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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737111/habit-in-personality-and-social-psychology
#1
Wendy Wood
Habits are largely absent from modern social and personality psychology. This is due to outdated perspectives that placed habits in conflict with goals. In modern theorizing, habits are represented in memory as implicit context-response associations, and they guide responding in conjunction with goals. Habits thus have important implications for our field. Emerging research shows that habits are an important mechanism by which people self-regulate and achieve long-term goals. Also, habits change through specific interventions, such as changes in context cues...
July 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734549/habitual-versus-goal-driven-attention
#2
REVIEW
Yuhong V Jiang
Recent research has expanded the list of factors that control spatial attention. Beside current goals and perceptual salience, statistical learning, reward, motivation and emotion also affect attention. But do these various factors influence spatial attention in the same manner, as suggested by the integrated framework of attention, or do they target different aspects of spatial attention? Here I present evidence that the control of attention may be implemented in two ways. Whereas current goals typically modulate where in space attention is prioritized, search habits affect how one moves attention in space...
July 4, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730431/protocols-for-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-rna-nanostructures
#3
Taejin Kim, Wojciech K Kasprzak, Bruce A Shapiro
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used as one of the main research tools to study a wide range of biological systems and bridge the gap between X-ray crystallography or NMR structures and biological mechanism. In the field of RNA nanostructures, MD simulations have been used to fix steric clashes in computationally designed RNA nanostructures, characterize the dynamics, and investigate the interaction between RNA and other biomolecules such as delivery agents and membranes.In this chapter we present examples of computational protocols for molecular dynamics simulations in explicit and implicit solvent using the Amber Molecular Dynamics Package...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713325/editorial-the-role-of-the-distinctions-between-identification-production-and-perceptual-conceptual-processes-in-implicit-memory-findings-from-cognitive-psychology-neuroscience-and-neuropsychology
#4
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713278/the-neuroanatomical-neurophysiological-and-psychological-basis-of-memory-current-models-and-their-origins
#5
REVIEW
Eduardo Camina, Francisco Güell
This review aims to classify and clarify, from a neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and psychological perspective, different memory models that are currently widespread in the literature as well as to describe their origins. We believe it is important to consider previous developments without which one cannot adequately understand the kinds of models that are now current in the scientific literature. This article intends to provide a comprehensive and rigorous overview for understanding and ordering the latest scientific advances related to this subject...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710940/procedural-learning-in-tourette-syndrome-adhd-and-comorbid-tourette-adhd-evidence-from-a-probabilistic-sequence-learning-task
#6
Ádám Takács, Yuval Shilon, Karolina Janacsek, Andrea Kóbor, Antoine Tremblay, Dezső Németh, Michael T Ullman
Procedural memory, which is rooted in the basal ganglia, plays an important role in the implicit learning of motor and cognitive skills. Few studies have examined procedural learning in either Tourette syndrome (TS) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), despite basal ganglia abnormalities in both of these neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to assess procedural learning in children with TS (n=13), ADHD (n=22), and comorbid TS-ADHD (n=20), as well as in typically developing children (n=21). Procedural learning was measured with a well-studied implicit probabilistic sequence learning task, the alternating serial reaction time task...
July 12, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709222/population-density-equations-for-stochastic-processes-with-memory-kernels
#7
Yi Ming Lai, Marc de Kamps
We present a method for solving population density equations (PDEs)--a mean-field technique describing homogeneous populations of uncoupled neurons-where the populations can be subject to non-Markov noise for arbitrary distributions of jump sizes. The method combines recent developments in two different disciplines that traditionally have had limited interaction: computational neuroscience and the theory of random networks. The method uses a geometric binning scheme, based on the method of characteristics, to capture the deterministic neurodynamics of the population, separating the deterministic and stochastic process cleanly...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701077/older-adults-encode-more-not-less-evidence-for-age-related-attentional-broadening
#8
Jennifer C Weeks, Lynn Hasher
Previous work has shown that older adults attend to and implicitly remember more distracting information than young adults; however, it is unknown whether they show a corresponding decrease in implicit memory for targets in the presence of distracters. Using implicit memory tests, we asked whether older adults show a tradeoff in memory between targets and distracters. Here, young and older adults performed a selective attention task in which they were instructed to attend to target pictures and ignore superimposed distracter words...
