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Implicit memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632779/base-rate-sensitivity-through-implicit-learning
#1
Andrew J Wismer, Corey J Bohil
Two experiments assessed the contributions of implicit and explicit learning to base-rate sensitivity. Using a factorial design that included both implicit and explicit learning disruptions, we tested the hypothesis that implicit learning underlies base-rate sensitivity from experience (and that explicit learning contributes comparatively little). Participants learned to classify two categories of simple stimuli (bar graph heights) presented in a 3:1 base-rate ratio. Participants learned either from "observational" training to disrupt implicit learning or "response" training which supports implicit learning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611613/simultaneous-processing-of-noun-cue-and-to-be-produced-verb-in-verb-generation-task-electromagnetic-evidence
#2
Anna V Butorina, Anna A Pavlova, Anastasia Y Nikolaeva, Andrey O Prokofyev, Denis P Bondarev, Tatiana A Stroganova
A long-standing but implicit assumption is that words strongly associated with a presented cue are automatically activated in the memory through rapid spread of activation within brain semantic networks. The current study was aimed to provide direct evidence of such rapid access to words' semantic representations and to investigate its neural sources using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and distributed source localization technique. Thirty-three neurotypical subjects underwent the MEG recording during verb generation task, which was to produce verbs related to the presented noun cues...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584870/the-inventory-as-a-core-element-in-the-further-development-of-the-science-curriculum-in-the-mannheim-reformed-curriculum-of-medicine
#3
Julia Eckel, Katrin Schüttpelz-Brauns, Thomas Miethke, Alexandra Rolletschek, Harald M Fritz
Introduction: The German Council of Science and Humanities as well as a number of medical professional associations support the strengthening of scientific competences by developing longitudinal curricula for teaching scientific competences in the undergraduate medical education. The National Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM) has also defined medical scientific skills as learning objectives in addition to the role of the scholar. The development of the Mannheim science curriculum started with a systematic inventory of the teaching of scientific competences in the Mannheim Reformed Curriculum of Medicine (MaReCuM)...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462484/media-multitasking-and-implicit-learning
#4
Kathleen S Edwards, Myoungju Shin
Media multitasking refers to the simultaneous use of different forms of media. Previous research comparing heavy media multitaskers and light media multitaskers suggests that heavy media multitaskers have a broader scope of attention. The present study explored whether these differences in attentional scope would lead to a greater degree of implicit learning for heavy media multitaskers. The study also examined whether media multitasking behaviour is associated with differences in visual working memory, and whether visual working memory differentially affects the ability to process contextual information...
May 1, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456203/coarse-graining-strategy-for-molecular-pair-interactions-a-reaction-coordinate-study-for-two-and-three-dimensional-systems
#5
Thomas Heinemann, Sabine H L Klapp
We investigate and provide optimal sets of reaction coordinates for mixed pairs of molecules displaying polar, uniaxial, or spherical symmetry in two and three dimensions. These coordinates are non-redundant, i.e., they implicitly involve the molecules' symmetries. By tabulating pair interactions in these coordinates, resulting tables are thus minimal in length and require a minimal memory space. The intended fields of application are computer simulations of large ensembles of molecules or colloids with rather complex interactions in a fluid or liquid crystalline phase at low densities...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444345/causal-evidence-for-task-specific-involvement-of-the-dorsomedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-human-social-cognition
#6
Andrew K Martin, I Ilvana Dzafic, Swathi Ramdave, Marcus Meinzer
The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) is a key hub of the "social brain", but little is known about specific processes supported by this region. Using focal high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) and a social cognitive battery with differing demands on self-other processing, we demonstrate specific involvement of the dmPFC in tasks placing high demands on self-other processing. Specifically, excitatory (anodal) HD-tDCS enhanced the integration of external information into the self for explicit higher-order socio-cognitive tasks across cognitive domains; i...
April 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419641/neural-correlates-of-experimental-trauma-memory-retrieval
#7
Geraldine A Gvozdanovic, Philipp Stämpfli, Erich Seifritz, Björn Rasch
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic memories such as intrusions and flashbacks play a major role in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A thorough understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying traumatic memories is indispensable for precise diagnosis, for personalized treatment and prevention. In particular, the identification of early neural predictor variables for intrusion development shortly after trauma exposure requires detailed investigation. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Here, we examined the neural correlates of early experimental trauma memory retrieval in a traumatic film paradigm in 42 young healthy females, using both implicit and explicit retrieval tasks...
