keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Implicit memory

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116142/working-memory-attention-and-salience-in-active-inference
#1
Thomas Parr, Karl J Friston
The psychological concepts of working memory and attention are widely used in the cognitive and neuroscientific literatures. Perhaps because of the interdisciplinary appeal of these concepts, the same terms are often used to mean very different things. Drawing on recent advances in theoretical neurobiology, this paper tries to highlight the correspondence between these established psychological constructs and the formal processes implicit in mathematical descriptions of brain function. Here, we consider attention and salience from the perspective offered by active inference...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102805/from-altered-synaptic-plasticity-to-atypical-learning-a-computational-model-of-down-syndrome
#2
Ángel Eugenio Tovar, Gert Westermann, Alvaro Torres
Learning and memory rely on the adaptation of synaptic connections. Research on the neurophysiology of Down syndrome has characterized an atypical pattern of synaptic plasticity with limited long-term potentiation (LTP) and increased long-term depression (LTD). Here we present a neurocomputational model that instantiates this LTP/LTD imbalance to explore its impact on tasks of associative learning. In Study 1, we ran a series of computational simulations to analyze the learning of simple and overlapping stimulus associations in a model of Down syndrome compared with a model of typical development...
November 2, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097595/determining-the-neural-substrate-for-encoding-a-memory-of-human-pain-and-the-influence-of-anxiety
#3
Ming-Tsung Tseng, Yazhuo Kong, Falk Eippert, Irene Tracey
To convert a painful stimulus into a briefly maintainable construct when the painful stimulus is no longer accessible is essential to guide human behavior and avoid dangerous situations. Due to the aversive nature of pain, this encoding process might be influenced by emotional aspects and could thus vary across individuals, but we have yet to understand both the basic underlying neural mechanisms as well as potential inter-individual differences. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with a delayed-discrimination task in healthy volunteers of both sexes, we discovered that brain regions involved in this working memory encoding process were dissociable according to whether the to-be-remembered stimulus was painful or not, with the medial thalamus and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex encoding painful and the primary somatosensory cortex encoding non-painful stimuli...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096326/extremely-long-term-memory-and-familiarity-after-12%C3%A2-years
#4
Christelle Larzabal, Eve Tramoni, Sophie Muratot, Simon J Thorpe, Emmanuel J Barbeau
In 2006 Mitchell demonstrated that implicit memory was robust to decay. He showed that the ability to identify fragments of pictures seen 17 years before was significantly higher than for new stimuli. Is this true only for implicit memory? In this study, we tested whether explicit memory was still possible for drawings (n = 144) that had been presented once or three times, two seconds each time on average, approximately 12 years earlier. Surprisingly, our data reveal that our participants were able to recognize pictures above chance level...
October 26, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077726/memory-for-melody-and-key-in-childhood
#5
E Glenn Schellenberg, Jaimie Poon, Michael W Weiss
After only two exposures to previously unfamiliar melodies, adults remember the tunes for over a week and the key for over a day. Here, we examined the development of long-term memory for melody and key. Listeners in three age groups (7- to 8-year-olds, 9- to 11-year-olds, and adults) heard two presentations of each of 12 unfamiliar melodies. After a 10-min delay, they heard the same 12 old melodies intermixed with 12 new melodies. Half of the old melodies were transposed up or down by six semitones from initial exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054291/neuroscience-informed-psychoeducation-for-addiction-medicine-a-neurocognitive-perspective
#6
Hamed Ekhtiari, Tara Rezapour, Robin L Aupperle, Martin P Paulus
Psychoeducation (PE) is defined as an intervention with systematic, structured, and didactic knowledge transfer for an illness and its treatment, integrating emotional and motivational aspects to enable patients to cope with the illness and to improve its treatment adherence and efficacy. PE is considered an important component of treatment in both medical and psychiatric disorders, especially for mental health disorders associated with lack of insight, such as alcohol and substance use disorders (ASUDs). New advancements in neuroscience have shed light on how various aspects of ASUDs may relate to neural processes...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049595/to-search-or-to-like-mapping-fixations-to-differentiate-two-forms-of-incidental-scene-memory
#7
Kyoung Whan Choe, Omid Kardan, Hiroki P Kotabe, John M Henderson, Marc G Berman
We employed eye-tracking to investigate how performing different tasks on scenes (e.g., intentionally memorizing them, searching for an object, evaluating aesthetic preference) can affect eye movements during encoding and subsequent scene memory. We found that scene memorability decreased after visual search (one incidental encoding task) compared to intentional memorization, and that preference evaluation (another incidental encoding task) produced better memory, similar to the incidental memory boost previously observed for words and faces...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048976/healthy-out-group-members-are-represented-psychologically-as-infected-in-group-members
#8
Michael Bang Petersen
A range of studies have demonstrated that people implicitly treat out-groups as the carriers of pathogens and that considerable prejudice against out-groups is driven by concerns about pathogens. Yet the psychological categories that are involved and the selection pressures that underlie these categories remain unclear. A common view is that human pathogen-avoidance psychology is specifically adapted to avoid out-groups because of their potentially different pathogens. However, the series of studies reported here shows that there is no dedicated category for reasoning about out-groups in terms of pathogens...
