Read by QxMD icon Read

Pediatric capnography

Mario Patino, Megan Kalin, Allison Griffin, Abu Minhajuddin, Lili Ding, Timothy Williams, Stacey Ishman, Mohamed Mahmoud, C Dean Kurth, Peter Szmuk
BACKGROUND: In children, postoperative respiratory rate (RR) monitoring by transthoracic impedance (TI), capnography, and manual counting has limitations. The rainbow acoustic monitor (RAM) measures continuous RR noninvasively by a different methodology. Our primary aim was to compare the degree of agreement and accuracy of RR measurements as determined by RAM and TI to that of manual counting. Secondary aims include tolerance and analysis of alarm events. METHODS: Sixty-two children (2-16 years old) were admitted after tonsillectomy or receiving postoperative patient/parental-controlled analgesia...
April 24, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Nicolas Nardi, Guillaume Mortamet, Laurence Ducharme-Crevier, Guillaume Emeriaud, Philippe Jouvet
In this review on respiratory assistance, we aim to discuss the following recent advances: the optimization and customization of mechanical ventilation, the use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, and the role of noninvasive ventilation. The prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury and diaphragmatic dysfunction is now a key aspect in the management of mechanical ventilation, since these complications may lead to higher mortality and prolonged length of stay in intensive care units. Different physiological measurements, such as esophageal pressure, electrical activity of the diaphragm, and volumetric capnography, may be useful objective tools to help guide ventilator assistance...
2017: F1000Research
Mostafa Somri, Ibrahim Matter, Christopher Hadjittofi, Naser Hoash, Bian Moaddi, Johnny Kharouba, Constantinos A Parisinos, Benjamin Peretz
PURPOSE: Sedation is becoming more commonplace for pediatric patients undergoing minor procedures. Fortunately, electronic monitors have contributed to a reduction in the associated respiratory adverse events (RAEs). To test the hypothesis that adding the pretracheal stethoscope (PTS) to standard monitoring methods (SMMs) may improve RAE detection in sedated pediatric dental patients, the frequency of RAEs detected by SMMs (i.e. visual observation, capnography, and pulse oximetry) was compared to that detected by SMMs alongside continuous PTS auscultation...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
Elliot Long, Domenic Cincotta, Joanne Grindlay, Anastasia Pellicano, Michael Clifford, Stefan Sabato
Emergency airway management, particularly outside of the operating room, is associated with a high incidence of life-threatening adverse events. Based on the recommendations of the 4th National Audit Project, we aimed to develop hospital-wide systems changes to improve the safety of emergency airway management. We describe a framework for governance in the form of a hospital airway special interest group. We describe the development and implementation of the following systems changes: 1. A local intubation algorithm modified from the Difficult Airway Society's plan A-B-C-D approach, including clear pathways for airway escalation, and emphasizing the concepts of resuscitation prior to intubation, planning for failure, and avoidance of fixation error...
February 28, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Melissa L Langhan, Fang-Yong Li, J Lance Lichtor
BACKGROUND: Pulse oximetry does not reliably recognize respiratory depression, particularly in the presence of supplemental oxygen. Capnography frequently detects hypoventilation and apnea among children recovering from anesthesia. Although children are routinely monitored with capnography during anesthesia, reducing the rate of adverse events, it is not routinely used in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), where patients remain at risk for respiratory depression. AIM: We hypothesized that children monitored with capnography would have more frequent staff interventions and fewer adverse events than children monitored with pulse oximetry alone...