July 13, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697479/false-memories-but-not-false-beliefs-affect-implicit-attitudes-for-food-preferences
#9
David Howe, Rachel J Anderson, Stephen A Dewhurst
Previous studies have found that false memories and false beliefs of childhood experiences can have attitudinal consequences. Previous studies have, however, focused exclusively on explicit attitude measures without exploring whether implicit attitudes are similarly affected. Using a false feedback/imagination inflation paradigm, false memories and beliefs of enjoying a certain food as a child were elicited in participants, and their effects were assessed using both explicit attitude measures (self-report questionnaires) and implicit measures (a Single-Target Implicit Association Test)...
July 7, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688076/an-eye-movement-study-of-relational-memory-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Melanie Ring, Dermot M Bowler, Sebastian B Gaigg
Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrate good memory for single items but difficulties remembering contextual information related to these items. Recently, we found compromised explicit but intact implicit retrieval of object-location information in ASD (Ring et al. Autism Res 8(5):609-619, 2015). Eye-movement data collected from a sub-sample of the participants are the focus of the current paper. At encoding, trial-by-trial viewing durations predicted subsequent retrieval success only in typically developing (TD) participants...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670964/do-young-adults-show-conceptual-knowledge-of-previous-distractors
#11
Tarek Amer, John A E Anderson, Lynn Hasher
Using implicit tests, older adults have been found to retain conceptual knowledge of previously seen task-irrelevant information. While younger adults typically do not show the same effect, evidence from one study [Gopie, N., Craik, F. I. M., & Hasher, L. (2011). A double dissociation of implicit and explicit memory in younger and older adults. Psychological Science, 22, 634-640. doi: 10.1177/0956797611403321 ] suggests otherwise. In that study, young adults showed greater explicit than implicit memory for previous distractors on a word fragment completion task...
July 1, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662479/intact-implicit-statistical-learning-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#12
Zsolt Unoka, Gabriella Vizin, Anna Bjelik, Dóra Radics, Dezso Nemeth, Karolina Janacsek
Wide-spread neuropsychological deficits have been identified in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Previous research found impairments in decision making, declarative memory, working memory and executive functions; however, no studies have focused on implicit learning in BPD yet. The aim of our study was to investigate implicit statistical learning by comparing learning performance of 19 BPD patients and 19 healthy, age-, education- and gender-matched controls on a probabilistic sequence learning task. Moreover, we also tested whether participants retain the acquired knowledge after a delay period...
June 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656362/limited-capacity-of-working-memory-in-unihemispheric-random-walks-implies-conceivable-slow-dispersal
#13
Kun Wei, Suchuan Zhong
Phenomenologically inspired by dolphins' unihemispheric sleep, we introduce a minimal model for random walks with physiological memory. The physiological memory consists of long-term memory which includes unconscious implicit memory and conscious explicit memory, and working memory which serves as a multi-component system for integrating, manipulating and managing short-term storage. The model assumes that the sleeping state allows retrievals of episodic objects merely from the episodic buffer where these memory objects are invoked corresponding to the ambient objects and are thus object-oriented, together with intermittent but increasing use of implicit memory in which decisions are unconsciously picked up from historical time series...