October 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034489/modification-of-automatic-alcohol-approach-tendencies-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-with-mild-or-major-neurocognitive-disorder
#9
Anke Loijen, Mike Rinck, Serge J W Walvoort, Roy P C Kessels, Eni S Becker, Jos I M Egger
BACKGROUND: To examine the applicability of an alcohol-avoidance training procedure in patients with alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorders, we trained two groups that differed in the degree of cognitive impairment: One group fulfilled the DSM-5 criteria for Alcohol-Induced Mild Neurocognitive Disorder, and one group was diagnosed with Korsakoff's syndrome (Alcohol-Induced Major Neurocognitive Disorder, Confabulatory/Amnesic subtype; DSM-5). The intervention is assumed to match the preserved cognitive capacity for implicit learning in both groups...
October 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033855/implicit-recognition-of-familiar-and-unfamiliar-faces-in-schizophrenia-a-study-of-the-skin-conductance-response-in-familiarity-disorders
#10
Aurely Ameller, Aline Picard, Fabien D'Hondt, Guillaume Vaiva, Pierre Thomas, Delphine Pins
OBJECTIVE: Familiarity is a subjective sensation that contributes to person recognition. This process is described as an emotion-based memory-trace of previous meetings and could be disrupted in schizophrenia. Consequently, familiarity disorders could be involved in the impaired social interactions observed in patients with schizophrenia. Previous studies have primarily focused on famous people recognition. Our aim was to identify underlying features, such as emotional disturbances, that may contribute to familiarity disorders in schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031510/pain-and-consciousness
#11
REVIEW
Luis Garcia-Larrea, Hélène Bastuji
The aversive experience we call "pain" results from the coordinated activation of multiple brain areas, commonly described as a "pain matrix". This is not a fixed arrangement of structures but rather a fluid system composed of several interacting networks: A 'nociceptive matrix' includes regions receiving input from ascending nociceptive systems, and ensures the bodily characteristics of physical pain. A further set of structures receiving secondary input supports the 'salience' attributes of noxious stimuli, triggers top-down cognitive controls, and -most importantly- ensures the passage from pre-conscious nociception to conscious pain...
October 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024854/the-effect-of-associative-strength-on-semantic-priming-in-schizophrenia
#12
Juan Carlos Ruiz, María José Soler, Carmen Dasí, Inma Fuentes, Pilar Tomás
The present research was designed to investigate the pattern of semantic priming in schizophrenia as a function of strength of association (or semantic distance between concepts in the semantic network). Thirty schizophrenia patients, without formal thought disorder, and twenty-nine healthy controls participated in a lexical decision task in which prime-target associative strength (strong, weak and not related) and stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA: 250ms and 750ms) were manipulated. Patients and controls showed the same associative strength effect on RTs...
October 3, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019169/one-back-reinforcement-dissociates-implicit-procedural-and-explicit-declarative-category-learning
#13
J David Smith, Sonia Jamani, Joseph Boomer, Barbara A Church
The debate over unitary/multiple category-learning utilities is reminiscent of debates about multiple memory systems and unitary/dual codes in knowledge representation. In categorization, researchers continue to seek paradigms to dissociate explicit learning processes (yielding verbalizable rules) from implicit learning processes (yielding stimulus-response associations that remain outside awareness). We introduce a new dissociation here. Participants learned matched category tasks with a multidimensional, information-integration solution or a one-dimensional, rule-based solution...
