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Implicit memory

Nicola Cellini, Alessandra Capuozzo
Recent studies have shown that the reactivation of specific memories during sleep can be modulated using external stimulation. Specifically, it has been reported that matching a sensory stimulus (e.g., odor or sound cue) with target information (e.g., pairs of words, pictures, and motor sequences) during wakefulness, and then presenting the cue alone during sleep, facilitates memory of the target information. Thus, presenting learned cues while asleep may reactivate related declarative, procedural, and emotional material, and facilitate the neurophysiological processes underpinning memory consolidation in humans...
May 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Catia M Teixeira, Zev B Rosen, Deepika Suri, Qian Sun, Marc Hersh, Derya Sargin, Iva Dincheva, Ashlea A Morgan, Stephen Spivack, Anne C Krok, Tessa Hirschfeld-Stoler, Evelyn K Lambe, Steven A Siegelbaum, Mark S Ansorge
The efficacy and duration of memory storage is regulated by neuromodulatory transmitter actions. While the modulatory transmitter serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in implicit forms of memory in the invertebrate Aplysia, its function in explicit memory mediated by the mammalian hippocampus is less clear. Specifically, the consequences elicited by the spatio-temporal gradient of endogenous 5-HT release are not known. Here we applied optogenetic techniques in mice to gain insight into this fundamental biological process...
May 8, 2018: Neuron
Lucas S Broster, Shonna L Jenkins, Sarah D Holmes, Matthew G Edwards, Gregory A Jicha, Yang Jiang
Forms of implicit memory, including repetition effects, are preserved relative to explicit memory in clinical Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, cognitive interventions for persons with Alzheimer's disease have been developed that leverage this fact. However, despite the clinical robustness of behavioral repetition effects, altered neural mechanisms of repetition effects are studied as biomarkers of both clinical Alzheimer's disease and pre-morbid Alzheimer's changes in the brain. We hypothesized that the clinical preservation of behavioral repetition effects results in part from concurrent operation of discrete memory systems...
May 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Stefan Pollmann
When spatial stimulus configurations repeat in visual search, a search facilitation, resulting in shorter search times, can be observed that is due to incidental learning. This contextual cueing effect appears to be rather implicit, uncorrelated with observers' explicit memory of display configurations. Nevertheless, as I review here, this search facilitation due to contextual cueing depends on visuospatial working memory resources, and it disappears when visuospatial working memory is loaded by a concurrent delayed match to sample task...
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Mathias Weymar, Margaret M Bradley, Christopher T Sege, Peter J Lang
Stimulus repetition elicits either enhancement or suppression in neural activity, and a recent fMRI meta-analysis of repetition effects for visual stimuli (Kim, 2017) reported cross-stimulus repetition enhancement in medial and lateral parietal cortex, as well as regions of prefrontal, temporal, and posterior cingulate cortex. Repetition enhancement was assessed here for repeated and novel scenes presented in the context of either an explicit episodic recognition task or an implicit judgment task, in order to study the role of spontaneous retrieval of episodic memories...
May 6, 2018: Psychophysiology
Pascale Colé, Eddy Cavalli, Lynne G Duncan, Anne Theurel, Edouard Gentaz, Liliane Sprenger-Charolles, Abdessadek El-Ahmadi
Children from low-SES families are known to show delays in aspects of language development which underpin reading acquisition such as vocabulary and listening comprehension. Research on the development of morphological skills in this group is scarce, and no studies exist in French. The present study investigated the involvement of morphological knowledge in the very early stages of reading acquisition (decoding), before reading comprehension can be reliably assessed. We assessed listening comprehension, receptive vocabulary, phoneme awareness, morphological awareness as well as decoding, word reading and non-verbal IQ in 703 French first-graders from low-SES families after 3 months of formal schooling (November)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Yuta Suzuki, Tetsuto Minami, Shigeki Nakauchi
Insight refers to the sudden conscious shift in the perception of a situation following a period of unconscious processing. The present study aimed to investigate the implicit neural mechanisms underlying insight-based recognition, and to determine the association between these mechanisms and the extent of pupil dilation. Participants were presented with ambiguous, transforming images comprised of dots, following which they were asked to state whether they recognized the object and their level of confidence in this statement...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
David Framorando, Guido H E Gendolla
Based on the Implicit-Affect-Primes-Effort (IAPE) model (Gendolla, 2012, 2015), an experiment investigated the effect of affect primes' visibility on effort mobilization during cognitive processing. Participants worked on a short-term memory task with integrated sadness vs. anger primes that were presented suboptimally (briefly and masked) vs. optimally (long and visible). Effort was assessed as cardiovascular response, especially cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP). To monitor performance, we assessed response accuracy and reaction times...