April 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415910/transfer-of-training-in-simple-addition
#8
Yalin Chen, Jamie I D Campbell
In recent years several researchers have proposed that skilled adults may solve single-digit addition problems (e.g. 3 + 1 = 4, 4 + 3 = 7) using a fast counting procedure. Practicing a procedure, often leads to transfer of learning and faster performance of unpracticed items. Such transfer has been demonstrated using a counting-based alphabet arithmetic task (e.g., B + 4 = C D E F) that indicated robust generalization of practice (i.e., RT gains) when untrained transfer problems at test had been implicitly practiced (e...
April 18, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414042/promising-technological-innovations-in-cognitive-training-to-treat-eating-related-behavior
#9
Evan M Forman, Stephanie P Goldstein, Daniel Flack, Brittney C Evans, Stephanie M Manasse, Cara Dochat
One potential reason for the suboptimal outcomes of treatments targeting appetitive behavior, such as eating and alcohol consumption, is that they do not target the implicit cognitive processes that may be driving these behaviors. Two groups of related neurocognitive processes that are robustly associated with dysregulated eating and drinking are attention bias (AB; selective attention to specific stimuli) and executive function (EF; a set of cognitive control processes such as inhibitory control, working memory, set shifting, that govern goal-directed behaviors)...
April 14, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408897/do-executive-functions-predict-binge-drinking-patterns-evidence-from-a-longitudinal-study-in-young-adulthood
#10
Ragnhild Bø, Joël Billieux, Line C Gjerde, Espen M Eilertsen, Nils I Landrø
Background: Impairments in executive functions (EFs) are related to binge drinking in young adulthood, but research on how EFs influence future binge drinking is lacking. The aim of the current report is therefore to investigate the association between various EFs and later severity of, and change in, binge drinking over a prolonged period during young adulthood. Methods: At baseline, 121 students reported on their alcohol habits (Alcohol use disorder identification test; Alcohol use questionnaire). Concurrently, EFs [working memory, reversal, set-shifting, response inhibition, response monitoring and decision-making (with ambiguity and implicit risk)] were assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406662/explicit-and-implicit-reinforcement-learning-across-the-psychosis-spectrum
#11
Deanna M Barch, Cameron S Carter, James M Gold, Sheri L Johnson, Ann M Kring, Angus W MacDonald, Diego A Pizzagalli, J Daniel Ragland, Steven M Silverstein, Milton E Strauss
Motivational and hedonic impairments are core features of a variety of types of psychopathology. An important aspect of motivational function is reinforcement learning (RL), including implicit (i.e., outside of conscious awareness) and explicit (i.e., including explicit representations about potential reward associations) learning, as well as both positive reinforcement (learning about actions that lead to reward) and punishment (learning to avoid actions that lead to loss). Here we present data from paradigms designed to assess both positive and negative components of both implicit and explicit RL, examine performance on each of these tasks among individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder with psychosis, and examine their relative relationships to specific symptom domains transdiagnostically...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405777/how-visual-working-memory-contents-influence-priming-of-visual-attention
#12
Nancy B Carlisle, Árni Kristjánsson
Recent evidence shows that when the contents of visual working memory overlap with targets and distractors in a pop-out search task, intertrial priming is inhibited (Kristjánsson, Sævarsson & Driver, Psychon Bull Rev 20(3):514-521, 2013, Experiment 2, Psychonomic Bulletin and Review). This may reflect an interesting interaction between implicit short-term memory-thought to underlie intertrial priming-and explicit visual working memory. Evidence from a non-pop-out search task suggests that it may specifically be holding distractors in visual working memory that disrupts intertrial priming (Cunningham & Egeth, Psychol Sci 27(4):476-485, 2016, Experiment 2, Psychological Science)...
April 12, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395192/comparative-functional-neuroanatomy-between-implicit-and-explicit-memory-tasks-under-negative-emotional-condition-in-schizophrenia
#13
Xiao-Li Song, Gwang-Won Kim, Chung-Man Moon, Gwang-Woo Jeong
PURPOSE: To evaluate the brain activation patterns in response to negative emotion during implicit and explicit memory in patients with schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen patients with schizophrenia and 14 healthy controls were included in this study. The 3.0T fMRI was obtained while the subjects performed the implicit and explicit retrievals with unpleasant words. RESULTS: The different predominant brain activation areas were observed during the implicit retrieval and explicit with unpleasant words...