June 27, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632779/base-rate-sensitivity-through-implicit-learning
#14
Andrew J Wismer, Corey J Bohil
Two experiments assessed the contributions of implicit and explicit learning to base-rate sensitivity. Using a factorial design that included both implicit and explicit learning disruptions, we tested the hypothesis that implicit learning underlies base-rate sensitivity from experience (and that explicit learning contributes comparatively little). Participants learned to classify two categories of simple stimuli (bar graph heights) presented in a 3:1 base-rate ratio. Participants learned either from "observational" training to disrupt implicit learning or "response" training which supports implicit learning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611613/simultaneous-processing-of-noun-cue-and-to-be-produced-verb-in-verb-generation-task-electromagnetic-evidence
#15
Anna V Butorina, Anna A Pavlova, Anastasia Y Nikolaeva, Andrey O Prokofyev, Denis P Bondarev, Tatiana A Stroganova
A long-standing but implicit assumption is that words strongly associated with a presented cue are automatically activated in the memory through rapid spread of activation within brain semantic networks. The current study was aimed to provide direct evidence of such rapid access to words' semantic representations and to investigate its neural sources using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and distributed source localization technique. Thirty-three neurotypical subjects underwent the MEG recording during verb generation task, which was to produce verbs related to the presented noun cues...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584870/the-inventory-as-a-core-element-in-the-further-development-of-the-science-curriculum-in-the-mannheim-reformed-curriculum-of-medicine
#16
Julia Eckel, Katrin Schüttpelz-Brauns, Thomas Miethke, Alexandra Rolletschek, Harald M Fritz
Introduction: The German Council of Science and Humanities as well as a number of medical professional associations support the strengthening of scientific competences by developing longitudinal curricula for teaching scientific competences in the undergraduate medical education. The National Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM) has also defined medical scientific skills as learning objectives in addition to the role of the scholar. The development of the Mannheim science curriculum started with a systematic inventory of the teaching of scientific competences in the Mannheim Reformed Curriculum of Medicine (MaReCuM)...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462484/media-multitasking-and-implicit-learning
#17
Kathleen S Edwards, Myoungju Shin
Media multitasking refers to the simultaneous use of different forms of media. Previous research comparing heavy media multitaskers and light media multitaskers suggests that heavy media multitaskers have a broader scope of attention. The present study explored whether these differences in attentional scope would lead to a greater degree of implicit learning for heavy media multitaskers. The study also examined whether media multitasking behaviour is associated with differences in visual working memory, and whether visual working memory differentially affects the ability to process contextual information...
May 1, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456203/coarse-graining-strategy-for-molecular-pair-interactions-a-reaction-coordinate-study-for-two-and-three-dimensional-systems
#18
Thomas Heinemann, Sabine H L Klapp
We investigate and provide optimal sets of reaction coordinates for mixed pairs of molecules displaying polar, uniaxial, or spherical symmetry in two and three dimensions. These coordinates are non-redundant, i.e., they implicitly involve the molecules' symmetries. By tabulating pair interactions in these coordinates, resulting tables are thus minimal in length and require a minimal memory space. The intended fields of application are computer simulations of large ensembles of molecules or colloids with rather complex interactions in a fluid or liquid crystalline phase at low densities...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444345/causal-evidence-for-task-specific-involvement-of-the-dorsomedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-human-social-cognition
#19
Andrew K Martin, I Ilvana Dzafic, Swathi Ramdave, Marcus Meinzer
The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) is a key hub of the "social brain", but little is known about specific processes supported by this region. Using focal high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) and a social cognitive battery with differing demands on self-other processing, we demonstrate specific involvement of the dmPFC in tasks placing high demands on self-other processing. Specifically, excitatory (anodal) HD-tDCS enhanced the integration of external information into the self for explicit higher-order socio-cognitive tasks across cognitive domains; i...
April 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419641/neural-correlates-of-experimental-trauma-memory-retrieval
#20
Geraldine A Gvozdanovic, Philipp Stämpfli, Erich Seifritz, Björn Rasch
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic memories such as intrusions and flashbacks play a major role in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A thorough understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying traumatic memories is indispensable for precise diagnosis, for personalized treatment and prevention. In particular, the identification of early neural predictor variables for intrusion development shortly after trauma exposure requires detailed investigation. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Here, we examined the neural correlates of early experimental trauma memory retrieval in a traumatic film paradigm in 42 young healthy females, using both implicit and explicit retrieval tasks...
April 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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