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Medicine Science and the Law

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812979/truth-in-research-labelling
#1
John H Noble
This report describes the background and context of a currently circulating petition to the US Congress that seeks amendment of Section 801 of the Public Health Services Act (42 U.S.C. 282) to close a loophole in existing law which makes possible post hoc adjustment of randomised controlled trial (RCT) results reported to the Food and Drug Administration that differ from those reported to ClinicalTrials.gov and to medical journals. The report describes the petition's rationale, underlying assumptions, and support for its proposed remedy in deontological, consequentialist, and casuist philosophical ethics theories...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711892/3-d-bioprinting-law-regulation-perspectives
#2
Vitalii Pashkov, Andrii Harkusha
INTRODUCTION: Achieved level of technical progress moves us closer and closer to practical use of 3-d bioprinting technologies in real life. Such perspective raise a wide variety of crucial legal issues from the acceptable model of regulation of the science and its' societal effects to problems of the commercialization of the technology and potential restrictions of its use. Some key points on concept of legal regulation of abovementioned sphere is a base of this study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Scientific discussion on 3-D bioprinting, European Union`s and US experience in patenting of 3-D bioprinting technologies, European Medicine Agency (EMA) or the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, European Medical Technology Industry Association (EUCOMED) Acts...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521917/the-global-health-law-trilogy-towards-a-safer-healthier-and-fairer-world
#3
Lawrence O Gostin, Mary Clare DeBartolo, Rebecca Katz
Global health advocates often turn to medicine and science for solutions to enduring health risks, but law is also a powerful tool. No state acting alone can ward off health threats that span borders, requiring international solutions. A trilogy of global health law-the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, International Health Regulations (2005), and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework-strives for a safer, healthier, and fairer world. Yet, these international agreements are not well understood, and contain gaps in scope and enforceability...
May 15, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463853/the-role-of-activists-in-access-to-hiv-and-tuberculosis-treatment-and-prevention
#4
Nathan Geffen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We describe the role of activism in improving access to quality HIV treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: In many countries, AIDS activists have campaigned for improved access to HIV treatment and prevention interventions. Studying medicine, epidemiology and law, and developing expertise in these fields, has been crucial to the success of these campaigns. Also important has been the building of alliances by activists with clinicians, nurses, scientists, and public health policy experts, persuading them of the importance of these campaigns...
July 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192033/seven-foundational-principles-of-population-health-policy
#5
Dru Bhattacharya, Jay Bhatt
In 2016, Keyes and Galea issued 9 foundational principles of population health science and invited further deliberations by specialists to advance the field. This article presents 7 foundational principles of population health policy whose intersection with health care, public health, preventive medicine, and now population health, presents unique challenges. These principles are in response to a number of overarching questions that have arisen in over a decade of the authors' collective practice in the public and private sectors, and having taught policy within programs of medicine, law, nursing, and public health at the graduate and executive levels...
February 13, 2017: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190671/observations-of-the-role-of-science-in-the-united-states-medical-cannabis-state-policies-lessons-learnt
#6
Jelica Grbic, Perilou Goddard, David Ryder
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have shown cannabis to be effective in the treatment of some medical conditions and there is mounting public and political pressure to enact laws enabling the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. To date, 28 United States (U.S.) states and the District of Columbia have enacted medical cannabis laws. This study sought to identify the main issues pertaining to the development of medical cannabis laws in the U.S, including the role of scientific evidence. METHODS: Data were collected from three groups of participants: government officials, lobbyists and medical professionals involved in the medical cannabis debate in five selected states in the U...
February 9, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079725/new-medicine-for-the-u-s-health-care-system-training-physicians-for-structural-interventions
#7
Helena Hansen, Jonathan M Metzl
Structural competency provides a language and theoretical framework to promote institutional-level interventions by clinical practitioners working with community organizations, non-health-sector institutions, and policy makers. The special collection of articles on structural competency in this issue of Academic Medicine addresses the need to move from theory to an appraisal of core educational interventions that operationalize the goals of and foster structural competency. In this Commentary, the authors review the role of clinical practitioners in enhancing population-level health outcomes through collaborations with professionals in fields outside medicine, including the social sciences and law...
