sartori
The autobiographical IAT (aIAT) is an implicit behavioral instrument that can detect autobiographical memories encoded in an individual's mind by measuring how quickly this person can categorize and associate sentences related to a specific event with the logical dimensions true and false. Faster categorization when an event (e.g., I went to Paris) is associated with the dimension true than false indicates that that specific event is encoded as true in the individual's mind. The aim of this study is to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of the aIAT, used as a memory-detection technique (i...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Christopher Cappelli, Susan Ames, Yusuke Shono, Mark Dust, Alan Stacy
BACKGROUND: This study used a dual-process model of cognition in order to investigate the possible influence of automatic and deliberative processes on lifetime alcohol use in a sample of drug offenders. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine if automatic/implicit associations in memory can exert an influence over an individual's alcohol use and if decision-making ability could potentially modify the influence of these associations. METHODS: 168 participants completed a battery of cognitive tests measuring implicit alcohol associations in memory (verb generation) as well as their affective decision-making ability (Iowa Gambling Task)...
September 13, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Lise Desmottes, Christelle Maillart, Thierry Meulemans
In this study, the time course of the procedural learning of a visuomotor sequence skill was followed over a 24-hour and a 1-week time period in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Two aspects of memory consolidation in implicit sequence learning were examined: the evolution of post-training gains in sequence knowledge (Experiment 1) and the susceptibility to interference (Experiment 2). In the first experiment, 18 children with SLI and 17 control children matched for sex, age, and nonverbal intelligence completed a serial reaction-time (SRT) task and were tested 24 hours and 1 week after practicing...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Isabelle Simoes Loureiro, Laurent Lefebvre
Taxonomic and thematic relationships are core elements of lexico-semantic networks. However, the weight of both links differs in semantic memory, with distinct support for natural and manufactured objects: natural objects tend to be more taxonomically identified while manufactured objects benefit more from the underlying thematic relationships. Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes early semantic memory impairment characterized by a category-specific deterioration, where natural objects are more sensitive to the disease than manufactured objects...
September 7, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Kaitlyn R Bankieris, Richard N Aslin
Although cross-modal neural connections and genetic underpinnings are prominent in most current theories regarding the development of synesthesia, the potential role of associative learning in the formation of synesthetic associations has recently been revitalized. In this study, we investigated implicit associative learning in synesthetes and nonsynesthetes by recording reaction times to a target whose color was probabilistically correlated with its shape. A continuous measure of target detection at multiple time points during learning revealed that synesthetes and nonsynesthetes learn associations differently...
September 9, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Emma E Howard, S Gareth Edwards, Andrew P Bayliss
We investigated the effect of effort on implicit agency ascription for actions performed under varying levels of physical effort or cognitive load. People are able to estimate the interval between two events accurately, but they underestimate the interval between their own actions and their outcomes. This effect is known as 'intentional binding', and may provide feedback regarding the consequences of our actions. Concurrently with the interval reproduction task, our participants pulled sports resistance bands at high and low resistance levels (Experiments 1 and 2), or performed a working memory task with high and low set-sizes (Experiment 3)...
September 6, 2016: Cognition
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