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Medicine Science and the Law

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218359/-significance-of-the-doctorate-in-scientific-medical-education
#1
Matthias Frosch
According to European and German law, the medical education of physicians must take place in a scientific degree program at a university or under the supervision of a university. To keep up the ideal of a scientific degree program, various organizations and associations, such as the German Research Foundation, the German Council of Science and Humanities and the German Medical Faculty Association, see the need for an even stronger anchoring of academic learning content in the course of study. Traditionally, a scientific project, which is carried out during the studies, provides the basis for the Doctor of Medicine (Dr...
December 7, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216523/use-of-synthetic-stimulants-and-hallucinogens-in-a-cohort-of-electronic-dance-music-festival-attendees
#2
Amanda L A Mohr, Melissa Friscia, Jillian K Yeakel, Barry K Logan
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS), often characterized as unregulated psychoactive compounds designed to circumvent existing legislation, have become mainstream on the illicit drug market. Because of their physical and mind-altering properties, NPS may be deliberately or inadvertently ingested at electronic dance music (EDM) festivals to enhance the attendees' appreciation of the music and overall experience. Their widespread use at EDM festivals have been well documented and several adverse events and fatalities associated with NPS ingestion have been reported in the United States...
November 21, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203749/didactic-aspects-of-cognition-of-human-as-a-bio-psycho-socio-cultural-personality
#3
Borys I Palamar, Halyna O Vaskivska, Svitlana P Palamar
Modern education, according to leading Ukrainian scientists, requires the development of a new paradigm, which will consider the phenomenon of man holistically. The article describes didactic aspects of cognition of human as a bio-psycho-socio-cultural personality, as social fact, as a phenomenon. For the actualization of the didactic aspects of the problem, the authors used the methods of scientific literature analysis, systemic analysis and generalizations, analysis own practice of didactic and methodological character...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118835/classic-cases-revisited-oxygen-in-court-and-the-problem-of-therapeutic-illusion
#4
Piotr Szawarski
Medical science attempts to inform clinical practice. Law is concerned with causality. Intersection of law and medicine at times highlights the shortcomings in the medical approach to causality. Evidence-based medicine is only as good as the process of gathering evidence and this is inherently imperfect as suggested by philosophers. There is a risk of attributing a causal relationship when there is none, which can result in a false belief about an intervention. False beliefs can become entrenched forming a dogma...
August 2017: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071571/perceptions-of-ethical-climate-and-research-pressures-in-different-faculties-of-a-university-cross-sectional-study-at-the-university-of-split-croatia
#5
Mario Malički, Vedran Katavić, Domagoj Marković, Matko Marušić, Ana Marušić
We determined the prevailing ethical climate at three different schools of a single university, in order to explore possible differences in the ethical climate related to different research fields: the School of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Naval Architecture; the School of Humanities and Social Sciences; and the School of Medicine. We used the Ethical Climate Questionnaire to survey the staff (teachers and administration) at the three schools, and used the research integrity and organizational climate (RIOC) survey for early-stage researchers at the three schools...
October 25, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040639/the-medical-science-dmz-a-network-design-pattern-for-data-intensive-medical-science
#6
Sean Peisert, Eli Dart, William Barnett, Edward Balas, James Cuff, Robert L Grossman, Ari Berman, Anurag Shankar, Brian Tierney
Objective: We describe a detailed solution for maintaining high-capacity, data-intensive network flows (eg, 10, 40, 100 Gbps+) in a scientific, medical context while still adhering to security and privacy laws and regulations. Materials and Methods: High-end networking, packet-filter firewalls, network intrusion-detection systems. Results: We describe a "Medical Science DMZ" concept as an option for secure, high-volume transport of large, sensitive datasets between research institutions over national research networks, and give 3 detailed descriptions of implemented Medical Science DMZs...
