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Capnography in newborns, capnography in child, capnography in infants

David J Steward
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2014: Paediatric Anaesthesia
V Ben Sivarajan, Desmond Bohn
BACKGROUND: Continuous monitoring of various clinical parameters of hemodynamic and respiratory status in pediatric critical care medicine has become routine. The evidence supporting these practices is examined in this review. METHODOLOGY: A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database was conducted to find controlled trials of heart rate, electrocardiography, noninvasive and invasive blood pressure, atrial pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and pulse oximetry monitoring...
July 2011: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Rebecca T Gilbert, Suzanne M Burns
The accidental placement of feeding tubes into the airway is a rare but serious complication of blind feeding tube placement in pediatrics. A method using a colorimetric carbon dioxide detector has been tested as a means of decreasing the risk of inadvertent airway placement of gastric tubes in adults, but to date, a similar study has not been accomplished in pediatric patients. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of a procedure using the colorimetric device during blind gastric tube placement in children...
October 2012: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Silvija Hunyadi-Anticević, Zeljko Colak, Ines Lojna Funtak, Anita Lukić, Boris Filipović-Grcić, Branka Tomljanović, Hrvoje Kniewald, Alen Protić, Tatjana Pandak, Zdravka Poljaković, Marino Canadija
All rescuers trained or not, should provide chest compressions to victims of cardiac arrest. The aim should be to push to a depth of at least 5 cm at a rate of at least 100 compressions per minute, to allow full chest recoil, and to minimise interruptions in chest compressions. Trained rescuers should also provide ventilations with a compression-ventilation ratio of 30:2. ELECTRICAL THERAPIES: Much greater emphasis on minimising the duration of the pre-shock and post-shock pauses; the continuation of compressions during charging of the defibrillator is recommended...
January 2011: Lijec̆nic̆ki Vjesnik
Naveen Eipe, Dermot R Doherty
OBJECTIVES: Capnography has become a standard of perioperative monitoring in pediatric anesthesiology. It has also begun to find application in a variety of situations outside the perioperative setting. While the use of capnography has been increasing, the dissemination and acceptability of capnography in all areas of pediatrics has been variable. The purpose of this study was to describe all the applications and interpretations of capnography that have been reported in children. METHODS: In March 2010, we completed a search of peer reviewed literature from MEDLINE (from 1950), CINAHL (from 1982) and the Cochrane Library...
August 2010: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
S David McSwain, Donna S Hamel, P Brian Smith, Michael A Gentile, Saumini Srinivasan, Jon N Meliones, Ira M Cheifetz
BACKGROUND: End-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ETCO(2))) is a surrogate, noninvasive measurement of arterial carbon dioxide (P(aCO(2))), but the clinical applicability of P(ETCO(2)) in the intensive care unit remains unclear. Available research on the relationship between P(ETCO(2)) and P(aCO(2)) has not taken a detailed assessment of physiologic dead space into consideration. We hypothesized that P(ETCO(2)) would reliably predict P(aCO(2)) across all levels of physiologic dead space, provided that the expected P(ETCO(2))-P(aCO(2)) difference is considered...
March 2010: Respiratory Care
O Brissaud, J Guichoux, F Villega, G Orliaguet
The haemodynamic assessment of the patients is a daily activity in paediatric intensive care unit. It completes and is guided by the clinical examination. The will to develop the least invasive possible coverage of the patients is a constant concern. The haemodynamic monitoring, all the more if it is invasive, ceaselessly has to put in balance the profit and the risk of beginning this technique at a fragile patient. In the last three decades, numerous non-invasive haemodynamic tools were developed. The ideal one must be reliable, reproducible, with a time of fast, easily useful answer, with a total harmlessness, cheap and allowing a monitoring continues...
March 2010: Annales Françaises D'anesthèsie et de Rèanimation
A N Thomas, B A McGrath
We used key words and letter sequences to identify airway-associated patient safety incidents submitted to the UK National Patient Safety Agency from critical care units in England and Wales. We identified 1085 such airway incidents submitted in the two years from October 2005 to September 2007. Three hundred and twelve incidents (28.8%) involved neonates or babies. Of the total 1085 incidents, 200 (18.4%) were associated with tracheal intubation, 53 (4.9%) with tracheostomy and 893 (82.3%) were post-procedure problems...
April 2009: Anaesthesia
B Pohl
Paediatric perioperative care represents specific challenges related to the distinct developmental, anatomic and physiological characteristics of children, requiring specialised expertise, including pharmacology. A specially trained anaesthesia team, an appropriate environment and appropriate paediatric-sized equipment (endotracheal tubes, cannulas) represent key factors in determining the perioperative outcome for this population. Other important equipment that must be adapted to the paediatric population include: Non-invasive anaesthesia monitoring equipment (ECG, blood pressure cuff, pulse oximetry, capnography, oxygen monitor, volatile gas concentration monitor, peripheral nerve stimulator and temperature probe); as well as specialised ventilators that allow pressure- and volume-controlled ventilation with volumes as low as 20 ml, variable high frequency ventilation up to 60 breaths per minute and paediatric ventilator hose systems with automatic correction for compliance...
December 2008: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Sonia Singh, William D Allen, Shekhar T Venkataraman, Mananda S Bhende
OBJECTIVE: Critically ill children often require endotracheal intubation before and during interhospital transport. Accurate placement and maintenance of the endotracheal tube (ETT) is crucial. The new Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines require confirmation of proper ETT position immediately after intubation and during transport by capnography or end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETco(2)) detection in all children with a perfusing rhythm. Currently, there are no practical alternatives for monitoring ETco(2) during pediatric transport...
