Read by QxMD icon Read

Implicit memory

Charles V Vorhees, Jenna N Sprowles, Samantha L Regan, Michael T Williams
High throughput screens for developmental neurotoxicity (DN) will facilitate evaluation of chemicals and can be used to prioritize those designated for follow-up. DN is evaluated under different guidelines. Those for drugs generally include peri- and postnatal studies and juvenile toxicity studies. For pesticides and commercial chemicals, when triggered, include developmental neurotoxicity studies (DNT) and extended one-generation reproductive toxicity studies. Raffaele et al. (2010) reviewed 69 pesticide DNT studies and found two of the four behavioral tests underperformed...
March 12, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Damiano Terenzi, Raffaella I Rumiati, Mauro Catalan, Lucia Antonutti, Giovanni Furlanis, Paolo Garlasco, Paola Polverino, Claudio Bertolotti, Paolo Manganotti, Marilena Aiello
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who are treated with dopamine replacement therapy are at risk of developing impulse control disorders (ICDs) (such as gambling, binge eating, and others). According to recent evidence, compulsive reward seeking in ICDs may arise from an excessive attribution of incentive salience (or 'wanting') to rewards. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tested this hypothesis in patients with PD who developed binge eating (BE). METHODS: Patients with BE, patients without BE, and healthy controls performed different experimental tasks assessing food liking and wanting...
March 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Jocelyn Breton, Edwin M Robertson
Our brains are constantly processing past events [1]. These off-line processes consolidate memories, leading in the case of motor skill memories to an enhancement in performance between training sessions. A similar magnitude of enhancement develops over a night of sleep following an implicit task, when a sequence of movements is acquired unintentionally, or following an explicit task, when the same sequence is acquired intentionally [2]. What remains poorly understood, however, is whether these similar offline improvements are supported by similar circuits, or through distinct circuits...
June 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
Renée K Biss, Gillian Rowe, Jennifer C Weeks, Lynn Hasher, Kelly J Murphy
Forgetting people's names is a common memory complaint among older adults and one that is consistent with experimental evidence of age-related decline in memory for face-name associations. Despite this difficulty intentionally forming face-name associations, a recent study demonstrated that older adults hyperbind distracting names and attended faces, which produces better learning of these face-name pairs when they reappear on a memory test (Weeks, Biss, Murphy, & Hasher, 2016). The current study explored whether this effect could be leveraged as an intervention to reduce older adults' forgetting of face-name associations, using a method previously shown to improve older adults' retention of a word list (Biss, Ngo, Hasher, Campbell, & Rowe, 2013)...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Sagi Jaffe-Dax, Eva Kimel, Merav Ahissar
Studies of performance of individuals with dyslexia on perceptual tasks suggest that their implicit inference of sound statistics is impaired. Previously, using two-tone frequency discrimination, we found that the effect of previous trials' frequencies on judgments of individuals with dyslexia decayed faster than the effect on controls' judgments, and that the adaptation (decrease of neural response to repeated stimuli) of their ERP responses to tones was shorter (Jaffe-Dax et al., 2017). Here, we show the cortical distribution of this abnormal dynamics of adaptation using fast acquisition fMRI...
February 28, 2018: ELife
Rolando N Carol, Nadja Schreiber Compo
The present study investigated the effect of encoding duration on implicit and explicit eyewitness memory. Participants (N = 227) viewed a mock crime (brief, 15-s vs. long, 30-s vs. irrelevant/control) and were then tested with both implicit and explicit memory prompts or with explicit memory prompts only. Brief-encoding participants revealed more critical details implicitly than long-encoding or control participants. Further, the number and percentage of accurate details recalled explicitly were higher for long-encoding than for brief-encoding participants...