October 6, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976822/accelerating-regenerative-medicine-the-japanese-experiment-in-ethics-and-regulation
#7
Tamra Lysaght
In 2014, the Japanese National Diet introduced new laws aimed at promoting the clinical translation of stem cells and regenerative medicine. The basic action of these laws is to allow the early introduction of regenerative medicine products into the Japanese market through an accelerated approval process, while providing patients with access to certain types of stem cell and cell-based therapies in the context of private clinical practice. While this framework appears to offer enormous opportunities for the translation of stem cell science, it raises ethical challenges that have not yet been fully explored...
September 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895229/crisis-and-change-the-making-of-a-french-fda
#8
Constance A Nathanson, Henri Bergeron
Policy Points: Introducing a recent special issue of The Lancet on the health system in France, Horton and Ceschia observe that "the dominance of English as the language of science and, increasingly, global health too often closes the door on the history and experiences of others."(1) In that spirit, this manuscript presents a detailed case study of public health policy transformation in France in the early 1990s. It casts light on processes of policy change in a political and cultural environment very different from that of the United States, showing how the public health policy process is shaped by multiple contingencies of history, ideology, and politics...
September 2017: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886887/making-medicine-producing-pleasure-a-critical-examination-of-medicinal-cannabis-policy-and-law-in-victoria-australia
#9
Kari Lancaster, Kate Seear, Alison Ritter
Several jurisdictions around the world have introduced policies and laws allowing for the legal use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes. However, there has been little critical discussion of how the object of 'medicinal cannabis' is enacted in policy and practice. Informed by Carol Bacchi's poststructuralist approach to policy analysis and the work of science and technology studies scholars, this paper seeks to problematise the object of 'medicinal cannabis' and examine how it is constituted through governing practices...
September 5, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867156/-sexual-risk-behaviours-and-pap-testing-in-university-women-vaccinated-against-human-papillomavirus
#10
Ana Fernández-Feito, Raquel Antón-Fernández, María Paz-Zulueta
AIM: To estimate the association between the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and sexual risk behaviour, as well as the participation in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. LOCATION: School of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Law, and School of Economics and Business (University of Oviedo). PARTICIPANTS: Female university students. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Information was collected about contraceptive methods, sexual behaviours, HPV knowledge, and participation in the CCSP...
August 31, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846915/humanitarian-forensic-action-its-origins-and-future
#11
Stephen Cordner, Morris Tidball-Binz
Humanitarian forensic action is the application of the knowledge and skills of forensic medicine and science to humanitarian action, especially following conflicts or disasters. It has its early roots in the experience of the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team and that of the Grandmothers of Plaza de Mayo in Argentina, is moulded by International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law and was developed by the International Committee of the Red Cross. Having demonstrated its worth, this new field of application of forensic medicine and science needs further development, integration and research...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812979/truth-in-research-labelling
#12
John H Noble
This report describes the background and context of a currently circulating petition to the US Congress that seeks amendment of Section 801 of the Public Health Services Act (42 U.S.C. 282) to close a loophole in existing law which makes possible post hoc adjustment of randomised controlled trial (RCT) results reported to the Food and Drug Administration that differ from those reported to ClinicalTrials.gov and to medical journals. The report describes the petition's rationale, underlying assumptions, and support for its proposed remedy in deontological, consequentialist, and casuist philosophical ethics theories...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711892/3-d-bioprinting-law-regulation-perspectives
#13
Vitalii Pashkov, Andrii Harkusha
INTRODUCTION: Achieved level of technical progress moves us closer and closer to practical use of 3-d bioprinting technologies in real life. Such perspective raise a wide variety of crucial legal issues from the acceptable model of regulation of the science and its' societal effects to problems of the commercialization of the technology and potential restrictions of its use. Some key points on concept of legal regulation of abovementioned sphere is a base of this study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Scientific discussion on 3-D bioprinting, European Union`s and US experience in patenting of 3-D bioprinting technologies, European Medicine Agency (EMA) or the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, European Medical Technology Industry Association (EUCOMED) Acts...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521917/the-global-health-law-trilogy-towards-a-safer-healthier-and-fairer-world
#14
Lawrence O Gostin, Mary Clare DeBartolo, Rebecca Katz
Global health advocates often turn to medicine and science for solutions to enduring health risks, but law is also a powerful tool. No state acting alone can ward off health threats that span borders, requiring international solutions. A trilogy of global health law-the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, International Health Regulations (2005), and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework-strives for a safer, healthier, and fairer world. Yet, these international agreements are not well understood, and contain gaps in scope and enforceability...