May 2006: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Anne B Chang, Gregory E Moloney, Peter J Harms, I Brent Masters
BACKGROUND: CO2 monitoring is recommended for thoracic telescopic procedures and for spontaneous breathing general anesthesia in children. During flexible bronchoscopy (FB) in children, the various currently available methods of CO2 measurements are limited. The CO2 falls and increases have been reported in FB but it is unknown whether airway lesions predispose to CO2 change. The aim of this study was to describe and validate endoscopic intratracheal CO2 measurements in children undergoing FB under spontaneously breathing GA...
August 2004: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Mananda S Bhende, William D Allen
OBJECTIVES: Critically ill children often require endotracheal intubation prior to transport to a tertiary care center. Correct endotracheal tube (ETT) placement (trachea vs esophagus) and maintenance of ETT position during transport are of utmost importance. We evaluated the use of a Capno-Flo resuscitator (ventilation bag with a pH-sensitive colorimetric strip in the patient connector; Kirk Specialty Systems, Carrollton, TX) during transport of critically ill children. METHODS: Thirty-nine intubations were evaluated in 38 patients (one patient was intubated twice) aged 1 day to 19 years (median age, 13 mo) and weighing 0...
December 2002: Pediatric Emergency Care
A Kugelman, A Bilker, D Bader, A Cohen, E Tirosh
UNLABELLED: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of body position on sidestream, end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) wave measurements in maturing infants. Sidestream EtCO2 wave patterns were analysed longitudinally in 20 preterm infants (born at > or = 32 wk) at 32-37 wk gestation, and in 39 full-term controls. Capnography measurements included maximal EtCO2, inspired CO2 and frequency of apnoea events (>3 s) in the supine, supine with inclination, side and prone positions...
2002: Acta Paediatrica
Sulpicio G Soriano, Mary Ellen McCann, Peter C Laussen
Advances in neuromonitoring have provided insights into neurologic function during anesthesia. Despite the limitations and necessary caution when using intraoperative monitors to interpret neural function, these technologies have been definite steps in the right direction for assessing neural integrity and level of consciousness during anesthesia. The techniques discussed minimize the adverse sequelae of a variety of neurosurgical and orthopedic procedures, reducing the morbidity rates/risks in the perioperative period...
March 2002: Anesthesiology Clinics of North America
C L Hubble, M A Gentile, D S Tripp, D M Craig, J N Meliones, I M Cheifetz
OBJECTIVE: Using a modification of the Bohr equation, single-breath carbon dioxide capnography is a noninvasive technology for calculating physiologic dead space (V(D)/V(T)). The objective of this study was to identify a minimal V(D)/V(T) value for predicting successful extubation from mechanical ventilation in pediatric patients. DESIGN: Prospective, blinded, clinical study. SETTING: Medical and surgical pediatric intensive care unit of a university hospital...
June 2000: Critical Care Medicine
P Olivares, J A Tovar
OBJECTIVE: We summarize our experience in laparoscopic surgery between 1992 and 1997 in an attempt to provide the pediatrician with up-dated information regarding the background, technical basis and limitations of this procedure in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For our 315 operations we used conventional endoscopic equipment with miniaturized instruments and regular anesthetic procedures assisted only with on-line capnography and increased tidal volume. Ages ranged between newborn and adolescence and the main indications for surgery were gonadal operations (n = 113), fundoplication (n = 40), cholecystectomy (n = 35), exploration for recurrent abdominal pain (n = 44) and appendectomy (n = 29), but we also performed spleenectomies (n = 7), nephrectomies (n = 6), rectosigmoidectomies (n = 4) and several other procedures...
June 1998: Anales Españoles de Pediatría
T J Abramo, R A Wiebe, S M Scott, P A Primm, D McIntyre, T Mydler
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the reliability, safety, and efficacy of measuring end tidal CO2 (ETCO2) in nonintubated pediatric patients presenting to an emergency department (ED) with respiratory emergencies. DESIGN/SETTING/PATIENTS: Eighty-five children were enrolled in a clinical, prospective, observational study at a university-affiliated children's hospital. Children age four weeks to 15.3 years with upper and lower respiratory diseases were enrolled by convenience sampling over a five-month period...
August 1996: Pediatric Emergency Care
T López Gil, J Cebrián Pazos, L M González Zarco, M T Mateos Arribas, T Blanco Sánchez, J Navia Roque
To analyze problems with inserting, maintaining and removing a laryngeal mask in children, as well as to assess the possible involvement of certain factors (experience with the laryngeal mask, type of anesthesia, duration of surgery, type of surgery, obesity, etc.) in favoring the development of complications. One hundred eighty-nine children undergoing a variety of surgical procedures under general anesthesia were studied; patients with full stomachs and/or a history of hiatus hernia were excluded. The agent used for anesthetic induction and the method of ventilation were chosen by the anesthesiologist responsible for each case...
October 1995: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
M Sfez
Data were collected from a retrospective audit in anaesthetists members of the French Association of Anaesthetists in Paediatrics (ADARPEF) and from the prospective study of the author's practice of appendectomy using open or laparoscopic surgery. Retrospective data obtained in 9 of the 16 answering centres show that contraindications include respiratory disability, cardiopathy and age lower than 5 years when surgical instruments of proper size are not available. Monitoring included electrocardioscope, non invasive arterial pressure, pulse oximetry and capnography...
1993: Cahiers D'anesthésiologie
J L do Amaral, A C Ferreira, W B de Carvalho
Monitoring the critical care patient by pulse oximetry and capnography permits the early diagnosis and follow-up of various clinical events in a precise manner, with considerable safety and with no need for invasive procedures. These techniques have been extensively evaluated in adults, but only recently have they been studied in pediatric patients, including newborn infants. In the present review we discuss the working principles, indications, advantages and limitations of each technique, as well as the interpretation of the results...
January 1993: Revista Paulista de Medicina
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