March 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068838/traditional-chinese-medicine-and-constitutional-medicine-in-china-japan-and-korea-a-comparative-study
#8
REVIEW
Wenjun Yu, Mingyue Ma, Xuemei Chen, Jiayu Min, Lingru Li, Yanfei Zheng, Yingshuai Li, Ji Wang, Qi Wang
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Japanese-Chinese medicine, and Korean Sasang constitutional medicine have common origins. However, the constitutional medicines of China, Japan, and Korea differ because of the influence of geographical culture, social environment, national practices, and other factors. This paper aimed to compare the constitutional medicines of China, Japan, and Korea in terms of theoretical origin, constitutional classification, constitution and pathogenesis, clinical applications and basic studies that were conducted...
2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035474/technical-note-early-post-mortem-changes-of-human-bone-in-taphonomy-with-%C3%AE-ct
#9
Erwan Le Garff, Vadim Mesli, Yann Delannoy, Thomas Colard, Xavier Demondion, Anne Becart, Valéry Hedouin
Post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation is an important issue in forensic medicine, particularly for criminal purposes and legal limitation periods. The goal of the present study is to examine the evolution of the trabecular cranial vault bone after 4 weeks of conservation in a controlled environment with micro-tomography (μCT) analyses.Four bone samples were extracted from a fresh human cranial vault (a donation to science according to the French law) and conserved in an air-controlled environment. The samples were weighed and μCT scanned at a 10-μm resolution every week after death for a month...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891020/preventing-medico-legal-issues-in-clinical-practice
#10
REVIEW
Bevinahalli N Raveesh, Ragavendra B Nayak, Shivakumar F Kumbar
The medical profession is considered to be one of the noblest professions in the world. The practice of medicine is capable of rendering noble service to humanity provided due care, sincerity, efficiency, and professional skill is observed by the doctors. However, today, the patient-doctor relationship has almost diminished its fiduciary character and has become more formal and structured. Doctors are no longer regarded as infallible and beyond questioning. Corporatization of health care has made it like any other business, and the medical profession is increasingly being guided by the profit motive rather than that of service...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752901/patient-safety-education-among-chinese-medical-undergraduates-an-empirical-study
#11
Gang Li, Hong-Bing Tao, Jia-Zhi Liao, Jin-Hui Tang, Fang Peng, Qin Shu, Wen-Gang Li, Shun-Gui Tu, Zhuo Chen
Patient safety education is conducive to medical students' cognition on patient safety and to improvement of medical quality and safety. Developing patient safety education for medical students is more and more widely recognized by World Health Organization and countries all over the world. However, in China, patient safety courses aiming at medical students are relatively few, and there are few reports about the effect of patient safety courses. This paper explored the influence of patient safety curriculum on medical students' attitude to and knowledge of patient safety...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722816/bullying-prevention-a-summary-of-the-report-of-the-national-academies-of-sciences-engineering-and-medicine-committee-on-the-biological-and-psychosocial-effects-of-peer-victimization-lessons-for-bullying-prevention
#12
Daniel J Flannery, Jonathan Todres, Catherine P Bradshaw, Angela Frederick Amar, Sandra Graham, Mark Hatzenbuehler, Matthew Masiello, Megan Moreno, Regina Sullivan, Tracy Vaillancourt, Suzanne M Le Menestrel, Frederick Rivara
Long tolerated as a rite of passage into adulthood, bullying is now recognized as a major and preventable public health problem. The consequences of bullying-for those who are bullied, the perpetrators of bullying, and the witnesses-include poor physical health, anxiety, depression, increased risk for suicide, poor school performance, and future delinquent and aggressive behavior. Despite ongoing efforts to address bullying at the law, policy, and programmatic levels, there is still much to learn about the consequences of bullying and the effectiveness of various responses...
October 9, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649834/disciplinary-crossings
#13
Ilina Singh
Eighteen months ago, I left a permanent professorship in a generously interdisciplinary department of sociology and took an impermanent, lower-paying job at a university where I had to apply to something called the "Committee on Distinction" to retain the title of "Professor." Some people say, "That's what happens when Oxford calls." But it wasn't just that. It was the opportunity to engage in a groundbreaking experiment: to embed and integrate ethics within the Oxford Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience...