May 15, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463853/the-role-of-activists-in-access-to-hiv-and-tuberculosis-treatment-and-prevention
#15
Nathan Geffen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We describe the role of activism in improving access to quality HIV treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: In many countries, AIDS activists have campaigned for improved access to HIV treatment and prevention interventions. Studying medicine, epidemiology and law, and developing expertise in these fields, has been crucial to the success of these campaigns. Also important has been the building of alliances by activists with clinicians, nurses, scientists, and public health policy experts, persuading them of the importance of these campaigns...
July 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192033/seven-foundational-principles-of-population-health-policy
#16
Dru Bhattacharya, Jay Bhatt
In 2016, Keyes and Galea issued 9 foundational principles of population health science and invited further deliberations by specialists to advance the field. This article presents 7 foundational principles of population health policy whose intersection with health care, public health, preventive medicine, and now population health, presents unique challenges. These principles are in response to a number of overarching questions that have arisen in over a decade of the authors' collective practice in the public and private sectors, and having taught policy within programs of medicine, law, nursing, and public health at the graduate and executive levels...
October 2017: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190671/observations-of-the-role-of-science-in-the-united-states-medical-cannabis-state-policies-lessons-learnt
#17
Jelica Grbic, Perilou Goddard, David Ryder
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have shown cannabis to be effective in the treatment of some medical conditions and there is mounting public and political pressure to enact laws enabling the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. To date, 28 United States (U.S.) states and the District of Columbia have enacted medical cannabis laws. This study sought to identify the main issues pertaining to the development of medical cannabis laws in the U.S, including the role of scientific evidence. METHODS: Data were collected from three groups of participants: government officials, lobbyists and medical professionals involved in the medical cannabis debate in five selected states in the U...
February 9, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079725/new-medicine-for-the-u-s-health-care-system-training-physicians-for-structural-interventions
#18
Helena Hansen, Jonathan M Metzl
Structural competency provides a language and theoretical framework to promote institutional-level interventions by clinical practitioners working with community organizations, non-health-sector institutions, and policy makers. The special collection of articles on structural competency in this issue of Academic Medicine addresses the need to move from theory to an appraisal of core educational interventions that operationalize the goals of and foster structural competency. In this Commentary, the authors review the role of clinical practitioners in enhancing population-level health outcomes through collaborations with professionals in fields outside medicine, including the social sciences and law...
March 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068838/traditional-chinese-medicine-and-constitutional-medicine-in-china-japan-and-korea-a-comparative-study
#19
REVIEW
Wenjun Yu, Mingyue Ma, Xuemei Chen, Jiayu Min, Lingru Li, Yanfei Zheng, Yingshuai Li, Ji Wang, Qi Wang
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Japanese-Chinese medicine, and Korean Sasang constitutional medicine have common origins. However, the constitutional medicines of China, Japan, and Korea differ because of the influence of geographical culture, social environment, national practices, and other factors. This paper aimed to compare the constitutional medicines of China, Japan, and Korea in terms of theoretical origin, constitutional classification, constitution and pathogenesis, clinical applications and basic studies that were conducted...
2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035474/technical-note-early-post-mortem-changes-of-human-bone-in-taphonomy-with-%C3%AE-ct
#20
Erwan Le Garff, Vadim Mesli, Yann Delannoy, Thomas Colard, Xavier Demondion, Anne Becart, Valéry Hedouin
Post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation is an important issue in forensic medicine, particularly for criminal purposes and legal limitation periods. The goal of the present study is to examine the evolution of the trabecular cranial vault bone after 4 weeks of conservation in a controlled environment with micro-tomography (μCT) analyses.Four bone samples were extracted from a fresh human cranial vault (a donation to science according to the French law) and conserved in an air-controlled environment. The samples were weighed and μCT scanned at a 10-μm resolution every week after death for a month...
May 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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