April 28, 2018: Biological Psychology
Manon Wyn Jones, Jan-Rouke Kuipers, Sinead Nugent, Angelina Miley, Gary Oppenheim
Learning visual-phonological associations is a key skill underlying successful reading acquisition. However, we are yet to understand the cognitive mechanisms that enable efficient learning in good readers, and those which are aberrant in individuals with developmental dyslexia. Here, we use a repeated cued-recall task to examine how typical and reading-impaired adults acquire novel associations between visual and phonological stimuli, incorporating a looking-at-nothing paradigm to probe implicit memory for target locations...
April 27, 2018: Cognition
Ranjit K Singh, Anja S Göritz
Ego depletion happens if exerting self-control reduces a person's capacity to subsequently control themselves. Previous research has suggested that ego depletion not only interferes with subsequent self-control but also with working memory. However, recent meta-analytical evidence casts doubt onto this. The present study tackles the question if ego depletion does interfere with working memory performance. We induced ego depletion in two ways: using an e-crossing task and using a Stroop task. We then measured working memory performance using the letter-number sequencing task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Kyndra C Cleveland, Jodi A Quas, Thomas D Lyon
The current study tested the effects of two interview techniques on children's report productivity and accuracy following exposure to suggestion: implicit encouragement (backchanneling, use of children's names) and the putative confession (telling children that a suspect "told me everything that happened and wants you to tell the truth"). One hundred and forty-three, 3-8-year-old children participated in a classroom event. One week later, they took part in a highly suggestive conversation about the event and then a mock forensic interview in which the two techniques were experimentally manipulated...
March 27, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jana Hansmeier, Cornelia Exner, Ulrike Zetsche, Andreas Jansen
Individuals suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been found to show deficits in implicitly learning probabilistic associations between events. Neuroimaging studies have associated these implicit learning deficits in OCD individuals with aberrant activation of the striatal system. Recent behavioral studies have highlighted that probabilistic classification learning (PCL) deficits in OCD individuals only occur in a disorder-specific context, while PCL remains intact in a neutral context. The neural correlates of implicit learning in an OCD-specific context, however, have not yet been investigated...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jaclynn V Sullivan, Jenna M Potvin, Stephen D Christman
Involving the body in learning increases the impact information has on memory (Johnson-Glenberg et al. in Front Psychol 7(1819):1-22, 2016), especially when that information is self-relevant (Truong et al. in J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 42(3):375-385, 2016). Yet, prior research has only examined the effect of self-relevant movement (i.e., toward the self or away from the self) on memory through passive joystick flexion or extension (Oakes and Onyper in Cognit Process 18:325-333, 2017). Therefore, the current research sought to replicate the "toward: remember" and "away: forget" motor-induced self-reference effects on memory with actual body movement...
