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Implicit memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333901/influence-of-the-recurrent-syncope-episodes-on-neurocognitive-functions-in-patients-with-vasovagal-syncope
#1
Joanna Jędrzejczyk-Spaho, Artur Z Pietrucha, Agnieszka Borowiec, Irena Bzukała, Mateusz Wnuk, Ewa Konduracka, Jadwiga Nessler
The aim of study was to evaluate an influence of recurrent syncope episodes on the neurocognitive functions (NCF) in patients with suspected VVS. AIM: The aim of study was to evaluate an influence of recurrent syncope episodes on the neurocognitive functions (NCF) in patients with suspected VVS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study population: 24 pts. (16 women) aged 17-70 yrs (mean age 40 years), with suspected VVS, referred to HUTT (head-up tilt test). All pts. underwent initial evaluation regarding to the number and circumstances of the syncopal and/or presyncopal spells...
March 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326966/cognitive-load-during-route-selection-increases-reliance-on-spatial-heuristics
#2
Tad T Brunyé, Shaina B Martis, Holly A Taylor
Planning routes from maps involves perceiving the symbolic environment, identifying alternate routes, and applying explicit strategies and implicit heuristics to select an option. Two implicit heuristics have received considerable attention, the southern route preference and initial segment strategy. The current study tested a prediction from decision making theory, that increasing cognitive load during route planning will increase reliance on these heuristics. In two experiments, participants planned routes while under conditions of minimal (0-back) or high (2-back) working memory load...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319685/linking-actions-and-objects-context-specific-learning-of-novel-weight-priors
#3
Kevin M Trewartha, J Randall Flanagan
Distinct explicit and implicit memory processes support weight predictions used when lifting objects and making perceptual judgments about weight, respectively. The first time that an object is encountered weight is predicted on the basis of learned associations, or priors, linking size and material to weight. A fundamental question is whether the brain maintains a single, global representation of priors, or multiple representations that can be updated in a context specific way. A second key question is whether the updating of priors, or the ability to scale lifting forces when repeatedly lifting unusually weighted objects requires focused attention...
March 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298554/learned-interval-time-facilitates-associate-memory-retrieval
#4
Vincent van de Ven, Sarah Kochs, Fren Smulders, Peter De Weerd
The extent to which time is represented in memory remains underinvestigated. We designed a time paired associate task (TPAT) in which participants implicitly learned cue-time-target associations between cue-target pairs and specific cue-target intervals. During subsequent memory testing, participants showed increased accuracy of identifying matching cue-target pairs if the time interval during testing matched the implicitly learned interval. A control experiment showed that participants had no explicit knowledge about the cue-time associations...
April 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295187/working-memory-moderates-the-effect-of-the-integrative-process-of-implicit-and-explicit-autonomous-motivation-on-academic-achievement
#5
Alexandre Gareau, Patrick Gaudreau
In previous research, autonomous motivation (AM) has been found to be associated with school achievement, but the relation has been largely heterogeneous across studies. AM has typically been assessed with explicit measures such as self-report questionnaires. Recent self-determination theory (SDT) research has suggested that converging implicit and explicit measures can be taken to characterize the integrative process in SDT. Drawing from dual-process theories, we contended that explicit AM is likely to promote school achievement when it is part of an integrated cognitive system that combines easily accessible mental representations (i...
March 10, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287018/do-you-remember-where-sounds-pictures-and-words-came-from-the-role-of-the-stimulus-format-in-object-location-memory
#6
Franco Delogu, Christopher C Lilla
Contrasting results in visual and auditory spatial memory stimulate the debate over the role of sensory modality and attention in identity-to-location binding. We investigated the role of sensory modality in the incidental/deliberate encoding of the location of a sequence of items. In 4 separated blocks, 88 participants memorised sequences of environmental sounds, spoken words, pictures and written words, respectively. After memorisation, participants were asked to recognise old from new items in a new sequence of stimuli...
March 13, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285363/not-all-identification-tasks-are-born-equal-testing-the-involvement-of-production-processes-in-perceptual-identification-and-lexical-decision
#7
Pietro Spataro, Daniele Saraulli, Neil W Mulligan, Vincenzo Cestari, Marco Costanzi, Clelia Rossi-Arnaud
The distinction between identification and production processes suggests that implicit memory should require more attention resources when there is a competition between alternative solutions during the test phase. The present two experiments assessed this hypothesis by examining the effects of divided attention (DA) at encoding on the high- and low-response-competition versions of perceptual identification (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). In both experiments, words presented in the high-response-competition condition had many orthographic neighbours and at least one higher-frequency neighbour, whereas words presented in the low-response-competition condition had few orthographic neighbours and no higher-frequency neighbour...