February 23, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Nathalie Klein Selle, Gershon Ben-Shakhar, Merel Kindt, Bruno Verschuere
The Concealed Information Test (CIT) aims to detect concealed knowledge and is known to be sensitive to explicit memory. In two experiments, we examined whether the CIT is also sensitive to implicit memory using skin conductance, respiration and heart rate measures. For each participant, previously studied items were either categorized as explicitly remembered, implicitly remembered or forgotten. The two experiments differed in the strength of memory encoding, the type of implicit memory test, the delay between study and test and the number of critical CIT items...
February 22, 2018: Biological Psychology
Susana Silva, Vasiliki Folia, Filomena Inácio, São Luís Castro, Karl Magnus Petersson
Recently, it has been proposed that sequence learning engages a combination of modality-specific operating networks and modality-independent computational principles. In the present study, we compared the behavioural and EEG outcomes of implicit artificial grammar learning in the visual vs. auditory modality. We controlled for the influence of surface characteristics of sequences (Associative Chunk Strength), thus focusing on the strictly structural aspects of sequence learning, and we adapted the paradigms to compensate for known frailties of the visual modality compared to audition (temporal presentation, fast presentation rate)...
February 21, 2018: Brain Research
Jay J Van Bavel, Andrea Pereira
Democracies assume accurate knowledge by the populace, but the human attraction to fake and untrustworthy news poses a serious problem for healthy democratic functioning. We articulate why and how identification with political parties - known as partisanship - can bias information processing in the human brain. There is extensive evidence that people engage in motivated political reasoning, but recent research suggests that partisanship can alter memory, implicit evaluation, and even perceptual judgments. We propose an identity-based model of belief for understanding the influence of partisanship on these cognitive processes...
February 5, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Elinor Tzvi, Leon J Bauhaus, Till U Kessler, Matthias Liebrand, Malte Wöstmann, Ulrike M Krämer
Cross-frequency coupling is suggested to serve transfer of information between wide-spread neuronal assemblies and has been shown to underlie many cognitive functions including learning and memory. In previous work, we found that alpha (8 - 13 Hz) - gamma (30 - 48 Hz) phase amplitude coupling (αγPAC) is decreased during sequence learning in bilateral frontal cortex and right parietal cortex. We interpreted this to reflect decreased demands for visuo-motor mapping once the sequence has been encoded. In the present study, we put this hypothesis to the test by adding a "simple" condition to the standard serial reaction time task (SRTT) with minimal needs for visuo-motor mapping...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Margaréta Tokodi, Eszter Csábi, Ágnes Kiricsi, Rebeka Schultz, Andor Molnár H, László Rovó, Zsolt Bella
Background and purpose: Allergy is an endemic disease and has a considerable impact on the quality of life. This study aimed to measure the effect of active allergic rhinitis on memory functions of physically active and inactive patients with ragweed allergy. Methods: Memory functions were assessed before and after allergen exposure. Participants in both groups were provoked nasally with 30 IR/mL ragweed allergen in each nostril. Explicit memory was measured with story-recalling and implicit memory was investigated with reaction time task...
January 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Ivan Mangiulli, Tiziana Lanciano, Marko Jelicic, Kim van Oorsouw, Fabiana Battista, Antonietta Curci
Participants who are asked to simulate amnesia for a mock crime have a weaker memory for this event when they have to give up their role as a feigner, than those who are not asked to feign memory loss. According to the source monitoring framework (SMF), this memory-undermining effect of simulating amnesia for a crime would be due to misattribution of the right source of information. However, we know that the content of self-generated information (e.g., feigned version of the crime) might be preserved and recognised over time as a result of elaborative cognitive processing...
February 18, 2018: Memory
Christina Bejjani, Ziwei Zhang, Tobias Egner
Although cognitive control has traditionally been viewed in opposition to associative learning, recent studies show that people can learn to link particular stimuli with specific cognitive control states (e.g., high attentional selectivity). Here, we tested whether such learned stimulus-control associations can transfer across paired-associates. In the Stimulus-Stimulus (S-S) Association phase, specific face or house images repeatedly preceded the presentation of particular scene stimuli, creating paired face/house-scene associates in memory...