April 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Praveen Chandrasekharan, Payam Vali, Munmun Rawat, Bobby Mathew, Sylvia F Gugino, Carmon Koenigschnekt, Justin Helman, Jayasree Nair, Sara Berkelhamer, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
BACKGROUND: In neonates requiring chest compression (CC) during resuscitation, neonatal resuscitation program (NRP) recommends against relying on a single feedback device such as end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) or SpO2 to determine return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) until more evidence becomes available. METHODS: We evaluated the role of monitoring ETCO2 during resuscitation in a lamb model of cardiac arrest induced by umbilical cord occlusion (n=21). Lambs were resuscitated as per NRP guidelines...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
Pooja Jaeel, Mansi Sheth, Jimmy Nguyen
Ultrasonography (US) has been shown to be effective for verifying endotracheal tube (ETT) position in adults but has been less studied in infants and children. We review the literature regarding US for ETT positioning in the pediatric population. A literature search was conducted using the Ovid and MEDLINE databases with search terms regarding US relating to ETT intubation and positioning in infants and children. Most studies in neonates and infants used the midsagittal suprasternal view. Studies reported >80% visualization of the ETT tip by US, and US interpretation of the ETT position correlated with the XR position in 73-100% of cases...
March 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
Justin S Phillips, Lance P Pangilinan, Earl R E Mangalindan, Joseph L Booze, Richard H Kallet
BACKGROUND: Accurately measuring the partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2 ) in non-intubated patients is problematic due to dilution of expired CO2 at high O2 flows and mask designs that may either cause CO2 rebreathing or inadequately capture expired CO2. We evaluated the performance of 2 capnographic O2 masks (Cap-ONE and OxyMask) against a clinically expedient method using a standard O2 mask with a flow-directed nasal cannula used for capnography (CapnoLine) in a spontaneous breathing model of an adult and child under conditions of normal ventilation, hypoventilation, and hyperventilation...
January 2017: Respiratory Care
Ali Jalali, Mohamed Rehman, Arul Lingappan, C Nataraj
This paper is concerned with the mathematical modeling and detection of endotracheal (ET) intubation in children under general anesthesia during surgery. In major pediatric surgeries, the airway is often secured with an endotracheal tube (ETT) followed by initiation of mechanical ventilation. Clinicians utilize auscultation of breath sounds and capnography to verify correct ETT placement. However, anesthesia providers often delay timely charting of ET intubation. This latency in event documentation results in decreased efficacy of clinical decision support systems...
November 2016: Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control
Gerd Schmalisch
Although capnography is a standard tool in mechanically ventilated adult and pediatric patients, it has physiological and technical limitations in neonates. Gas exchange differs between small and adult lungs due to the greater impact of small airways on gas exchange, the higher impact of the apparatus dead space on measurements due to lower tidal volume and the occurrence of air leaks in intubated patients. The high respiratory rate and low tidal volume in newborns, especially those with stiff lungs, require main-stream sensors with fast response times and minimal dead-space or low suction flow when using side-stream measurements...
August 30, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Adam Bullock, James M Dodington, Aaron J Donoghue, Melissa L Langhan
OBJECTIVE: Capnography is indicated as a guide to assess and monitor both endotracheal intubation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Our primary objective was to determine the effect of the 2010 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines on the frequency of capnography use during critical events in children in the emergency department (ED). Our secondary objective was to examine associations between patient characteristics and capnography use among these patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on children aged 0 to 21 years who were intubated or received CPR in 2 academic children's hospital EDs between January 2009 and December 2012...
July 23, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Craig D Smallwood, Enid E Martinez, Nilesh M Mehta
BACKGROUND: Gas exchange measurements for carbon dioxide elimination (V̇CO2 ) and oxygen consumption (V̇O2 ) have been used to derive resting energy expenditure and guide energy prescription. Volumetric capnography is used in intensive care units and provides V̇CO2 measurements that could be used for titrating respiratory and nutritional support. We have recently suggested that measuring V̇CO2 may be sufficient to obtain a reasonable estimate of energy expenditure. However, data describing the accuracy of gas exchange measurement devices are limited...
March 2016: Respiratory Care
Hylke H A C M van der Heijden, Gerben J Truin, Joyce Verhaeg, Peggy van der Pol, Joris Lemson
INTRODUCTION: Capnography is used to monitor the endtidal carbon dioxide tension (EtCO2) in exhaled gas. Sidestream capnography has great potential to monitor mechanically ventilated pediatric patients, given the continuous sampling from the endotracheal tube into a gas sensor. However, hemodynamic and respiratory impairments may reduce reliability and validity of sidestream capnography to monitor arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) in critically ill, mechanically ventilated children...