March 11, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278457/collaborative-index-embedding-for-image-retrieval
#8
Wengang Zhou, Houqiang Li, Jian Sun, Qi Tian
In content-based image retrieval, SIFT feature and the feature from deep convolutional neural network (CNN) have demonstrated promising performance. To fully explore both visual features in a unified framework for effective and efficient retrieval, we propose a collaborative index embedding method to implicitly integrate the index matrices of them. We formulate the index embedding as an optimization problem from the perspective of neighborhood sharing and solve it with an alternating index update scheme. After the iterative embedding, only the embedded CNN index is kept for on-line query, which demonstrates significant gain in retrieval accuracy, with very economical memory cost...
March 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270783/semi-supervised-learning-of-cartesian-factors-a-top-down-model-of-the-entorhinal-hippocampal-complex
#9
András Lőrincz, András Sárkány
The existence of place cells (PCs), grid cells (GCs), border cells (BCs), and head direction cells (HCs) as well as the dependencies between them have been enigmatic. We make an effort to explain their nature by introducing the concept of Cartesian Factors. These factors have specific properties: (i) they assume and complement each other, like direction and position and (ii) they have localized discrete representations with predictive attractors enabling implicit metric-like computations. In our model, HCs make the distributed and local representation of direction...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252985/the-necessity-of-visual-attention-to-scene-categorization-dissociating-task-relevant-and-task-irrelevant-scene-distractors
#10
Nurit Gronau, Anna Izoutcheev
The extent to which scenes are categorized and understood in the absence of attention has been the focus of a continuous debate over the last decade. Most studies investigating this question have used experimental paradigms in which participants explicitly searched for a certain scene category, or alternatively, scenes were task-irrelevant yet their identity was explicitly reported by participants. Although the first type of studies may have overestimated unattended scene processing, the latter type of studies may have underestimated scene processing due to the reliance on subjective response criteria and on working memory capacity limits...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251718/priming-recognition-in-good-sleepers-and-in-insomniacs
#11
Fiorenza Giganti, Beatrice Aisa, Cinzia Arzilli, Maria Pia Viggiano, Mariangela Cerasuolo, Francesca Conte, Gianluca Ficca
Insomniacs often report memory and concentration problems, but these complaints have not been consistently supported by performance measurements. Furthermore, while the majority of studies have addressed explicit memory, few have investigated the implicit domain, and very little is known concerning other types of implicit memory besides procedural memory, such as priming. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate priming effect for visual stimuli in insomniacs and good sleepers. Twenty-three insomniacs and 20 good sleepers performed a visual priming task in which they were asked to name new and old pictures presented at nine ascending levels of spatial filtering...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235696/what-psychological-process-is-reflected-in-the-fn400-event-related-potential-component
#12
P Andrew Leynes, Heather Bruett, Jenna Krizan, Ana Veloso
During many recognition contexts, old items elicit a more positive event-related potentials (ERPs) than new items at mid-frontal electrodes about 300-500ms. The psychological processes that are reflected in is ERP component (i.e., the FN400) has been vigorously debated. Some argue that the FN400 reflects familiarity, whereas others argue that it reflects conceptual implicit memory. Three experiments contrasted these two hypotheses by presenting pre-experimentally familiar (i.e., name-brand) products and novel, off-brand products...
April 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228745/amnesia-associated-with-bilateral-hippocampal-and-bilateral-basal-ganglia-lesions-in-anoxia-with-stimulant-use
#13
Marc W Haut, Jeffery P Hogg, Patrick J Marshalek, Blair C Suter, Liv E Miller
We report a case of a 55-year-old man with ischemic lesions of the bilateral hippocampus and bilateral basal ganglia following a myocardial infarction during an episode of multiple drug use with subsequent anoxia requiring resuscitation. He presented for a neuropsychological evaluation with an anterograde amnesia for both explicit and procedural memory. There are two main points to this case, the unique aspects of the bilateral multifocal lesions and the functional, cognitive impact of these lesions. We hypothesize that his rare focal bilateral lesions of both the hippocampus and basal ganglia are a result of anoxia acting in synergy with his stimulant drug use (cocaine and/or 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220933/the-development-of-implicit-memory-from-infancy-to-childhood-on-average-performance-levels-and-interindividual-differences
#14
Isabel A Vöhringer, Thorsten Kolling, Frauke Graf, Sonja Poloczek, Ina Fassbender, Claudia Freitag, Bettina Lamm, Janina Suhrke, Johanna Teiser, Manuel Teubert, Heidi Keller, Arnold Lohaus, Gudrun Schwarzer, Monika Knopf
The present multimethod longitudinal study aimed at investigating development and stability of implicit memory during infancy and early childhood. A total of 134 children were followed longitudinally from 3 months to 3 years of life assessing different age-appropriate measures of implicit memory. Results from structural equation modeling give further evidence that implicit memory is stable from 9 months of life on, with earlier performance predicting later performance. Second, it was found that implicit memory is present from early on, and no age-related improvements are found from 3 months on...