February 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jennifer J Coppola, Anita A Disney
Acetylcholine (ACh) is believed to act as a neuromodulator in cortical circuits that support cognition, specifically in processes including learning, memory consolidation, vigilance, arousal and attention. The cholinergic modulation of cortical processes is studied in many model systems including rodents, cats and primates. Further, these studies are performed in cortical areas ranging from the primary visual cortex to the prefrontal cortex and using diverse methodologies. The results of these studies have been combined into singular models of function-a practice based on an implicit assumption that the various model systems are equivalent and interchangeable...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Ali Ghazizadeh, Whitney Griggs, David A Leopold, Okihide Hikosaka
Remembering and discriminating objects based on their previously learned values are essential for goal-directed behaviors. While the cerebral cortex is known to contribute to object recognition, surprisingly little is known about its role in retaining long-term object-value associations. To address this question, we trained macaques to arbitrarily associate small or large rewards with many random fractal objects (>100) and then used fMRI to study the long-term retention of value-based response selectivity across the brain...
February 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yuta Katsumi, Sanda Dolcos
Available evidence suggests that emotion regulation can modulate both immediate (emotional experience) and long-term (episodic memory) effects of emotion, and that both explicit and implicit forms may be effective. However, neural mechanisms by which explicit and implicit emotional suppression affect these phenomena remain unclear, particularly regarding their effects on memory. In this study, participants rated the emotional content of negative and neutral images, following explicit (verbal instructions) or implicit (priming) induction of emotional suppression goals, during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Yuping Li, Sandeep Venkataram, Atish Agarwala, Barbara Dunn, Dmitri A Petrov, Gavin Sherlock, Daniel S Fisher
Few studies have "quantitatively" probed how adaptive mutations result in increased fitness. Even in simple microbial evolution experiments, with full knowledge of the underlying mutations and specific growth conditions, it is challenging to determine where within a growth-saturation cycle those fitness gains occur. A common implicit assumption is that most benefits derive from an increased exponential growth rate. Here, we instead show that, in batch serial transfer experiments, adaptive mutants' fitness gains can be dominated by benefits that are accrued in one growth cycle, but not realized until the next growth cycle...
February 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Eileen C Rasmussen, Angela Gutchess
Objectives: We assessed how age impacted learning who to trust, and the extent to which this type of learning relied on explicit memory. In contrast to prior studies, target faces were neutral without prior reputational information. Method: Younger and older adults made investment decisions for 36 brokers, who yielded a good, neutral, or bad outcome. Brokers were encountered three times to measure adaptive learning. After the investment task, participants completed a surprise explicit source memory test for brokers...
February 5, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Qinghe Meng, Yuzheng Lian, Jianjun Jiang, Wei Wang, Xiaohong Hou, Yao Pan, Hongqian Chu, Lanqin Shang, Xuetao Wei, Weidong Hao
OBJECTIVES: Ambient light has a vital impact on mood and cognitive functions. Blue light has been previously reported to play a salient role in the antidepressant effect via melanopsin. Whether blue light filtered white light (BFW) affects mood and cognitive functions remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate whether BFW led to depression-like symptoms and cognitive deficits including spatial learning and memory abilities in rats, and whether they were associated with the light-responsive function in retinal explants...
February 6, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Adrien Mierop, Mandy Hütter, Christoph Stahl, Olivier Corneille
Research that dissociates different types of processes within a given task using a processing tree approach suggests that attitudes may be acquired through evaluative conditioning in the absence of explicit encoding of CS-US pairings in memory. This research distinguishes explicit memory for the CS-US pairings from CS-liking acquired without encoding of CS-US pairs in explicit memory. It has been suggested that the latter effect may be due to an implicit misattribution process that is assumed to operate when US evocativeness is low...
February 5, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"