October 10, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983265/the-aip-model-of-emdr-therapy-and-pathogenic-memories
#14
Michael Hase, Ute M Balmaceda, Luca Ostacoli, Peter Liebermann, Arne Hofmann
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy has been widely recognized as an efficacious treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the last years more insight has been gained regarding the efficacy of EMDR therapy in a broad field of mental disorders beyond PTSD. The cornerstone of EMDR therapy is its unique model of pathogenesis and change: the adaptive information processing (AIP) model. The AIP model developed by F. Shapiro has found support and differentiation in recent studies on the importance of memories in the pathogenesis of a range of mental disorders beside PTSD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964503/is-procedural-memory-enhanced-in-tourette-syndrome-evidence-from-a-sequence-learning-task
#15
Ádám Takács, Andrea Kóbor, Júlia Chezan, Noémi Éltető, Zsanett Tárnok, Dezso Nemeth, Michael T Ullman, Karolina Janacsek
Procedural memory, which is rooted in the basal ganglia, underlies the learning and processing of numerous automatized motor and cognitive skills, including in language. Not surprisingly, disorders with basal ganglia abnormalities have been found to show impairments of procedural memory. However, brain abnormalities could also lead to atypically enhanced function. Tourette syndrome (TS) is a candidate for enhanced procedural memory, given previous findings of enhanced TS processing of grammar, which likely depends on procedural memory...
September 9, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957029/learning-simpler-language-models-with-the-differential-state-framework
#16
Alexander G Ororbia Ii, Tomas Mikolov, David Reitter
Learning useful information across long time lags is a critical and difficult problem for temporal neural models in tasks such as language modeling. Existing architectures that address the issue are often complex and costly to train. The differential state framework (DSF) is a simple and high-performing design that unifies previously introduced gated neural models. DSF models maintain longer-term memory by learning to interpolate between a fast-changing data-driven representation and a slowly changing, implicitly stable state...
September 28, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955268/subliminally-and-supraliminally-acquired-long-term-memories-jointly-bias-delayed-decisions
#17
Simon Ruch, Elizabeth Herbert, Katharina Henke
Common wisdom and scientific evidence suggest that good decisions require conscious deliberation. But growing evidence demonstrates that not only conscious but also unconscious thoughts influence decision-making. Here, we hypothesize that both consciously and unconsciously acquired memories guide decisions. Our experiment measured the influence of subliminally and supraliminally presented information on delayed (30-40 min) decision-making. Participants were presented with subliminal pairs of faces and written occupations for unconscious encoding...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940207/affective-priming-and-cognitive-load-event-related-potentials-suggest-an-interplay-of-implicit-affect-misattribution-and-strategic-inhibition
#18
Henning Gibbons, Laura-Effi Seib-Pfeifer, Judith Koppehele-Gossel, Robert Schnuerch
Prior research suggests that the affective priming effect denoting prime-congruent evaluative judgments about neutral targets preceded by affective primes increases when the primes are processed less deeply. This has been taken as evidence for greater affect misattribution. However, no study so far has combined an experimental manipulation of the depth of prime processing with the benefits of ERPs. Forty-seven participants made like/dislike responses about Korean ideographs following 800-ms affective prime words while 64-channel EEG was recorded...
September 21, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933901/motivation-to-avoid-loss-improves-implicit-skill-performance
#19
Danbee Chon, Kelsey R Thompson, Paul J Reber
Implicit learning reflects learning from experience that occurs without intention or awareness of the information acquired and is hypothesized to contribute to skill acquisition by improving performance with practice. The role of motivation has not been examined because this kind of memory is represented outside awareness. We manipulated motivation (approach/avoidance) and type of feedback (positive/negative) to measure how these affected a well-studied task of implicit sequence learning. Across 2 experiments, we found a consistent effect that motivation to avoid loss led to much higher levels of sequence-specific task performance...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903717/subjective-importance-as-a-cue-for-self-reference
#20
Ileana C Culcea, Antonio L Freitas
We investigated whether people's judgments of self-reference could be influenced by cues of importance. Our investigation builds on evidence that information related to the self is processed in specialized ways and that implicit attributions affect how stimuli are interpreted. We hypothesized that the more important a trait descriptor was, the more likely participants would be to misremember it as having been presented in a self-referential manner. This hypothesis was tested using a source-memory task; subjective ratings of importance served as predictors of accuracy...
August 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
keyword
keyword
50149
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"