April 6, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394158/long-term-memory-biases-auditory-spatial-attention
#14
Jacqueline F Zimmermann, Morris Moscovitch, Claude Alain
Long-term memory (LTM) has been shown to bias attention to a previously learned visual target location. Here, we examined whether memory-predicted spatial location can facilitate the detection of a faint pure tone target embedded in real world audio clips (e.g., soundtrack of a restaurant). During an initial familiarization task, participants heard audio clips, some of which included a lateralized target (p = 50%). On each trial participants indicated whether the target was presented from the left, right, or was absent...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392752/disjunctive-normal-level-set-an-efficient-parametric-implicit-method
#15
Fitsum Mesadi, Mujdat Cetin, Tolga Tasdizen
Level set methods are widely used for image segmentation because of their capability to handle topological changes. In this paper, we propose a novel parametric level set method called Disjunctive Normal Level Set (DNLS), and apply it to both two phase (single object) and multiphase (multi-object) image segmentations. The DNLS is formed by union of polytopes which themselves are formed by intersections of half-spaces. The proposed level set framework has the following major advantages compared to other level set methods available in the literature...
September 2016: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384673/explicit-and-implicit-verbal-response-inhibition-in-preschool-age-children-who-stutter
#16
Julie D Anderson, Stacy A Wagovich
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine (a) explicit and implicit verbal response inhibition in preschool children who do stutter (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) and (b) the relationship between response inhibition and language skills. Method: Participants were 41 CWS and 41 CWNS between the ages of 3;1 and 6;1 (years;months). Explicit verbal response inhibition was measured using a computerized version of the grass-snow task (Carlson & Moses, 2001), and implicit verbal response inhibition was measured using the baa-meow task...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383993/pupil-dilation-patterns-spontaneously-synchronize-across-individuals-during-shared-attention
#17
Olivia Kang, Thalia Wheatley
Human social behavior relies on the coupling of minds. Here we show that patterns of pupil dilations reveal mental coupling between speakers and listeners. Speakers were videotaped and eye-tracked as they discussed positive and negative autobiographical memories. An independent group of listeners were then eye-tracked while they watched these videos. As pupillary dilations reflect the dynamics of conscious attention, we computed the morphological similarity of speaker-listener pupillary time-series data as a metric of shared attention...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376689/a-nonmusician-with-severe-alzheimer-s-dementia-learns-a-new-song
#18
Amee Baird, Heidi Umbach, William Forde Thompson
The hallmark symptom of Alzheimer's Dementia (AD) is impaired memory, but memory for familiar music can be preserved. We explored whether a non-musician with severe AD could learn a new song. A 91 year old woman (NC) with severe AD was taught an unfamiliar song. We assessed her delayed song recall (24 hours and 2 weeks), music cognition, two word recall (presented within a familiar song lyric, a famous proverb, or as a word stem completion task), and lyrics and proverb completion. NC's music cognition (pitch and rhythm perception, recognition of familiar music, completion of lyrics) was relatively preserved...
February 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373850/the-contribution-of-brainstem-and-cerebellar-pathways-to-auditory-recognition
#19
REVIEW
Neil M McLachlan, Sarah J Wilson
The cerebellum has been known to play an important role in motor functions for many years. More recently its role has been expanded to include a range of cognitive and sensory-motor processes, and substantial neuroimaging and clinical evidence now points to cerebellar involvement in most auditory processing tasks. In particular, an increase in the size of the cerebellum over recent human evolution has been attributed in part to the development of speech. Despite this, the auditory cognition literature has largely overlooked afferent auditory connections to the cerebellum that have been implicated in acoustically conditioned reflexes in animals, and could subserve speech and other auditory processing in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371699/the-semantic-representation-of-prejudice-and-stereotypes
#20
Sudeep Bhatia
We use a theory of semantic representation to study prejudice and stereotyping. Particularly, we consider large datasets of newspaper articles published in the United States, and apply latent semantic analysis (LSA), a prominent model of human semantic memory, to these datasets to learn representations for common male and female, White, African American, and Latino names. LSA performs a singular value decomposition on word distribution statistics in order to recover word vector representations, and we find that our recovered representations display the types of biases observed in human participants using tasks such as the implicit association test...
July 2017: Cognition
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