March 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Julia Fuzak Freeman, Christopher Ciarallo, Lara Rappaport, Maria Mandt, Lalit Bajaj
OBJECTIVES: Prehospital pediatric airway management is difficult and controversial. Options include bag-mask ventilation (BMV), endotracheal tube (ETT), and laryngeal mask airway (LMA). Emergency Medical Services personnel report difficulty assessing adequacy of BMV during transport. Capnography, and capnograph tracings in particular, provide a measure of real-time ventilation currently used in prehospital medicine but have not been well studied in pediatric patients or with BMV. Our objective was to compare pediatric capnographs created with 3 airway modalities...
January 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Gregory Hansen, Jeff K Vallance
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) guidelines should direct patient management. This retrospective study compared ventilation monitoring practices of nontrauma center (NTC) personnel and air medical crews (AMCs) in pediatric patients with severe TBI at NTCs after endotracheal intubation. METHODS: Pediatric patient charts for level I trauma center admissions between 2008 and 2013 with severe TBI were screened. Inclusion criteria included admission Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8, head Abbreviated Injury Scale score of ≥ 3, and secure airway initiated or managed at an NTC...
September 2015: Air Medical Journal
F Reiterer, E Sivieri, S Abbasi
Pulmonary function testing and monitoring plays an important role in the respiratory management of neonates. A noninvasive and complete bedside evaluation of the respiratory status is especially useful in critically ill neonates to assess disease severity and resolution and the response to pharmacological interventions as well as to guide mechanical respiratory support. Besides traditional tools to assess pulmonary gas exchage such as arterial or transcutaenous blood gas analysis, pulse oximetry, and capnography, additional valuable information about global lung function is provided through measurement of pulmonary mechanics and volumes...
October 2015: Pediatric Pulmonology
Karen M Miller, Andrew Y Kim, Myron Yaster, Sapna R Kudchadkar, Elizabeth White, James Fackler, Constance L Monitto
BACKGROUND: The Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation has advocated the use of continuous electronic monitoring of oxygenation and ventilation to preemptively identify opioid-induced respiratory depression. In adults, capnography is the gold standard in respiratory monitoring. An alternative technique used in sleep laboratories is respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP). However, it is not known if either monitor is well tolerated by pediatric patients for prolonged periods of time...
October 2015: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Eric Scheier, Chen Gadot, Ronit Leiba, Itai Shavit
BACKGROUND: Literature to date has suggested advantages of sedation with the combination of ketamine and propofol over ketamine alone or propofol alone. However, there is a paucity of data regarding sedation with the combination of ketamine and propofol in pediatric emergency medicine. METHODS: A retrospective case series analysis of children who underwent sedation with the combination of ketamine and propofol in a pediatric emergency department was conducted. Study covariates were extracted from the emergency department medical records...
June 2015: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Melissa L Langhan, Veronika Shabanova, Fang-Yong Li, Steven L Bernstein, Eugene D Shapiro
OBJECTIVE: Data suggest that capnography is a more sensitive measure of ventilation than standard modalities and detects respiratory depression before hypoxemia occurs. We sought to determine if adding capnography to standard monitoring during sedation of children increased the frequency of interventions for hypoventilation, and whether these interventions would decrease the frequency of oxygen desaturations. METHODS: We enrolled 154 children receiving procedural sedation in a pediatric emergency department...
January 2015: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Awni M Al-Subu, Kyle J Rehder, Ira M Cheifetz, David A Turner
Cardiopulmonary monitoring is a key component in the evaluation and management of critically ill patients. Clinicians typically rely on a combination of invasive and non-invasive monitoring to assess cardiac output and adequacy of ventilation. Recent technological advances have led to the introduction: of continuous non-invasive monitors that allow for data to be obtained at the bedside of critically ill patients. These advances help to identify hemodynamic changes and allow for interventions before complications occur...
December 2014: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"