February 21, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219752/sleep-does-not-facilitate-insight-in-older-adults
#15
Ursula Debarnot, Marta Rossi, Ugo Faraguna, Sophie Schwartz, Laura Sebastiani
Sleep has been shown to foster the process of insight generation in young adults during problem solving activities. Aging is characterized by substantial changes in sleep architecture altering memory consolidation. Whether sleep might promote the occurrence of insight in older adults as well has not yet been tested experimentally. To address this issue, we tested healthy young and old volunteers on an insight problem solving task, involving both explicit and implicit features, before and after a night of sleep or a comparable wakefulness period...
February 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212388/multiple-processes-in-two-dimensional-visual-statistical-learning
#16
Eiichi Hoshino, Ken Mogi
Knowledge about the arrangement of visual elements is an important aspect of perception. This study investigates whether humans learn rules of two-dimensional abstract patterns (exemplars) generated from Reber's artificial grammar. The key question is whether the subjects can implicitly learn them without explicit instructions, and, if so, how they use the acquired knowledge to judge new patterns (probes) in relation to their finite experience of the exemplars. The analysis was conducted using dissimilarities among patterns, which are defined with n-gram probabilities and the Levenshtein distance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202719/sleep-enhances-knowledge-of-routes-and-regions-in-spatial-environments
#17
Hannes Noack, Wiebke Schick, Hanspeter Mallot, Jan Born
Sleep is thought to preferentially consolidate hippocampus-dependent memory, and as such, spatial navigation. Here, we investigated the effects of sleep on route knowledge and explicit and implicit semantic regions in a virtual environment. Sleep, compared with wakefulness, improved route knowledge and also enhanced awareness of the semantic regionalization within the environment, whereas signs of implicit regionalization remained unchanged. Results support the view that sleep specifically enhances explicit aspects of memory, also in the spatial domain...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193311/voluntary-and-involuntary-imagery-in-social-anxiety
#18
Sophie R Homer, Catherine Deeprose
BACKGROUND: Negative mental imagery is ubiquitous in cognitive models of social anxiety and in the social anxiety literature. Previous research has shown that it is causal of increased anxiety, lower social performance ratings and lower implicit self-esteem. Despite its prevalence, few studies have investigated this imagery directly. AIMS: This study aimed to provide an in-depth analysis of the phenomenology of negative imagery experienced by socially anxious individuals, and to compare recurrent and intrusive images with images deliberately generated by participants during the study...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160511/efficient-gaussian-density-formulation-of-volume-and-surface-areas-of-macromolecules-on-graphical-processing-units
#19
Baofeng Zhang, Denise Kilburg, Peter Eastman, Vijay S Pande, Emilio Gallicchio
We present an algorithm to efficiently compute accurate volumes and surface areas of macromolecules on graphical processing unit (GPU) devices using an analytic model which represents atomic volumes by continuous Gaussian densities. The volume of the molecule is expressed by means of the inclusion-exclusion formula, which is based on the summation of overlap integrals among multiple atomic densities. The surface area of the molecule is obtained by differentiation of the molecular volume with respect to atomic radii...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138830/attempts-to-suppress-episodic-memories-fail-but-do-produce-demand-evidence-from-the-p300-based-complex-trial-protocol-and-an-implicit-memory-test
#20
Anne C Ward, J Peter Rosenfeld
Instructions to voluntarily suppress memories of a mock crime have been reported to result in decreased P300 amplitude during a P300-based concealed information test (CIT) and reduced autobiographical Implicit Association Test (aIAT) D scores, supporting successful suppression. However, one such study, (Hu et al., Psychological science 26(7):1098-1106, 2015) used the P300-based Complex Trial Protocol with a 50-50 target to nontarget ratio, which could impose much response switching and thereby drain cognitive resources, also resulting in reduced P300...
January 30, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
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