March 23, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Lisa Sugiura, Masahiro Hata, Hiroko Matsuba-Kurita, Minako Uga, Daisuke Tsuzuki, Ippeita Dan, Hiroko Hagiwara, Fumitaka Homae
Learning a second language (L2) proceeds with individual approaches to proficiency in the language. Individual differences including sex, as well as working memory (WM) function appear to have strong effects on behavioral performance and cortical responses in L2 processing. Thus, by considering sex and WM capacity, we examined neural responses during L2 sentence processing as a function of L2 proficiency in young adolescents. In behavioral tests, girls significantly outperformed boys in L2 tests assessing proficiency and grammatical knowledge, and in a reading span test (RST) assessing WM capacity...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Charles V Vorhees, Jenna N Sprowles, Samantha L Regan, Michael T Williams
High throughput screens for developmental neurotoxicity (DN) will facilitate evaluation of chemicals and can be used to prioritize those designated for follow-up. DN is evaluated under different guidelines. Those for drugs generally include peri- and postnatal studies and juvenile toxicity studies. For pesticides and commercial chemicals, when triggered, include developmental neurotoxicity studies (DNT) and extended one-generation reproductive toxicity studies. Raffaele et al. (2010) reviewed 69 pesticide DNT studies and found two of the four behavioral tests underperformed...
March 12, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Damiano Terenzi, Raffaella I Rumiati, Mauro Catalan, Lucia Antonutti, Giovanni Furlanis, Paolo Garlasco, Paola Polverino, Claudio Bertolotti, Paolo Manganotti, Marilena Aiello
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who are treated with dopamine replacement therapy are at risk of developing impulse control disorders (ICDs) (such as gambling, binge eating, and others). According to recent evidence, compulsive reward seeking in ICDs may arise from an excessive attribution of incentive salience (or 'wanting') to rewards. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tested this hypothesis in patients with PD who developed binge eating (BE). METHODS: Patients with BE, patients without BE, and healthy controls performed different experimental tasks assessing food liking and wanting...
March 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Jocelyn Breton, Edwin M Robertson
Our brains are constantly processing past events [1]. These off-line processes consolidate memories, leading in the case of motor skill memories to an enhancement in performance between training sessions. A similar magnitude of enhancement develops over a night of sleep following an implicit task, when a sequence of movements is acquired unintentionally, or following an explicit task, when the same sequence is acquired intentionally [2]. What remains poorly understood, however, is whether these similar offline improvements are supported by similar circuits, or through distinct circuits...
June 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
Renée K Biss, Gillian Rowe, Jennifer C Weeks, Lynn Hasher, Kelly J Murphy
Forgetting people's names is a common memory complaint among older adults and one that is consistent with experimental evidence of age-related decline in memory for face-name associations. Despite this difficulty intentionally forming face-name associations, a recent study demonstrated that older adults hyperbind distracting names and attended faces, which produces better learning of these face-name pairs when they reappear on a memory test (Weeks, Biss, Murphy, & Hasher, 2016). The current study explored whether this effect could be leveraged as an intervention to reduce older adults' forgetting of face-name associations, using a method previously shown to improve older adults' retention of a word list (Biss, Ngo, Hasher, Campbell, & Rowe, 2013)...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Sagi Jaffe-Dax, Eva Kimel, Merav Ahissar
Studies of the performance of individuals with dyslexia in perceptual tasks suggest that their implicit inference of sound statistics is impaired. Previously, using two-tone frequency discrimination, we found that the effect of previous trials' frequencies on the judgments of individuals with dyslexia decays faster than the effect on controls' judgments, and that the adaptation (decrease of neural response to repeated stimuli) of their ERP responses to tones is shorter (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="bib22">Jaffe-Dax et al...
February 28, 2018: ELife
Rolando N Carol, Nadja Schreiber Compo
The present study investigated the effect of encoding duration on implicit and explicit eyewitness memory. Participants (N = 227) viewed a mock crime (brief, 15-s vs. long, 30-s vs. irrelevant/control) and were then tested with both implicit and explicit memory prompts or with explicit memory prompts only. Brief-encoding participants revealed more critical details implicitly than long-encoding or control participants. Further, the number and percentage of accurate details recalled explicitly were higher for long-encoding than for brief-encoding participants...
May 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
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