September 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627631/holistic-review-in-medical-school-admissions-and-selection-a-strategic-mission-driven-response-to-shifting-societal-needs
#14
Sarah S Conrad, Amy N Addams, Geoffrey H Young
Medical schools and residency programs have always sought excellence in the areas of education, research, and clinical care. However, these pursuits are not accomplished within a vacuum-rather, they are continually and necessarily influenced by social, cultural, political, legal, and economic forces. Persistent demographic inequalities coupled with rapidly evolving biomedical research and a complex legal landscape heighten our collective awareness and emphasize the continued need to consider medicine's social contract when selecting, educating, and developing physicians and physician-scientists...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528494/interventions-to-reduce-corruption-in-the-health-sector
#15
REVIEW
Rakhal Gaitonde, Andrew D Oxman, Peter O Okebukola, Gabriel Rada
BACKGROUND: Corruption is the abuse or complicity in abuse, of public or private position, power or authority to benefit oneself, a group, an organisation or others close to oneself; where the benefits may be financial, material or non-material. It is wide-spread in the health sector and represents a major problem. OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to systematically summarise empirical evidence of the effects of strategies to reduce corruption in the health sector...
August 16, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503499/-incapacitated-persons-participation-rights-and-the-legal-concept-of-the-capacity-to-consent
#16
Reinhard Damm
Legal problems related to the capacity to consent and decision-making have recently become increasingly important. This concerns the prerequisites and limitations of legal participation as a basis of social participation. Among the relevant social spheres and fields of action, this particulary concerns medicine and health care as well as disability and care. At the normative level, with a view to those concerned, this leads to fundamental questions resulting from the tension between self-determination and care as basic legal and ethical standards...
September 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453050/the-re-production-of-the-genetically-related-body-in-law-technology-and-culture-mitochondria-replacement-therapy
#17
Danielle Griffiths
Advances in medicine in the latter half of the twentieth century have dramatically altered human bodies, expanding choices around what we do with them and how they connect to other bodies. Nowhere is this more so than in the area of reproductive technologies (RTs). Reproductive medicine and the laws surrounding it in the UK have reconfigured traditional boundaries surrounding parenthood and the family. Yet culture and regulation surrounding RTs have combined to try to ensure that while traditional boundaries may be pushed, they are reconstructed in similar ways...
September 2016: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448658/same-same-but-different-why-we-should-care-about-the-distinction-between-professionalism-and-ethics
#18
Sabine Salloch
Medical professionalism forms a belief system which is used to defend physicians' ethos against counterforces which might threaten the integrity of medical practice. The current debates on professionalism, however, are characterized by the lack of a clear distinction between professional and ethical aspects of physicians' conduct. This article argues that a differentiation between professionalism and ethics is not of mere academic interest. Instead, it is of great practical importance with regard to morally contentious issues in medicine...
2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440981/capacity-building-for-career-paths-in-public-health-and-biomedical-research-for-undergraduate-minority-students-a-jackson-heart-study-success-model
#19
Wendy Brown White, Asoka Srinivasan, Cheryl Nelson, Nimr Fahmy, Frances Henderson
OBJECTIVE: This article chronicles the building of individual student capacity as well as faculty and institutional capacity, within the context of a population-based, longitudinal study of African Americans and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this article is to present preliminary data documenting the results of this approach. DESIGN: The JHS Scholars program is designed, under the organizational structure of the Natural Sciences Division at Tougaloo College, to provide solid preparation in quantitative skills through: good preparation in mathematics and the sciences; a high level of reading comprehension; hands-on learning experiences; and mentoring and counseling to sustain the motivation of the students to pursue further studies...
July 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424281/-voluntariness-and-blood-donation-proceedings-of-an-ethics-seminar-held-at-the-national-institute-for-blood-transfusion
#20
O Garraud, B Danic, J-P Cartron, J Chiaroni, B Clavier, B Cuneo, M Guimelchain-Bonnet, M-A Hermitte, S Mackowiak, M Monsellier, S Moreau, K Papa, B Pelletier, R Pottier, R Praile, A Saillol, J-D Tissot, J-P Vernant, C Hervé
Voluntariness stands for one of the four pillars of ethics in blood donation; it is, however, more related to tradition than to legislation. Because it seems necessary to apply "marketing" techniques to blood collection in order to meet the needs in blood components, both in terms of quantity and quality, one wonders if this may be at the expense of this principle of voluntariness. This seminar-belonging actually to a series of seminars in Ethics in Transfusion Medicine-aimed at questioning the possible weakness of voluntariness in the field of blood donation...
September 2016: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
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